Title: Florida forest steward
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090040/00049
 Material Information
Title: Florida forest steward
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Summer/Fall 2008
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090040
Volume ID: VID00049
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

ffsnl152 ( PDF )


Full Text







The Florida Forest Steward

A Quarterly Newsletter for Florida Landowners and Resource Professionals


Volume 15, No. 2


Summer Fall 2008


Thanks 2007-2008 Tour Hosts!

Fall 2008 tour announcements
in this issue



UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA
IFAS


In this issue:

* Are We Valuing and Serving Family Forests?
* Congratulations Don Ashley, 2007 Forest
Stewardship Landowner of the Year
* Thanks 2007-2008 Tour Hosts
* Thanks 2007-2008 Forest Stewardship Program
Sponsors
* Tour Photos
* Fall 2008 Tour Announcements
* Timber Price Update
* Events Calendar


Are We Valuing and Serving
Family Forests?
By Chris Demers

This year's Spring Symposium, hosted
by UF-IFAS School of Forest
Resources and Conservation and the
Florida Division of the Society of
American Foresters, put a spotlight on
the present and future challenges of
sustaining family forests. Opening the
event was the John Gray Distinguished
Lecture featuring Bob Simpson, Senior
Vice President of the American Forest
Foundation, Center for Family Forests
in Washington, DC. His talk, entitled,
"America's Family Owned Forests:
Under Valued, Under Served and
Under Siege", highlighted a sobering
array of challenges we must now face
if many family owned forests are to
survive the coming decades.

Kicking off the second day of the
Symposium was a landowner panel
consisting of forest landowners from
around the state. They discussed some
of the challenges they see as
roadblocks to sustaining family forests,
what the natural resources profession
should do to promote or help sustain
family forests, revenue sources they've







SFr









taken advantage of, and important sources
of information they use and recommend.

The USDA Forest Service predicts a loss
of 44 million acres of family owned forest
by the year 2030 that's permanent loss
of forest use to other uses. Why? This
article will attempt to answer that question
based on some of the discussions that took
place at the Spring Symposium. We'll
also discuss some recent developments
that could lead to a brighter future.

Family Forests are Under-valued

According to Simpson, about 67% of
Americans believe that the forest industry
and Government own forests. If family
forests are to be recognized for the values
and services they provide, we must
communicate to the public these important
realities:
* 60% of commercially valuable forest
land is owned by families,
* 60% of roundwood harvests in the
U.S. are on family forests,
* Over 80% of all fresh water east of the
Mississippi River falls on family
forests, and
* Family forests are home to about 90%
of our threatened and endangered
species.

Family Forests are Under-served

This problem probably stems from the
under-valued problem above, but other
factors contribute as well. Funding for
cost-share programs to assist family
forests under the Farm Bill and state
programs has been limited in past years.
A good example of this was the Forest
Land Enhancement Program (FLEP),
which was underfunded and out of money
before most could apply for assistance.
This was due in large part to a catastrophic
fire season for western states in 2005. See


http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/ to
review some of the new or
reauthorized conservation programs in
the 2008 Farm Bill.

One challenge that came out during the
landowner panel is that there seems to
be a lack of solidarity or organization
for family forest owners. Most of the
owners on the panel were members of
organizations such as Florida Farm
Bureau, Florida Cattlemen's
Association or Florida Forestry
Association but they are among a
relative few that take advantage of
such opportunities. Without a strong,
unified voice the needs and concerns
of family forest owners are not
effectively communicated to
policymakers.

Speaking from my own point-of-view
from extension, forest landowners are
a challenging group to serve because
their needs and interests are diverse
and, as would be expected, they
operate very privately. We reach a
very small percentage of this audience
with our Stewardship programs each
year, less than two percent. According
to Brett Butler of the USDA Forest
Service's Family Forest Research
Center, only about eight percent of
family forest owners, nationally, have
a management plan and a little over
twenty percent have sought some sort
of advice from a natural resource
professional. This group is largely
unreached by many of the services and
opportunities that are available to
them. Much of the portion that is
reached in Florida is reading this
newsletter.

Another challenge, addressed by
Butler, is that we are still learning how
to communicate with family forest









owners. As you gathered from reading the
title of this newsletter, we very often use
the terms "forest" and "stewardship", but
recent social marketing research has
discovered that few landowners recognize
these terms as pertaining to them. Most
landowners refer to their "forest" as
woods, woodland, trees or plantation. A
"forest" is perceived as something much
more vast, like what you find in the
western U.S. on public lands.

Family Forests are Under Siege

Sounds like some sort of science fiction
thriller. Perhaps a better way to put it is
family forests are facing some unintended
consequences of changes in the forest
industry, taxation policies and other
developments.

Industry changes

Many changes in the forest products
industry, mill operations and imports and
exports over the last couple decades have
shaped today's markets. Globalization
and consolidation of the industry have
largely resulted in smaller mill inventories
of raw material and lower prices for
delivered logs, translating to lower
stumpage prices paid to landowners.

Tax policy

As discussed at the last Forest Stewardship
videoconference on greenbelt and new
markets, property taxes are a hot issue for
rural/agricultural landowners, property
appraisers and local governments. Local
taxation on land, especially the "highest
and best use" category, can be
overwhelming and may result in land sales
and subsequent conversion to
development. For family forest owners
not engaged in intensive management,
there may a social benefit gained by


extending greenbelt assessment
beyond lands devoted to commodity
production to those providing
environmental services.

Bob Simpson observed that many from
both ends of the political spectrum
now agree that the estate tax, often
referred to as the "death tax", is no
longer a class issue. It is an
environmental issue. One landowner
on the panel identified the death tax as
the biggest threat to family forests.
Heirs forced to pay 45 to 55% of a
forest estate's value will more than
likely be forced to liquidate some part
or all of the resource, and the legal cost
of setting up tax shelters to protect
heirs and property are very costly.

Green building standards

Green building rating systems give
credit to structures and designs that are
energy efficient and have minimal
environmental impact. Federal, state
and local governments are increasingly
rewarding certified green buildings or
developments with tax credits. This is
beneficial but one particular rating
system works against forest products
grown on most family forests. The
United States Green Building
Council's Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED) favors
non-wood materials for construction
and the credits that it does award for
wood go only to Forest Stewardship
Council (FSC) certified wood. This
removes wood grown on certified Tree
Farms, Stewardship Forests and
otherwise well-managed forests from a
growing and significant market.
Furthermore, the LEED standard does
not consider the significantly greater
energy required to produce non-wood
construction materials. LEED also









disregards the non-renewable nature of
these materials and the environmental
impacts of their production.

Charting a Brighter Course

Staying on the current track could lead to
the loss of a large portion of our family
forests, which is not a good option.
Changes now taking place in the market,
service and policy arenas will shape how
the family forest landscape will look in
coming decades.

New markets increase value

Wood to Energy: Sustainable forest
management on private forests can and is
providing woody biomass for energy.
Over the last year there have been several
articles in the press forecasting that the
timbered regions of Florida will soon be
an important source of renewable energy.
The new Green Circle Energy plant in
Cottondale, Florida just celebrated its
opening in June. Much of the wood for
this mill will come from private lands
within a 50-mile radius of Cottondale.
Green Circle will eventually produce
4,000 tons of energy pellets per day, to be
shipped to Europe for electricity
production. Mr. John Gould, Florida Tree
Farmer and co-editor of this newsletter,
had one of the first timber sale contracts
with Green Circle in 2008.

Carbon trading: A short time ago the issue
of climate change was a new and
somewhat abstract concept to most
landowners and forestry professionals, but
it is now prominent in our newspapers,
journals, meetings, workshops,
conferences and forums and the Spring
Symposium was no exception. Scott
Sager of Environmental Services
described the growing carbon trading
opportunity in a tone of cautious


optimism. Carbon trading offers an
additional income stream to
landowners for growing trees, a
practice they are already doing in
many cases. With a few prominent
carbon aggregators emerging there are
now opportunities for landowners to
become involved in this new market.
However, Scott pointed out that
without a binding cap and trade
protocol and widely accepted
standards for carbon trading, this
market is now a "wild west". Carbon
credits are unregulated commodities so
trading platforms and standards vary.
Also, there is no legal precedent for
chain of custody so landowners, with
and without carbon contracts, are
advised to include a provision in
timber sale contracts that the seller
retains the carbon credits associated
with all products sold.

New visions for landowner services

The Florida Forestry Association
recently announced that it is engaged
in a visioning process in order to better
serve what is now among its most
important constituents the family
forest owner. With many of its
industry stakeholders having sold
much of their land, the Association
recognizes that private nonindustrial
landowners now hold the key to the
future of Florida's forests and the
industry which relies on them.


A wide array of partners, including
the Florida Division of Forestry,
University of Florida, Florida Forestry
Association, Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission and others,
are working together to develop
multiple approaches to reach more
family forest owners with important









information regarding land management
and planning.

Lifting the siege: revising tax policy

Recent legislation passed in the Florida
legislature makes some small but
deliberate steps toward a more level
playing field for ad valorem taxation on
private forest lands. HB 909 provides that
no minimum acreage be required to
qualify for the greenbelt agricultural
assessment, changes the makeup of the
value adjustment board to include two
non-government citizen members, and
eliminates a property appraiser's
presumption of correctness when an
appraisal is contested.

Amendment 4, The Conservation
Amendment, will appear on the ballot on
November 4, 2008. If passed by voters,
landowners who place their
environmentally significant lands into
perpetual conservation protection, by a
conservation easement or other
mechanism, will be exempted from
property taxes. Amendment 4 also allows
those who use their lands for conservation
purposes to be taxed at the same rate as
those who have agricultural lands. While
diminishing government revenue, this
initiative could reduce public expenditures
as conserved lands cost the public very
little, requiring no ongoing public services,
such as police, roads and public schools as
are required with developed lands.

The Estate Tax will be repealed in 2010
but will resume at its peak rate of 55%,
unless revoked permanently by Congress
and the President, in 2011.

Green building standards we can support

While the LEED rating system described
above currently works against family


forests by recognizing FSC certified
wood only, the Green Globes and the
National Association of Home
Builders Green Building Guidelines
recognize the value of wood in
construction, including that grown on
family forests. The American Forest
Foundation and others who represent
the interests of family forest owners,
are working toward including these
family-forest-friendly guidelines in
green building legislation.

Conclusion

My wife sometimes calls me a
pessimist because I often see the
downside of an issue before the
upside... kinda like I did with this
article. That said, seeing and being a
part of a collective movement to find
ways to sustain family forests into the
next century has made me a bit more
hopeful. I believe we can sustain
family forests if we join forces with
public and private partners to work
toward that end with a strong and
unified voice.

Congratulations Don Ashley,
Forest Stewardship
Landowner of 2007!

Ashley Farms is a unique mix of
natural and planted pines and
hardwoods, agricultural fields, wildlife
openings, ponds and a lake. Don
Ashley's multiple-use objectives for
the property are to incorporate timber,
wildlife habitat, soil and water
conservation, recreation, and
aesthetics. Timber management on the
property is based in sound forest
management planning and practices,
and provides a sustained income from
the sale of forest products. Wildlife
management is targeted for game









species such as quail, turkey, waterfowl
and whitetail deer; but many non-game
birds and mammals also benefit from
wildlife and timber management activities.
With downtown Madison only about two
miles away and two major State Highways
on the south and east borders, prescribed
burning on this property is a challenge, but
essential to improving wildlife habitat and
decreasing wildfire hazards. Carefully
planned prescribed fire and commercial
thinnings are used to open up areas of
dense pine and hardwoods to allow
sunlight to reach the understory and
promote new vegetation for wildlife.
We'll have an opportunity to meet Mr.
Ashley and see the property on November
6. See the tour announcement in this
issue.

Many Thanks to these
Landowners for Hosting
Stewardship Tours in 2007-2008:

Jack Buford and Dick Cochran,
Buford-Cochran Tract, Gadsden County
Jerry and Sandra Williams
Cognito Farm, Bradford County
Ernest and Jo Ann Palmer
Tree Top Lodge, Lake County
Doug and Teresa Moore
South Prong Plantation, Baker County
Jon and Carol Gould
Gould Tree Farm, Washington County

Thanks 2007-2008 Florida Forest
Stewardship Program Sponsors:

Many THANKS to these businesses for
their support of this year's Forest
Stewardship Program events: Blanton's
Longleaf Container Nursery,
Environmental Services, Inc., F&W
Forestry Services, Farm Credit of North
Florida, Farm Credit of Northwest Florida,
Florida Farm Bureau,


Florida Forestry Association,
Forestland Management, International
Forest Company, Jowett & Wood
Consulting Foresters, Manning
Forestry, Marden Industries, Southern
Forestry Consultants and Suwannee
Lumber Company.

If your business or organization is
interested in supporting Florida's Forest
Stewardship Program events in 2008-
2009, contact Chris Demers,
cdemers(@ufl.edu or (352) 846-2375.

Photos from 2007-2008 Tours:


Jack Sager has a close
encounter with the
chickens at Cognito Farm,
Bradford County.


Doug Moore (left)
welcomes the group to
South Prong Plantation,
Baker County


Chris Demers and Jon
Gould, Gould Tree Farm,
Washington County


Chris Otremba, Chris
Demers, Mark Asleson
and Ernie Palmer plan the
tour at Tree Top Lodge,
Lake County


John Rudnianyn, Richard
McGinley and Bill
Bennett get a closer look
at Doug Moore's "anti-
hno" fpeder


Forrest Dilmore prepares
some award-winning
chow, Gould Tree Farm










O amu sUuI Property Tour

fStewardship Property of

Bud and Karen Turner
Okaloosa County, FL
FOREST



Date: Thursday, October 23, 2008; meet and greet at 8:30 AM CT,
program begins promptly at 9:00

Activity: Bud and Karen Turner purchased their 203-acre property in 1993. It was in poor
shape at that time: thick hardwood stands, off-sight pines and yaupon holly so
thick even the deer had a hard time making their way through it. However, Mr.
Turner wasn't discouraged. He had a vision for the property. Growing up on his
Grandfathers ranch with longleaf pine, wiregrass, and Florida cracker cows; he
wanted to bring some of that history and legacy to his own property. A little over
40 acres were cleared and replanted, under the Wildlife Habitat Incentive
Program, in longleaf pine and a prescribed burning plan was implemented. He
has also thinned the rest of the pines to create a silvopasture pines and cattle.
The property is a multiple-use Mecca. He uses goats for brush control and
manages hay fields, threatened and endangered species, and timber. Cogongrass
has recently become a challenge as well. Mr. Turner and his family are
exemplary Stewardship landowners that have a vision of managing their land not
only for their enjoyment but for future generations too. They were also recently
certified as a Tree Farm. Join us for a tour of the property to see what can be
accomplished with a vision, a plan and a lot of hard work.


Register: A sponsored lunch will be served on-site after the tour, sponsors TBA. This program
is free but you must preregister. Call the Okaloosa County Extension Office at
(850) 689-5850 to register. Attendance will be limited so please register soon!
Directions are on the back of this announcement. Please share with others who may
be interested.


A Service of: Florida Division of Forestry, Forest Stewardship Program
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
University of Florida, IFAS, School of Forest Resources and Conservation
University of Florida, IFAS, Okaloosa County Cooperative Extension Service
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service


Funding for Florida's Forest Stewardship Program is provided by the USDA Forest Service through the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry
and a grant from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.









Directions to Bud and Karen Turner's


-Take I-10 to Exit 56, Crestview Exit.
-Turn north onto SR-85 toward Laurel Hill.
-Go through Crestview on SR-85 and continue through Silver Springs, Garden City, Campton and
Okaloo to Hwy 602.
-Turn Left onto CR-602 and follow it to Gartman Road.
-Go south on Gartman road and follow the signs. Laurel/
-There is a gate on the powerline right-of-way enter and park there. Hill /


to Oak Grove, SR-189 SR-2


Meet at the property at 8:30 AM CT
October 23, 2008


see the Forest Stewardsh eb it gat: g g

http:/www sfrcuf.ed/xeso/lrd-oetyifrainidxhm


IFAUNIVERSIT onf
UFFLORIDA
IFAS Extension


INConsralon
USDA I I R service
NRC1 2 soo


SFI"


SFRC








Stewardship





FOREST


Date:


Property Tour: Ashley Farms

Stewardship Property of Don Ashley
2007 Forest Stewardship Landowner of the Year
Madison County, FL


Thursday, November 6, 2008; meet at 9:00 AM ET,
tour will begin promptly at 9:30


Activity: Ashley Farms is a unique mix of natural and planted pines and hardwoods,
agricultural fields, wildlife openings, ponds and a lake. Don Ashley's multiple-
use objectives for the property are to incorporate timber, wildlife habitat, soil
and water conservation, recreation, and aesthetics. Timber management on the
property is based in sound forest management planning and practices, and
provides a sustained income from the sale of forest products. Wildlife
management is targeted for game species such as quail, turkey, waterfowl and
whitetail deer; but many non-game birds and mammals also benefit from
wildlife and timber management activities. With downtown Madison only about
two miles away and two major State Highways on the south and east borders,
prescribed burning on this property is a challenge, but essential to improving
wildlife habitat and decreasing wildfire hazards. Carefully planned prescribed
fire and commercial thinnings are used to open up areas of dense pine and
hardwoods to allow sunlight to reach the understory and promote new vegetation
for wildlife. Join us for a tour of an exemplary property and landowner.

Register: A sponsored lunch will be served on-site after the tour, sponsors TBA. This program
is free but you must preregister. Call the Madison County Extension Office at
(850) 973-4138 to register. Attendance will be limited so please register soon!
Directions are on the back of this announcement. Please share with others who may
be interested.


Florida Division of Forestry, Forest Stewardship Program
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
University of Florida, IFAS, School of Forest Resources and Conservation
University of Florida, IFAS, Madison County Cooperative Extension Service
Southern Forestry Consultants


Funding for Florida's Forest Stewardship Program is provided by the USDA Forest Service through the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry
and a grant from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.


A Service of:









Directions to Ashley Farms


The property is located just a couple of miles north of the City of Madison:

-From either 1-10 or US 90, take State Road 53 North (Exit 258 off the Interstate)

-Travel 7.0 miles (from 1-10) or 1.5 miles (from US 90) on SR 53 to Little Cat Road
(Madison County Road 146).

-Turn west (left) onto Little Cat Road, then proceed approximately 1/3rd mile to the 1st
gate on the north (right) side of the road. Enter


Little Cat Road
(CR 146)


Cherry Lake







53


* Greenville


Lee -- -


SR 53


Meet at the property at 9:00 AM ET
November 6, 2008

Questons bouti[i th 3^^^is rohrFoetSeanrdship Proramativities can be directedtoChri


UF UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA AEg
IFAS Extension


Southern Forestry
Consultants


SFrI










Timber Price Update


The timber pricing information below is useful for observing trends over time, but does
not necessarily reflect current conditions at a particular location. Landowners considering
a timber sale are advised to solicit the services of a consulting forester to obtain current
local market conditions. Note that price ranges per ton for each product are also included.

Stumpage price ranges reported across Florida in the 2nd Quarter 2008 Timber Mart-
South (TMS) report were:

* Pine pulpwood: $16 $28/cord ($6 $1 /ton), 1 slightly (from average 1st Quarter
2007 prices)
Pine C-N-S: $38 $52/cord ($14 $19/ton), [
* Pine sawtimber: $76 $99/cord ($28 $37/ton), [
* Pine plylogs: $77 $104/cord ($29 $39/ton), [ slightly
* Pine power poles: $102 $164/cord ($38 $61/ton), [
* Hardwood pulpwood: $9 $28/cord ($3 $10/ton), 1

Trend Report

With the exception of those for pine and hardwood pulpwood, average Florida stumpage prices
were down for all products in the 2nd Quarter 2008. Pulpwood prices remained at their peak
average price in the last 4 years. As was the case last quarter, chip-n-saw prices continue to
decline and sawtimber prices remain low due to a continued slump in construction activity. Over
the last year, a total of nine major sawmills have closed across the South, two of them in Florida,
and many have reduced production capacity by ten to twenty percent. Bio-energy opportunities
continue to develop across the U.S., with ten new wood-to-energy projects starting during the
second quarter. Green Circle Bio Energy in Cottondale, FL just celebrated their opening in June.



Average Pine Stumpage Prices for Florida
2nd Qtr 1998 through 2nd Qtr 2008

140
120 -





40
3 60


20


82 84 92 94 02 04 12 14 22 24 32 34 42 44 52 54 62 64 72 74 82
Year/Quarter (beginning first quarter 1998)


0--&pulpwood ---chip-n-saw ----sawtimber







University of Florida
School of Forest Resources and Conservation
PO Box 110410
Gainesville, FL 32611-0410


Non Profit Org.
US Postage
PAID
Florida
Gainesville
Permit No. 94


Date Event, Location, Contacts
2008 Florida Forestry Association Annual Meeting, "The Future Looks Bright", Bay Point
Sariott, Panama City Beach, FL. See http://www.floridaforest.org/conference.php for details.
Master Tree Farmer Mini-Series: Risk and Risk Management, at 12 locations across Florida.
September 9, 16, 23 Registration brochure is in the mail. Contact Benjamin Koubek at FLboy275(iufl.edu, (352) 846-
2374 for details.
Surviving Difficult Times in the Green Industry: Managing Risk and Uncertainty in a Maturing
September 11
Marketplace, North Florida REC Suwannee Valley, Live Oak FL. Contact Linda Landrum at 386-
362-1725 ext 105 or LLandrum(@ufl.edu for details.
Moneymaking Options for Increased Profitability of Your Land, St. Johns County Ag Center.
September 12 Topics include conservation easements, agritourism, community supported agriculture, organic and
a Farm Bill update. Call '" 14) 827-9870 or email nfltofficeidbellsouth.net for details.
Florida Division of Forestry Workshop: Silviculture Best Management Practices, 9 am 4 pm ET.
September 16 UF-IFAS Clay County Extension Office, Green Cove Springs, FL. Call Roy Lima at (850) 414-9934
for details.
SForest Stewardship Tour, Property ofLeo "Bud" and Karen Turner, Okaloosa County. Call the
October 23 kaloosa County Extension Office at (850) 689-5850 to register.
Florida Division of Forestry Workshop: Silviculture Best Management Practices, 9 am 4 pm ET.
November 5 UF-IFAS Marion County Extension Office, Ocala, FL. Call Roy Lima at (850) 414-9934 for details.


November 6


Forest Stewardship Tour, Property of Don Ashley, 2007 Forest Stewardship Landowner of the
Year, Madison County, Call the Madison County Extension Office at (850) 973-4138 to register.


The Florida Forest Steward is a University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Division of Forestry and
Florida Tree Farm joint project:

Chris Demers (editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, P.O. Box 110410, Gainesville, FL 32611-0410,
(352) 846-2375, cdemers(tufl.edu
Dr. Alan Long (co-editor), School of Forest Resources & Conservation, UF, (352) 846-0891, a12(itufl.edu
Tony Grossman (co-editor), Florida Division of Forestry, 3125 Conner Blvd, Room R2, Tallahassee, FL 32699-1650,
(850) 414-9907, grossma(tdoacs.state.fl.us
Chris Wynn (co-editor), Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 620 South Meridian Street, Farris Bryant Building,
Tallahassee, FL 32399-1600, (850) 488-3831, Chris. Wvnn(iMvFWC.com
Jon Gould (co-editor), Florida Tree Farm Committee, 4923 Windwood Circle, Birmingham, AL 35242, (205) 991-9435,
gouldih(tbellsouth. net




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs