Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Editorial: Affirmation of...
 Life and history
 The arts
 Science and technology
 Back Cover

Title: Jamaica journal
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090030/00074
 Material Information
Title: Jamaica journal
Series Title: Jamaica journal.
Abbreviated Title: Jam. j.
Physical Description: v. : ill. (part col.) ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Jamaica
Publisher: Institute of Jamaica.
Place of Publication: Kingston
Publication Date: June 2001
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with Dec. 1967 issue.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090030
Volume ID: VID00074
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01797964
lccn - 75027862
issn - 0021-4124

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Editorial: Affirmation of faith
        Page 2
    Life and history
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The arts
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Science and technology
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Page 41
        Page 42
Full Text

I I C 0
L. J I


ip Sherlock 1902- 2000

I I I I Ii I tI I If I II I I
', Future ofthe Book ina
Sthe.Infoatio Age
II n s I I



~_ ~h

--s:. j
.i~~k Jr s


We live in exciting times. New ideas,
remarkable discoveries, exceptional

At Shell, we recognize the potential and fuel
the possibilities, taking business to a higher

We look forward to the journey ahead.
Join us for the ride.

The Shell Company (W.I.) Limited



Chairman Editorial Committee:
Hon. Barbara Gloudon, O.J.
Design and Production:
DesignStudio Ltd.
Subscription Assistant:
Faith Myers
Editorial Assistant:
Sheena Johnson
Lithographic Printers
Jamaica Journal is published by the
Institute of Jamaica
All correspondence should be addressed to:
Institute of Jamaica
12 East Street, Kingston, Jamaica
Telephone: (876) 922-0620-6
Fax: (876) 922-1147
E-mail: ioj.jam@mail.infochan.com
Back issues:
Most back issues are available. List sent on
request. Entire series available on
microfilm from University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106, U.S.A.
Subscriptions: J$685 for three issues
(in Jamaica only); U.K: Individuals: 15;
Institutions: 22; All other countries:
Individuals: US$27, Institutions: US$32
Retail Single copy Price: J$270
Advertising: Rates sent on request.
Index: Articles appearing in Jamaica
Journal are abstracted and indexed in
Historical Abstracts and America:
History and Life.
Vol. 28 No. 1
Copyright 2001 by Institute of Jamaica
Cover or contents may not be reproduced in
whole or in part without the written
permission of the Institute of Jamaica.
Cover: Still life includes work by
Gene Pearson, Donnette Zacca, Juliet Holder.
Photograph: Mike Christie



Vol 28 No 1

June 2001

Sir Philip Sherlock
Copyright Protecting the
Visual Arts in Jamaica
Junior Centre 60 Years Young
Junction Road The Future of the
Book in the Information Age

National Exhibition: Questions
on the Selection Process
The Role of the Jamaican Artists
& Craftsmen Guild
Musgrave Medals 2000
Book Review:
Rock it Come Over
Digital Art

Biodiversity Hot Spots 31
The Yam Bean 33

Coral Reef Diorama


It is right and just to celebrate the achievements of our outstanding and
meritorious intellectual workers, for in our ritual celebrations we not
only give recognition and through this, encouragement for work that
seems so easy to others but which is the fruit of tireless toil, often in
frustration and on the edge of impoverishment. We also look to ritual
celebration for the sources of strength and the renewal of energy to affirm our
faith in the power of the human spirit to rise above evil, even of its own
making and to create. And in this ritual, we recognize those ancestors and
elders, who have laid foundations and nurtured the spirit of the Jamaican
people. They are many, too many to mention all of them.

The celebration of the arts, literature and science, the celebi.tiiin iof
culture, is at the same time the affirmation of our faith in the po.'' ei ol the l
Creative Imagination over the Spirit of Self-destruction. 11 the imu'l ,I
Orpheus had the power to calm and tame the most untaimed oI __
creatures, the art and music and poetry, the discoveries and
spiritual work of those we have honoured in the past ainIl ic
honouring today, have the power to calm and tame the truhled
hearts and minds of our youth and to restore them to a sense oit
their humility. The healing power of art and thel
transformative power of science are part of the common
heritage of mankind. Our ancestors have known this. We
too know it.

Six years ago, witnessing the daily toll taken by the Spirit
of Self-destruction, which was threatening to engulf the
souls of our children and convinced that this was a
battle between the two spirits, the Spirit of Self-
destruction and the Spirit of the Creative Imagination,
the great patron of the human spirit Sir Philip Sherlock, -
founded a movement called: "Change From Within.". "
Change From Within challenges and helps each school to ,
find its own method of letting the Spirit of the Creative
Imagination loose among the children. Where this had
happened, victory is virtually assured.

But it is the victory of one battle, not the victory of the war. AndJ '
a war it is. For the Spirit of Self-destruction knows no '1
boundaries, respects no quarter, engulfs all of us.
War limits those it engulfs to two choices to seek
safer ground, or to fight. It is sad to have to admit
that many of our young talented people are
seeking the safer ground, particularly in the
North. We don't see them as lost to our effort.
They will make their contribution in due I
course, together with the millions of other '
Jamaicans abroad. But there are many of us
who have enlisted in this great spiritual war.

Make no mistake about it, this is not a task for
our elected leaders only, or for the
Constabulary Forces only. We will all take a
stand together, each in our own quarter, or we
will be defeated together.

Prof. Barry Chevannes speaking at
Musgrave Awards Presentation 2000


Sir Philip


O.M., C.B.E.

Remembrance, by Prof. the Hon.
Rex Nettleford, O.M. Vice Chancellor
of the University of the West Indies,
Mona, delivered at the University
Chapel, December 9, 2000, on the
occasion of the funeral of Sir Philip
Sherlock who died December 4, 2000

almost anything that I
say about Sir Philip
Sherlock would be to
gild the anthurium -
the anthurium being
the gift of a life of hope and
fulfillment, creatively crafted and
deftly lived as part of a process of
transformation, growth and
development of an entire society in
quest of itself, of its reason for
being, for over half a century.

Philip Manderson Sherlock had
been at the beginning, since the late
Thirties, of all the great challenges
facing the people of our groping
West Indies whether it be the call
for self-government followed by the
birth-pangs of a society in protracted
labour or the halting courtship
leading to an attempt at union, or the
bringing forth, complete with primal
screams, of so many Independent

nations starting with his own native
Jamaica and her sister twin-island
state of Trinidad and Tobago in 1962.

A persistent advocate of West Indian
integration even in the face of the ill-
fated Federation of 1958-61, Sir
Philip has lived to see the light
rekindled and the hope restored in
the hearts of a new generation which
remains the legatee of the vision he
had for our Caribbean people in the
surge towards a definitive civili-
sation. For him, as for other
founding fathers, the twilight of
colonialism was to herald a light
rising from the West. "Oriens ex
Occidente Lux." Everywhere else it
rises from the East. Trust us in our
determination to be different, special
and unique!

Lord Milverton who, as Sir Arthur
Richards, the British Governor who

detained trade unionist Alexander
Bustamante and other radicals in
1939/1940, told me while I was
researching the early self-government
movement in Jamaica, that on being
instructed "by savingram" from the
British Colonial Office to proceed
to Jamaica and "restore Order", he
arrived in the island with
characteristic gubernatorial ardour
intent on teaching the trouble-
makers a lesson. To his
amazement he found alongside the
fiery and remarkable Bustamante
and a few "egg-heads" like Dick
Hart and Frank Hill, a highly
sophisticated society with people
like the renowned lawyer N.W.
Manley and bright young
community leaders. Among these
he singled out a "bright young
man named Phillip Manderson
Sherlock". That bright young man
had progressed to being the




Vice Chancellor of the independent
University of the West Indies at
the time Lord Milverton was relating
this story.

None of this should be surprising,
for Sir Philip was a great spirit, the
avatar of all that gives force,
purpose, life, hope and meaning to
the turbulence, contradictions and
chaos of our multi-sourced existence.
He belongs to the chosen few we
were lucky to have had at the helm
of our social revolution the chosen
few who believed that the
intractable problems of under-
development and the attendant
immersion of the mass of the
population had to be met by the
empowerment of our people through
the exercise of their intellect and their
creative imagination. So he himself
has been poet as well as historian,
policy-determiner as well as
classroom teacher, social worker and
philosopher as well as administrator
and man of public affairs.

It is this call for texture rooted in a
deep understanding of the need to
inform intellectual pursuits with the
arts of the imagination, which

enriched the operation of the
University of the West Indies from
its fledgeling years. As a founding
father, he actually helped to
establish and administer the
institution as its first Vice Principal
and Director of Extra Mural
Studies. By the time he became
Vice Chancellor, after tending the
establishment of the St. Augustine
branch of the UWI, the Sherlock
vision of the creative arts and the
humanities acting as catalyst for
intellectual pursuits and remaining
handmaiden to the science and
technology branches of knowledge,
was well established.

H e institutionalized the
vision partly through the
introduction of a creative
arts plank in the outreach work of his
Extra Mural Department with the
appointment of Staff Tutors in Drama
along with counterparts in Social
Work, Trade Union Education and
Radio Education laying the
foundations for degree programmes
in Sociology and Social work, in
Industrial Relations and related
Social Science studies and in Mass
Communications. And he eventually

established the Creative Arts Centre
on the Mona Campus (another has
since been established at St.
Augustine) to enrich the quality of
life and to engage the aesthetic
sensibility of members of the
University and the wider
community. The rest is history.

The rest is history indeed! Only
three years ago he co-authored
with Dr. Hazel Bennett The Story
of the Jamaican People published
by Ian Randle Publishers. At the
ripe age of 95, Sir Phillip re-
affirmed his long-held belief that
until the centrality of the African
Presence in the Caribbean ethos is
recognized and accepted, there
can be no sense of self or purpose
among the majority of people
who tenant his Jamaica and the
rest of the insular Caribbean. It
did not mean for him the laying of
exaggerated claims by one set of
West Indians over all others.
Judging from his life-long work
in education, community devel-
opment, Caribbean regionalism
and Caribbean culture, his
appreciation and respect for the
common struggles shared by the

Philip Sherlock Centre for the Creative Arts, Univers


early Sephardic arrivants as well as later
arrivants "from India, China, and
Lebanon" and others after them in
defining self and society, is clearly
evident and beyond question. But he
sees the need to find urgent resolution
for the original battle for space between
Africa and Europe as the dominant
mode of "becoming" in the region, if
the creative potential of the West Indian
people are to be unleashed in the service
of their own development.

A history of the Jamaican people
"from an African-Jamaican [rather
than from] a European point of view"
he therefore saw as necessary to
advance the discourse or at least to
get the story of scattering, exile, and
survival into perspective. As would
be expected in a Jamaica which is yet
to come to terms fully with the
contradictions and challenges of
Africa-in-the-Americas (despite the
towering symbolism of Marcus
Garvey), Phillip Sherlock gave some
commentators anxious moments. His
advocacy of the celebration of the
African Presence had even earned
him at his great age the description of
"irresponsible revolutionary".

Knowing him, he would be delighted
by such a put-down from detractors
for he was convinced that it was "the
African-Jamaican people [who] laid
the foundation for a rich culture by
retaining their sense of spiritual
values, by creating a vivid creole
language, preserving their natural
love for drama, music, song,
drumming, for laughter sympathy
and wit. They created religious
cults and modes of self-expression
and developed Jamaica's internal
marketing system based, in the early
years, on provision grounds on
marginal land, and on a network of
Sunday markets and higglers."

He would have been delighted to know
of a book from a young academic at
Mona launched only yesterday in

His advocacy of the celebration of the African

Presence had even earned him, at his great age,

the description of "irresponsible revolutionary".

which the author, Dr. Brian Meeks,
wrote "Until Jamaica and the rest of the
Caribbean come to terms with the
majority of its people and their history,
until new modes of democracy, both
national and transnational, are
introduced to subvert the old,
restrictive, hierarchical structures, the
possibility of a popular renewal is
likely to be frustrated".

Sir Phillip belonged to that
generation of Jamaicans who
believed that any change from
colonial life to self-reliant nationhood
had to be done via "change from
within" the designation he gave to a
project he master-minded among
inner-city schools in urban Jamaica in
the Nineties. He acknowledged the
pivotal role of those who exercise
imagination and intellect in the
shaping of a modern Jamaica,
insisting that his latest book was, in
his own words, merely a contribution
to work already "begun by our artists,
poets, writers, carvers, athletes,
reggae musicians, the dub poets,
rastafarians, the scholars, members of
the public and private sectors and
political parties who are dedicated to
building a better Jamaica".

He was convinced that a "better
Jamaica will come if the African-
Jamaican people know and treasure
their story". The implications for the
wider Caribbean are self-evident: a
better Caribbean (West Indies) will
indeed come if West Indian people
begin to treasure their story. This fits
into his early vision of the mandatory
development of indigenous institu-
tions like the ill-fated Federation
which lasted a mere three years, the
Caribbean Community (Caricom)

which has provided one viable
alternative to the region's failed
attempts to unite politically, the
Caribbean Association of
Universities and Research
Institutes (UNICA) which sought
to mobilise the intellect of the
region into collaborative action,
and his beloved University of the
West Indies which not only
predated the Federation but
survived it and has maintained its
pledge to invest intellectual pursuits
with an aesthetic sensibility rooted
in the arts of the imagination forged
in the crucible of Caribbean
experience and lived reality.

Whether we have done justice to
this particular dream of Sir Philip
we must leave to history to judge.
But while we continue in our
efforts to attain cultural certitude
and intellectual independence, we
dare not forget the faith in self and
society that his iconic presence
provided succeeding generations
of the likes of theatre artists Errol
Hill and Noel Vaz, Louise Bennett
the folklorist, anthropologist M.G.
Smith, novelist George Lamming,
poet-historian Edward Kamau
Brathwaite and the Nobel Laureate
Derek Walcott, the talents of all of
whom he was among the first to
recognize, to acknowledge, and to
facilitate on their way to full

Sir Phillip was a great story-teller
and the youngest of the young
delighted in his Anancy stories
while his myriad adult audiences
looked anxiously to certain
favourites like the one he loved to
tell about Miss Mary looking for


her lost shilling at Irvine Hall gate
only to be joined by Miss Elsie in
the search. After the passage of a
fairly long and fruitless search Ms.
Mary was constrained to say to Ms.
Elsie 'look here Elsie if you
weren't helping me I would find it
long time.' As someone once said:
"We in Jamaica, our hearts are laced
with larceny". Well, Sir Philip's
short response to that would be "We
tief bad". But such shortcomings
made no difference to his
consummate faith in his people. His
sense of fun and irrepressible wit took
serious turns. On my imminent return
to Jamaica, he wrote to tell me that he
had two jobs for me one which paid
750 per annum and another which
paid 1,400. But he knew, as he
pointedly wrote, I would take the
750 offer. I took the 750 per annum
job. It was to work with him.

What was recently said of Walcott
can be said of Sir Philip, for they are
kindred spirits. "For Walcott's
'Adamic' man the past of motive
and event is not as crucial, not as
creative a force, as his renewed
vision and elation in the New World.
Rather than a creature riveted to his
past, he is a man capable of
inhabiting any historical moment
unencumbered by time, and because
he is absolved from the histories of
the old worlds, he is able to recreate
the entire order from religion to the
simplest domestic rituals. This was
the transforming and creative
process by which the New World
slave has yielded his own past,
invested the acquired Christian
tradition with a new feeling and
faith and began the new naming of
things in the New World." For Sir
Philip, as for Derek Walcott, "this
effort of creation, with its force of
revelation and its particular sensi-
bility, is the essence of history in the
West Indies". The work in the
Creative Arts Centre named after


him on the Mona Campus is
intended to catch, energise and
celebrate that essence.

The University of the West Indies
which Sir Philip Sherlock helped to
found was able to "reverberate" by
being part of the renaming of one of
its Creative Arts Centres in the
presence of both this great namer of
our things, Sir Philip himself, and
his devoted friend and lifelong
supporter Lady Sherlock.
"Black of night and white of
White of altar, black of trees,
Swing the circle wide again,
Fall and cry, me sister, now.
Let the spirit come again,

KBE (1967), CBE (1953), OM
(1989), Consultant to Vice
Chancellor, University of the West
Indies since 1989; Secretary
General, Association of Caribbean
Universities & Research Institutes,
1969 to 1989;

Born Jamaica, 25 February 1902,
son of Rev. and Mrs. Terence
Sherlock, married in 1942 to Grace
Marjorye Verity* with whom he had
two sons and one daughter.

Education and Posts held
Calabar High School; Jamaica.
Headmaster, Wolmer's Boys'
School, Jamaica 1933-38;
Secretary of the Institute of
Jamaica, 1939-44. Education
Officer, Jamaica Welfare, 1944-47;
Director Extra-Mural Department,,
University College of the West
Indies, 1947-60, also Vice
Principal, University College of the
West Indies, 1952-62; Pro-Vice
Chancellor, University of West
Indies, 1962, Vice-Chancellor

Fling away the flesh and bone
Let the spirit have a home"
("Pocomania" by
P.M. Sherlock)

The pledge was to let the spirit
have a home not only in the Philip
Sherlock Centre for the Creative
Arts at Mona but throughout the
region served by the University of
the West Indies whose remit
embraces, still, the task of
unlocking the creative potential of
the people it was set up to serve.

We give thanks for this great
prophet, patriot, scholar, cultural
icon and humanist. We shall miss
him more than memory.

1963-69, Hon. LLD: Leeds, 1959;
Carelton, 1967; St. Andrews,
1968; Hon. DCL, New Brunswick,
1966; Hon. DLitt: Acadia, 1996,
Miami, 1971, University of the
West Indies, 1972.

Anansi the Spider Man, 1956
(with John Parry); Short History
of the West Indies, 1956;
Caribbean Citizen, 1957; West
Indian Story, 1960; Three Finger
Jack, 1961; Jamaica, A Junior
History, 1966; West Indian Folk
Tales, 1966; Land and People of
the West Indies, 1967; Belize, a
Junior History, 1969; The Iguana's
Tail, 1969; West Indian Nations,
1973; Ears and Tails and Common
Sense, 1974; educational books
and articles, 1990; The University
of the West Indies: A Caribbean
response to the challenge of
change (with Prof. Rex
Nettleford); The Story of the
Jamaican People (with Dr. Hazel
* Lady Sherlock (Grace) died February 13, 2001.

Sir Philip Manderson Sherlock



M flI i plnle C,'lll % hiLn I
I'm.'inJd J.jlllln'j. C(p\ rli2h
Linli ij, Le.l tiericr inII
1995 was from a crusader
for visual artists in Jamaica.
Obviously cathartic, the lady
accosted me for failing to include
visual artists in the Copyright Law
of 1993.
"Everyone else is protected" she
complained, "The musicians and
performers are covered, the writers
and publishers, but the visual artists
were forgotten."
"Well, lady" I explained in defence,
"from as far back as the 1800s
International Copyright has
recognized the rights of visual
artists. In fact the 1886 International
Convention for the Protection of
Literary, Dramatic & Artistic Works,
popularly known as the Berne
Convention, extends copyright
protection to literary, dramatic,

IlUi',11 ,II iJ a ln llli.' \\ortk', 'Tlie
J. l ':I dl.I l C Ip 1 it L iv
illplelnielll, [he lelne Cl l iin l> .
which Jamaica has been a member
of since 1994. So Visual Artists do
have rights under the law, you are
" But we don't have protection" she
We argued back and forth until I
ended the call, dubbing that, my
frustrating induction in the
Copyright Unit.

While what I had asserted was
legally correct, having seen
Jamaica's Copyright system evolve
over the years, I now understand
what that lady was trying to
communicate to me five years ago -
The Law is simply not enough.

What has become clear is that: The
Copyright Law, although offering a

'.>'iip eiOcnii,\ .' le;,_il trilne,-
\\k ik ill pliI.ICIIo.'1 inlll ll il
Ill, ii\ li %eC lle (0 .1i1, i he [le
economic benefits of
protection this holds true in
all aspects of copyright. More
public awareness is needed to
enable right holders to properly
understand what the Copyright
Law means for them. The
utilisation of artistic
works in Jamaica 14 i
not generally based
on observance of the
various rights ol
copyright belonging
to artists. There is
no proper mech-
anism for licensing
the use of, or for
rights in, artistic
works so as to
ensure to artists a


revenue stream through royalties
from the exploitation of their works.

In fact there is a temptation to
observe foreign industry practices
even when they may be at odds with
Jamaica's Copyright Law (e.g.
application of formulae for fair use
exceptions; presumption of owner-
ship of copyright by employers and
commissioners of works under work
for hire deals). Some artists and users
of their material give in to more
familiar US practices in the face of a
national legal regime, which differs
in some respects from the US
Copyright and other related laws
concerning visual artists.

The Visual Arts and Copyright
Copyright consists of a bundle of
legal rights given to authors of
literary, musical, artistic and
dramatic works, which enable them
to control the exploitation and
dissemination of their works.
Copyright is one of the most well
known forms of intellectual property
rights, which protect creations and
innovations resulting from the
human intellect.

Under the Jamaican Copyright Law
artistic works cover a range of items
including paintings, drawings,
engravings, maps, charts, plans,
etchings, lithographs, woodcut and
other graphic works, photographs,
sculptures and collages, which are
protected as long as they are original.
These works need not possess any
artistic quality to be afforded
copyright protection and need only
be original in the sense that they have
not been copied. Works of architects,
such as buildings or models of
buildings are also protected by
copyright as artistic works.
Copyright also protects works of
artistic craftsmanship as well as
artistic works embodied in designs.
Protection for original designs,
however, is afforded through

When we speak of visual arts and copyright we are
referring primarily to works of painters, fine artists,
graphic artists, sculptors, photographers, works of
artistic craftsmanship and artistic designs...

registration under the Industrial
Designs Law, yet another form of
intellectual property protection.

When we speak of visual arts and
copyright we are referring primarily
to works of painters, fine artists,
graphic artists, sculptors, photog-
raphers, works of artistic crafts-
manship and artistic designs.

Rights for Visual Artists
A visual artist is regarded as an
author (a generic term) under the
copyright law and by law all rights
in copyright first vest in him/her
unless there is an agreement, which
effectively vests the copyright in
another person or entity. Ownership
of copyright in most instances is
determined by contract.

Generally it is understood that the
rights in the work done by
employees under the direction and
control of the employer belong to the
employer and not the employee.
However, as the author is the
presumed first owner of copyright
under Jamaican Law, it is advisable
for employers to clearly outline
ownership of copyright in writing
through an agreement, employment
contract or rules and policies
governing their employees.

Similarly for commissioned
works in the Jamaican
context, the commission-
ing contract should
specify in whom the
rights vest even though as a
a general rule, the rights
vest in the one commis-
sioning the work and not in
the one who authored the work.

Economic Rights

Subject to modest exceptions
under the Copyright Law
the economic rights in
copyright allow the author the
freedom to do or to authorise
others to do such acts of
exploitation as the following:
Copying the entire work or a
substantial portion of it
Exhibiting or distributing the
work or otherwise
communicating the work to
the public (includes
publishing by print or digital
media) and
Adapting or modifying the
These powers are supposed to
translate into economic payment
where users exploit the work
under a license from the
copyright owner. Where the work
is used without the proper license,
the copyright owner can sue for
infringement and obtain damages
and other remedies from the
Courts. If the work is deliberately
copied for commercial purposes
without authorisation the 'pirate'
could be charged a fine or thrown
in jail for committing an offence
under the Copyright Act. In

laE ri


Jamaica, Copyright in artistic works
lasts for the life of the author plus 50
years (life plus 70 years in North
America and European countries).

Moral and Related Rights
Even where someone other than the
artist owns the copyright in the
artistic work whether by agreement,
transfer or assignment of the
copyright, the artist still holds the
moral rights. However the artist can
waive them by agreement in
writing. For visual artists the moral
rights are often just as important as,
or even more important than, the
economic rights because they serve
to preserve the artist's integrity. The
name of the artist should always be
associated with his/her work and the
work should not be modified or used
in a manner, which could injure the
reputation and honour of the artist.
Moral rights last for the same
duration as the copyright. As a
related right, a work should not be
attributed to an artist as the author
when he is not in fact the author.

The Copyright Law also recognizes
as a related right the situation where

someone commissions the taking of
a photograph for domestic purposes
and the photographer uses the
photograph for commercial pur-
poses. In this case though the
photographer may own the copy-
right in the photograph he/she does
not automatically have the right to put
the photograph to a commercial use.

Artists and their Subjects
When a human being is used as an
art subject, particularly persons of
fame or notoriety, additional laws
and considerations other than
copyright may apply. In many
instances in Jamaica persons object
to others either taking their photo-
graphs or applying their images to
different media e.g. using a Bob
Marley photograph on T Shirts and
other merchandise or posting it on
the Internet or applying the Dance
Hall Queen's image to postcards
without proper authorisation. It is
important to distinguish this from
Copyright. These activities may
impinge on rights of privacy and
personality. Misappropriation of
personality is treated as a civil
wrong and although related to
Copyright, is a separate matter.

Droit de Suite
The Jamaican Law does not
recognize the droit de suite as
obtains under French and other
Continental Laws, which gives
artists a right to receive royalties
on the resale of their original

Licensing of Copyright in
Visual Arts
Visual artists in Jamaica have
generally not focused on the
administration of their rights. The
concentration is mainly on the
primary market, which involves
the direct exhibition and sale of
their original works. Typically a
painter or illustrator tries to sell
his works through a gallery, an
agent, at auctions or craft fairs.
Some artists work on commission
or are employed to corporations,
which typically assert ownership
of copyright in the artists' works.

Even where associations or guilds
concerned with different
categories of artists exist in
Jamaica, they do not operate
mechanisms dealing specifically
with licensing the secondary
exploitation of artistic works. It is
exceedingly difficult for a single
artist to effectively monitor the
exploitation of his works in
secondary markets and many
times it is the middleman or a
pirate rather than the artist that
gets any returns from secondary
markets, which can be far more
lucrative than the primary form of

In the artistic field secondary
exploitation occurs through for
- Making, selling and
distribution of prints &

T-shirt with Bob Marley's image


- Application of images
and illustrations on all
kinds of merchandise
e.g. postcards,
T-shirts, mouse pads;
- Publication of prints in books and
other literature;
- Digitisation of the works; and,
- Posting & distribution of
illustrations and images on the

Artists have complained about their
works being pirated and by that they
often mean that someone has, without
their permission, made prints of their
original works and are selling the prints
without their permission or have applied
their works to articles such as post cards
and greeting cards. Other visual artists,
typically photographers, have com-
plained that their work appeared in a
book or brochure that they knew
nothing about. Some see prints or copies
of their work showing up on the streets
of Paris and other Metropolises being
displayed for sale. Others may have
licensed their artwork for a specific use
but the licensee has, without their per-
mission, put the work to other uses
without compensating the artist.

Very soon, if it has not yet happened,
Jamaican artists will see their works
appearing on the Internet, which has
become a haven for pirates of copy-
righted material. The recovery of
damages for infringement over the
Internet at this early stage is a near

It is true that secondary
exploitation may be viewed by
some artists as a dilution or
cheapening of their works.
Further, some types of artwork
may not be suited for some
forms of secondary
exploitation. This notwith-
standing secondary markets,
and particularly now the
Internet, can provide major
sources of royalties for artists but
the absence of licensing regimes
will preclude the Jamaican artist
from capitalising on these revenue

The Way forward for Visual
Artists in Jamaica
Artists must pay particular attention
to the initial arrangements under
which they create original works.
Reliance should also be placed on
legal advice when entering into
contractual arrangements.

It is not always appropriate for an
Artist to insist on retaining copyright
in his/her work. However, artists
should try to retain some rights in
their original works, which enable
them to license in secondary markets
even where a portion of the copyright
might be assigned to a third party. The
divisibility of the various economic
rights in copyright makes such
arrangements possible.

Several artists may paint the same
scenery but each with his/her own
distinctiveness. Photographers also
fall to a similar fate. It is therefore
important in order to prove
authorship, for artists to document
and register a true representation of
their original works and so establish
some independent proof that they
created the work. Artists should
always record on the work itself,
their name and the year the work
was created. It is also advisable to
use the internationally recognized
copyright notice O.

Artists should also strengthen
cooperation with galleries and
agents on which they rely to
expose their works.

An artist should try to license all
forms of secondary exploitation if
he or she hopes to derive
economic benefits from his/her
works. However, this is more
successfully approached collec-
tively, i.e. artists coming together
and devising a way to conduct
licensing from a central point or by
commissioning one body to license
on their behalf. Visual artists in
Jamaica have to come together and
collectively focus on their
intellectual property rights

We can learn from some of the
approaches of visual artists in
other countries. Visual artists in
more Developed Countries have a
long tradition of various guilds
and associations looking after their
peculiar interests, and one of the
major areas of interest is the
licensing of their rights in

The American Society of Media
Photographers (ASMP) created a
copyright licensing agency, called
the Media Photographers
Copyright Agency (MPOA),
which operates as a separate for-
profit corporation that is owned
by the ASMP. MPA is
concerned with:
(i) Licensing the use of
photographers' images on
their behalf
(ii) Developing a database of
electronically accessible
images of photographers and
(iii) Developing standard
contracts for the licensing of
rights in that field.
Large commercial stock art
houses, the main middlemen, are
already deriving the benefits of
new technologies, leaving artists

uncompensated for exploitation in in 1987
the digital markets. The Union, th
professional illustrators have Sculptors
therefore been forced to look at Graphic P
creative means of licensing their Photogral
copyright in order to capitalise on Finnish A
the marketing opportunities all memb
afforded by the Internet. This is why
the Illustrators Partnership of Strength
America (IPA) was formed. The IPA Jamaica
was formed by artists to establish a When on
for-profit subsidiary to serve as the Jamaica i
licensing agency for their members. of the V
The Agency will be the centre of find a n
licensing and copyright clearance concern
for secondary uses of their works art, scul
over the Internet, with the artists grouping
having the freedom of setting their under the
own fees for the use. Another
form of licensing is through
collective management ...artists can
where the fees are set by the
organisation on behalf of the organisation

by the Finnish Painters'
ie Association of Finnish
,the Society of Finnish
artists the Society of Artist
phers and the Union of
\rt Association, which are
ers of the AAF.

lening what we have in

e looks at what exists in
n terms of the organization
isual Arts sector one will
modest amount of groups
d with photography, fine
)ture, etc. Some of these
s have existed for years
purview of Committees

benefit from joining

Existing Copyright-Related
Among the few copyright
collecting societies in Jamaica, the
one, which is relevant to visual
artists, is called the Jamaica
Copyright Licensing Agency,
(JAMCOPY). It is an inter-
nationally recognized Copyright
Society, which was created in 1998
as a non-profit organ-isation to
license the reprographic rights on
behalf of authors. JAMCOPY deals
with only one type of secondary
exploitation, i.e. reprographic
copying of printed material
contained in publications.
Reprographic copying includes
photocopying and
transmitting the work via
this facsimile.

a Authors

eligible for

group of authors. This is also members are entitled to royalty membership in JAMCOPY

practised in other countries.


There is also the Copyright
Clearance Centre in America
which is a general copyright agency
dealing with all forms of
copyrighted works. In particular the
CCA through the MIRA software
created by members of the
Photographers Guild of the US is
conducting on-line licensing of
stock photography as is CORBIS.

The Artists' Association of Finland
(AAF), which was established back
in 1864, has, as a component, the
Visual Artists Copyright
Association, Kuvasto, which is
chiefly concerned with licensing of
copyright and rights clearance for
use of artist works. As JACAP (the
Jamaica Association of Composers,
Authors and Publishers) is to
Jamaican musicians and JPAS (the
Jamaica Performers Administration
Society) to Jamaican performers, so
is Kuvasto to Finnish Visual Artists
and more. Kuvasto was established

set up by the Jamaica Cultural
Development Commission (JCDC).
The Jamaican Artists and
Craftsmen's Guild, (JACG) is
perhaps the most representative
among them, of the varied
categories of artists.

Founded in 1975, the JACG has
come a long way in formalising its
structure and mission and has
recently increased its focus on
educating members about copyright
protection. Joining with the efforts
of the JCDC, the JACG could
strengthen the copyright infra-
structure, not only in terms of
protection but also by paying more
attention to licensing the many
forms of exploitation of Jamaican
artistic works in order that artists
can reap the maximum benefits of
their effort and skill.

include visual artists,
especially photographers &
illustrators, whose works are
contained in published printed
material. On a recruitment drive for
members since its inception,
JAMCOPY to date only has a few
members. The word must go out
that artists can benefit from joining
this organisation as members are
entitled to royalty proceeds when
various large users photocopy their
material. The Government of
Jamaica has been the first user group
to sign a license agreement with
JAMCOPY to pay for the
photocopying by government
administration of published material.

There is also a fledgling
mechanism for central licensing
and rights clearance set up by the
Intellectual Property Service
Centre (IPC), which was
established in Jamaica in April
2000. Through the IPC artists can
register their original works


enabling them to have an
independent record of their
copyright, a published claim to
copyright and a true representation
of their works deposited in the
National Library of Jamaica. The
IPC's rights clearance facility is
available to artists and associations
representing artists. The aim of the
facility is to secure payment to the
artists per use of their works via a
central mechanism that allows
artists to set their fees and provides
users with a central point of
legitimate access to these works at
reasonable costs.

Encouraging compliance by
One of the factors that has
immobilised the progress of
copyright owners in Jamaica is the
practice of major consumers of
copyright works. The concept of
entering into a licensing
arrangement to legitimately exploit
artistic works is foreign to many
users. Without a clear and well-
understood mechanism for
licensing or rights clearance users
prefer to take the easy way out just
pay one money to cover everything.
Even where there is a contract
involved, the user may not take
pains to ensure that he/she acquired
the rights to use the work in the
manner intended. Again the
mentality is the one paper is good to
cover everything.

The lack of regulation in the area is
glaring but understandable, as
copyright compliance is still a
relatively new phenomenon for
some creators and users of artistic
works in Jamaica. For Law
enforcement officials who are just
waking up to music piracy, a
problem which has been highly
publicised for decades, the prospect
of arresting someone for possessing
illegitimate prints of artwork for


sale may seem as remote as a raid on
a copy shop carrying out illegal
photocopying. However, it need not
end in enforcement or litigation.
Consumers of visual art should be
encouraged to approach visual artists
or their artists association for prior
permission to use their material; seek
a license from JAMCOPY in respect
of photocopying or from IPC in
respect of other secondary uses, as the
case may be.

Jamaica's copyright system has
evolved since the passing of the
1993 Copyright Act, and the general
situation of lack of compliance and
awareness of copyright has
improved somewhat through:
* Public education initiatives
spearheaded by the
Government's Copyright Unit
(now part of the new Jamaica
Intellectual Property Office) in
collaboration with copyright
interest groups
* The re-focusing of existing
industry associations on the
issue of copyright, (e.g. The
Jamaican Artists and Craftsmen's
Guild, Jamaica Federation of
Musicians and Affiliated Artistes
Union and the Book Industry
Association of Jamaica)
* The establishment of
collective management
societies in the areas of music,
performances and published
literature (i.e. JACAP, JPAS
* The formation of a service
centre for Intellectual
Property (i.e. Intellectual
Property Service Centre)

Notwithstanding the progress, the
wheels of copyright protection are
turning slowly in Jamaica as many
right holders still need more
awareness and are very reluctant to

entrust their rights to the local
collecting societies or rights
clearance houses.

Even though there are those
crusaders for copyright who have
always been aware of their rights
and have been diligent to employ
all means possible to protect
themselves, they would be far
more effective as a collective
force. It must be admitted that
there are users who have been
diligent in recognizing and
respecting these rights, and who
should be commended. However,
this contingent of compliant users
needs to grow.

It is not the lack of a proper
Copyright Law, and in some
respects it may no longer be the
absence of proper mechanisms,
which now hinder Jamaican
authors from reaping the benefits
of their copyright. The lack of
respect for copyright by users, a
failure on the part of rights
owners to properly utilise the
facilities under the Law and a
general lack of faith in the system,
could damn the fate of creative,
cultural and technological
industries in Jamaica.

The visual artists and the
associations representing them
should aim to deal collectively
with the management of their
copyright. Steps must be taken to
reform industry practices and
foster user-compliance with the
copyright law. Awareness of
intellectual property rights must
be raised in such as way as to
build confidence on the part of
both creators and users so that
they can trust the Copyright
system that was designed to
reward the creator while
facilitating the user, on the
principles of fairness and justice.

he Junior Centre at East
Street was established on
May 31, 1940 through the
efforts of Robert Verity and
Philip Sherlock. It has as
its mission: To provide the facilities
for young people to acquire
knowledge, develop skills in the
various art forms, so as to foster
their intellectual, aesthetic and
cultural growth.

The Centre has continued to fulfill
this mandate by the programmes it
offers on a daily basis. The Junior
Centres, which are a part of the
Programmes Coordination Division
of the Institute of Jamaica,
conducts After School Activities in
Speech & Drama, Drumming,
Storytelling, Art, Craft, Music,
Dance and Reading.
Activities in Speech &
Drama and Dance are
also conducted on a
Saturday. The Library
continues to operate
from Monday to Friday
providing the facilities
for children to do
homework, research or
just to read for fun.

The cultural activities of
the Centre are taught
with some of the
objectives being to train
children to a standard

that they participate in the Jamaica
Cultural Development Commission
Festival Competitions. Participation
in last year's competition yielded a
total of ten (10) medals (4 gold & 6
silver). Children are again being
trained to enter this year's Festival
C' llll L I[ E I 1 nll

Another objective of participating
in the cultural activities is to
enable children to develop their
creative skills, understand more
about their culture and heritage
and to have fun while doing so.



The Junior Centre is not only about
working with the children who
attend the Centres but also taking
the activities of the Centre out to the
wider community. The Centre has
been involved in outreach projects
to various parts of the island. During
the past year the Centre has been on
outreach with other Divisions of the
Institute to Runaway Bay (St. Ann),
Church Teachers College
(Manchester) & Knox Community
College (Clarendon) and more
recently to Mason River

The Centre in collaboration with the
Multicare Foundation is involved in
the "Art in the Street" project. This
project is conducted on a Saturday
morning and allows children
between the ages of 6-18 years
residing in the inner city areas to
learn the fundamental principles
involved in painting and drawing.
These children are also given a
chance to do some practical work.
This project will run for
approximately five (5) weeks
outside the Altamont DaCosta
Institute before moving to other

The Centre has also recognized that
there are various aspects to a child
and in today's Jamaica they need to
be equipped with the skills to cope
in the various facets of their lives.
With this in mind a counseling
programmes was started, a
counselor visits the Centre three
times per week to conduct
counseling sessions with the
children and in some instances meet
with the parents as well to better
facilitate the process of helping both
parents and children to cope.

DIANNE A. DALEY LL.B (hons), LL.M., Attorney-at-
Law holds a Master's Degree in Comparative Law
with Intellectual Property as her area of
specialization. Since January 2000 she has held the
position of Special Advisor on Intellectual Property
to the Ministry of Industry, Commerce &
Technology, and has coordinated the establishment
of the Jamaica Intellectual Property Office which
was formally set up by the Government in January
2001. She is also the government's representative
on the Board of the Jamaica Copyright Licensing
Agency (JAMCOPY) a reprographic rights organization. She also serves as
Vice-President of the World Intellectual Property Organization.

MARTIN MORDECAI has published stories,
interviews and articles in JAMAICA
JOURNAL over the years. A former
broadcaster, diplomat and civil servant, he now
resides in Canada, where he co-owns Sandberry
Press, a small publisher of Caribbean poetry and
children's books.

PATRICK WALDEMAR is one of the Caribbean's
leading watercolour artists. His work has been widely
exhibited in New York and is represented in private
collections in the U.S.A., the United Kingdom,
Canada and Jamaica. He has also been recognized by
American Artist Magazine, and was featured in
'Watercolour 92', their exclusive watercolour bi-
annual issue. In 1985 he started his own agency,
Waterworks Advertising, with his brother Kirk
Waldemar. He has won the Peer award for Creative
Director for 1999 and for 2000.

Reader in Biochemistry and
Head of the Biochemistry Unit
in the Department of Preclinical
Sciences at the St. Augustine
Campus of the University of the
West Indies (UWI). His
principal research areas include
Calcium binding proteins that
participate in cell-signalling
processes in healthy and
diseased states, and various
research studies on the Mexican
Yam Bean (Pachyrizus erosus)
to promote it as a crop of
nutritional and economic
importance in the Caribbean

DR. ALDRIN V. GOMES received his
Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the UWI,
St.Augustine. While there, he received a
number of awards including the
International Union of Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology (IUBMB) travel
award for young scientists and the UWI
Alpha Omega award for excellence in
academic and other university activities.
Although his main research is on muscle
contraction he has always had a keen
interest in plant biochemistry and has
been involved in yam bean research for
the last 5 years. At present, he is a
American Heart Association Scholar in
the Department of Molecular and
Cellular Pharmacology, University of
Miami School of Medicine.



The Junction Road

The future of the book in the

information age

Martin Mordecai

Books have that strange quality that,
being of the frailest and tenderest matter,

they outlast brass, and marble.

So said

that wise man, Anon, in 1649. In a book.

She ubiquity of the Internet is
changing the way many
people in the world live their
lives, from work to
entertainment to shopping to
investing to keeping track of far-flung
friends. Things are not changing as fast
as the maitre d's of hype and products
would lead us to believe. The
information highway is still, in reality,
less like the smooth swooping
roadways that exist in North America
or Western Europe for motor vehicles,
more like the Junction road from Stony
Hill to Annotto Bay in Jamaica:
negotiable, scenic, but not always an
easy drive. It is likely to remain so:
hype always exceeds the real thing.

In one respect, however, that
information highway is like its
tarmacaddamed namesake: access is
restricted. No donkey-carts, bicycles or
pedestrians are allowed. In the same
way that you must possess a motor
vehicle to take fullest advantage of the
super-highways of the real world, so
too must you have a computer, and the
newer the better, to partake of the
cornucopia of benefits on the virtual
super-highway. As importantly, you
must also possess literacy; as a person
and collectively as a society.

It can be argued that the book is man's
greatest invention. Books can contain
and convey in a portable and flexible
manner almost all of man's other
inventions, by depiction or description.
They can enclose a greater quantity of
mankind's knowledge in a more
universally accessible form than any
other medium. And books can be
things of beauty in and of themselves:
the pleasure of simply holding and
thumbing through a well-made book is,
to the book lover at least, a sensual one.


he book has been the cornerstone
of European civilization for
centuries, even when the
majority of people could not read.
Books have been crucially important
even in those cultures which are
primarily oral, forming the main tools
in formal education. Books have been,
at one and the same time, symbols of
authority and the status quo, and
subversive, revolutionary tools. Think
of the Bible. Think of the Communist
Manifesto. The writings of Marcus
Mosiah Garvey survive in their
original form only because they have
been printed in bound books: the
newspapers and pamphlets that first
carried them, being "of the frailest and
tenderest matter", are, but for copies
treasured by the few libraries that
preserved them, part of the actual
garbage-heap of history.

The primacy of the printed word as
conveyor and preserver of "culture" -
meaning, really, western culture -
went unchallenged until the television
age.] Television changed forever the
way creative expression was
presented to the receptor, adding not
just the image-already common-
place alongside the word in
newspapers and magazines-but
serial images moving at the speed of
thought. This left no time or space the
viewer's mediation of the offering:
that has always been the function,
usefulness and charm of the book.

But publishing, including book
publishing, survived the onslaught of
television, and indeed prospered. New
books and magazines continued (even
now) to pour from the presses of the
world, mocking the pundits'
jeremiads of the ascendancy of audio-
visual technology. Essential
transactions at institutions of learning,
from primary school to university,
were still based on the currency of the
printed word. The forces driving the
audio-visual industry appeared so


...to paraphrase Mark Twain, reports of the

death of books, and of hard copy in general,

are greatly exaggerated.

intent on entertainment above all,
that it was regarded by many of the
arbiters of "culture" as marginal to
other, more "intellectual" pursuits.
Those universities and schools
which did incorporate television
and radio into their academic
teaching programmes, used them as
extensions of text-based classroom
activity. The essential disparateness
of the two technologies has ensured
the survival of both.

Information technology presents a
quite different set of challenges.
The internet (the usage subsumes
the so-called world wide web) has
certain immediate attractions to
someone used to books. Most
importantly, it is text-based. As with
a book, the internet user can move
at his/her own pace. Images,
including moving images, are
important, and can be woven into
the presentation even more
integrally than on a printed page.
But in order to take advantage of
the splendours of the internet you
have to be literate.

The emergence of the computer as
the central ordering device of
modern (western) life, and
especially the modern internet, has
given birth to yet another
generation of prophets intoning the
passing of the book, and the
transcendence of bits, bytes and
electronic reality. But to paraphrase
Mark Twain, reports of the death of
books, and of hard copy in general,
are greatly exaggerated. While the
longer-term impact of the internet
on the book can only be guessed at,
present indications are that the two
technologies are managing to live

happily alongside each other,
augmenting each others'
strengths and supporting each
others' weaknesses.

information technology is
transforming book publishing
in ways that can only benefit
both publishers and readers. The
editing, design and production of
books is now much more
efficient; keeping track of
inventory is easier. Publishers
can produce titles in smaller print
runs, to see how they sell; the
entire book can be electronically
stored, ready for further printings
or not, as sales warrant.
Theoretically at least, this allows
publishers to produce a larger
number of individual titles, and
also to keep a larger backlist. The
marketing of books has been
similarly transformed by the
internet. On-line bookstores can
locate and ship titles that are hard
to find in even the biggest
bookstore. Again theoretically,
this can only enlarge the
community of readers, and their

But the Jeremiahs of hard copy
(aka visionaries) go much further.
They foresee the disappearance
of the book itself as we know it,
even unto the death of paper, and
the birth of new ways of reading.2
Everything will be created,
packaged, stored and presented
electronically. You, dear Reader,
will be able to find any "book"
(or article, like this one) on the
world wide web, download it,
and what? How will you read it?
There's the blip.

You can download whole books
from the web onto your hard drive,
and either read them on-screen-
thus giving even more business
to your physiotherapist or print
them onto paper and read them in
more conventional format. But
hundreds of loose pages are not as
convenient as a book, and not
necessarily more economical.

There is, of course, the electronic
book, or e-book, a paperback-sized
device that seeks to provide the
reader with an experience that
combines the convenience and
flexibility of both conventional and
electronic formats; some dreamers
even speak of tangible electronic
pages that can be turned like paper.
You would, for a price, download
from the internet or go to your local
book store (if it still existed) and

...Jamaica presents the paradox of a

predominantly oral culture whose educa-

tional system is based on...information

found...between the covers of a book.

"fill-up" with the latest Danielle
Steele novel or Derek Walcott
poem, for a fraction of the cost of
the bound copy. Competing
hardware and software ideas have
led to extremely slow growth of this
invention so far; and the fact is that
the reading public, even those
comfortable buying their books on
the internet, have not been
clamouring for the e-book.3
(Interestingly, though, the audio
book-old technology after
decades of indifferent
P- sales, has started to catch

The real danger to books
as we know them,
however, is not the e-book
or the internet, per se. The
greater threat comes from
the triumphalism of the
so-called global economy,
which asserts the primacy
of a one-size-fits-all
economic and cultural
template. Increasingly,
publishing companies are
becoming part of large
conglomerates which may
manufacture or sell a
range of items or services
across continents, of
which books are only one.
The highest virtue in the
global economy is return
on investment, however
achieved. In terms
of books that means
promoting only those
books which are deemed
most 'marketable';

eventually, it may mean
publishing only such books. With
the efficiencies of electronic
publishing, you won't even have
to pulp remainders, as you do
today; there won't be any. One
click of the mouse, and they'll be

he information age presents a
peculiar set of quandaries
and opportunities for
societies like Jamaica, where the
book has not played as central a
role in preservation and
purveyance of the culture as it has
done in more Euro-socialized
countries. Jamaica presents the
paradox of a predominantly oral
culture whose educational system
is based on the transmission of
information found largely
between the covers of a book.
(This orality, moreover, is largely
in a language related to but
essentially different from the
language used in most books.) A
very high value is placed on 'book
learning' in a society whose level
of functional literacy, despite
heroic efforts over decades,
remains cripplingly high.

This factor alone presents
challenges in the new information
age, for individuals and for the
collective. Today's young
Jamaican is fluent in the audio-
visual culture of his/her time,
comfortable with television, radio,
the video camera, the cassette
recorder etc. Increasingly he/she,
where access can be secured, is


manipulating the computer as an
extension of self. But the fact is that
words are still the means that most
people choose to communicate with
one another; the information age, like
the age it has succeeded, is still text-

Literacy, personal and societal,
remains therefore a critical defining
platform for enabling and measuring
"'pogiess" in the version of the
modern world that Jamaica has
signed-on to. A high level of
functional illiteracy, which

reinforces other aspects of social
stratification within a country, is also
a factor in the politico-economic
stratification of countries in the wider
world. The proliferation of computers
in the homes and schools of the
"developed" world, mirrored in their
relative paucity in the "developing"
world, suggests continued stratifi-
cation as between societies. 4

But books can, and hopefully will,
continue to play the subversive role
they have done throughout history,
and level the playing field between

the technology-rich and the
technology-poor. Their strengths
remain unchallenged by new
technology; their weaknesses are
only enhanced by it. Still ground
zero in the enabling of literary, they
have a bright future in the complex
new world of tomorrow, at least in
societies like Jamaica. Aggregated, the
sheer numbers living in societies such
as ours provide the critical mass that
makes it worthwhile for books to
continue to be produced. The issue is
not wealth or technology, but access.

1 While the act of remembering and re-telling is itself a creative expression of non-scribal cultures, memory cannot be as inclusive or as
fact-based as a book. The expression changes each time it is 'used', which may demonstrate the vibrancy of the culture, but can also obscure
as much as it illuminates.
2 Taylor, Chris, Team Xerox, Time Magazine
3 Public libraries in North America are experimenting with e-lending of titles; it's too early to tell how successfully.
4 Within developed societies themselves, there is a growing gap between the information-rich and the information-poor which reflects the
same widening economic chasm between the wealthiest and the poorest.

lan Randle Publishers
* * celebrating 10 years of independent publishing *





New titles and old favourites
mammunism m

* Ian Randle Publishers Ltd, 11 Cunningham Avenue, Kingston 6, Jamaica
e-mail: irpl@colis.com Phone: (876) 978-0745, 978-0739 Fax: 978-1156







On December the 10, 2000
the National Gallery
opened the Annual
National Exhibition. It was the
24th staging of the National
Exhibition hosted by the National
Gallery. Of Eighty-three artists
involved, fifty-one were shown in
the Musgrave Laureates display.
Once more, dissatisfaction over the
selection process was voiced in the
press and at a forum put on by the
National Gallery where five of the
exhibiting artists made short
presentations on their work.
Artists, whose works have been
rejected in recent years are calling
for the gallery to publish a "set of
criteria" for acceptable works, so
that artists will "know what to do
to get in to the National
The Education Department of the
Gallery offers the following

The 2000 Annual National Exhibition Forum, presentation by Dejaun Antoine Gardner (Standing).
Seated from left Stanford Watson, Cecil Cooper, Petrona Morrison and Nicholas Morris.

Painter Seya Parbossingh (standing) comments, in the National Exhibition Forum.
National Gallery of Jamaica, February 7th 2001. (Photos H. Lumley)

n 1977 the National Gallery
assumed responsibility for the
various national exhibitions for
adult artists formerly staged by
the Institute of Jamaica. These
were the Annual Exhibition of
Painting (Professionals) the Self-
taught Artist's Exhibition also held
annually and a National Exhibition
of sculpture held periodically.

The National Gallery rationalized
all three exhibitions into a single
exhibition of painting and

sculpture, with no distinction made
between professional and so-
called self-taught artists. At the
outset, the gallery decided that the
exhibition should be a juried one
with the gallery placing its trust
each year, in the combined wisdom
of a panel of selectors. From the
outset, it was decided that
the Curator of the National Gallery
would be a consistent member
of the jury with other jurors
drawn from respected members of
the art community including art-


educators, gallery owners, collectors
and prominent artists.

By 1997, the Annual National
Exhibition, as it was officially titled
had evolved to a point where it was
widely considered the premier event
on the art calendar. In Gloria
Escoffery's words it was the "Grand
Prix of the Jamaican Art World." It
averaged approximately 80 artists and
was no longer restricted to painting
and sculpture but embraced ceramics,
graphics, collage, assemblage, instal-
lation, fibre art and photography as
well. In addition, it boasted an
"addendum" a special display of
works honouring artists who had
received Musgrave medals during the
year under review.

What had also evolved was a two-
tiered approach for admission to the
exhibition. Prominent artists who had
made a significant contribution to the
art of the country were placed in the
category of "Invited" artists, which
meant that they were free to submit
works within the guidelines of the
exhibition without having them
"judged." The Invited artists list was
upgraded annually. All other artists
practicing in Jamaica and Jamaican
artists practicing overseas submitted
their work to a jury of five persons.

The 1997 exhibition was one of the
most diverse and exciting exhibitions
ever mounted but it drew the ire of a
handful of vocal artists who resented
the exclusion by the jury of certain
artists. As a result of meetings held
between the Gallery and some of
these artists, the board of the National
Gallery promised to assess the
selection process and a thorough six-
month review was undertaken.

The end result was that the Exhibition
committee strongly supported the
maintenance of the basic existing
"dual-entry" system with a few


Natalie Butler,
"A Few Steps Back",
Manipulated Photograph
(Maria LaYacona)

(Below) Ritula Frankel
"Privy Council or
Caribbean Court"
( H. Lumley)

recommended changes.
One of these was that the
jury should be increased
from five to seven
persons and that those
seven persons be selected
by the Exhibitions
Committee of the Gallery
following a set of criteria
for selection.

Finally, the jury needed the full
board's approval and also did any
additions to the Invited list. The
invited artists list would be
constantly monitored by the
Exhibitions Committee, members of
which would nominate and select up
to five new invited artists each year.
In 1997 the "Invited List" numbered
fifty-nine artists. Ten artists have
since been added.

The regulations for the staging of
the National Exhibition now state
that the jury each year will be
comprised of the following:

* The Chief Curator or other
curator of the National Gallery
selected by the Curatorial staff.

* Two further members of the
Exhibition Committee of the
National Gallery. (The



David Pinto
"Outwardly Blue"
(Maria LaYacona)

The National Gallery implicitly believes
in an open exhibition where there are
no limitations on subject matter or

Exhibition Committee has in
addition to the Chief Curator
eight members, five of whom
are members of the board of the
National Gallery).

* One member of the board of
the National Gallery which
member is not a member of
the Exhibition Committee.
* One member of the teaching
staff of the Visual Arts
Division of the Edna Manley
College who is not a member
of the board of the National
Gallery nor of the Gallery's
Exhibition Committee, selected
by the Exhibition Committee
from three nominees submitted
by the school.
* An artist who has attained
Invited Artist status

' V




and who is not a
member of either the
Exhibition Committee
or the board of the
National Gallery.

Consideration was given to having
a slot on the jury for a member of
the Jamaica Artists and Craftsmen
Guild. In 1997 however, the Guild
was just beginning to re-organize
itself after a fifteen year period of
dormancy and it was decided that
until the Guild or some other
association of artists had become
truly representative of a significant
number of artists, the final slot
would be filled by an artist who is a
member of the Exhibition
Committee of the Gallery.

The mechanism of judging is a
simple one. Seven judges vote on

Michael Parchment
"Touch by an Angel"
Oil on Hardboard;
(Maria LaYacona)

each and every work submitted to
the jury. A work is automatically
accepted if it receives four or more
votes. No votes or a single vote
condemns a work to the
unacceptedd" group. If a work
receives two or three votes it is put
in a "review" group which is later
discussed after which a re-vote
takes place. Four or more votes in
the re-vote places the work in the
accepted group.


Dejaun Antoine Gardner
(H. Lumley)

Ritula Franklin shares her thoughts at the
National Exhibition Forum. At left Nicholas
(H. Lumley)

"The only art which our

judges are encouraged

to shy away from

is poorly executed work...

or the 2000 National
Exhioition an eminent panel
of judges was approved by
the gallery's board. It
consisted of Hope Brooks, artist,
Director of the Edna Manley
College and member of the National
Gallery's board and Exhibition
Committee, Dr. Milton Harley; tutor
at the Edna Manley College Dr.
Petrine Archer Straw, artist,art-
historian and member of the
National Gallery's board and
exhibition committee; Mr. Wallace
Campbell, art collector and member
of the National Gallery's board;
Nicholas Morris, artist and tutor at
the Edna Manley College; Irina
Leyva, Assistant Curator of the
National Gallery and Dr. David


Boxer, artist and Chief Curator of
the National Gallery of Jamaica.

The Gallery offers the broadest of
guidelines as regards acceptable
works. The old requirement that a
painting be "suitably framed" has
been dropped as more and more
artists have adopted a frame-less,
even stretcher-less approach refus-
ing to yield to the traditional
confines of the framing rectangle.
There are only size limitations,
since space is a concern in any
exhibition of this scope. For
Installation artists the Gallery
requires that a plan and prospectus
of the installation be submitted to
the Exhibition Committee before-
hand and that the committee

examines the proposal largely from
the position of the logistics and
feasibility of execution.

The National Gallery implicitly
believes in an open exhibition
where there are no limitations on
subject matter or approaches and
where a wide variety of media are
allowed. The Gallery feels that
artists of proven worth are capable
of making their own selections and
that juried artists should be
monitored by a carefully composed
jury which brings together a variety
of experienced and knowledgeable
persons who are capable of bringing
an informed opinion to select the



The Role of the Jamaican Artists

and Craftsmen's Guild (JACG) in

Owen Minott
"The Prophet"
(M. LaYacona)

The National Gallery thus
operates essentially on the basis
of inclusiveness and espouses
an essentially encyclopedic
approach to the art it displays.
The only art which our judges
are encouraged to shy away
from is poorly executed work,
or work that within the context
of Jamaica and the Jamaican
audiences experience, deals
with outmoded ideas, exhibits
cliches, inarticulateness and
inauthenticity. But even then, in
the National Exhibition, this is
left up to the judges, in
recognition of the reality that
within a society of such varied
levels of exposure, education
and understanding, such
elements are virtually
indefinable. As the saying goes
"one man's kitsch is another
man's masterpiece."

the Art Communil

The Jamaican Artists and
Craftsmen's Guild was set
up in 1977 as an indepen-
dent body to represent all
Jamaican artists. The organization
regards its mission as all-inclusive.
As such, it avers that at any time it
will reflect the synthesis of styles,
cultures and disciplines of artists
from varying backgrounds, from
the MFA's to the intuitive and from
the established artist to the recent
art school graduate.

The role of the JACG can basically be
described as three-fold: Educational,
Promotional and Welfare.

Under the educational umbrella, the aim
is to stimulate the continued devel-
opment of Guild members through
workshops, lecture/ discussions and all
forms of creative interaction. Another
aspect of the educational thrust is to
bring about a heightened awareness and
appreciation of fine art and fine craft
throughout the society.

l41n ,t llll ,ll ln 1 il.. .. n 'l (h n A & rt 1 1 .1 -/ T l
a P pr Ce {"h k \ >i \ hpiral c hl's n! ,' tl'a



Vr in ............ I liC 1i rrr elr i~ ~~n ~1~ 1(~11 \l)ll(1(11
.. ni 0 ii.. I...I')I 0 ll ns () I....of.l..... ..I
ire1... .i.... hi md hrnh-I1m
pnnNtnn*nnenn nn

Our art has transcended
national borders and
placed a stamp on the
international contempo-
rary art world.

Special poinii fi t-neret:
I i, ili~nr~n ih .InrdiinniniJitnIi
nnni rxnnpirpn-inenn.
*t A i -1, 1e ah- n bie
hai~~a p dlin~ i~l
1.1 .9W '-532W 9.41 OV

Newsletter distributed to North Coast Hotels by the Jamaican
Arts & Craft Guild.

The promotional aspect
is achieved through
various types of

North Coast exhibi-
tions, hosted by some
of the leading hotels,
indicate the route
being used to put
Jamaican art into the
international market
place without the
related costs of
mounting exhibitions
abroad. These have
been very successful.
Private house showings
have also proven to be
successful, as people
are more comfortable
in making selections in
the company of friends.
Many first-time buyers
become art collectors at
these gatherings.


The Role of the Jamaican Artists

and Craftsmen's Guild (JACG) in

the Art Community

The Garden Gallery at Devon House on
weekends is useful in making small reasonably
priced work available to new art collectors and
young people. This type of open showing also
gives the general public a chance to view good
quality Jamaican work without formalities and at
low overhead costs. This has given many new
artists a significant opportunity and has proved

The Art Promenade held two or three times per
year, is yet another marketing approach which has
been very successful in showcasing the works of
artists. The promenade is mounted in New
Kingston on the Victoria Mutual Building Society
property in a delightful sidewalk setting, very
accessible to all passers by. At these shows, simple
pottery, decorative art, naive art and prints do
well. The Guild has also sold works of some
leading artists in this bohemian setting that brings
to mind The Village in Manhattan and Bayswater
Road in London's West End.

Formal group exhibitions are held two to three
times per year in the Corporate Area and take the
form of juried Guild shows with stated selection
criteria. These are good at getting attention but are
not the most effective method of stimulating sales.

All promotional exhibitions aim to give the Guild's
members the widest exposure to markets locally
and internationally. It has also been the Guild's
experience that the more frequent the exhibitions,
the more improvement is seen in the work of its
members. The artists themselves cite this as the
most satisfying aspect of their participation.

The welfare aspect of JACG addresses matters
concerning the legal rights of artists e.g. copyright
laws, securing health and life insurance coverage
for the group, establishing scholarship and welfare
funds for needy artists and fund raising activities to
benefit all development programmes.
Another major means of achieving the Guild's
objectives is the publishing of its first book, "A
Celebration of Jamaican Art" This book is
comprised of interviews with reproductions of


Poster advertising JACG Exhibition at The Tryall Club. It depicts works by
Donnette Zacca, Margaret McGhie, Courtney Morgan, Joshua Higgins, Viv
Logan, Christopher Gonzales, Leopold Barnes and Sonia Richards.

some of the work of 17 of the most influential and well-
known Jamaican artists of the previous 70 years.

These include Carl Abrahams, Cecil Baugh, Hope
Brooks, David Boxer, Alexander Cooper, Cecil Cooper,
Karl (Jerry) Craig, Gloria Escoffrey, Milton Harley,
Christopher Gonzales, Dorothy Henriques Wells, Albert
Huie, Judy Ann MacMillan, Seya Parboosingh, David
Pottinger, Barrington Watson and Allan Zion.

The interviews record faithfully (as much as is possible)
recorded the artists' own opinions about their lives and a
particularly favourite work of their own, providing a
direct access to the artists' own opinions, not the art
critics interpretations (which is in production).


Medallists 2000.
Seated, left to right:
Mr. Sidney Morris,
Mrs. Muriel Whynn,
Mr. John "Doc" Williamson,
Dr Cherrell Robinson,
Mrs. Hope Wheeler,
Miss Petrona Morrison,
Miss Vilma McClennon.
Standing left to right:
Dr. Earl McKenzie,
Dr. Dale Webber,
Mr Lennie Little-White,
Mr. Lloyd Parkes,
Representatives of The
University Singers and
Mr. Barrington Watson.



Taking The Musgrave To The Streets

Sadies and Gentlemen,
honoured guests, many of
Syou are wondering, what
new spirit has seized the
Institute of Jamaica, blocking off the
street to stage the Musgrave Awards

Professor Barry Chevannes, Chairman of
the Institute of Jamaica raised the question
to the audience assembled for the
presentation of the Musgrave Medals who
were accommodated in a special
"staging area" created on East
Street between Barry Street and
Water Lane on the afternoon of
Wednesday, October 11, 2000.
Prof. Chevannes went on to
provide the answer:
"This Award Ceremony is the
premier event in our calendar.
Over the years we have been forced

to stage it at the oddest hour of the day,
because in hosting it after working hours,
as would be normal practice, most of our
guests living uptown, in their fear of the
dangers to life and limb, would be

"The Council of the Institute deliberated
hard on this matter. Should the Musgrave
Award be moved to a "normal hour" to
allow the hundreds who are crippled by
fear to attend and in moving the hour also
move the venue to an uptown location? Or
should things stay as they are?

"To the first question, the Council
answered NO. We are not moving. And to
the second question, should things remain
the same, the answer was the same. NO. We
are going nowhere, but things cannot remain
the same. And if they cannot remain the same,
we cannot remain the same either.


performs at the Musgrave medal ceremony

"We cannot simply exist and function
from 8 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. We have to make
ourselves part of the war effort, putting
the little we can with the bigger efforts of
other players seeking to make our city
safe on certain ground again. We salute
the Mechalas and the Graces, the Gleaner
Company and the many business houses,
which have made it their earnest to work
for peace and the transformation of the
inner city of Kingston.

"We salute the Kingston Restoration
Company and the many other Non-
Governmental Organizations that have
taken their stand. We salute the many inner
city community leaders and activists who
are searching for their own methods of
changing themselves and their communities
from within. The Institute of Jamaica makes
their effort ours as well.

"We signal our resolve by recognizing
and inviting for the first time the
community leaders. We signal our resolve
by a symbolic embrace of our crippled
city in extending these Awards outdoors
on to its streets and by staging this
sidewalk exhibition of city life in its
honour. In every quarter, in every sector,
the war must be waged. None can be


he 2000 Musgrave Medals recognized excellence in the
field of Music, Art, Film and Television, Science,
Literature, Art Education, Library Studies, Folk Heritage.
Medals were presented as follows:

University Singers
Mr Barrington Watson CD
Mr Monty Alexander CD

Mrs Vilma McClennon
Mrs Hope Wheeler
Ms Petrona Morrison
Dr Earl McKenzie
Dr Dale Webber
Mr Lennie Little White

Mr Sydney Morris
Mr Lancelot Bryan
Mrs Muriel Whynn
John "Doc" Williamson
Mr Lloyd Parkes
Dr Cherrell Shelley Robinson

- Music
- Art
- Music

- Sciences
- Art Education
- Art
- Literature
- Sciences
- Film & Television

- Music
- Art
- Folk Heritage
- Art
- Music
- Literature

ATHE UNIVERSITY SINGERS was established in the cadences of other cultures, moving easily from Mahler
academic year 1957-58 on the Mona Campus of the to Marley. The choir provides not only creative outlet
University of the West Indies. From an initial group of for the student body of the University but represents the
seven, it has grown over they years into a robust institution in numerous international appearances,
ensemble with a large and varied repertoire, distinguishing itself always by its adherence to the
incorporating the rhythms of the Caribbean with the ideals of excellence.

4 BARRINGTON WATSON CD is the first Jamaican/West Indian to
study at the Royal College of Arts, London. After further studies
in other distinguished European centres of art, he returned to his
native land, to make his contribution as artist and educator. In the
field of education, his most significant contribution was to the
Jamaica School of Arts and Crafts where he was head and
Director of Studies. He co-founded the Contemporary Jamaican
Artists Association (1964) and established his own gallery as
well. His skill in portraiture, his eye for capturing the nuances of
the Jamaican landscape and its people, has distinguished him as a
major figure in the arts of Jamaica, the Caribbean and beyond.

MONTY ALEXANDER CD is recognized internationally as "an )
idiosyncratic" composer of original music and a brilliant pianist
with extraordinary technique." His compositions are
distinguished by the fusion of jazz with Caribbean rhythms,
which has excited audiences and critics internationally. A
professional recording artist, he has over 50 CD recordings to his
credit and numerous appearances at major global music festivals.
Mr. Alexander carries the flag of Jamaica high wherever he



Dr. Laura Tanna reviews
"Rock It Come Over:
The Folk Music of Jamaica"
by Dr. Olive Lewin
Published by University of the West Indies Press,
Kingston, 2000

T his is a must read for anyone \\ho
wants to know Jamaica beurie b\
comprehending the nuances of pain
and spirituality pervading
traditional life. Dr. Olive
Lewin guides us through the
subtleties of selected lyrics and
rhythms. Opening with a well
written foreword by the Rt. Hon.
Edward Seaga, who first set Lewin
onto the path of collecting
Jamaican traditional music with
her appointment as Folk Music
Research Officer for the
Government in 1966. The book
also includes an introduction by
James Early of the Smithsonian
Institution and a Preface by
Robinson Jeffers which provides a context for
this doctoral dissertation, fine-tuned into the
expression of a life's work.

Wisely, in the first chapter, "The Making of a
Musician", Lewin uses her own life as a filter,
writing of "the emotional security I craved to
an inordinate extent," to hint at the impact of
her rural childhood, life at colonial Hampton
School and then as the only black student at the
Royal Academy of Music in London.
Ultimately gaining degrees as both a concert
pianist and singer, Lewin taught and performed
in Jamaica and the UK before finally assuming
her place as researcher, educator, cultural


administrator and interpreter of Jamaican traditional music.
Later chapters under the headings "Cults and Cult Music in
Jamaica" and "Kumina and Queenie Kennedy" particularly
Dr. Lewin's analysis of Kumina beliefs beginning on page 224
- are explicit, understandable elucidations of the immensely rich
spiritual world which is the fabric of traditional Jamaican life.

Dr. Lewin's frequent references to the Memory Bank might have
been enhanced by more detail about those involved in its
creation and research and by providing reference material on the
Memory Bank in the bibliography, but the very few reference
flaws and occasional omissions are easily remedied in a reprint,
and make on mistake, there will be many, many more printings
of "Rock It Come Over" because this elegantly written book is
destined to become a Jamaican classic!



Digital Art

"Contemplation Plane"

Today, Computers have
become more than just a
tool or an Administrative
Assistant. With powerful
software, a great deal of
creative work is being
produced. Noted Jamaican
artist Patrick Waldemar
shares some of his collec-
tion and the method of

U sing photographs that I've taken over the years as my
'palette' of images and the computer as my brush/
toolbox. I've painted/ constructed images and scenes that
try to express my feelings on a range of subject from race, religion,to
nature and the environment.
To achieve these images, I used Adobe Photoshop and Meta
Creations Painter. These software allows me to manipulate, distort,
merge, in short 'paint' with images.
I've used only images that I personally have taken in order to ensure
that my perspective or 'eye' would be involved at all times... be it
from the standpoint of subject matter or actual image composition.


... there is resistance to
using the computer in
creating fine art, as if
the computer is what
generates the ideas.

C computer generated art is one
of the newer forms being ..- .
explored by artists worldwide. I . : -- ..,v

I find it a fascinating medium to "Atlantis"
work with. Surprisingly, in
talking with some of the younger
artists (much less the Jamaican
art public) there is resistance to
using the computer in creating
fine art, as if the computer is
what generates the ideas.

We need to keep in mind that
when paint started coming in
tubes instead of being handmade
by the artist, there was an equal
amount of scoffing as to the
validity of that 'new' medium. -"
Unfortunately, resistance to
change is alive and healthy."

"Verandah Memories"

"; Sorry, Wrong Garden"



Biodiversity Hot Spots

Dr. Elaine Fisher
Chairman National Bio-diversity
Strategy and Action Plan

B eing classified a bio-
diversity hot spot by
Conservation International,
a Foundation based in
Washington, D.C, is not
necessarily a good thing. However,
this is the case with the Caribbean.
The concept of biodiversity hotspots
was enunciated by British ecologist
Norman Myers 1988 and further
elaborated on in 1990. It was further
refined by Conservation
International in 1996 and between
1996 1998 a team of over 100
scientist re-analysed hot spots
coming up with additional areas at
which time the Caribbean was added.
The concept has gain much attention
and is now being used as a strategy
for conservation management.

What are biodiversity hot spots?
Myers noticed that a large percentage
of global biological diversity, (that
is, the variability among living
organisms from all sources including
marine, terrestrial ecosystems)
occurred in ecosystems covering
relatively small land areas, mainly in
tropical forests. In more precise
terms these hot spots cover less than
two percent of earth (1.4 %), yet are
home to 44 percent of all vascular
(woody) plant species and 38 percent
of four vertebrate groups. The four
vertebrate groups are amphibians,
reptiles, birds and mammals.

Broughtonia negrilensis, one of the many orchids endemic to Jamaica.

To qualify as a hot spot an area had
to satisfy two criteria:
* High level of species endemism
(species found nowhere else),
with at least 1,500 species of
endemic vascular plants or at
least half percent of all vascular
plant species,
* Degree of threat, that is, having
only 30 percent of its original

It is estimated that in the Caribbean
there are 7,000 endemic species of
plants and 779 endemic species of
vertebrates with only eleven percent
primary vegetation remaining.
These biodiversity hot spots occur
worldwide: in developed countries,
developing countries and least

developed countries. They are
found in tropical forests and
Mediterranean-type zones, on
islands, on continents. There are 25
designated hot spots and are found
in places such as:

* The Philippines
* Madagascar and the
Indian Ocean Islands
* Eastern Indonesia
* Caucasus
* South Africa's Cape floristic
* Southwestern Australia
* New Zealand
* The California floristic
* Mesoamerica
* The Tropical Andes
and of course the Caribbean.


By detailed examination of the data
from the 25 hotspots, priority
ranking can be made by looking at
absolute biodiversity, species
diversity and or group endemism. In
terms of endemic biodiversity, the
Caribbean ranks among the top five.
The Caribbean also ranks among the
top ten for on total plant and
vertebrate diversity. The top hot spot
for reptile diversity is Mesoamerica,
which is followed by the Caribbean.
The top ranking for reptile
endemism is the Caribbean.

The Philippines, Madagascar and
the Indian Ocean Islands and the
Caribbean, all tropical islands, are
considered the "hottest of the hot"
demonstrating the importance of
islands in global biodiversity and the
need to give special attention to the
biodiversity of these islands.

By identifying these hot spots,
conservationists hope to focus on
those areas where conservation
action will result in the largest
percentage of species conserved.
The burden of rehabilitating these
hot spots would be shared in a
manner equivalent to their
importance globally. For instance, in
identifying the Caribbean as a hot
spot, it is hoped that the region
would receive international aid to
address its biodiversity loss in
proportion to the importance of the
region's biodiversity globally.

A funding campaign was started
in 1989, with the main supporters
being Conservation International,
The World Wildlife Fund, the
MacArthur Foundation and the W.
Alton Jones Foundation. In 2000 a
new fund was launched as a joint
initiative of Conservation
International, the World Bank and
the Global Environmental Facility.
The fund is 'exclusively for local
groups whose work is central to
protecting the biodiversity hotspots".

The Jamaican ground iguana is found in the Helshire Hills, St. Catherine
The Jamaican ground iguana is found in the Hellshire Hills, St. Catherine

The hot spots strategy seeks not
only to preserve biodiversity but
also to use it sustainably.
Recognising that the use of land
for agriculture is one of, if not the
main cause of biodiversity loss
and that wide spread hunger is
persistent in many of the

designated hotspot areas, environ-
mentalists and agriculturists are
devising strategies to conserve
bio-diversity while at the same
time providing sufficient food for
people who live in biodiversity


XEROX is developing a recyclable newspaper made of tiny plastic
balls mixed into rubber, to download news via cellphone or satellite.
Expected to be in use within three years.

IBM is collaborating with the Vatican to digitize and make more widely
available its collection of rare books by Dante, Virgil, Aristotle, Homer
and others.

Microsoft expects to have a Tablet PC, weighing one kilogram, on the
market by 2002. It will connect to the Internet and will be powered for
eight to ten hours by a life-long battery and an Intel compatible
processor about 700megahertz with 10 gigabytes of storage on the hard
drive, capable of storing up to half million pages of notes. The 81/2" x
1" Tablet can also be used as a stereo, movie screen, book or notepad.


The n

(Pachyrhizus sp.):
A Potential
West Indian
Junor A. Barnes and Ya Benl *
Aldrin V. Gomes
The Yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp. ) is an ancient root
crop, that is endogenous to Southern Mexico and
the Amazon headwater region of South America,
with strong historical links with the West Indies. Its
delicious tasting, white crunchy tuber is enriched with
proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins and its seeds and
pods have several natural insecticides.


sp.) is a versatile root crop
that was central to the
village economy of the
Aztecs in central Mexico,
the Mayans in the Yucatan peninsula
in pre-Columbian times and the Incas
of Peru. Its earliest modern systematic
name was Dolichos tuberosus. It was
transferred from the genus Dolichos
to Pachyrhizus by the Danish
Botanist, Sprengel. The name
Pachyrhizus is derived from the
Greek pachy, meaning thick skinned
and rhiza, meaning roots in reference
to the thick skinned tuberous roots of
these plants.

The earliest records show that the
plant was present in Puerto Rico in
1758 and was grown in Martinique
before 1829. In 1887, Yam bean seeds
under the name Dolichos tuberosus,
were given to officials at the Kew
Royal Botanical Gardens by Mr. J.
Hart (superintendent of the Botanical
Gardens in Trinidad) and distributed to
the Botanical Gardens of Calcutta,
Ceylon, Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney
and Adelaide. Some Yam bean species,
including P. tuberosas and P.
angulatas, had been widely introduced
throughout tropical British Colonies
including Trinidad by the Royal
Botanic Gardens at Kew (UK) in 1889.

Specimens of these introduced plants
are preserved at the National
Herbarium, the University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Cultivation of P. erosus (L.) Urban
has been recorded in Cuba, Jamaica,
Puerto Rico, Antigua, St. Kitts,
Martinique, Guadeloupe, St. Croix,
St. Thomas, St. Vincent and Trinidad.
P. tuberosus was introduced to
Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Dominican
Republic and Trinidad whereas P.
ferrugineus (Piper) is known to have
been introduced to Cuba, Martinique
and Trinidad Although yam bean was



R erosrr
*P. erosus & P ferrugineus

D erosus, P. tuberosus, P ferrugineus

Distribution of Pachyrhizus sp. in the West Indies

introduced in Trinidad in 1889 as a
plant of valuable economic
importance, except for being
mentioned in a book by
R.O.Williams entitled "The useful
and ornamental plants of Trinidad
and Tobago", no information is
available on the presence of the
genus Pa. h\ili:,\ in Trinidad until
1989 when Dr. G. Sirju-Charran
(U.W.I., St. Augustine) introduced
P erosus (L.) urban into Trinidad
from Denmark. P erosus is now
grown in an experimental plot at
U.W.I., St. Augustine, however
there is no wide-scale agricultural
development of this crop in
Trinidad at the present time.

The genus Pachyrhizus has been the
subject of a recent comprehensive
biosystematic study by Dr. M.
S0rensen of the Institute of Botany,
Royal Veterinary and Agricultural
University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Sorensen classified Pachyrhizus
into 5 species: P ahipa (Wedd.)
Parodi, P. erosus (L.) Urban, P.
ferrugineus (piper) S0rensen,P.
panamensis Clausen and P.
tuberosus (Lam.) Spreng. In this
classification other species which
were previously recognized (such
as P angulatus and P. palmitilobus



~ *~~ IRhi''I

have been reclassified according
to their general characteristics.
Although five species have been
identified, considerable variations
occur within the genus which
make the yam bean a potentially
highly valuable crop that is
adapted to a wide range of
climatic and ecological
conditions. P. erosus and P
tuberosus are the most well
known and investigated species
but P. erosus (Fig.2) is the most
widely grown species. The two
species differ mainly in size with
P. tuberosus producing much
larger root tubers.

P. erosus is indigenous to South
Western Mexico and Northern
Central America and is presently
cultivated in Singapore, India and
Hawaii. P tuberosus is believed to
be native to the Amazon
headwater region of South
America and is presently
cultivated in China and
Venezuela. P. ahipa is widely
cultivated in Bolivia and Peru but
has received almost no agronomic
attention outside these regions
although the tuber is similar in
size to P erosus. The ahipa plant
is small, non-climbing, fast-

maturing and insensitive to day
length; it begins flowering 2.5
months after planting and is
harvested after five to six months.
P ferrugineus (Sorensen) and P.
panamensis (Clausen) are
undomesticated relatives that also
produce tuberous roots but it is not
certain whether they are edible. The
Mexican yam bean (P. erosus) is the
most economically important crop
and is known by several common
names such as: jicama (Mexico)
ahipa (South America), Dolique
Tubereux (French West Indies),
Pais Patate (French West Indies),
Jacatup6 (Brazil), Knollige Bohne
(Germany), Fan-Ko (China),
Sinkamas (Philippines) Sankalu
(India) and Yaka or Wayaka (Fiji).
The Mexican Yam bean (P erosus,
jicama), which is a popular food in
Mexico, Central America and parts
of Tropical Asia, is sold in some
supermarkets in the United States
and Canada. The crisp, crunchy,
sweet white flesh of the tuber can
be eaten raw or cooked and is a
popular component of salads. In
contrast, the purple stripes of the P.
ahipa tuber makes it a decorative
addition to salads.

Cultivation of Yam bean
The Yam bean can be planted at
anytime of the year and requires
very little ground preparation
ranging from simply raking the soil
and planting the seeds at 40cm
intervals along the center and edges
of the beds. Tuberization time is
variable and dependent on the
photo period or day length. In
Guadeloupe, when Yam bean seeds
are planted in May they flower after
three months and the pods and
tubers are mature after six to seven
months. However, tuberization is
completed in three months before
the flowers actually bloom when
the seeds are sown in December.
The rapid tuberization is promoted

Fig 2. The Mexican Yam bean (achyrhizus erosus) Photo D. Superville, U.W.I.

by the shorter photo periods. Yam
bean production is also enhanced in
cool temperate regions.

Since the Yam bean belongs to the
family Fabaceae (formerly
leguminosae) it fixes atmospheric
nitrogen with the aid of the
symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria,
Rhizobium, which colonizes its
roots. Yam bean is often
intercropped with Zea mays (maize)
on small scale farms in order to
facilitate production of a root crop
and a grain crop simultaneously
while increasing the fertility of the
soil. On a large scale basis, Yam
bean is usually cultivated as a
monocrop. The tuber yield per
hectare is estimated at 40-50 tonnes
although experimental plots give
much higher yields. Common post
harvest problems include
dehydration, mould growth and
sprouting. The rate of water loss
was found to be lower than reported
for other root and tuber crops. Yam
bean tuber is best stored at 0-5o C or
15-25"C because chilling injury,
which occurs at around 12.5C, is
accompanied by excessive
breakdown of starch to sucrose.

Seed and Tuber

The flattened, brownish-red
seeds develop into
branched, running or
climbing stems (Fig.2). The
mature pods (Fig. 3) and seeds,
which develop from attractive
purple flowers (Fig. 1), are
reported to be unsafe to eat but
the immature pods are edible and
quite delectable. The ground
seeds were found to be fatal to
gold fish at a concentration of
1:500. The toxic property of the
seeds may be due in part to
rotenone which has been
extracted in moderate amounts
from the seeds. Nevertheless,
rotenone exhibits low toxicity and
has a short-lived action in
vertebrates. Several other
compounds with insecticidal
properties have also been isolated
from the mature seeds. Treatment
of P. erosus seeds with various
concentrations of mutagens (such
as ethyl methanesulfonate)
resulted in mutants with higher
tuber yields and better quality in
subsequent generations. Some
mutants had higher tuber weight


Fig 3. Yam bean pods Photo D. Superville, U.W.I.

and protein contents while others had b
higher starch content. Further work,
utilizing this and other direct-acting d
mutagens (eg. dimethyl sulfate and
methyl nitrosourea), may provide
interesting varieties of yam bean
tubers. The brownish sugar beet
shaped tubers of P. erosus (Fig. 4)
have a thick, tough skin which peals
off easily revealing the white,
succulent tuber which has a pleasant,
delicious flavor. The tubers are
handled, stored and marketed in a
similar manner as potatoes and sweet
potatoes. Typical size tubers weigh
0.2-2.0kg, but fully developed tubers
can weigh as much as 3kg.

Preparation of the tuber
The Yam bean tuber is prepared by
removing the peel leaving the fibrous
flesh directly under the skin (the layer
under the skin is rich in proteins).



The plain boiled tubers are a
very good substitute for
other root crops such as
yams (Discorea sp.), potato
(Solanumn tuberosum) or
sweet potatoes (Ipomea
batatas). In several
countries such as Mexico,
Hawaii and Indonesia, raw
yam bean tubers is used in
salads combined with
papaya and water melon, as
replacements for water
chestnuts because paper
thin slices seem to keep
their characteristic
freshness and the cut tubers
absorb sauces quickly
without softening. Fried
yam bean chips stay crisp
when cooked and retain a
nice flavour. One pound of
Mexican yam bean yields
about three cups of chopped
flesh. One pound of cubed
yam bean could be
microwaved with a 1/4 cup
of water for 4 minutes. This
)uld then be served with honey,
hitter, salt and pepper, sweet and
ur sauce, sour cream or yogurt

Starch content
Yam bean tubers are a rich source
of high quality starch (15 to 22%
of the dry weight) with a low
calorific value. The starch is easily
digested (approximately two times
more digestible than potato starch)
and is ideal for use in the
preparation of parenteral food,
baby foods and for making
custards and puddings. An
excellent flour is also obtained
from finely ground, thin slices of
tuber that can be dried in the sun.
The starch grains of the tuber that
are dispersed in the cytoplasm of
parenchyma cells are usually small
(varying in size for 3-9 microns)
and assume either circular or
angular shapes.

Protein and Vitamin Content
Yam bean tubers contain 1.5 to 5
times the protein content of other
root crops on a dry weight basis.
Previous studies have shown that
the yam bean tuber is enriched in
both acidic and essential amino
acids which are invariably
obtained from plants (Table 1). P.
erosus has a higher N content (3-5
times) than potatoes, sweet

Amino Acid per 100g Amino Acid per 1009

Asparagine 12.8 -55.1 Glutamic acid 5.4- 11.7
*Valine 3.2 8.2 *Leucine 2.9 7.9
*Lysine 3.3 7.8 *Arginine 5.0- 7.4
Serine 3.3 6.3 Alanine 2.5- 5.6
*Phenylananine 2.3 5.1 *Threonine 2.7 5.0
Glycine 1.9 5.0 *lsoleucine 2.1 4.8
Tyrosine 1.7 4.7 Proline 2.5- 4.4
*Histidine 2.5 3.2 *Methionine 0.8- 1.5
Cysteine 0.4 1.0 *Tryptophan +

+ present but not quantitated From Evans et al. 1977.
nutritionally essential

Table 1. Amino Acid Composition of Yam Bean Tuber Meal

potatoes, cassava and taro roots.
However 20 to 30% of the nitrogen
fraction of the yam bean tuber
occurs within the epidermal cortex,
which is lost with the usual peeling

The vitamin content of the yam
bean tuber is comparable to that of
cassava, yam and irish potato (Table
2). It is enriched in vitamin C,
thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2) and
niacin (B3. The seeds are enriched
in proteins, carbohydrates, fats
(mainly oleic, linoleic and palmitic
fatty acids) as well as iron and
calcium. The seed proteins consist
mainly of glutelins with anti-
nutritional substances, tannins,
haemagglutinins and trypsin
inhibitors in low concentrations. In
Brazil, the seeds of P erosus has
been processed to obtain a flour
which had good digestibility in
vitro, significant reduction in
rotenoids and was rich in essential
amino acids except methionine.

Other Nutrients
f the tubers: cassava, yam,
sweet potato and irish
potato and yam bean the
latter has the lowest calorific value
and the highest water content. Its
protein content is comparable to that
of sweet potato on a wet weight
basis and the fat content is
comparable to all the tubers with the

exception of sweet potato which
has a higher fat content. Yam bean
has the lowest carbohydrate
content and a calcium and
phosphorous content which is
lower than cassava and sweet

Other Uses
Although the yam bean plant is
noted for its delectable tubers, this
legume is reported to have several
other uses. The Otomis of San
Pablito, Mexico made dolls from
bark paper which represent the
spirits of seeds of various crops
including the yam bean. Ancient
Peruvian pottery have also been
found which shows the yam bean
tuber and plant depicted on it. The
plant makes a good green manure
because animals rarely graze on it.
In Java, powdered seeds are used
in folk medicine for skin
afflictions such as prickly heat and
half a seed is also utilized as a
laxative. The vines are used for
making fish nets in Fiji.

Only a few pests are known to
attack the yam bean plant, these
include a mealy bug which

Constituent Cassava Yam Yam Bean Sweet Irish
Tuber Potato Potato

mg per 100g edible portion

Thiamin (B,) 0.07 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.11

Riboflavin (B2) 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.16 0.04

Niacin (B3) 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.8 1.2

Vitamin C 30.0 10.0 20.0 25.0 8.2

Calcium 25.0 10.0 16.0 22.0 8.0

Iron 1.0 0.3 1.13 0.7 0.5

Table 2. Vitamin and Trace Element Composition of the Mexican Yam Bean


transmits a systemic mosaic vims, a
species of weevil which attacks the
seeds and a fungus which attacks

Future Prospects
A although the genus Pachy-
rhizus is attributed with
being the highest producer
of leguminous tubers on a world
basis, the yam bean remains a
highly under-exploited plant. The
yam bean grows easily and
produces a crop which has many
favorable qualities such as:

*susceptibility to few pests by
virtue of its endogenous

* resilience to hurricanes (since
the plant sustains minimal
damage and recovers readily in
the aftermath of hurricanes);

* high quality starch and high
protein content.

Active West Indian research on P.
erosus is in progress at the
Department of Life Sciences and the
Biochemistry Unit, Faculty of
Medical Sciences, U.W.I, St.
Augustine, Trinidad and at the
Labatoire de Physiologie et
Biochimie Vegetates, Centre INRA
des Antilles et de la Guyane, Pointe-
a-Pitre, Guadeloupe. The main
thrust of our group at U.W.I. is to

promote the yam bean as a crop of
nutritional and economic
importance in the West Indies.

Further research is required to
reduce its susceptibility to post-
harvest spoilage due to moulds,
dehydration and shrivelling at room
temperature and to establish new
vigorous varieties with improved
protein and starch content. It is
widely believed that such
improvements could be achieved
much more rapidly by traditional
breeding and varietal selection than
by genetic engineering. There is,
never-theless, a promising future
for yam bean as a potential West
Indian crop.

Evans, I.M., Boulter, D., Eaglesham, A.R.J. and Dart,
P.J. (1977) Protein content and protein quality of
tuberous roots of some legumes determined by
chemical methods. Qualitas plantanum, Plant
Food for Human Nutrition 27, 275-285.

Gomes, A.V., Sirju-Charran, G. and Barnes, J.A. (1997)
Major proteins of Yam Bean tubers.
Phytochemistry. 4G, 185- 193.

Lundell, C.L. (1938) Plants probably utilized by the old
empire Maya of Peten and adjacent lowlands.
Michigan Acad. Sci. Papers 24, 37-56.

Melo, A.E., Krieger, N. and Montenegro-Stamford,
T.L. (1994) Physicochemical properties of
Jacatupe (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) starch.
Starch 46, 245-247.

Schroeder, C.A. (1968) The Jicama, a rootcrop from
Mexico. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Trop. Region

National Research Council (1989) Lost Crops of the
Incas: little known plants of the Andes with
Promise for worldwide cultivation. National
Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 38-45.

S0rensen, M. (1990) Observations on distribution,
ecology and cultivation of the tuber-bearing
legume genus, Pachyrhizus Rich. Ex DC.
Wageningen Agric. Univ. Papers 90-3,1 -38.

Tadera, K., Tanguchi, T., Teremoto, M., Arima, M.,
Yagi, F., Kobayashi, A., Nagahama, T. and
Alshihata, K. (1984) Protein and starch in tubers
of winged bean, Psophocarpus tetra gonolobus
(L.) DC., and yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.)
urban. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture
(Kagoshima University) 20, 73-81.

Williams R.O. (1951) The useful and ornamental plants
of Trinidad and Tobago. 41t Ed. Port of Spain
Trinidad Guardian Comm. Printery.



he National History
Division of the Institute
of Jamaica, officially
opened its Coral Reef
Diorama on October 2,
2000. The Diorama is a three-
dimensional representation of a
healthy Jamaican coral reef.
The exhibit contains a variety of
sea life that together create a
magnificent underwater display
of colours.

The idea of a coral reef diorama
originated with Dr Elaine
Fisher, former director of the
National History Division and
at the time Executive Director
of the Institute of Jamaica.

This was to commemorate the Year
of the Sea. Artist Karl 'Jerry' Craig
was contacted and asked create this
diorama. This he did, with his
company Artistic Visions. The
Natural History Division had a good
collection of coral and sponges
some of which they allowed him to
include in the display, they of course
were dead coral and sponges and
therefore had to be dyed and painted
to resemble their live forms. Most
of the fishes and other objects within
the display were created and painted
to be as lifelike as possible and
placed within the display.

In describing the project, Mr. Craig
says "The Diorama is indeed created
to convey to Jamaicans and visitors

alike the importance of the marine
biodiversity with which our island
is blessed, the benefits of which
we all take for granted and which
through our careless lifestyles are
in great danger of losing. It is an
educational tool to bring to the
people's attention the wealth, not
just of its obvious beauty, but to
emphasize its importance to our
very existence. The hundreds of
species of fish and other marine
organisms, the protection of our
shorelines afforded by our coral
reefs, our beautiful white sand
beaches, a wonderful recreational
source much needed for our tourist
industry also. There is yet another
reason, the possibility of new


medical and agricultural products.
All of this can easily disappear in a
'Twinkling of an eye', if we the
inhabitants of our beautiful isle do
not begin to take a more responsible
attitude towards the protection of
our marine environment.

We encourage you the general
public and in particular bring the
children, the youth and future of our
country, to see, be educated and
learn to appreciate our environment
be it on land or in the sea, and
encourage them to protect what is
indeed their natural heritage."

For further information or to
arrange visits, please contact:
Tel : (876) 922-0620 to 6;
Fax: (876) 922-1147:
Email: nhd.ioj@mail.infochan.com

Dr. Elaine Fisher, former Executive Director of the Institute of Jamaica,
expresses her delight in the opening of the Coral Reef Diorama. Looking on are
Mrs. Lisa Henlin, Acting Head of the Natural History Division and Karl "Jerry"
Craig, artist and creative consultant for the Coral Reef exhibit

Photo: H. Lumley

The Museum of Natural History, Institute of Jamaica
has on sale note cards reflecting (left) Sergeant
Majors and Elkhorn Coral, (centre) Virgin Nerites
(right) Foureye Butterflyfish and Tube Sponge. The
cards also include notations on the back with the
species information, characteristics and habitat.





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Historic Structures

Malabre House

Malabre House at No. 11 North Street. Kingston is
among the most beautiful and important examples of
19th century townhouse architecture. It was originally
the property of the merchant family of Malabre who
were of Haitian emigre descent. The\ reached the
zenith of their wealth and influence in the last twenty
years of the nineteenth century. The family had at least
three houses on North Street in addition to an attrac-
tive house on 150 East Street and another at "The
Grove" in Gordon Town.

They also owned the property of Mahoe in Portland
and for a time w ere the owners of Colbeck estate x ith
its ruined castle, near Old Harbour. St. Catherine. The
most prominent member of the Malabre family at that
time was William Malabre i1823-1895) v ho was
elected a member of the Legislative Council in 1 .-4
and served until I,.'-

The main facade of Malabre House faces North Street
and the remaining lot extends to the back lane. Little
North Street. Research u -L'c.t, that the main house
was originally an eighteenth century single storey
brick building with a very steeply pitched hip roof

\which underwent expansion it II r.i C instructionn
sometime in the 19th century. Tliilti'c *'.*.,uld have,/
been laid out in a more or less -. iin lnrcal plan with
glazed sash x indows,. all proportioned in the Georgian
fashion. In the rear of the main building there are ser-
\ants' quarters and a carriage house around an elegant
central court ard.

Between the 1950s( and 7()s. these buildings housed
the Jamaica School of Art until it was moved to Arthur
\Vint Drixe in 1976. Thereafter. it was the temporary
home of the African-Caribbean Institute of Jamaica. A
programme of restoration is underway for this magnif-
icent edifice ill to become the Museum of Jamaican
Music w while the buildings around the central courtyard
will once again revert to the use of artists.

A bursar\ in the name of Delve, Molesxworth. [mem-
ber of the Institute of Jamaica xiho along with Edna
Manley helped to la\ the foundation for the develop-
ment of Jamaican Art] has been awarded to a graduate
student of the Edna Manley College of the Visual and
Performing Arts to occupy a studio there for one year.

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