PAGE 1

In this issue: Does Coyote Predation Affect White tailed Deer Populations in Florida? Got Longleaf? New Collaboration to Assist Landowners with Longleaf Pine Forest Restoration Congratulations B r i an Cobble, National Tree Farmer of 2011 Thanks Forest Stewardship Sponsors More Discussion on Uneven aged Pine Management Congratulations Certified Forest Stewards and Tree Farmers Forest Stewardship Event Announcement Timber Pr ice Update Events Calendar The Florida Forest Steward A Quarterly Newsletter for Florida Landowners and Resource Professionals Volume 18, No. 2 Summer Fall 2011 Does Coyote Predation Negatively Affect White-tailed Deer Populations in Florida? By Emma Willcox, William Giuliano, John Olson, and Jim Selph In the mid to late 20th century the range of the coyote (Canis latrans) expanded dramatically. Once confined to the western United States, this species is now common across the Southeast, including range into the Southeast is likely a result of habitat change, loss of higher predators, in particular the wolves, and intentional and accidental release by humans. Many people are concerned about the negative effects coyotes may have on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The rapid rise of the coyote has spawned numerous studies across the country, in places such as Texas, Maine, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania, to assess the impact this species is having on deer populations. However, the landscape, vegetation, and fauna of the Southeast differ considerably from that range. As a result, coyote behavior and food habits may also differ from other well-studied areas. Only by understanding how deer and coyotes Another look at W iley Coyote : Curious canine or voracious predator ? A l f r e d V i o l a N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r si t y B u g w o o d o r g

PAGE 2

2 interact in this region can appropriate management and control activities be recommended. Unfortunately, far fewer studies have been conducted in the Southeast and there are no large-scale studies specific to Florida, limiting our understanding of coyote-deer relationships and hindering management efforts. While coyote and deer have coexisted in Texas and the west for many years, the situation is expected to be different in Florida. As coyotes are relatively new to the state, deer populations are likely not adapted to deal with such a generalist predator. Florida deer populations have very low productivity and additional mortality due to coyote predation could have greater population effects. Some of the more recent coyote-deer research in the Southeast comes from South Carolina. Between 1997 and 2006 the estimated deer population in South deer population is currently estimated at 750,000 individuals, a substantial reduction from the 1.1 million individuals of the mid 1990s. There are likely many reasons for deer population declines, including habitat loss due to land-use change. However, declines also closely mirror the growth of the coyote population. The ratio of fawns to adult females in the harvest from a 78,000 hectare study site in western South Carolina indicates fawn survival has declined in recent years. Between 1965 and 1990, the number of fawns per adult female ranged from 0.81 to 1.27. In the early to mid-1990s, there was a precipitous decline, resulting in a fawn to adult female ratio in the late 1990s and early 2000s ranging from 0.21 to 0.55. Are coyotes responsible for this decline? Evidence from a coyote food habits study on the same site points to a direct link between coyotes and deer fawn mortality. During May 2005 and 2006, 31% and 38%, respectively of coyote scats contained deer fawn remains. This period coincides with the peak of the fawning season. Percentages for June during the same two years were 15% and 23% respectively, with fawn remains detected in scat through August when the fawning season ended. affinity for newborn fawns is resulting in increased fawn mortality and that this predation pressure could be contributing to population declines. Two further studies conducted in Alabama also imply coyote predation is causing reductions in deer numbers. The first of these studies assessed fawn to adult female ratios before and after coyote and bobcat removal. Prior to predators being removed, the fawn to adult female ration was 0.41. A year later, after 22 coyotes and 10 bobcats had been removed, the fawn to adult female ratio was 1.20, indicating greater fawn survival in the absence of coyotes. The second study, conducted near Auburn, Alabama found coyotes were responsible for 42-63% of all fawn mortality. A new research project spearheaded by Bill Giuliano and John Olson, a professor and graduate assistant in the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation at the University of Florida, is scheduled to begin in Florida later this year. As part of this research, biologists will place vaginal radio transmitter implants in does captured on study sites. As does give birth, the implants will fall to the ground with the fawns. The signals transmitted by the implants will then be used to locate each fawn. Once found, fawns will be fitted with radio collars that allow biologists to track their movements for the first 6 months of life. If a fawn dies, its carcass will be collected and a

PAGE 3

3 necropsy performed to determine the cause of death. If the necropsy suggests a fawn died from predation, saliva samples will be taken from the carcass and DNA analysis conducted to confirm the identity of the predator (i.e., coyote, bobcat, etc.). This information will be used to calculate the percentage of fawns killed by coyotes. In addition, coyote scat will be collected and examined for fawn remains to support necropsy findings. Later in the study, fawn survival will be compared among study sites with different coyote densities. For more information on this new study contact Bill Giuliano at (352) 846-0575 or docg@ufl.edu Got Longleaf? NWTF and NRCS Team Up to Help Landowners Restore Longleaf Pine Forest Habitat By Matt Palumbo, National Wild Turkey Federation The National Wild Turkey Federation (NWTF) and USDA National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) are teaming up to help landowners who currently have longleaf pine on their property and need help with management and/or landowners who are interested in restoring longleaf pine to their property. Historically, longleaf pine was the predominant pine species across the southern coastal plain of the US, including parts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. In forests were replaced with agriculture, urban development and faster growing species such as slash pine. By 1995 longleaf forests occurred on only 2% of their historical range. With improved genetic stock, the use of containerized seedlings, and science based management techniques, longleaf pine can be established with much more success than in the past. For landowners with habitat management objectives, longleaf pine is a great choice. It is adapted to fire, more resistant to some insects and diseases and, with its long tap root, is able to withstand high winds. If managed with fire, longleaf pine stands can be incredibly diverse, providing habitat for a multitude of flowering plants, insects, birds, reptiles and mammals. In terms of timber value, longleaf pine yields a much higher percentage of pole size and quality timber per stand than slash or loblolly pines. Poles command the highest price of all timber products and the pole market historically has been very stable. The NWTF and NRCS have joined forces to assist landowners through the Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP), which is one of many incentive programs offered via the Farm Bill to private landowners. Through this partnership, NWTF certified biologists will develop a conservation plan for landowners in North and Central Florida. Once a conservation plan has been finalized, the NWTF will then work with NRCS to determine what type of technical assistance they can qualify for through WHIP. The goal of this partnership is to develop 269 conservation plans across the 7 previously mentioned states. Twenty-five plans are specifically targeted for Florida. Additionally, each state will hold 2 field days to educate landowners About the authors: Emma Willcox, PhD. and Jim Selph, Regional Wildlife Extension Agent and retired Extension Agent, UF IFAS Cooperative Extension Service; Bill Giuliano, PhD. and John Olson, Associate P rofessor and Graduate Assistant, UF IFAS Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation.

PAGE 4

4 about longleaf pine and appropriate management practices for timber and wildlife. Interested landowners are interested in please contact your NWTF regional biologist, Derek Alkire dalkire@nwtf.net cell: (352) 262-2373. Congratulations Brian Cobble: National Tree Farm Inspector of 2011 We are very proud to announce that Brian Cobble (Florida Forest Service Forester, Suwannee County) is being recognized by the American Tree Farm System as the nation's top Tree Farm Inspector for 2011. Brian, who was honored as Florida's Tree Farm Inspector of the Year in 2010, has put much energy behind bringing the Tree Farm message of forest conservation, management and sustainability to the landowners of Suwannee County. During calendar-year 2010 Brian conducted 45 inspections, on 13,809 acres, including bringing 9 new properties into the American Tree Farm System. In appreciation for all of his hard work, Brian has been invited to attend the 2011 National Tree Farmer Convention, to be held August 9-11 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and will be recognized as the National Tree Farm Inspector of the Year during the awards banquet. Congratulations Brian! THANKS Forest Stewardship Program Sponsors and Supporters!! A hearty THANKS to all the businesses and organizations that sponsored this outreach events across Florida: Buckeye Florida, F&W Forestry Services, Florida Forestry Association, Florida Farm Bureau Federation, Forest Environmental Solutions, Farm Credit of Florida, Farm Credit of Northwest Florida, Forestland Management, International Forest Company, Marden Industries, National Wild Turkey Federation, Natural Resource Planning Services and Southern Forestry Consultants. We also thank the Florida Forest Service and the Florida Sustainable Forestry Initiative Implementation Committee for their continued financial Forest Stewardship Extension Program. More Discussion on Uneven-aged Pine Management The articles on uneven age management (UAM) in the last issue of the Forest Steward; -aged Management of by Josh Dickinson, Don The Passive Alternative: Is Group Selection a Viable Alternative in North Florida have sparked some lively discussion. The original -aged Management landowners of the benefits of managing loblolly pine in an uneven-aged system and was based on examples of this in South Carolina. However, longleaf pine

PAGE 5

5 and slash pine were included in the article since these species are also of interest to the readership. This necessitated some discussion on the selection system, which Jeff Main addressed in his article. Some follow-up discussion on these methods follows: Josh Dickinson: Jeff Main is correct in stating that the dominant management strategy for pine in the Southeast over the last half century has been the even-aged plantation. This model has been promoted by the forestry community and accepted and used by a significant number of forest landowners. However, for a growing number of forest owners with smaller acreages, this approach may not be the best option. The high up-front costs of site preparation and planting, with a once-in-a-lifetime major harvest revenue, may make the even-age plantation model uneconomical for landowners with smaller acreages. Main offers as an alternative to plantations presumably on sites most suitable for longleaf (and slash?) pine. This is an excellent model for sites unsuitable for loblolly pine. However, given that loblolly is the dominant second growth pine species across the Southeast, from central Florida to Texas, we believe that the uneven-aged management model we discuss has wider application. This management model was successfully introduced in the Southeast in the 1920s, but is virtually unknown as a field practice among consulting foresters today. In contrast to the group selection model presented; with loblolly: a) group selection is not required; selective thinning back to a 60 sq.ft. basal area is sufficient to achieve regeneration, b) bare mineral soil is not required; the wings on seeds quickly detach allowing the small seeds to work their way down through litter to germinate in mineral soil, and c) the dense carpet of seedlings is not a disadvantage: the dense seedling crop suppresses hardwood competition with most dying off as dominant individuals form the next size class. This discussion clearly illustrates the importance to family forest owners of working with foresters with a grasp of the complexity of site characteristics, species options, economics, and owner preferences. Both approaches group selection and uneven-aged management offer welcome alternatives to the industrial plantation. Jeff Main replies: My article was targeted to north Florida specifically. This area was, and to a large extent still is, dominated by our pulpwood markets. Both industry and the NIPL's (nonindustrial private landowners) have almost exclusively practiced plantation forestry, true tree farming. The small marginal price difference between pulpwood and most solid wood products still encourages fiber production, not lumber, if return on investment is your highest priority. This is not the case in much of South Carolina. As far as species are concerned, loblolly occurs here but was never dominant, even in our small red hills region. Time and of choice for timber production on our phosphorus deficient loamy sands (which are 90% of the timber base). During the early 80's loblolly was planted on significant acreage in north Florida. We still have the remnants of off-site loblolly stands, 20 years old, 3" DBH's and 20' tall. Unfortunately we don't have the depositional clays and coastal spodic

PAGE 6

6 soils South Carolina does. I've worked in Allendale, Estill and around Columbia in the past. This is very different. In regard to financial performance, given equal soils and sites, good planted pine stands will out-perform uneven-aged stands every time. Natural stands simply cannot produce the growth a planted pine stand can with its improved genetics, beneficial site prep and spatial design. Be that as it may I applaud what Josh and Don are doing and believe it is good advice for many landowners. However, the aesthetic, wildlife and joy of ownership qualities of naturally managed, uneven-strong points. I'd love to see more landowners take that approach. Nevertheless, comparison based solely on financial metrics will always fall to planted stands. Florida Division of Forestry now Florida Forest Service As of July 1, 2011, the Florida Division of Forestry is the Florida Forest Service. The mission of the agency remains the same: to protect Florida and its people from the dangers of wildland fire and manage the forest resources through a stewardship ethic to assure they are available for future generations. core program areas are: Wildfire Prevention, Detection and Suppression, State Land Management, and Forestry Technical Assistance. Austin Cary Memorial Forest Conference Center Destroyed by Fire As many of you have already heard, on the afternoon of Tuesday July 19, a fire destroyed the Conference Center at the Austin Cary Memorial Forest. No one was hurt or injured as a result of the fire. As of the writing of this piece, we still do not know the cause of the fire. This is a great loss to the School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF-IFAS and all who have enjoyed an event, celebration or meeting at this marvelous facility. We look to the future and consider possibilities to rebuild. Get Email Updates! and news. Send an email to cdemers@ufl.edu to be added to the Stewardship listserv. UF and Florida A&M Extension Invite Your Feedback Florida Extension is a partnership between the University of Florida and Florida A&M University to improve the quality of life for citizens through education. In the coming decade, decisions will be made by Florida Extension that may influence you and your community. We invite you to participate in our Community Input Survey to give your opinions about certain issues that may impact these decisions. The focus of this survey is your community where you live, shop, work and play. The survey runs through August 19, 2011. Access the survey here: http://solutionsforyourlife.com (see We Need Your Advice link)

PAGE 7

Mrs. Erika Simons (R) with Brian Cobble, Florida Forest Service Suwannee County Lloyd Adams (R) with Brian Cobble, Florida Forest Service Suwannee County Suwannee County Ira & Shirley Wood Suwannee County Congratulations Certified Forest Stewards and Tree Farmers! For more information about becoming a Certified Forest Steward or Tree Farmer, call your County Forester or l earn about it at: http://www.fl dof.com/forest_management/cfa_steward_index.html http://www.floridaforest.org/tree_far m.php

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Property Tour Canaan Ranch Property Nolan Galloway and Family Gilchrist County, FL Date: Tuesday, September 13, 2011; meet and greet at 9:00 AM ET. Program begins promptly at 9:30. Tour: Canaan Ranch was originally purchased by great grandfather in 1944, who operated the property as a cattle farm, but sandy soils provided insufficient browse. Giving up on cattle, he began to plant pine trees. With about 2,000 acres of naturally regenerated longleaf pine and another 1,200 acres in a mixture of planted slash pine, longleaf, and oak hammocks, the family has harvested trees when needed and replanted when financially feasible. -term goal for the property preserve much of the naturally regenerated longleaf pine / wiregrass habitat forever, while bringing the sparsely populated longleaf areas into better production by planting containerized seedlings. Prescribed fire has been and will continue to be an important management tool. A small amount of Japanese climbing fern was found on the property and promptly treated. Challenges have all been financial but, with the help of financial assistance from Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Division of Forestry and Natural Resources Conservation Service, several management dreams have been realized. Nolan is working toward a perpetual annual harvest and regeneration cycle that will allow the ranch to pay for itself as well as fund future investments. According to Managing this property is a life-long passion for me. I do not get paid for my efforts at the ranch but I take great pride in the property and consider my work there to be my legacy. Register: Cost is $10 per person, lunch and materials inclu ded. Please register on line at http://fsp-tour091311.eventbrite.com/ Directions posted on web. Those without Internet access can reserve a space by c alling Chris Demers at (3 52) 846 2375 Payment can be made on site with cash or check, payable to University of Florida Space will be limited so please register early Please share this announcement with others who may be interested. Contact Chris Demers, (352) 846 2375, cdemers@ufl.edu with questions about this or other Florida Forest Stewardship Program events. wardship Program is provided by the USDA Forest Service through the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry and a grant from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative. P h o t o b y N o l a n G a l l o w a y

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Florida Master Naturalist Upland Habitats Module Six Week Course Thursdays, September 22 through October 27, 2011 8:30 am 4:30 pm Levy County Extension Office 625 N. Hathaway Ave (Alt. 27), Bronson, FL ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Cost: $225 Includes student workbooks, 12 presentations, 3 field trips, 4 videos, certificate, patch, pin and more. To register or for more information, go to http://www.masternaturalist.ifas.ufl.edu/ or call Emma Willcox at (352) 486 5131. ~~~~~~~ Extension programs are open to all persons without regard to race, color, sex, age, disability, religion, or national origin

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Property Tour Little Creek Woods Property of Bob Reid and Betsy Clark Walton County, FL Date: Thursday, October 6, 2011; meet and greet at 9:00 AM CT. Program begins promptly at 9:30. Tour: Having made great strides in their habitat restoration efforts since our last tour at Little Creek Woods in 2004, Bob and Betsy are inviting us back to see the progress. Little Creek Woods consists of 890 acres but this tour will focus on a core of about 200 acres where efforts are underway to restore longleaf sandhill habitat. see an experimental installment of planted pines to measure the growth of different pine species on high and dry sites. The goal at Little Creek is to develop a multi-age forest, supporting a full complement of wildlife, while providing a permanent source of income for future generations. Having been in the Forest Stewardship Program for many years, Bob and Betsy have opened their gate several times over the years to share their experiences with other landowners and natural resource professionals who are trying to achieve similar or related goals. do some walking so wear appropriate boots and clothing, and be prepared for rain. Register: Cost is $10 per person, lunch and materials included. Ple ase register on line at http://fsp-tour100611.eventbrite.com/ Directions posted on web. Those without Internet access can reserve a space by Walton County Extension Office at ( 850 ) 892 8172 Payment can b e made online or at the tour with cash or a check, payable to University of Florida Space will be limited so please register early Please share this announcement with others who may be interested. Contact Chris Demers, (3 52) 846 2375, cdemers@ufl.edu with questions about this or other Florida Forest Stewardship Program events. Directions to Little Creek Woods : SDA Forest Service through the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry and a grant from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.

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Timber Price Update The timber pricing information below is useful for observing trends over time, but does not necessarily reflect current conditions at a particular location. Landowners considering a timber sale are advised to solicit the services of a consulting forester to obtain current local market conditions. P rice ranges reported in the 2 nd Q uarter 20 1 1 Timber Mart South (TMS) report were: Florida Stumpage Prices Biomass Fuel Prices Pine pulpwood : $ 16 $ 3 2 /cord ($ 6 $ 1 2 /ton), from 1 st Qtr 201 1 Pine C N S : $ 28 $ 5 1 /cord ($1 1 $ 19 /ton), Pine sawtimber : $ 57 $ 9 0 /cord ($ 2 1 $ 3 4 /ton), Pine plylogs : $ 6 3 $ 87 /cord ($ 2 4 $ 3 3 /ton) Pine power poles : $ 82 $ 1 58 / cord ($ 30 $ 59 /ton) Hardwood pulpwood : $ 1 0 $ 2 8 /cord ($ 4 $ 10 /ton) --In woods whole tree pine : $1 4 $ 19 /ton In woods whole tree hardwood : $1 3 $ 17 /ton *Southeast average low and high price r anges per ton, fuel quality chips from tops, limbs, limited bole material or otherwise pre commercial mate rial Trend Report Average s tumpage prices in the second quarter remained weak ac ross Florida and the Southeast region In the case of pulpwood, average prices were affected, in part, by the quantity of extra timber on the market due to tornado and fire damage. Pine sawtimber and chip n saw prices hit lows not seen since 1992. Economic recovery slowed this quarter with concerns about inflation and U.S. debt contributing to uncertainty. Remember that song from the old TV show, Hee Haw?

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U pcoming Stewardship, Small Farm and Other Events Date Event, Location, Contact August 25 WFREC Extension Farm Field Day UF IFAS West Florida Research & Education Center Research Facility, Jay, FL. For more information contact Robin Vickers, rvickers@ufl.edu (850) 983 5216 ext. 113. September 7 8 Florida Forestry Association Annual Meeting Renaissaince Hotel at World Golf Village, St. Augustine, FL. To register, please complete the registration form at http://www.floridaforest.org/events.php?event_id=153 Contact Debbie Bryan t, Florida Forestry Association, (850 ) 222 5646, debbie@forestfla.org September 9 Forest Stewardship Food Plot Field Day 9 am 3 pm, Blitch Plantation, property of John & Shirley Rudnianyn, Marion County. $10 fee, lunch and materials included. More details and on line registration page to come. Call the UF IFAS Marion County Extension Office at (352) 671 8400 to reserve a space. Se ptember 13 Forest Stewardship Tour: Canaan Ranch, Property of Nolan Galloway and Family Gilchrist County, 9 am 1 pm, ET $10 fee covers materials and lunch. Details and registration at http://fsp tour091311.eventbrite.com/ September 22 October 27 (Thursdays) Florida Master Naturalist Upland Habitats Module 8:30 am 4:30 pm ET, UF IFAS Levy County Extens ion Office, Bronson, FL $225 registration fee covers workbooks, presentations, field trips, videos, certificate, patch, pin and more. For more info, see http://www.masternaturalist.ifas .ufl.edu/ or call Emma Willcox at (352) 486 5131. October 3 5 Southeast Herbicide Applicator Conference Edgewater Beach Resort, Panama City Beach, FL CEUs abound! See website for details: http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/sehac/ Questions can be directed to Jhanna Gilbert, Conference Coordinator, UF IFAS, Office of Conferences & In stitutes, (352) 392 5930, jhanna@ufl.edu October 6 Forest Stewardship Tour: Little Creek Woods, Property of Bob Reid and Betsy Clark Walton County, 9 am 1 pm, CT $10 fee covers materials and lunch. D etails and registration at http://fsp tour100611.eventbrite.com/ October 11 UF IFAS North Florida REC Fall Field Day Quincy, FL. For more information contact NFREC at (850) 875 7100. October 26 WFREC Fall Specialty Crop Production Field Day UF IFAS West Florida Research & Education Center Research Facility, Jay, FL. For more information contact Robin Vickers, rvickers@ufl.edu (850) 983 5216 ext. 113. For more Forest Stewardship Program information see : sfrc.ufl.edu/forest_stewardship The Florida Forest Steward is a University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Division of Forestry and Florida Tree Farm joint project: Chris Demers ( editor ), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611 0410, (352) 846 2375, cdemers@ufl.edu Dr. Michael Andreu ( co editor ), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, (352) 846 0355, mandreu@ufl.edu Tony Grossman (co editor) Florida Forest Service 3125 Con ner Blvd, Room R2, Tallahassee, FL 32699 1650, (850) 414 9907, Anthony.Grossman@freshfromflorida.com Joseph Prenger (co editor) Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2574 Seagate Drive Tallahassee FL 32301 (850) 410 5268 Joe.Prenger @MyFW C.com Jon Gould (co editor), Florida Tree Farm Committee, 4923 Windwood Circle, Birmingham, AL 35242, (205) 991 9435, gouldjh@bellsouth.net Dr. Bill Giuliano (co editor) Department of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation, UF, PO Box 110430, Gainesville, FL 326 11 0430, (352) 846 0575, docg@ufl.edu


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The Florida Forest Steward 7

A Quarterly Newsletter for Florida Landowners and Resource Professionals


Volume 18, No. 2


Summer Fall 2011


In this issue:
* Does Coyote Predation Affect White-tailed
Deer Populations in Florida?
* Got Longleaf? New Collaboration to Assist
Landowners with Longleaf Pine Forest
Restoration
* Congratulations Brian Cobble, National Tree
Farmer of 2011
* Thanks Forest Stewardship Sponsors!
* More Discussion on Uneven-aged Pine
Management
* Congratulations Certified Forest Stewards and
Tree Farmers
* Forest Stewardship Event Announcement
* Timber Price Update
* Events Calendar


Another look at Wiley Coyote:
Curious canine or
voracious predator?


I UNIVERSITY of
I UFLORIDA
IFAS


Does Coyote Predation
Negatively Affect White-tailed
Deer Populations in Florida?
By Emma Willcox, William Giuliano,
John Olson, and Jim Selph

In the mid to late 20th century the range of
the coyote (Canis latrans) expanded
dramatically. Once confined to the
western United States, this species is now
common across the Southeast, including
Florida. The expansion of the coyote's
range into the Southeast is likely a result
of habitat change, loss of higher
predators, in particular the wolves, and
intentional and accidental release by
humans.

Many people are concerned about the
negative effects coyotes may have on
white-tailed deer (Odocoileus
virginianus). The rapid rise of the coyote
has spawned numerous studies across the
country, in places such as Texas, Maine,
West Virginia, and Pennsylvania, to
assess the impact this species is having on
deer populations. However, the
landscape, vegetation, and fauna of the
Southeast differ considerably from that
found in other areas of the coyote's
range. As a result, coyote behavior and
food habits may also differ from other
well-studied areas. Only by
understanding how deer and coyotes




04
SFK









interact in this region can appropriate
management and control activities be
recommended. Unfortunately, far fewer
studies have been conducted in the
Southeast and there are no large-scale
studies specific to Florida, limiting our
understanding of coyote-deer relationships
and hindering management efforts. While
coyote and deer have coexisted in Texas
and the west for many years, the situation
is expected to be different in Florida. As
coyotes are relatively new to the state,
deer populations are likely not adapted to
deal with such a generalist predator.
Florida deer populations have very low
productivity and additional mortality due
to coyote predation could have greater
population effects.

Some of the more recent coyote-deer
research in the Southeast comes from
South Carolina. Between 1997 and 2006
the estimated deer population in South
Carolina declined by 36%. The state's
deer population is currently estimated at
750,000 individuals, a substantial
reduction from the 1.1 million individuals
of the mid 1990s. There are likely many
reasons for deer population declines,
including habitat loss due to land-use
change. However, declines also closely
mirror the growth of the coyote
population. The ratio of fawns to adult
females in the harvest from a 78,000
hectare study site in western South
Carolina indicates fawn survival has
declined in recent years. Between 1965
and 1990, the number of fawns per adult
female ranged from 0.81 to 1.27. In the
early to mid-1990s, there was a precipitous
decline, resulting in a fawn to adult female
ratio in the late 1990s and early 2000s
ranging from 0.21 to 0.55. Are coyotes
responsible for this decline? Evidence
from a coyote food habits study on the
same site points to a direct link between
coyotes and deer fawn mortality. During


May 2005 and 2006, 31% and 38%,
respectively of coyote scats contained
deer fawn remains. This period coincides
with the peak of the fawning season.
Percentages for June during the same two
years were 15% and 23% respectively,
with fawn remains detected in scat
through August when the fawning season
ended. Study results suggest the coyote's
affinity for newborn fawns is resulting in
increased fawn mortality and that this
predation pressure could be contributing
to population declines.

Two further studies conducted in
Alabama also imply coyote predation is
causing reductions in deer numbers. The
first of these studies assessed fawn to
adult female ratios before and after
coyote and bobcat removal. Prior to
predators being removed, the fawn to
adult female ration was 0.41. A year
later, after 22 coyotes and 10 bobcats had
been removed, the fawn to adult female
ratio was 1.20, indicating greater fawn
survival in the absence of coyotes. The
second study, conducted near Auburn,
Alabama found coyotes were responsible
for 42-63% of all fawn mortality.

A new research project spearheaded by
Bill Giuliano and John Olson, a professor
and graduate assistant in the Department
of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation at
the University of Florida, is scheduled to
begin in Florida later this year. As part of
this research, biologists will place vaginal
radio transmitter implants in does
captured on study sites. As does give
birth, the implants will fall to the ground
with the fawns. The signals transmitted
by the implants will then be used to
locate each fawn. Once found, fawns will
be fitted with radio collars that allow
biologists to track their movements for
the first 6 months of life. If a fawn dies,
its carcass will be collected and a









necropsy performed to determine the cause
of death. If the necropsy suggests a fawn
died from predation, saliva samples will be
taken from the carcass and DNA analysis
conducted to confirm the identity of the
predator (i.e., coyote, bobcat, etc.). This
information will be used to calculate the
percentage of fawns killed by coyotes. In
addition, coyote scat will be collected and
examined for fawn remains to support
necropsy findings. Later in the study,
fawn survival will be compared among
study sites with different coyote densities.
For more information on this new study
contact Bill Giuliano at (352) 846-0575 or
docg@ufl.edu.

About the authors: Emma Willcox, PhD. and
Jim Selph, Regional Wildlife Extension Agent
and retired Extension Agent, UF-IFAS
Cooperative Extension Service; Bill Giuliano,
PhD. and John Olson, Associate Professor and
Graduate Assistant, UF-IFAS Dept. of
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation.


Got Longleaf? NWTF and NRCS
Team Up to Help Landowners
Restore Longleaf Pine Forest
Habitat
By Matt Palumbo, National Wild Turkey
Federation

The National Wild Turkey Federation
(NWTF) and USDA National Resource
Conservation Service (NRCS) are teaming
up to help landowners who currently have
longleaf pine on their property and need
help with management and/or landowners
who are interested in restoring longleaf
pine to their property. Historically,
longleaf pine was the predominant pine
species across the southern coastal plain of
the US, including parts of North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida,
Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. In


the 1900's longleaf forests were replaced
with agriculture, urban development and
faster growing species such as slash pine.
By 1995 longleaf forests occurred on
only 2% of their historical range.

With improved genetic stock, the use of
containerized seedlings, and science
based management techniques, longleaf
pine can be established with much more
success than in the past. For landowners
with habitat management objectives,
longleaf pine is a great choice. It is
adapted to fire, more resistant to some
insects and diseases and, with its long tap
root, is able to withstand high winds. If
managed with fire, longleaf pine stands
can be incredibly diverse, providing
habitat for a multitude of flowering
plants, insects, birds, reptiles and
mammals. In terms of timber value,
longleaf pine yields a much higher
percentage of pole size and quality timber
per stand than slash or loblolly pines.
Poles command the highest price of all
timber products and the pole market
historically has been very stable.

The NWTF and NRCS have joined forces
to assist landowners through the Wildlife
Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP),
which is one of many incentive programs
offered via the Farm Bill to private
landowners. Through this partnership,
NWTF certified biologists will develop a
conservation plan for landowners in
North and Central Florida. Once a
conservation plan has been finalized, the
NWTF will then work with NRCS to
determine what type of technical
assistance they can qualify for through
WHIP. The goal of this partnership is to
develop 269 conservation plans across the
7 previously mentioned states. Twenty-
five plans are specifically targeted for
Florida. Additionally, each state will
hold 2 field days to educate landowners









about longleaf pine and appropriate
management practices for timber and
wildlife.

Interested landowners are interested in
please contact your NWTF regional
biologist, Derek Alkire dalkire(@,nwtf.net,
cell: (352) 262-2373.

Congratulations Brian Cobble:
National Tree Farm Inspector
of 2011












We are very proud to announce that Brian
Cobble (Florida Forest Service Forester,
Suwannee County) is being recognized by
the American Tree Farm System as the
nation's top Tree Farm Inspector for 2011.
Brian, who was honored as Florida's Tree
Farm Inspector of the Year in 2010, has
put much energy behind bringing the Tree
Farm message of forest conservation,
management and sustainability to the
landowners of Suwannee County. During
calendar-year 2010 Brian conducted 45
inspections, on 13,809 acres, including
bringing 9 new properties into the
American Tree Farm System. In
appreciation for all of his hard work, Brian
has been invited to attend the 2011
National Tree Farmer Convention, to be
held August 9-11 in Albuquerque, New
Mexico, and will be recognized as the
National Tree Farm Inspector of the Year
during the awards banquet.
Congratulations Brian!


THANKS Forest Stewardship
Program Sponsors and
Supporters!!

A hearty THANKS to all the businesses
and organizations that sponsored this
year's Forest Stewardship Program
outreach events across Florida:
Blanton's Longleaf Container Nursery,
Buckeye Florida, F& WForestry
Services, Florida Forestry Association,
Florida Farm Bureau Federation,
Forest Environmental Solutions, Farm
Credit of Florida, Farm Credit of
Northwest Florida, Forestland
Management, International Forest
Company, Marden Industries, National
Wild Turkey Federation, Natural
Resource Planning Services and
Southern Forestry Consultants.

We also thank the Florida Forest
Service and the Florida Sustainable
Forestry Initiative Implementation
Committee for their continued financial
support of the University of Florida's
Forest Stewardship Extension Program.

More Discussion on Uneven-aged
Pine Management

The articles on uneven age management
(UAM) in the last issue of the Forest
Steward; "Uneven-aged Management of
Southern Pines" by Josh Dickinson, Don
Handley and Chris Demers and "The
Passive Alternative: Is Group Selection a
Viable Alternative in North Florida
Flatwoods?" by Jeff Main; have sparked
some lively discussion. The original
intent of the "Uneven-aged Management
of Southern Pines" article was to inform
landowners of the benefits of managing
loblolly pine in an uneven-aged system
and was based on examples of this in
South Carolina. However, longleaf pine









and slash pine were included in the article
since these species are also of interest to
the readership. This necessitated some
discussion on the selection system, which
Jeff Main addressed in his article. Some
follow-up discussion on these methods
follows:


Josh Dickinson: Jeff Main is correct in
stating that the dominant management
strategy for pine in the Southeast over the
last half century has been the even-aged
plantation. This model has been promoted
by the forestry community and accepted
and used by a significant number of forest
landowners. However, for a
growing number of forest owners with
smaller acreages, this approach may not be
the best option. The high up-front costs of
site preparation and planting, with a once-
in-a-lifetime major harvest revenue, may
make the even-age plantation model
uneconomical for landowners with smaller
acreages.

Main offers as an alternative to plantations
"group or gap selection" in north Florida,
presumably on sites most suitable for
longleaf(and slash?) pine. This is an
excellent model for sites unsuitable for
loblolly pine. However, given that loblolly
is the dominant second growth pine
species across the Southeast, from central
Florida to Texas, we believe that the
uneven-aged management model we
discuss has wider application. This
management model was successfully
introduced in the Southeast in the 1920s,
but is virtually unknown as a field practice
among consulting foresters today.
In contrast to the group selection model
presented; with loblolly: a) group selection
is not required; selective thinning back to a
60 sq.ft. basal area is sufficient to achieve
regeneration, b) bare mineral soil is not
required; the wings on seeds quickly


detach allowing the small seeds to work
their way down through litter to
germinate in mineral soil, and c) the
dense carpet of seedlings is not a
disadvantage: the dense seedling crop
suppresses hardwood competition with
most dying off as dominant individuals
form the next size class.

This discussion clearly illustrates the
importance to family forest owners of
working with foresters with a grasp of the
complexity of site characteristics, species
options, economics, and owner
preferences. Both approaches group
selection and uneven-aged management -
offer welcome alternatives to the
industrial plantation.

Jeff Main replies: My article was
targeted to north Florida specifically.
This area was, and to a large extent still
is, dominated by our pulpwood markets.
Both industry and the NIPL's
(nonindustrial private landowners) have
almost exclusively practiced plantation
forestry, true tree farming. The small
marginal price difference between
pulpwood and most solid wood products
still encourages fiber production, not
lumber, if return on investment is your
highest priority. This is not the case in
much of South Carolina.

As far as species are concerned, loblolly
occurs here but was never dominant, even
in our small red hills region. Time and
experience has shown it's not the species
of choice for timber production on our
phosphorus deficient loamy sands
(which are 90% of the timber base).
During the early 80's loblolly was planted
on significant acreage in north Florida.
We still have the remnants of off-site
loblolly stands, 20 years old, 3" DBH's
and 20' tall. Unfortunately we don't have
the depositional clays and coastal spodic









soils South Carolina does. I've worked in
Allendale, Estill and around Columbia in
the past. This is very different.

In regard to financial performance, given
equal soils and sites, good planted pine
stands will out-perform uneven-aged
stands every time. Natural stands simply
cannot produce the growth a planted pine
stand can with its improved genetics,
beneficial site prep and spatial design.

Be that as it may I applaud what Josh and
Don are doing and believe it is good
advice for many landowners. However,
the aesthetic, wildlife and joy of
ownership qualities of naturally managed,
uneven-aged stands are the regime's
strong points. I'd love to see more
landowners take that approach.
Nevertheless, comparison based solely on
financial metrics will always fall to
planted stands.




Florida Division of Forestry now
Florida Forest Service

As of July 1, 2011, the Florida Division of
Forestry is the Florida Forest Service. The
mission of the agency remains the same: to
protect Florida and its people from the
dangers of wildland fire and manage the
forest resources through a stewardship
ethic to assure they are available for future
generations. Florida Forest Service's core
program areas are: Wildfire Prevention,
Detection and Suppression, State Land
Management, and Forestry Technical
Assistance.


Austin Cary Memorial Forest
Conference Center Destroyed by
Fire

As many of you have already heard, on
the afternoon of Tuesday July 19, a fire
destroyed the Conference Center at the
Austin Cary Memorial Forest. No one
was hurt or injured as a result of the fire.
As of the writing of this piece, we still do
not know the cause of the fire. This is a
great loss to the School of Forest
Resources & Conservation, UF-IFAS and
all who have enjoyed an event,
celebration or meeting at this marvelous
facility. We look to the future and
consider possibilities to rebuild.


Get Email Updates!
Don't miss out on upcoming events and
news. Send an email to cdemers(@ufl.edu
to be added to the Stewardship listserv.


UF and Florida A&M Extension
Invite Your Feedback

Florida Extension is a partnership
between the University of Florida
and Florida A&M University to improve
the quality of life for citizens through
education. In the coming decade,
decisions will be made by Florida
Extension that may influence you and
your community. We invite you to
participate in our Community Input
Survey to give your opinions about
certain issues that may impact these
decisions. The focus of this survey is
your community where you live, shop,
work and play. The survey runs through
August 19, 2011. Access the survey here:
http://solutionsforvourlife.com
(see the "We Need Your Advice" link)








Congratulations Certified Forest Stewards and Tree Farmers!


Mrs. Lnka Simons (K) with Bnan Cobble,
Florida Forest Service, Suwannee County


Lloyd Adams (K) with Bnan Cobble, Honda
Forest Service, Suwannee County


Samuel "bart & Susan trang,
Suwannee County


Ira & Shirley Wood, Suwannee County


For more information about becoming a Certified Forest Steward or Tree Farmer,
call your County Forester or learn about it at:
http://www.fl-dof.com/forest management/cfa steward index.html
http://www.floridaforest.org/tree farm.php










Property Tour

) Canaan Ranch

Property Nolan Galloway and Family
Gilchrist County, FL



Date: Tuesday, September 13, 2011; meet and greet
at 9:00 AM ET Program begins promptly at
9:30.

Tour: Canaan Ranch was originally purchased by Nolan's great
grandfather in 1944, who operated the property as a cattle
farm, but sandy soils provided insufficient browse. Giving
up on cattle, he began to plant pine trees. With about
2,000 acres of naturally regenerated longleaf pine and
another 1,200 acres in a mixture of planted slash pine,
longleaf, and oak hammocks, the family has harvested
trees when needed and replanted when financially
feasible. Nolan's long-term goal for the property preserve
much of the naturally regenerated longleaf pine / wiregrass
habitat forever, while bringing the sparsely populated longleaf areas into better production
by planting containerized seedlings. Prescribed fire has been and will continue to be an
important management tool. A small amount of Japanese climbing fern was found on the
property and promptly treated. Challenges have all been financial but, with the help of
financial assistance from Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Division of
Forestry and Natural Resources Conservation Service, several management dreams have
been realized. Nolan is working toward a perpetual annual harvest and regeneration cycle
that will allow the ranch to pay for itself as well as fund future investments. According to
Nolan, "Managing this property is a life-long passion for me. I do not get paid for my
efforts at the ranch but I take great pride in the property and consider my work there to be
my legacy." Join us for a tour of Canaan Ranch.

Register: Cost is $10 per person, lunch and materials included. Please register on-line at
http://fsp-tour091311.eventbrite.com/. Directions posted on web. Those without
Internet access can reserve a space by calling Chris Demers at (352) 846-2375. Payment
can be made on-site with cash or check, payable to University of Florida. Space will be
limited so please register early. Please share this announcement with others who may be
interested. Contact Chris Demers, (352) 846-2375, cdemers(,ufl.edu, with questions
about this or other Florida Forest Stewardship Program events.


UNIVERSITY 9f
UF F7TORIDA 4MRCS
United States Department of Agriculture
WFAS Extension Nawol H(-s0 ivc
SFF

Funding for Florida's Forest Stewardship Program is provided by the USDA Forest Service through the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry
and a grant from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.




Florida Master Naturalist

Upland Habitats Module


Thursday,


Six Week Course
September 22 through October 27,
8:30 am 4:30 pm
Levy County Extension Office
625 N. Hathaway Ave (Alt. 27), Bronson, FL


Cost: $225
Includes student workbooks, 12 presentations, 3 field trips, 4 videos,
certificate, patch, pin and more.
To register or for more information, go to
http://www.masternaturalist.ifas.ufl.edu/ or call Emma Willcox at
(352) 486-5131.

Extension programs are open to all persons
without regard to race, color, sex, age,
disability, religion, or national origin UFFLRI
IFAS


2011









Property Tour

Little Creek Woods
Property of Bob Reid and Betsy Clark
Walton County, FL



Date: Thursday, October 6, 2011; meet and greet at 9:00 AM CT.
Program begins promptly at 9:30.

Tour: Having made great strides in their habitat restoration efforts since our last tour at
Little Creek Woods in 2004, Bob and Betsy are inviting us back to see the progress.
Little Creek Woods consists of 890 acres but this tour will focus on a core of about
200 acres where efforts are underway to restore longleaf sandhill habitat. We'll also
see an experimental installment of planted pines to measure the growth of different
pine species on high and dry sites. The goal at Little Creek is to develop a multi-age
forest, supporting a full complement of wildlife, while providing a permanent source
of income for future generations. Having been in the Forest Stewardship Program
for many years, Bob and Betsy have opened their gate several times over the years to
share their experiences with other landowners and natural resource professionals
who are trying to achieve similar or related goals. We'll do some walking so wear
appropriate boots and clothing, and be prepared for rain.

Register: Cost is $10 per person, lunch and materials included. Please register on-line at
http://fsp-tourl00611.eventbrite.com/. Directions posted on web. Those
without Internet access can reserve a space by Walton County Extension Office at
(850) 892-8172. Payment can be made online or at the tour with cash or a check,
payable to University of Florida. Space will be limited so please register early.
Please share this announcement with others who may be interested. Contact Chris
Demers, (352) 846-2375, cdemers@ufl.edu, with questions about this or other
Florida Forest Stewardship Program events.



U UNIVERSITY of USDA
United States DepartmentofAgriculture fS 995
IFAS Extension liS I .Su c' s ..r.. Van "
SFf




Funding for Florida's Forest Stewardship Program is provided by the USDA Forest Service through the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry
and a grant from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.










Timber Price Update


The timber pricing information below is useful for observing trends over time, but does not
necessarily reflect current conditions at a particular location. Landowners considering a timber
sale are advised to solicit the services of a consulting forester to obtain current local market
conditions.

Price ranges reported in the 2nd Quarter 2011 Timber Mart-South (TMS) report were:


Florida Stumpage Prices

* Pine pulpwood: $16 $32/cord ($6 $12/ton), [from 1st Qtr 2011
* Pine C-N-S: $28 $51/cord ($11 $19/ton), [
* Pine sawtimber: $57 $90/cord ($21 $34/ton), [
* Pine plylogs: $63 $87/cord ($24 $33/ton), [
* Pine power poles: $82 $158/cord ($30 $59/ton), [
* Hardwood pulpwood: $10 $28/cord ($4 $10/ton), ---


Biomass Fuel Prices*

* In-woods
whole tree pine: $14 $19/ton j
In-woods
whole tree hardwood: $13 $17/ton [

'Southeast average low and high price ranges
)er ton, fuel quality chips from tops, limbs,
limited bole material or otherwise pre-
:ommercial material


Trend Report

Average stumpage prices in the second quarter remained weak across Florida and the Southeast
region. In the case of pulpwood, average prices were affected, in part, by the quantity of extra
timber on the market due to tornado and fire damage. Pine sawtimber and chip-n-saw prices hit
lows not seen since 1992. Economic recovery slowed this quarter with concerns about inflation
and U.S. debt contributing to uncertainty. Remember that "Gloom, despair" song from the old
TV show, Hee-Haw?


Average Pine Stumpage Prices for Florida
1st Qtr 1997 through 2nd Qtr 2011
140
120
100
80 -
60
40
20

0

19971998199920002001 2002 20032004 2005 20062007 2008 20092010 2011
Year (beginning first quarter 1997)
S-pulpwood ---chip-n-saw --sawtimber







University of Florida
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
PO Box 110410
Gainesville, FL 32611-0410


Non Profit Org.
US Postage
PAID
Florida
Gainesville
Permit No. 94


Date IEvent, Location, Contact
WFREC Extension Farm Field Day, UF-IFAS West Florida Research & Education Center Research Facility, Jay, FL.
S For more information contact Robin Vickers, rvickers#(Zufl.edu, (850) 983-5216 ext. 113.
Florida Forestry Association Annual Meeting, Renaissaince Hotel at World Golf Village, St. il,, I,,,.. FL. To
7-Se r register, please complete the registration form at http://www.floridaforest.org/events.php?event id=153. Contact Debbie
Bryant, Florida Forestry Association, (850) 222-5646, debbieiLforestfla.org
Forest Stewardship Food Plot Field Day, 9 am 3 pm, Blitch Plantation, property ofJohn & Shirley Rudnianyn,
September 9 Marion County. $10 fee, lunch and materials included. More details and on-line registration page to come. Call the UF-
IFAS Marion County Extension Office at (352) 671-8400 to reserve a space.
S Forest Stewardship Tour: Canaan Ranch, Property of Nolan Galloway and Family, Gilchrist County, 9 am 1 pm,
ET. $10 fee covers materials and lunch. Details and registration at http://fsp-tour091311.eventbrite.com/
September 22
September Florida Master Naturalist Upland Habitats Module, 8:30 am 4:30 pm ET, UF-IFAS Levy County Extension Office,
S Bronson, FL. $225 registration fee covers workbooks, presentations, field trips, videos, certificate, patch, pin and more.
October 27
(Thur ) For more info, see htp \ \\ \\ .masternaturalist.ifas.ufl.edu/ or call Emma Willcox at (352) 486-5131.
(Thursdays)
Southeast Herbicide Applicator Conference, Edgewater Beach Resort, Panama City Beach, FL. CEUs abound! See
October 3-5 website for details: http://www.conference.ifas.ufl.edu/sehac/. Questions can be directed to Jhanna Gilbert, Conference
Coordinator, UF-IFAS, Office of Conferences & Institutes, (352) 392-5930, jhannaiufl.edu
S6 Forest Stewardship Tour: Little Creek Woods, Property ofBob Reid and Betsy Clark, Walton County, 9 am 1 pm,
October CT. $10 fee covers materials and lunch. Details and registration at http://fsp-tourl00611.eventbrite.com/
October 11 UF-IFAS North Florida REC Fall Field Day, Quincy, FL. For more information contact NFREC at (850) 875-7100.


October 26


WFREC Fall Specialty Crop Production Field Day, UF-IFAS West Florida Research & Education Center Research
Facility, Jay, FL. For more information contact Robin Vickers, rvickerskufl.edu, (850) 983-5216 ext. 113.


The Florida Forest Steward is a University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Division of Forestry and Florida Tree Farm
joint project:

Chris Demers (editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410, (352) 846-2375,
cdemers(aufl.edu
Dr. MichaelAndreu (co-editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, (352) 846-0355, mandreu(_ufl.edu
Tony Grossman (co-editor), Florida Forest Service, 3125 Conner Blvd, Room R2, Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650, (850) 414-9907,
Anthony. GrossmanC(ifreshfromflorida. corn
Joseph Prenger (co-editor), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2574 Seagate Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32301, (850) 410-5268,
Joe.Prenger(OMvFWC.com
Jon Gould (co-editor), Florida Tree Farm Committee, 4923 Windwood Circle, Birmingham, AL 35242, (205) 991-9435, gouldih( bellsouth.net
Dr. Bill Giuliano (co-editor), Department of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation, UF, PO Box 110430, Gainesville, FL 32611-0430,
(352) 846-0575, docgiaufl.edu




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