The Mission of UF/IFAS is to develop
knowledge in agricultural, human and
natural resources and to make that
knowledge accessible to sustain and
enhance the quality of human life.
October, November, &
Lake County Extension
New DOT Regulations for Hauling
OJ-Agricultural Labor Issues &
H2A Program for small businesses
Farm Safety Day
Citrus Greening Identification &
Worker Survey Training
Pesticide Applicator CEU Day
OJ-Fall & Winter Production Practices
for Greening Management
OJ-FAWN Update &
Winter Weather Prediction
Private Applicator Agricultural License
Review and Exam
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Larry R.
Arrington, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8
and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information, and other services only to individuals and insti-
tutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, na-
tional origin, political opinions, or affiliations. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and youth publications) are available free to
Florida residents from county extension offices. Information about alternate formats is available from IFAS Communication Services, University of
Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810.
Thoughts and Insights from a trip to Brazil
This past July I had the opportunity to travel to the state of Sao Paolo, Brazil with a citrus grower
group. This group was headed up by Dr. Stephen Futch a multi county citrus agent. The purpose of
the trip was to learn about what Brazilian growers are doing to combat greening disease. The green-
ing bacterium was found in Brazil in early 2004 approximately a year and a half before the disease
was identified in Florida. As most of you are aware, Brazil is the largest producer of citrus in the
world. Citrus production is important to Brazil and they have been trying to combat greening dis-
ease for the past few years.
In speaking with the Brazilian growers they stressed the importance of early action. Their advice
was not wait until you have found the disease to decide what you are going to take, but to be proac-
tive have a greening plan in place. A plan of action, just like you hopefully have for your family in
case of a natural disaster is recommended. Hopefully your grove never gets greening, but being
proactive is a key component to surviving this current challenge.
What is proactive? First you need to be scouting your groves looking for the disease. If you are not
actively looking for the disease you will not find it in a timely manner. The earlier you detect the dis-
ease, the earlier you can remove the inoculum source (diseased tree) from your grove, and hope-
fully limit the spread of the bacteria. If you have not started a survey program in your grove for
greening I advise you to begin immediately.
Some interesting data that the Brazilians shared was the effectiveness of surveying on the ground
versus surveying from above the tree on a platform. You more than double your chances of finding
greening symptoms when surveying from a raised platform. Many companies in Florida are begin-
ning to move towards surveying their groves regularly with platforms. Does this mean a ground sur-
vey is worthless? No. Ground surveying is still better than no action, but surveying with a platform is
more effective. Also the number of trees surveyed per person from the ground was 500 trees/day
whereas a four man crew riding on a platform mounted tractor could cover 1100 trees/day. Twice
the number of trees surveyed with twice as many infected trees located, platform surveying is supe-
Another concept, in which some data was provided was disease incidence in groves adjacent to
neighbors who were proactive versus inactive referred to as good and bad neighbors. Good
neighbors were proactively surveying their groves, removing infected trees, and spraying for psyl-
lids, whereas bad neighbors were doing nothing to control the disease. As you might imagine the
areas adjacent to bad neighbors had a much higher incidence of greening present when compared
with the areas adjacent to good neighbors. Another interesting development is the idea of neighbor-
ing farmers working together on timing their pesticide applications for psyllid control. They are
making psyllid control a cooperative effort; spraying at the same time in order to reduce the popula-
tion levels over a boarder area. Working with your neighbor could be advantageous.
When looking at the greening incident map there are currently 26 counties in Florida where they
have found the disease. Greening was recently discovered in Polk County, which leaves Lake
County as the only citrus producing county where greening has yet to be found. Does that mean we
do not have the disease? Probably not, most likely we have just not found the disease here yet. The
movement from infected counties from South Florida north to Central Florida has been relatively
quick. However if you look at the current incidence levels it is only one or two finds in the more
northern counties, many of which have been dooryard citrus. It is still the early for the disease inci-
dence here in Central Florida, we have the opportunity to be proactive by scouting for diseased
trees, removing them from our groves, and controlling the psyllid populations. We have an opportu-
nity to learn from the experience of the Brazilian growers; and their advice to you is don't wait to you
have the disease in your groves, become proactive.
"Some of the citrus
owners I consult for
started surveying for ....
greening late. Once they
began surveying they
symptoms, however the
owners could not come to
an agreement on what
action to take. Once we
started to remove trees it
was to late, greening was
all throughout the grove."
Right:Picture of the grove
in which trees were
New DOT Regulations for Hauling
Oct. 9th 9-11 AM
On October 9th from 9 am to 11 am in Tavares
at the agricultural center there will be an infor-
mational seminar on the new Department of
Transportation (DOT) regulations.
Farm Safety Day
Oct. 24th 8:45-12:30
The annual farm safety day will be held Octo-
ber 24th from 8:45 to 12:30 in Tavares at the
Agricultural Center. Topics include:
* Avoiding Heat Stroke and Heat Related Illness
* Killer Bees and other Dangerous Farm Pests
Topics include: Canker Decontamination Certification
* New licensing requirements
* Distance travel limitations
* Width and weight limitations
* Hauling what and where
Please call Maggie Jarrell, Martha Thomas, or
Ryan Atwood to register at 352-343-4101.
Agricultural Labor Issues & H2A
Oct. 16th 9-11 AM
Have you gotten a social security mismatch let-
ter in the mail concerning one of your employ-
ees? There is a renewed emphasis by immigra-
tion officials to enforce the current laws and fine
those who are not in compliance. Please join us
to learn about and discuss recent agricultural
labor issues and the potential of the H2A pro-
gram for small businesses on Oct. 16th from 9-
Invited speakers include Walter Kates from the
Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, Mike
Nobles from h2ausa, and Mark Garrand from
Immigration and Customs Enforcement. This is
our OJ meeting, we will also be including those
in the ornamental nursery business, as the topic
is also of interest to them.
* CPR Basics for Farm Workers
* Tractor and Equipment Safety
Lunch is available from 12:30-1:30 there is a
$15 charge for lunch. Please call Maggie
Jarrell or Ryan Atwood to register at 352-343-
Citrus Greening Identification and
worker survey training
Oct. 24th 1:30-4:00
During the month of October there will be cit-
rus greening identification and worker survey
training class held around the state. We will
be conducting this training in Tavares on Oct.
24th from 1:30 to 4:00. Lunch is available from
12:30-1:30, there is a $15 charge. Please call
Maggie Jarrell or Ryan Atwood at 352-343-4101 to
register. Pesticide applicator CEU's available.
* Distribution of Citrus Greening & Citrus Psyl-
* Scouting Recommendations & Employee
* Citrus Greening Symptom Identification
* Hands-on Citrus Greening Identification Train-
Be sure to mention if you are planning to at-
tend just the safety day or greening program
or both programs; also if you will be joining
us for lunch.
Weather Watch 2007-2008 starts
We will be starting up the Weather Watch pro-
gram on November 5th. For those that have
not participated in the past the Weather Watch
program has been in operation for the past 35
years. The program gives the general weather
outlook during warm periods and gives three
to four daily updates during freeze events.
Fred Crosby brings 40+ years of agricultural
weather forecast experience to our advisories.
The outlook can be accessed 24/7 with dedi-
cated phone lines. John Jackson has also
agreed to continue to assist during freeze
events. The cost of this program is $100.00 for
the season. If you would like to sign up please
fill out the flyer in the back of the newsletter
and fax or mail it to the Lake County Extension
CEU DAY Nov. llth 8:30-4:00
For pesticide applicators who are needing
CEU's there will be a CEU day held on Novem-
ber 8th in Kissimmee at the Osceola County
extension office. If you only need a few you
can register for just part of the day. See flyer
for more information. To register call the Os-
ceola County extension office at 321-697-3000.
Fall & Winter Production Practices for
Nov. 13th 9:30-11:00
We will have an OJ meeting on November 13th
in Tavares from 9:30-11:00 am. Dr. Timothy
Spann from the Citrus Research and Education
Center will be our speaker. Dr. Spann will be
teaching us practical production techniques
for managing our groves in these greening
FAWN Update and Winter Weather
Dec. I th 9:30-11:00 AM
We will have an OJ meeting on December
1 th from 9:30 to 11:30 am. Rick Lusher the
new coordinator of the Florida Automated
Weather Network (FAWN) will be informing
us on the latest happenings with the FAWN
project. Rick is looking forward to visiting
the birth place of the FAWN project. Also,
from the University of Florida will be Clyde
Frassie to tell us what type of winter weather
we can be expecting this coming winter.
Private Agricultural License Review &
Exam Dec. 12th 8:30-4:00
A pesticide license is required by any per-
sons who apply or supervise the application
of restricted use pesticides for agricultural
production. This certification requires a pass-
ing grade of 70% on the General Standards
and Private exam. This certification must be
renewed ever 4 years either by testing or by
8 CEU's. There will be a review and exam in
Tavares on December 12th. The review starts
at 8:30 AM. There is a $20 charge for the
It is advisable to purchase the "Applying pes-
ticides correctly" and "The private applicator
training manual" from the IFAS bookstore on-
line at www.ifasbooks.ufl.edu or by calling
800-226-1764. The private agricultural li-
cense itself cost $60 which does not have to
be paid until after you pass the exam. To reg-
ister please call Maggie Jarrell at 352-343-
Citrus Expo "Managing Today's Risks for Tomorrow's Profits"
Day two of the 2007 citrus expo was titled
"Managing Today's Risks for Tomorrow's
Profits". The discussion centered on ad-
vance production systems and intensive
management technologies as pathways to
higher yields, harvesting and production
efficiencies, and diseases management. I
found the second days talks very interest-
ing. The guest speakers presented on how
advanced production systems have been
successfully implemented for citrus produc-
tion in other parts of the world.
Speakers from Florida spoke on the princi-
ples of orchard design, plant water and nu-
trient use, citrus root systems and open hy-
droponic system, economics of planting
density, etc. The term open hydroponic sys-
tem has been used a lot to describe one
form of advanced production systems. Its
basic premise is an intensive fertilization
and irrigation scheduling which optimizes
plant growth and fruit production. The fi-
nancial benefit of this system was demon-
strated and comparisons were made for dif-
fering trees per acre and differing rates of
tree removal as maybe required due to
2007-2008 Orange Forecast
Open hydroponic system/Advance production
systems (OHS/APS) involve more trees per
acre, which will lead to earlier production and
prolong the productive life of the grove. Profit-
ability can be achieved sooner leading to less
uncertainty and OHS/APS can increase internal
and external fruit quality. Another advantage is
the use of soil applied systemic insecticides on
young trees by using the fertigation system.
Some critics of OHS question the effectiveness
of this system under Florida weather condi-
tions. Pete Spyke of Arapaho Citrus planted ten
acres of citrus this past spring which he has
grown using OHS/APS techniques. Pete is us-
ing the ten acres to compare different scion/
rootstock combinations planted at 6 and 8 feet
in the row and 20 feet between the rows. While
most of the acreage is under drip irrigation, mi-
cro irrigation is also included for comparison.
Pete reported the most vigorous scion/
rootstock combinations as being six feet tall
with four feet canopy diameters. The prelimi-
nary results appear promising. I plan on
scheduling a site visit in the spring for anyone
who is interested in learning more on this pro-
The official USDA crop estimate will be released on Oct. 12th. Already two private companies
have come out with estimates for the 2007-08 season of 198 boxes (Elizabeth Steger) and 180
boxes (Louis Dreyfus Citrus Inc.). The three main components of the crop estimate are number
of commercial trees, the average number of fruit per tree, and the size of the fruit.
The three seasons since the 2004 hurricanes the citrus crop has averaged 142 million boxes. The
USDA recently completed a special census of seven counties. Tree losses during the one-year
Citrus Hall of Fame
The Florida Citrus Hall of Fame has 151 honor-
ees and has been in existence for forty five
years. This year a major effort is being made
to secure qualified nominees for considera-
tion for the 2008 class. Your help is vital to
make this possible. The Selection Committee
is seeking qualified candidates. Honorees
must have made significant contributions to
the industry. The committee is looking for
someone that has been a leader, innovator,
advocate, giver of time and gone beyond the
assigned "job" to make this industry stronger
Nomination Forms can be obtained from Flor-
ida Citrus Showcase or the Selection Commit-
tee. We encourage nominations to be made
electronically. Email addresses are provided
Nominations are due no later than December
1, 2007. A well prepared application needs
some thought and effort; however, it does not
need to be a "term paper". The nomination
should contain some basic background infor-
mation and a description of the nominee's cit-
rus activities. Most importantly, tell how
these actions have impacted the citrus indus-
If you have any questions or need an applica-
Current Spray Program for Psyllid
Management in CREC Groves
Below is the current spray program being util-
ized by the Citrus Research and Education Pro-
gram grove crew. This recommendations
were shared with growers at the Citrus Expo.
-Aldicarb 33 lbs/A (e.g. Temik)
-Fenpropathrin (e.g. Danitol)
-Bloom period=no sprays
-Post bloom spray=carbaryl
4F 2 Qts/A
-1st oil spray + imidacloprid
(e.g. Admire) foliar spray
-2nd oil spray +
chlorpyrifos (e.g. Lorsban)
-No sprays unless high psyllid
Chairman Selection Committee
Citrus Hall of Fame
Florida Citrus Showcase
October -carbaryl 4F 2 Qts/A
-No sprays unless high psyllid
AN IODINE-BASED STARCH TEST TO ASSIST IN SELECTING LEAVES FOR HLB TESTING
ED ETXEBERRIA, PEDRO GONZALEZ, WILLIAM DAWSON, AND TIM SPANN
DISCLAIMER: This is not a test for HLB/greening, rather it is a method to assist you in selecting leaves to
submit for PCR testing. Starch is a natural product of photosynthesis and may accumulate in leaves for a va-
riety of reasons, not just because of HLB infection. For example, the following conditions may induce higher
than average starch accumulation in leaves and may result in dark staining when HLB/greening is not pre-
Cultivar some cultivars have naturally abundant levels of starch in their leaves (e.g. Murcott)
Branch damage a brake, girdling, insect damage or any other physical condition that limits move-
ment of photosynthates in the phloem will result in elevated starch levels
Disease infection other than HLB/greening Phytophthora or blight for example will lead to elevated
starch levels as well
Containerized trees a tree growing in a pot will have higher levels of starch accumulation than a
tree in the ground
SELECTING LEAVES FOR IODINE TESTING
Choosing a leaf is a crucial process. As mentioned above, several conditions may cause leaves to accumulate
higher than normal starch levels. Thus, we recommend that leaves be selected carefully. The following is a
list of criteria to help guide you:
1. Select symptomatic leaves blotchy mottle leaves are best if present,
2. Make sure the branch supporting the leaf is not damaged, broken, or partially girdled,
3. Sun exposed leaves are best,
4. Avoid physically damaged leaves, e.g. obvious insect damage,
5. Test multiple leaves.
There are several iodine solutions available at pharmacies and drugstores. For this test, you will need
to purchase products labeled "tincture of iodine" or "iodine tincture." These products contain iodine and/or
sodium iodide dissolved in alcohol and water. Products labeled "iodine solution" often contain surfactants
and other ingredients (e.g. citric acid, disodium phosphate, glycerin, nonoxynol-9, sodium hydroxide) and
will not react with starch. Iodine tinctures come as 2% solutions. A solution of 0.2% iodine is optimal for
this test, so you will need to make a 1 to 10 dilution with water (one part iodine tincture solution plus 9 equal
parts of water). Store the diluted solution in a dark tinted or opaque container (you can cover a clear con-
tainer with aluminum foil). The solution should last a few weeks when properly stored.
PERFORMING THE TEST
The steps for performing the test are illustrated on the other side of this page. You should cut a longi-
tudinal (lengthwise) section of the leaf through the area showing symptoms. Immerse the cut section in the
prepared iodine solution for 2 minutes. Rinse the soaked section with clear water and inspect the cut surface
for staining using a magnifying glass or hand lens.
WHAT DOES A "POSITIVE" STARCH TEST MEAN?
A darkly stained leaf from an undamaged branch indicates above normal starch accumulation, it does
not indicate that the leaf is positive for HLB/greening. This test should be used to assist you in selecting
leaves that should be tested further. It is a useful tool to help you to avoid submitting nutrient deficient leaves
or other leaves that may superficially resemble HLB/greening but are not. It may also help you to find leaves
in which some condition, that would not cause starch accumulation (e.g. extreme nutrient deficiency) is
masking HLB/greening symptoms. This test should be thought of as a pre-screening tool only. IFAS does
not recommend making any decisions to remove or otherwise destroy trees without a PCR positive test.
AN IODINE-BASED STARCH TEST TO ASSIST IN
SELECTING LEAVES FOR HLB TESTING UFFM
Ed Etxeberria, Pedro Gonzalez, William Dawson and Timothy Spann IF0amal*
Leaves on HLB infected trees (or branches) appear to accumulate above normal levels of starch.
When starch is mixed with iodine in water, an intensely colored starch/iodine complex is formed.
Therefore, elevated starch levels can be easily visualized. We have prepared an easy method for the
detection of starch in citrus leaves that may assist in the selection of leaves for further HLB testing.
However, starch is a natural product and can accumulate in leaves under a variety of other circum-
stances. The following preconditions may induce higher than average starch accumulation in leaves
and may result in false positive signals: potted trees, cultivar (e.g. Murcott has naturally high starch),
phytophtora infection, branch damage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
FIGURE 1. Properly sectioned leaf showing
the removed tip and longitudinal section.
1.Select leaves with suspicious greening symptoms.
2.Cut the tip off as illustrated in Fig 1.
3.Cut a longitudinal section of the leaf blade.
4.1mmerse both sections in iodine solution
(1.2 2.0% iodine) for 2 minutes.
5.Rinse leaf segments in water and observe using a
A healthy leaf showing no starch
accumulation (left) and normal,
low starch accumulation (right).
FIGURE 3. Leaves showing blotchy mottle greening symptoms (left) and their
respective high levels of starch accumulation (middle, right).
FIGURE 4. Nutrient deficient leaves (left)
show no abnormal starch accumulation
Lake County Agricultural Center
1951 Woodlea Rd.
Tavares, FL 32778
The Vision for the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences (UF/IFAS) is to increase and strengthen the knowledge base and tech-
* Expanding the profitability of global competitiveness and sustainability of
the food, fiber, and agricultural industries of Florida.
* Protecting and sustaining natural resource and environmental systems.
* Enhancing the development of human resources.
* Improving the quality of human life.
As fall approaches greening symptoms
become more visible. The number of Anorrmal fruit shape. I nfecte
blotchy model leaves increase as we Valenci ange left) and
healt"- Valencia orange (right)
move into the fall and winter months
both in the outer and inner canopy. Another symptom is abnormal
fruit shape that is smaller and lopsided when compared to healthy
fruit. When in doubt send a sample to the lab to get it tested.
Blotchy mottled leaves with yellow
2007 Survey Results
Thanks to those who replied to the 2007
Survey. I found the feedback helpful and
interesting. Congratulations to Lee Bird
of Brevard County on winning a free sub-
scription to the Weather Watch program!
Those that responded represent less than
one percent of the mailing list. However,
I think the information provided can be
applied to the area. Most that replied
have attended at least one extension pro-
gram this past year, with the average 3.2
programs per respondent. To the right is
a list of what you think are the most inter-
esting topics for extension programming
and a graph of what you find most useful.
9. Farm Safety
10. Other fruit crops
11. Small Farm
12. Taxes 13. Organic
What part of the extension program do
you find most useful
O OJ meeting
* Field Trips
Ff UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA ,
IFAS Extension "
Summary of 2005-2006 Citrus Budget for the
Central Florida (Ridge) Production Region
Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Economist
University of Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL
Annually, citrus budgets are tabulated for the Central, Southwest and Indian River citrus production regions
of Florida. The attached budget costs are for the example grove situation described in the expanded citrus
budget series titled: "Budgeting Costs and Returns for the Central Florida" region. The budget costs may not
represent your particular grove situation. However, they represent the most current comparative cost estimates
for Florida citrus. The budget costs items for Central Florida represent a custom managed operation.
The 2005-2006 summary comparative budgets are shown in Table 1 and are presented in three scenarios: 1)
Low Cost Processed Cultural Program Alternative; 2) Processed/Reduced Fresh Cost Cultural Program; and
3) Typical/Historical Fresh Cultural Program. Scenario one represents a low cost alternative that would allow
growers to provide a maintenance cultural program in a low on-tree price situation. Scenario two represents
a typical processed orange cultural program and/or reduced cost fresh fruit program. The third scenario
represents typical costs of grove practices which have been performed for citrus grown for the fresh fruit
The 2005-2006 budgets reflect major price increases in all production inputs over the 2004-2005 season: fuel
increased 8.5% to 12.5%; fertilizer products increased 10% to 13.5%; fungicides increased 3.5% to 5.0%; and
spray oil increased 60%. Due to generic products, insecticides, nematicides and herbicides price changes were
mixed; some products have increased 7% to 14% while others remained the same or decreased. Citrus trees
were still recovering from the affects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes that crossed the Florida citrus
production regions. The 2005-2006 Indian River region's citrus production was only 65% of typical average
per acre yields with Central Florida yields for the same season about 85% of typical average production.
Southwest Florida had the largest reduction in yields due to Hurricane Wilma in October 2005. Yields
decreased 40% to 60% for most varieties in the Southwest Florida citrus production region. As a result of the
decreased yields per acre for all citrus production regions, the unit per box, per pound solids and per carton
costs were higher than in recent years.
Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower decisions. Budget analysis can be used to calculate
potential profits from an operation, determine cash requirements for an operation and determine break-even
prices. The budget costs presented will serve as a format for growers to analyze costs from their own
individual records. The cost data was developed by surveying custom operators, suppliers, growers,
colleagues with UF/IFAS and County Extension Citrus Agents in each production region.
Each budget shown in Table 1 lists the cost of individual grove care practices normally performed in a citrus
grove. These costs are categorized into cumulative sub-totals of irrigated processed and irrigated fresh fruit
program and reflecting current grove practices being used by growers. The estimated costs are for a mature
grove (10+ years old); the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon the tree age,
tree density and the grove practices performed. For example, extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could
at least double, if not increase more, the tree replacement and care costs. Also, travel and set-up costs may
vary due to the size of a citrus grove and the distance from the grove equipment barn. The mandatory
decontamination requirements to control the spread of citrus canker add to the total operational costs. These
costs are shown in the expanded "delivered-in" cost table.
The comparative budget costs are shown as an expanded "delivered-in" cost format in Table 2 for Central
Florida Valencia oranges. The "delivered-in" costs represent cultural programs for both the processed juice
fruit and fresh fruit markets. The estimated delivered-in costs include total cultural/production, management,
regulatory and harvesting costs.
With the introduction of citrus greening in 2005, Florida citrus growers have had to develop new management
strategies to identify infected trees to be removed along with a new spray program to control the insect vector,
Asian citrus psyllid, which transmits the citrus greening disease. Likewise, with the discontinuation of the
citrus canker eradication program in 2006, new management strategies are being implemented to assure fruit
grown for the fresh market can be certified "canker free" for shipments to the U.S. domestic and European
markets. Table 3 presents estimated costs required to manage citrus greening and canker that would be in
addition to the costs shown in Tables 1 and 2. Since Florida's citrus industry is in "beginning learning stages"
for management of citrus greening and canker, at this time these costs are presented separately.
Additional information on budgeting and cost analysis can be obtained by contacting the author or your
County Extension Agent or going to the Extension or Economics section of the EDIS website:
http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu or UF/IFAS CREC website: http://www.crec.ifas.ufl.edu then click on Extension and
Table 1. A listing of estimated comparative Central Florida (Ridge) citrus production costs per acre for oranges, 2005-2006z
Low Cost Processed Processed and Typical/Historical
Costs represent a mature (10+ years old)
Cots represent a mare ear o) Cultural Program Reduced Fresh Cost Fresh Fruit
Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Grove.
One-Year Alternative Cultural Program Cultural Program
Discing (2 times per year) $ 20.64 $ 20.64 $ 20.64
Mechanical Mow Middles (4 times per year) 47.36 47.36 47.36
General Grove Work (2 labor hours per acre) 29.32 29.32 29.32
Herbicide (1/2 tree acre treated):
Application (4 glyphosate or 2 residual applications) $58.88 $29.44 $29.44
Material 23.72 71.82 71.82
Spot Treatment (Material/application) _- 14.72 14.72
Total Herbicide Cost 82.60 115.98 115.98
Summer Oil #1 (Processed @ 125 GPA) or
Post Bloom (Fresh @ 250 GPA):
Application 26.98 30.63
Material 55.85 46.44
Total Summer Oil #1 or Post Bloom Cost 82.83 77.07
Summer Oil #2: Application (PTO 125 GPA; 250 GPA) 26.98 26.98 30.63
Material 67.59" 46.09 86.35
Total Summer Oil #2 Cost 94.57 73.07 116.98
Supplemental Fall Miticide:
Application (PTO 125 GPA) 26.98
Total Supplemental Fall Miticide Cost 39.57
Fertilizer (Bulk): 4 Applications 37.64 37.64 37.64
Material (16-0-16-4 MgO @ 204 lbs N
per acre) 186.15 186.15 186.15
Total Fertilizer Cost 223.79 223.79 223.79
Dolomite (one ton applied every 4 years)
Material/Application 12.34 11.36 11.36
Pruning: Topping ($37.50/A + 2.5 yrs)' 14.92 14.92 14.92
Hedging ($34.17/A 2 yrs)' 17.09 17.09 17.09
Chop/Mow Brush after Hedging ($10.62/A+2 yrs)' 5.31 5.31 5.31
Total Pruning Cost 37.32 37.32 37.32
Tree Replacement--1 thru 3 years of age: (3 trees/acre)
Remove Trees: Pull, Stack & Burn 3 Trees with
Front-end Loader 18.27 18.27 18.27
Prepare Site & Plant Tree (Includes 3 reset trees) 40.11 40.11 40.11
Supplemental Fertilizer, Tree Wraps Maintenance,
Sprout, Etc. (Trees 1-3 years old) 38.27 38.27 38.27
Total Tree Replacement Cost 96.65 96.65 96.65
Irrigation: Microsprinkler System" 175.97 175.97 175.97
IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS $820.56 $914.29
Fall Miticide: Application (125 GPA) 26.98 26.98
Material 32.52 32.52
Total Fall Miticide Cost 59.50 59.50
IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS $973.79 $1,051.51
zThe listed estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information Report Series entitled:
"Budgeting Costs and Returns for Central Florida Citrus Production" and may not represent your particular grove situation in Central
SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida-IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL, December 2006.
YCentral Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands counties. However, the costs presented in this report are
applicable to other counties such as Hardee, Hillsborough, Lake-Orange, Osceola and Pasco counties.
Where equipment use or application is listed discingg, hedging, spray application, etc.), an average custom charge (cost)
is used which includes a charge for equipment repairs, maintenance, labor and overhead management charges/costs. A
management charge for equipment supervision and fruit marketing is not included. Management charges/costs could be
based on a monthly charge ($3 to $6/acre) or percentage of gross sales. In addition to these charges, a harvesting supervision
cost (10 to 20C/box) for overseeing and coordinating harvesting may be charged. Other cost items which are not included
in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and
administrative costs, such as water drainage/district taxes, crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12
percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of purchase
Included in the materials expense is a supervision (or handling) charge of 10% of cost/price of the materials.
The budget cost items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers--e.g., chemical mowing,
different spray materials, and rates of fertilization, microsprinkler irrigation, more reset trees, hedging and topping practices,
etc. Therefore, the revised costs for each grove practice shown may be higher, or lower, than previously reported.
Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs listed are representative for a mature citrus grove (10+ years old), the
grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon the tree age, tree density and the grove practices
performed; e.g., spot herbicide for grass/brush regrowth under trees could add an additional $14.18 per acre; Diaprepes
control could add $93.18 per acre for each foliar application; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could substantially
increase the tree replacement and care costs; spray applications to control citrus leafminer and nematicide applications of
such as Temik ($117.23/acre) could increase the total cultural costs per acre above the average costs shown in the
comparative budgets; travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of the citrus grove and distance from grove equipment
barn and could add $36.08 per acre; etc.
xSpray materials include copper (Cu), oil, miticide and nutritional.
"Spray materials include copper (Cu), oil and nutritional.
"Per acre costs shown in parenthesis are for 2006.
"Irrigation Expense includes the following:
Variable Operating Expense (Diesel)* $ 65.98
Fixed-Variable Expense (annual maintenance repairs to system) 53.43
Total Cash Expenses $119.41
Fixed-Depreciation Expense 56.56
Total Cash and Fixed Expense $155.04
*Reflects the higher fuels costs.
Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred,
Florida, December 2006.
Table 2. Estimated total delivered-in cost for Central Florida (Ridge) Valencia oranges grown for the processed market under three cultural cost programs,
Processed Valencia Orange Processed Valencia Orange Fresh/Processed Valencia Orange
Represents a mature (10+ years old) Processed Valencia Orange
Low Cost Historical Cost
Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Grove o Cultural Programal o
Cultural Program Cultural Program
$/Acre $/Box $/P.S. $/Acre $/Box $/P.S. $/Acre $/Box $/P.S.
Total Production/Cultural Costs $ 820.56 $2.126 $0.3126 $914.29 $2.369 $0.3483 $973.79 $2.523 $0.3710
Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 22.57 0.058 0.0086 25.14 0.065 0.0096 26.78 0.069 0.0102
Management Costs 48.00 0.124 0.0183 48.00 0.124 0.0183 48.00 0.124 0.0183
Property Tax and Water Management Tax 64.96 0.168 0.0247 61.87 0.160 0.0236 61.87 0.160 0.0236
Canker Decontamination Costs 8.25 0.021 0.0031 8.25 0.021 0.0031 8.25 0.021 0.0031
Total Direct Grower Costs $ 964.34 $2.498 $0.3674 $1,057.55 $2.740 $0.4029 $1,118.69 $2.898 $0.4262
Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 321.22 0.832 $0.1224 321.22 0.962 0.1435 321.22 0.962 0.1435
Total Grower Costs $1,285.55 $3.330 $0.4898 $1,378.76 $3.701 $0.5464 $1,439.90 $3.860 $0.5697
Harvesting and Assessment Costs:
Pick/Spot Pick, Roadside & Haul and
Canker Decontamination Costs 1,042.20 2.700 0.3971 1,042.20 2.700 0.4030 1,042.20 2.700 0.4030
DOC Assessment 71.41 0.185 0.0272 71.41 0.185 0.0276 71.41 0.185 0.0276
Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs 1,113.61 2.885 0.4243 1,113.61 2.885 0.4306 1,113.61 2.885 0.4306
Total Delivered-in Cost $2,399.16 $6.215 $0.9140 $2 492.37 $6.586 $0.9770 $2,553.51 $6.745 $1.0003
Refer to cultural program shown
SRefer to cultural progm s n Refer to cultural program shown in
P.S. = Pound Solids in Table 1.
Refer to cultural program shown
Yield: 386 boxes/acre @ 6.8 P.S. per box c porms
Only summer oil sprays with oil, in Table 1. A F M S
A Fall Miticide Spray added to the
120 trees per acre copper and Agri-mek &
Nutritional. cultural program shown in Table 1.
Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, December 2006.
Table 3. Additional costs for managing Citrus Canker and Citrus Greening, 2005-2006
for Juice Processing
Spray Costs (Application & Materials)
Grove Inspections for Managing Canker for Fresh Fruit Market
Total Additional Costs for Citrus Canker
Valencia Oranges Grapefruit
for Juice Processing for Fresh Market
Citrus Greening (control psyllia)
Temik (Application & Materials)
Spray Costs (Application & Materials)
Field Inspections for Identifying Trees with Greening
Total Additional Costs for Citrus Greening
Total Additional Costs for Citrus Canker and Greening 342.47 289.33 268.24
aField inspections can be combined or fresh fruit market production program.
bSpray program for psyllid control is already included in fresh grapefruit production program.
Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida,