The Mission of UF/IFAS is to develop
knowledge in agricultural, human and
natural resources and to make that
knowledge accessible to sustain and
enhance the quality of human life.
Winter 2009 UF
January, February &
Lake County Extension
I would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! This fall was a busy one for me and your
citrus extension program. We had the opportunity to go visit other growers to see their responses to producing
citrus in the presence of greening. I continue to meet new people and have enjoyed getting to know everyone.
With HLB continuing to spread around the state the time to unify with fellow growers to combat this threat is
now! I will be helping in the coordination of an area wide psyllid control spray in our area. The area wide
dormant spray has been scientifically proven as the most beneficial spray of the year for reducing psyllid popu-
lation levels. If you are interested in participating in this application please give me a call.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Larry R.
Arrington, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8
and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information, and other services only to individuals and insti-
tutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, na-
tional origin, political opinions, or affiliations. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to
Florida residents from county extension offices. Information about alternate formats is available from IFAS Communication Services, University of
Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810.
Greening, Psyllid Control, & Area Wide Spraying in Central Florida
I continue to see more groves with HLB (greening) infected trees throughout Central Florida. I
have am providing some pictures that hopefully will help you in identifying this disease. Re-
member when you have low infection lev-
els removing HLB infected trees is recom-
mended. Recent research has shown that
newly infected trees are most likely to oc-
cur within 125 feet of the original find. So
if you have found any HLB infected trees
than taking extra time to scout around
those areas for new infections would be
Psyllid suppression is important. The sin-
gle most important spray of the year, is
the dormant spray which is done before leaf flush in January or February. Do not let the fact that
you do not see many psyllid during this time of year prevent you from trying to control them with
a dormant spray. The idea is NOT to wait for psyllid populations levels to rise first and then try
to suppress, basically starting from behind and trying to
play catch up the rest of the year. What you want to be do-
ing is spraying psyllids before the populations build, sup-
pressing their numbers as much as possible going into the
spring and summer months. I realize with current fruit
prices management practices are under evaluation. If you
had to choose only one spray for the entire year the dor-
mant spray would be the most beneficial. Current research
is showing that only 1 out of 1, 000 psyllids are testing PCR
positive for HLB when collected out in groves. It truly is a
Picture: Left a HLB infected tree that has started to drop fruit and leaves.
You can see the upper canopy is sparse and has lost much of its leaves.
. ,W. N Much of the fruit that dropped to the ground is small and undersized.
numbers game, the lower the
population level and the lower
the inoculum source (infected
trees), the slower the spread.
There is an effort underway to .
coordinate growers to apply a
dormant application on an area
wide basis. This requires grow-
ers to participate and coordi-
nate so that the psyllid popula-
tion can be knocked down in our geographic area. The more growers that participate the
greater the reduction in populations in our
growing region. If you are willing to partici-
pate in an area wide dormant spray please
contact Ryan at 352-343-4101, if I am not in the
,. office please leave a message and I will return
you phone call. It is important to work to-
gether as a group to maximize the results of
Picttil l :iJ ( 1k I i \m'l? A N IIh ti" II cc
%% ith HL B _V\_ a LI %ou can ll rul
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to ni of' HL B \lit.,i %o LIook i now~
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Mid Florida Citrus Foundation's
A.H. Krezdorn Grove Field Day
Jan. 22nd 9:30-Noon
We will be having a field day at the Mid Flor-
ida Citrus Foundation's (MFCF) A.H. Krezdorn
grove on Jan. 22nd from 9:30-12. This will be
the first of two field days this year in which
researchers will provide an update on their
current research trials conducted at the
MFCF. Topics will include current citrus vari-
ety and rootstock improvement research be-
ing conducted at the A.H. Krezdorn grove.
Also, covered will be results of automated cit-
rus irrigation research. There will also be a
discussion on alternative deciduous fruit
9:30-10:00 Deciduous fruit crops overview
-Gary England/Ryan Atwood
10:00-10:20 Development of new citrus
varieties-Dr. Fred Gmitter
10:20-10:40 Tree size controlling rootstocks
& Potentially new citrus cultivars
-Dr. Jude Grosser
OJ Meeting -How to Maximize your
Fertilizer Tavares Lake Co. Ag. Center
Feb. 3rd 5-7PM
We will be having our next OJ Meeting on Feb.
3rd from 5-7 PM at the Lake County Agricultural
Center in Tavares. The topic will be fertilizer
and fertilizer alternatives. Over the last year
fertilizer prices have risen dramatically. In ad-
dition to fertilizer price increases juice price
have dropped. Determining ways to save
money and optimizing your fertilization plan is
critical. Please plan on joining us for How to
Maximize your Fertilizer session. Joining us
will be forage and woody ornamental produc-
ers. There will be a general session for every-
one and breakout sessions for specific informa-
tion pertaining to each crop.
Dinner is being provide for by Southeast Ag-
Net /AgNet Online/Citrus Industry Maga-
zine and Growers Fertilizer, so please let us
know if you will be attending. Please call
Maggie at 352-343-4101 to register.
5:30-6:15 General Session -
Midsweet Trial results
-Dr. Paul Ling
Valencia Trial results
-Dr. Bill Castle
Everything you need to know
- Dr. Tom Obreza
11:25-11:40 USDA rootstock results
-Dr. Kim Bowman
11:40-11:55 Automatic citrus irrigation
-Dr. Larry Parsons
Please call Maggie at 352-343-4101 for direc-
tions. Don't forget to bring a lawn chair so
Breakout Session 1-
Fertilization for Citrus
-Dr. Arnold Schumann
Breakout Session 2 & 3
Fertilization for Forages
Fertilization for Woody
0J Meeting Feb. 17th 5-7PM
Agricultural Risk Management & Crop
We will be having our next OJ Meeting on
Feb. 17th from 5-7 PM at the Lake County Ag-
ricultural Center in Tavares. The topic will
be on risk management and crop insurance.
Do you understand the new Farm Bill and
how it could have an effect on your business
after a natural disaster? A dinner is being
provided by Lake Co. Citrus Extension Advi-
sory Committee, so please let us know if you
will be attending. Please call Maggie at 352-
343-4101 to register.
5:45-6:15 Crop Insurance for Agricultural
Producers- Ray Thigpen
6:15-6:35 The new Farm Bill &
Agricultural Risk Management
Greening Update-Ryan Atwood
Mature Citrus Mentors (Old Timers)
March 24th 11:00-1:30
Did you work the grove with a hoe growing
up? Do you remember the 62 freeze? Then
you maybe considered an Old Timer. This
year we will again be reuniting with old
friends and transferring knowledge from our
citrus industry elders. If you are an old timer
please plan on joining us at the Lake County
Agricultural Center in Tavares starting at 11
AM. Lowell Teal will be our speaker. Mr. Teal
is a citrus grower, author, and Florida cracker.
I have been told he is quite the story teller.
There will be a BBQ lunch provided, cost is
$20. Registration is required. Please register
Private Agricultural License Review & Exam Feb. 19th 8:30-4:00
A pesticide license is required by any persons who apply or supervise the application of re-
stricted use pesticides for agricultural production. This certification requires a passing grade of
70% on the General Standards and Private exam. This certification must be renewed ever 4
years either by testing or by 8 CEU's.
There will be a review and exam in Sanford on February 19th. The review starts at 8:30 AM.
There is a $20 charge for the class.
It is advisable to purchase the "Applying pesticides correctly" and "The private applicator train-
ing manual" from the IFAS bookstore on-line at www.ifasbooks.ufl.edu or by calling 800-226-
The private agricultural license itself cost $60 which does not have to be paid until after you pass
the exam. To register please call Richard Tyson at 407-665-5551.
Receive Technical Support to Transition to Organic Production
Gainesville-based Florida Organic Growers (FOG) is now offering farmers an opportunity to re-
ceive free technical assistance to transition to organic production. By pairing growers with crop
advisors who are experienced with organic production methods, the program aims to give
growers the support, technical know-how, and assurance they may need or desire to success-
fully make the transition. The U.S. organic food industry has grown from $1 billion in sales in
1990 to an estimated $23 billion in 2008 and is expected to average 18% annual growth through
2010. "The organic marketplace continues to expand and Florida growers may want to seriously
consider the market opportunities," stated Marty Mesh, Executive Director of FOG. "We are ex-
tremely happy to bring this project to growers which ultimately can have both long- term envi-
ronmental and economic benefits."
Besides assisting transitioning growers, the program is open to any Florida fruit or vegetable
producer who is interested in adopting sustainable agriculture practices for reducing pesticide
use. Interested growers please contact Matt Vargas at (352) 377-6345 or matt@(foginfo.org.
More information, including the application to participate in the program can be found at:
CITRUS PEST MANAGEMENT COURSE OFFERED IN SPRING
Citrus Pest Management (PMA 5205, section no. 2563) will be offered for the Spring 2009 term at the Uni-
versity of Florida/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) in Lake Alfred and via polycom at
the Department of Entomology and Nematology in Gainesville. Citrus Pest Management is a graduate-
level course (3.0 units) for students and citrus industry personnel working in the area of pest manage-
ment. The course reviews the latest tactics and strategies available to manage diseases and arthropod,
nematode and weed pests of citrus. Emphasis is given to techniques by which pest and disease organ-
isms are monitored and how this information is used to effectively manage pests with the least risk to the
environment. Course topics include: Identification and biology of citrus pests and diseases, Pest and dis-
ease monitoring, Ecological and economic principles as a basis for pest management, Economic thresh-
olds and pest management models, Integrated pest management in citrus, NEW- The evolution of Citrus
IPM in the era of citrus greening.
The course is coordinated by Dr. Larry Duncan, University of Florida/IFAS, Professor of Nematology.
University credit (3.0) or audit credit. CEU's will be offered.
Dates/Time: Wednesdays Jan. 7 -Apr. 29; 3 6 p.m. (8-10 period).
Registration: Registration cost for Citrus Pest Management (PMA 5205; Section no. 2563) is $1,023.87 for
Florida residents ($341.29 per credit hour). Regular and non-degree registration is until Jan. 5 and stu-
dents are strongly encouraged to register early. Students must complete the registration procedures out-
line at http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/dept disted.htm. This site contains an option for non-degree students
with step by step instructions and explanations. Non-degree students are encouraged to visit the site in
advance of registration. For registration assistance, please contact Ms Debbie Hall (352-392-1901 x 117;
dahall(ufl.edu.edu). For additional information about the class contact Dr. Larry Duncan 863-956-1151.
Jatropha Curcas: Promoted as potential biofuel crop for Central Florida
There is a lot of excitement about Florida's potential as a major producer of alternative energy
crops. Biodiesel is one type of energy product that can be produced from agricultural crops.
Jatropha curcas is a crop of interest around the world for its biodiesel potential. Countries such
as India, China, and Brazil are planting Jatropha for an alternative fuel source. Jatropha is also
being evaluated in the U.S. in Florida and Texas.
Currently, there is not much known on Jatropha's performance
in the U.S. as an economically viable alternative energy crop.
Jatropha is native to Mexico and is a subtropical/tropical plant
which does not tolerate cold weather. Researchers interested
in Jatropha currently are evaluating it in South Florida and
South Texas which are subtropical areas. There is growing in-
terest in Jatropha production in Central Florida. It is an attrac-
tive crop because it grows in poor soils and does not require
fertilization or irrigation. However, it most likely will not toler-
ate Central Florida's cold weather events. Currently, IFAS has
40 plants growing in Winter Garden to evaluate the cold toler-
ance and growth pattern of Jatropha. This past winter on Janu-
ary 2nd temperatures reached 28 degrees and caused our
young trees (less than a year old) to lose their leaves. Tem-
peratures in Central Florida are known to drop into the teens
Above: Jatropha seedling growing at MFCF. on occasion and would most likely kill Jatropha curcas, al-
though it maybe the root system could rejuvenate a tree. Jat-
ropha production in Central Florida remains an extremely high risk endeavor.
Besides the cold threat, there are also economic issues. Wild Jatropha produces 1 to 3 pounds of
seed a year. It takes approximately 20 lbs of seed to produce 1 gallon of biodiesel. There are
no IFAS recommended planting densities; the company selling Jatropha seedlings recommends
400 trees per acre. Using these numbers the 600 gallons of biodiesel per acre would be good
production. If you consider a sales price of $3.00 gallon for biodiesel, an acre would produce
$1800 dollars. Collection of Jatropha seed currently requires hand harvesting every 7 to 10 days
which is very expensive. It most likely would not be profitable to even harvest the crop with
these estimated yields and numbers.
Breeding work to increase the yields and cold tolerance of Jatropha curcas is needed for any
possible future production in Central Florida. Also, mechanical harvesting of the fruit is essen-
tial to reduce harvesting expenses. Jatropha production in Central Florida may have great po-
tential in the future if new research and technologies can be implemented. The recommendation
for current production should be one of caution for growers as they may never see a harvest
and/or may not be able to turn a profit.
Syngenta Crop Protection is recruiting for 2009 internship program
Syngenta Crop Protection is recruiting for 2009 internship program. The summer-long intern-
ship will allow students to be involved in sales, marketing and field activities as well as building
customer relationships through work with growers, retailers and manufacturers. Syngenta cur-
rently recruits sophomores and juniors in college, though seniors will be considered.
The candidate should have a background in agriculture and an interest in pursuing a career in
the agricultural industries after college. Interns will be responsible for a variety of field activi-
ties, including scouting, soil sampling and collecting and analyzing agricultural data.
Qualified applicants should be willing to work outdoors and must have basic familiarity with
pest, disease and weed control. Six intern positions are currently available, and Syngenta plans
to interview candidates through February 2009. Interns will be placed across various regions of
Florida and must be willing to relocate if necessary.
Interested candidates should fax resumes to John Taylor at 561-694-7939 or e-mail him at
Are you interested in new citrus varieties?
Are you are interested in new citrus varieties or would like to attend future tasting of varieties cur-
rently under evaluation? If so, Peter Chaires who is the Executive Director of the New Varieties
Development and Management Corporation (NVDMC) is working with the IFAS and USDA Citrus
Plant Improvement teams to bring growers, packers, processors, and marketers together to taste,
eat, drink and help evaluate newly developed varieties. This allows market expertise to be inte-
grated with research activities. If you are interested in new citrus varieties or would like to help
evaluate new varieties please contact Peter at:
Peter Chaires Planned Dates for Fruit Evaluation. Some dates have ob-
Execute D ( ) viously passed however, I wanted to include them so
Executive Director, (NVDMC)
you would know that there where multiple events in
PO Box 1113 which to participate in a year.
Lakeland FL 33802
Oct 14 CREC
Lakeland Phone: 863.682.0151 Nov 20 CREC
Lake Mary Phone: 407.302.3510 Dec16 -CREC
Jan 28 Indian River Citrus Seminar
Primary Fax: 863.688.6758 Feb 19th CREC
: p March 26th CREC
Pictures of recent Extension Activities
I included pictures of recent activities to
your extension program. If you have not
been coming, I wanted to show you what
you have been missing!
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below: Dr. Any kraJewskl visiting lrom Australla
gave a lesson on citrus pruning at the Mid Florida
Above; 4-H youth and their parents visit the Mid Florida Citrus Foundations
A.H. Krezdom's research grove to learn about the citrus industry. During the
tour the participants learn about citrus varieties, diseases and pests. Of
course picking fruit is the most popular activity! This project would not be
possible if it were not for you growers who generously buy the 4-H youth
citrus trees at the end of the year. This year the kids are growing Murcott on
Right: I am leading a tour of
Brazilian citrus industry group.
They really enjoyed seeing a
harvesting crew in action and
enjoyed some of our Florida
grown Red Navels.
'a e 10
Report from the HLB International Conference-Orlando Dec.2-5
It was recommend by my Advisory Committee to attend the HLB Conference held in Lake Buena Vista from Dec. 2nd
through the 5th. This event brought together over 400 participants from around the world. A one page report cannot
possibly cover all the information presented. However, the proceedings are available at http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/
Below is some of the information or quotes from the conference that I found interesting.
* Brazil now has law that growers must survey their groves every 3 months for HLB and report their finding every 6
months if infection rates are lower than 28% they are required to remove infected trees, if < 25% then required to
remove whole block.
* South Gardens grove cumulative 16% infection from when they started surveying, believe they had disease well be-
fore 2005 and are catching up from 4-5 years ago. $476.00 acre for inspection, tree removal, resets, psyllid control.
* Mike Irey stated Feb-June many less positive PCR samples July-Feb. is when bacteria in greatest concentration.
* Testing psyllids with PCR can be an early warning for HLB. Psyllids being moved around on fruit trailers, in boats,
through nursery stock.
* CCLP has test in to determine if it is possible to replant young groves in HLB infected areas. At age 2 years with
good psyllid control and 6 surveys a year overall trees with HLB estimated at 0.5%.
* Lots of work being done at the cellular level. RNAi to down regulate genes.
* Freezing temperatures (under laboratory conditions) that we get in Central Florida do not effect psyllid population
levels at any significant level.
* One study showed psyllids require on average between 50-307 minutes to reach the phloem of citrus. Seems that the
thicker the tissue the less likely psyllids were to come into contact with phloem. Most likely why they reproduce
and like young leaves.
* Psyllids can/will move up to 2 miles but seem to only move short distances once into a grove. Most likely to see
them on outside boundaries.
* Study to determine movement ofpsyllids showed a more flight during the day 6-9 AM 17%, 9-Noon 20%, Noon-
3PM 41%, 3-6 PM 17%. Could indicate that nighttime, early morning or late evening spraying maybe more effec-
* Juice from HLB fruit less preferred by taste test participants but does not appear to be a huge issue yet. Further
* Economic evaluation when including good HLB management practices that fruit prices need to be in the $1.25-1.50
range to make money on growing citrus.
* In areas where HLB incidence has been studied seems to be a trend in HLB positive trees around edges, ponds,
roads, canals, etc. Ideally circular type grove to minimize edge effect.
* DMDS chemical that is produced by guava which acts as a repellent to psyllids in lab. Plans for field evaluations.
* Factors in Brazil that have an effect on HLB incidence levels at twelve different farms: 1. HLB incidence level in
municipality 2. Distance from no control neighbor 3. Size of grove 4. Age of trees 5. Time period during which in-
spection and removal take place 6. # of insecticide treatments per year 7. # of inspections/yr 8. Amount of incidence
when starting a control program.
* Guava study in Vietnam resulted in HLB infected trees at age 3. Need chemical control in addition to guava.
* Tom Turpen compared HLB to HIV AIDS and warned that we need to be prepared to think about the collapse of the
* Cleo seems to be an unsuitable host plant for Asian Citrus Psyllid.
* Andrew Beattie who works in Southeast Asia with HLB stated "if you start late you will lose the war".
* California Citrus Mutual giving 2 million dollars to help fund HLB research.
* Juliano Ayres from Brazil stated that citrus production with HLB is hard and expensive but in his opinion possible.
The Vision for the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) is to increase and strengthen the knowl-
edge base and technology for:
Lake County Agricultural Center
1951 Woodlea Rd.
Tavares, FL 32778
Winter Weather Watch service for the
08-09 season began on November
12th, if you would like to sign up
there is still time. Contact Maggie to
register and receive the phone num-
ber. For those already subscribing,
* Expanding the profitability of global competitiveness and sustain-
ability of the food, fiber, and agricultural industries of Florida.
* Protecting and sustaining natural resource and environmental sys-
* Enhancing the development of human resources.
* Improving the quality of human life.
Do you know of any future college students that are
interested in attending the University of Florida?
Gator Encounter is designed to familiarize potential
students with the opportunities in the College of Ag-
ricultural and Life Sciences.
Gator Encounter April 18, 2009
Time: 9 am until noon
For Additional information please contact Charlotte
Emerson at 352-392-1963 or cemer(@ufl.edu
Have you been seeing more of this in your groves recently? The above is a picture of
Woolly White Flies. Wooly white flies are similar to other white flies. Eggs are beige
and are attached by a short stalk. When the nymphs emerge they tend to cluster near
the eggs. During there final nymphal stage they produce fine waxy threads which
give them a woolly look. Woolly white flies tend to produce heavy amounts of honey-
dew which can lead to sooty mold. An oil spray will provide effective control of both
Woolly white fly and any related sooty mold.