Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 History and life
 The arts
 Youth journal
 Back Cover

Title: Jamaica journal
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00090030/00069
 Material Information
Title: Jamaica journal
Series Title: Jamaica journal.
Abbreviated Title: Jam. j.
Physical Description: v. : ill. (part col.) ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Jamaica
Publisher: Institute of Jamaica.
Place of Publication: Kingston
Publication Date: October 1995
Frequency: semiannual
Subject: Periodicals -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with Dec. 1967 issue.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090030
Volume ID: VID00069
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01797964
lccn - 75027862
issn - 0021-4124

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    History and life
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34-35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The arts
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Youth journal
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Back Cover
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text

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Nobody does it better




Editor Leeta Heame
Subscription/Editorial Assistant Faith Myers
Design and Production Dennis Ranston

JAMAICA JOURNAL is published on behalf
of the Institute of Jamaica by
Institute of Jamaica Publications Limited.

Managing Director
Patricia V. Roberts
Accounts Ngozi Cockett
Sales Reps Denise Clarke
Gassan Smith
Advertising Sales Gloria Forsyth
Printers Pear Tree Press
All correspondence should be addressed to:
IOJ Publications Limited
2a Suthermere Road, Kingston 10, Jamaica
Telephone (809) 929-4785/6
Fax No: (809) 92-68817
Back Issues: Some back issues are available. List
sent on request. Entire series available on microfilm
University Microfilms,
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106, USA.
Subscriptions:J$240 for 3 issues (in Jamaica only);
UK: Individuals: 15, Institutions: 20.
All other countries: Individuals: US$25. Institutions:
Single copies: J$.... (in Jamaica only)

All sent second class airmail.
We accept UNEsco coupons. Contact your local
UNEsco office for details.
Advertising: Rates sent on request.
Index: Articles appearing in JAMAICA JOURNAL are
abstracted and indexed in HITORICAL AssTRACis,
Vol. 25 No.3. Copyright 0 1995 by Institute of
Jamaica Publications Ltd. Cover or contents may not
be reproduced in whole or in pan without written

ISSN 0021-4124

Cover Design: Dennis Ranston
Editor's Note. The special nature of JAMAICA JOURNAL
23/5 has meant that Part II of Asiatic Cholera in Jamaica by
Dr Carl Senior has not been included in this issue. Instead
the article will be appearing in its entirity in a forthcoming


Vol 25 No 3 October 1995

Special Issue

Commemorating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations

Published in Association with the National Preparatory Committee of the
United Nations

History and Life

I 2 Jamaica and the United Nations
by H. S.Walker
S10 Two Tributes: Sir Egerton Richardson and
G. Arthur Brown

12 An Overview of the United Nations
by Donnette Chambers and Michelle Marston
17 UNESCO Fifty Years in Human
by Simon Clarke

23 The International Seabed Authority
by Sheldon McDonald

34 Jamaica, the UN and the Environment
by Don Mills
44 The UN and the Changing World of Women

49 The Future of the United Nations (?)
by L. M. H. Barnett

The Arts

54 Celebrating Tolerance, Peace and
Understanding ...
Jamaica's NDTC as Cultural Ambassador
by Rex Nettleford

66 The UN and Jamaican Music Makers

62 Jamaican Art for UNICEF Cards
UNICEF, VOUCH and Richard Brown

Youth Journal

63 The UNESCO World Heritage Project

One of the remarkable features of the United
Nations is that all members, rich or poor, powerful or
weak, are given a chance to influence international
affairs. Member states, regardless of their political, eco-
nomic or social systems, can bring to the United
Nations issues of concern which they believe warrant
the attention of the international community.


and the


H S Walker
On September 21, 1962, Sir Alexander Bustamante,
then Prime Minister of the newly independent
Jamaica, applauded as the island's black, green and gold
flag was unfurled at the United Nations Headquarters in
New York, marking Jamaica's entry, on September 18th,
into that body as a member. Since then, despite limita-
tions of size and resources, Jamaica has played an out-
standing role in the United Nations' system, helping to
focus international attention on such significant matters
as human rights, decolonization, economic cooperation
and indebtedness, and women's issues.


Jamaica has served on the United
Nations Security Council (1979-1980)
and on the Economic and Social Council
on a number of occasion. Its representa-
tives have frequently been elected to the
Governing Council of several specialized
agencies and other bodies in the United
Nations Organization. Jamaican nationals
have also served with distinction in vari-
ous capacities within the Secretariat of the
United Nations. It is of some significance
that, as the international community cele-
brates the Fiftieth Anniversary of the
United Nations, Jamaica's Permanent
Representative to the United Nations in
New York served as Rapporteur of the
Preparatory Committee for that
Barely a year after becoming a member
of the United Nations, Jamaica became
highly visible when at the 1963 General
Assembly Senator Hugh Shearer, speaking
in place of Sir Alexander Bustamante, pro-
posed that 1968 be designated the
International Year for Human Rights to
mark the Twentieth Anniversary of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
In proposing that a year should be set
aside for the world to focus on human
rights, Jamaica had two objectives in
mind. The first was that the year should



be an event which would highlight and
bring new attention to the promises made
in the UN Charter and the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights; the second,
that the year should be a target towards
which the UN and its Member States
would work with renewed public commit-
ment in their efforts to give effect to the
principles of that Universal Declaration.
In June 1967, the UN General
Assembly also accepted Jamaica's propos-
al for an international conference to
review progress in the field of human
rights. The conference was to be held in
Teheran, Iran. The committee established
to organize the programme of activities for
the International Year for Human Rights

Raising the Jamaican Flag at the UN, 21.9.1972



Senator Hugh Shearer ac
Assembly, October 1962.

Mr (later Sir) Egerton Richardson, Chairman of the Committee on Human Rights, calling a meeting
to order, July 1964

was chaired by Jamaica's then Perma-
nent Representative to the UN, the late
Sir Egerton Richardson. The proclama-
tion of Teheran adopted on May 13,
1968 by the International Conference on
Human Rights expressed the belief that
the enjoyment of economic and social
rights is inherently linked with any
meaningful enjoyment of civil and politi-
cal rights and that there is a profound
interconnection between the realization
of human rights and economic develop-
ment. Since 1968, much work has been
undertaken in the United Nations, result-
ing in the adoption or entry into force of
several very important conventions and
mechanisms for the promotion and pro-
tection of human rights.

The struggle against apartheid
Jamaica's commitment to the princi-
ples of human rights and to a philoso-
phy of 'international morality' is exem-
plified by our stance on apartheid and
racism. Jamaica was at the forefront of
the international campaign against apart-
heid in South Africa, until recently
under active discussion and debate in
the United Nations. The first country to
declare a trade embargo against South
Africa, was Jamaica, as early as 1957
even while the island was still a colony
of Britain and thus without responsibility
for its external relations. Jamaica con-
sistently and unequivocally opposed
apartheid, and supported all United Na-
tions' decisions aimed at its elimination.
The struggle against apartheid had to

be carried out on two fronts. Not only
was it necessary to weaken the intransi-
gence of the regime which enforced
apartheid in South Africa: the major
industrialized countries had also to be
persuaded not to oppose the imposition
and maintenance of economic and trade
sanctions against that country. Jamaica
played a crucial role in pressing the inter-
national community to limit foreign trade
and investment in South Africa, with a
view to creating economic dislocation
which, coupled with the internal strug-
gles of the black South Africans, would
lead to the dismantling of apartheid.
Ultimately, this came about in April
1994 when national elections were held
on the principle of one man one vote and
Nelson Mandela became President of
South Africa. A Jamaican with a long
record of service in the United Nations,
Angela King, was head of the United
Nations observer team which monitored
the elections.
The effort to isolate the South African
regime also extended to the field of sport.
In 1968, the International Conference of
Human Rights strongly recommended
the exclusion of South Africa from the
membership of international sports feder-
ations and associations because of its dis-
criminatory policy in sports. Jamaica was
among those countries which worked to
bring the issue of apartheid in sports
before the United Nations and was
appointed to the ad hoc Committee set
up to draft an International Convention
against Apartheid in Sports. In December

1977, the General Assembly adopted the
International Declaration against Apart-
heid in Sports, and finally, a decade later
in 1987, the Convention.
Jamaica's role in the political and
diplomatic process to end apartheid in
South Africa has been internationally
recognized. In 1978, Michael Manley,
the then Prime Minister, was among a
group of eminent persons awarded gold
medals for distinguished service in the
struggle against apartheid.

Zambia, Namibia and Haiti
Jamaica also made a contribution to
the fall of the illegal white minority
regime in Southern Rhodesia, now
Zimbabwe. In November 1965, South-
ern Rhodesia's minority regime headed
by Ian Smith made a Unilateral Decla-
ration of Independence (UDI) from the
United Kingdom.The illegal regime was
the subject of many General Assembly
and Security Council resolutions. Man-
datory sanctions were imposed by the
Security Council until genuine majority
rule and independence were achieved in
1980. Jamaica played a part in the nego-
tiating process which was ultimately to
lead to Zimbabwe's independence.
Namibia, that vast territory to the
north-west of South Africa, is another
African country with which Jamaica has
had some degree of association. Once
known as South-West Africa, a mandate
for its administration was given to
South Africa after the First World War


Prime Minister Michael Manley (at the speaker's rostrum) receiving a standing ovation after being awarded a Gold Medal for his anti-apartheid efforts

by the League of Nations. In 1966, the
UN General Assembly terminated that
mandate on the grounds that South
Africa had failed to fulfil its obliga-
tions to the territory and in 1968 the
UN recognized its new name,
Namibia. South Africa, however,
remained entrenched in the territory
until 1989 when, under the supervision

of the United Nations Transnational
Assistance Group (UNTAG), free elec-
tions for a Constituent Assembly were
held in November. UNTAG was com-
prised of international civilian, military
and police units and included twenty-
three policemen and women from
Jamaica. The exercise was notable for
its complexity and its success as one of


Ambassador Don Mills presiding over the UN Security Council, January 1979

the most outstanding of the United
Nations' peace-keeping operations.
Nearer home, the volatile political
situation in Haiti has engaged the atten-
tion of the international community for
more than a decade. Jamaica has played
an active role in bringing the situation in
Haiti before the United Nations and in
1990, along with its CARICOM partners,
succeeded, though not without some dif-
ficulty, in ensuring that the United
Nations would provide support to Haiti
for the peaceful and efficient develop-
ment of its electoral process. The result
was the establishment of the United
Nations Observer Group for the
Verification of the Elections in Haiti
(ONUVEH). Jamaica was also
involved in persuading the United
Nations to condemn the illegal re-
placement of the constitutional
President of Haiti, Jean-Bertrand Ari-
stide, and the use of violence, military
coercion and the violation of human
rights in that country. The Multi-
national Force which oversaw the
return of President Aristide in
October 1994 included a CARICOM
contingent within which there was a
significant number of Jamaica
Defence Force personnel.


North-South Dialogue
Jamaica has been a vigorous parti-
cipant in the efforts to correct the stark
economic imbalance between the rich
countries of the North and the develop-
ing countries of the South. The Group
of 77, with members drawn from devel-
oping countries in Asia, Africa, Latin
America and the Caribbean, emerged in
1964 and, with the support of the the
United Nations Conference on Trade
and Development (UNCTAD), was able,
as a group, to attempt to gain greater
influence over international policies and
institutions in order to establish more
equitable global economic and financial
relationships. In the United Nations sys-
tem, the Group of 77 provides the main
voice of developing countries on eco-
nomic and social issues.
By the early 1970s, countries of the
Third World were agitating for funda-
mental changes in the world economic
structure. It was through the collective
efforts of these countries of the South
that their pursuit of development be-
came a part of the international eco-
nomic agenda. The United Nations was
required to respond to the development
needs of the South, even though the out-
come was often much less than the
conditions needed. Jamaica worked
closely with other members of the Non-
Aligned Movement and the G77 to seek
extensive reform of the international
economy. At their Summit in Algiers in
1973, Heads of State of the Non-
Aligned Movement called for a Special
Session of the General Assembly to dis-
cuss the problems of raw materials and
In April 1974, the United Nations
Sixth Special Session on Raw Materials
and Development adopted by consensus
a Declaration on the Establishment of a
New International Economic Order. In
addition, an agenda for the reform of
the international economic order was
broadly agreed on at the United Nations
Seventh Special Session in the follow-
ing September.
These developmental issues were
followed up at the Fourth UNCTAD
Conference held in Nairobi in May
1976. There the major achievement was
the adoption by the Conference of an
Integrated Programme for Commodities
and the decision to hold a negotiating con-
ference on a Common Fund to finance the
programme no later than March 1977.
Ambassador Herbert Walker, Jamaica's
then Permanent Representative to the
Office and Specialized Agencies of the

rw a
Prime Minister Edward Seaga speaking on South Africa to the UN General Assembly, calling for stronger
action against apartheid, October 1985

United Nations in Geneva, was the
spokesman and chief negotiator for the
developing countries at the Fourth UNC-
TAD. The year before, he had undertak-
en a similar leadership role at the
Second General Conference of the
United Nations Industrial Development
Organization (UNIDO) which adopted
the Lima Declaration calling for a sub-
stantial strengthening of UNIDO 'in
order to increase its ability in more effi-
cient ways'. The Conference also pro-
posed the transformation of UNIDO
from an autonomous organization with-
in the UN Secretariat to a specialized
Concurrently with their efforts in the
United Nations, developing and devel-
oped countries together embarked upon
an initiative to continue economic nego-
tiations between the two groups.
Jamaica was among the twenty-seven
countries nineteen developing and
eight developed which participated in
the Conference on International Eco-
nomic Cooperation, a series of meetings
convened by France and held intermit-
tently from December 1975 to June
1977. Jamaica, as the smallest country
at the Paris Conference, popularly
known as the North-South Dialogue, no
doubt owed its invitation to the passion-
ate advocacy of the New International
Economic Order by the then Prime
Minister, Michael Manley. Under his
leadership, Jamaica emerged as a domi-
nant voice promoting the causes of
developing countries and the need for a

restructuring of the world economy so
that Third World countries could reduce
their dependence on the major industri-
alized countries and ultimately establish
their economies on a more self-sustain-
ing basis. Jamaica's delegation to the
Paris Conference was headed by our
ablest and most distinguished ambas-
sador, the late Sir Egerton Richardson.
Unfortunately, the overall achievements
of the Paris Conference were modest,
one being the endorsement in principle
of a Common Fund to finance buffer
stocks for stabilizing commodity prices.
After five years of intensive debate
and negotiations under the auspices of
the United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development, an agreement
was reached in Geneva in 1980 for the
establishment of a Common Fund for
Commodities to stabilize commodity
prices and to improve production and
marketing techniques in developing
countries. Nine years later, in July 1989,
the Secretary-General of UNCTAD
opened the first meeting of the
Governing Council of the Common
Fund for Commodities. Since then, the
Fund has been operating from its head-
quarters in Amsterdam but it remains to
be seen whether it will in time have any
significant impact on the commodity
problems of developing countries.
The provision of technical assistance
through the operational activities of the
United Nations plays a crucial role in
the growth and development of devel-
oping countries.The principal channel


for assistance to developing countries
within the UN is the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and
Jamaica has not only received aid from
that body but has also served on its
Governing Council. The former Governor
of the Bank of Jamaica, the late G. Arthur
Brown, served with distinction for many
years as Associate Administrator of the

The Law of the Sea
One of the singularly important
accomplishments of the UN was the
adoption of the United Nations Con-
vention on the Law of the Sea. Jamaican
expertise, led by the country's Solicitor
General, Dr Kenneth Rattray, was active
in the evolution of the negotiations and
the crafting of the Convention which
was signed by 119 countries in Montego
Bay in December 1982. The Convention
is considered to be one of the most
important legal instruments of the cen-
tury. It establishes a universal frame-
work for the management of marine
resources and their conservation for
future generations. Jamaica had the hon-
our of being selected as the site of the
International Seabed Authority, becom-
ing one of the few countries, and the
first in the region, to host a major UN
body. The Law of the Sea Convention
came into force on November 16, 1994,
an historic event in international rela-
tions and the development of interna-
tional law. The inaugural session of the
International Seabed Authority was held
in Kingston in November 1994.

Environmental issues
As a result of action undertaken by
the United Nations, new global con-
cerns in the area of the environment
have been brought to the forefront of the
international community's attention. In
1972, at the Environmental Conference
in Stockholm, Sweden, the United
Nations adopted a historic declaration
on the need for new principles to safe-
guard the world's natural environment.
Participants also adopted a Plan of

Action calling on Governments, United
Nations Agencies and other organiza-
tions to cooperate in taking specific
steps to deal with a wide variety of envi-
ronmental problems. At that time the
Rapporteur-General of the Conference
was Jamaica's then Permanent Rep-
resentative to the United Nations,
Ambassador Keith Johnson. Together
with other developing countries, Ja-
maica was active in ensuring that the
Action Plan adopted by the Conference
included recommendations on the plan-
ning and management of human settle-
ments for environmental quality. The
purpose of this drive was to prevent
efforts being concentrated on industrial
pollution alone. International action had
to be devised to deal with problems of
pollution resulting from poor living
standards in human settlements in
other words, pollution resulting from
The United Nations Environmental
Programme (UNEP) was established by
the General Assembly in 1972 and
human settlements, inevitably, became
an important element in its activities
for the first five years of its existence,
when Jamaica was a member of the
Governing Council. It was as a result of
an initiative by Jamaica that the United
Nations Habitat and Human Settlements
Foundation was established. Jamaica
took the lead in piloting this initiative
through the Governing Council of UNEP
at its Second Session and at the General
Assembly in 1974, which decided to
establish the Foundation. Following the
HABITAT Conference in 1976, the
General Assembly further decided that
the Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC) should transform the Com-
mittee on Housing, Building and Plan-
ning into a Committee on Human
Settlements. It established a small Sec-
retariat, the United Nations Centre for
Human Settlements, UNCHS (HABITAT),
to serve as a focal point for action related
to human settlements.
UNEP's overall mandate in the field
of Human Settlements was therefore

revised and limited to environmental
aspects and consequences of the plan-
ning of human settlements.
All other responsibilities for human
settlements matters were assigned to the
new organization. Jamaica gave consis-
tent support throughout this process to
the institutional development of HABI-
TAT and served on the Governing
Council of the Commission on Human
Settlements from 1978-1983; 1985-
1991; and is now a member for the peri-
od 1993- 1996.
Twenty years after the Stockholm
conference, Jamaica was again to be
actively involved in the preparatory
process for the 1992 UN Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED)
when Ambassador Donald Mills served
as Vice-Chairman of the meetings. The
Rio Declaration on Environment Devel-
opment which emanated from the Con-
ference contained fundamental princi-
ples for the achievement of sustainable
development based on a new and equi-
table global partnership.

Combating illegal drugs
Jamaica has made significant con-
tributions in the multilateral arena to
the improvement and strengthening of
the capacity of the international commu-
nity to combat drug abuse and the illic-
it trafficking of narcotic substances.
During the Forty-fourth Session of the
General Assembly, Jamaica promoted a
number of proposals, in particular an
enhanced international capability to
combat this global threat. Most of the
proposals were incorporated into a res-
olution, Global Programme of Action
against Illicit Narcotic Drugs, which
was unanimously adopted by the
General Assembly.
Jamaica actively participated in the
Seventeenth Special Session of the
General Assembly in February 1990, at
which the Global Programme and the
Political Declaration to further expand
international cooperation to deal with
the use of drugs were adopted. Jamai-
ca's Dr Winston Davidson, Chairman of

This article has been sponsored by


Jamaica national


Ambassador Ludlle Mair receives the UN
Population Award from the UN Secretary-General

the National Council on Drug Abuse,
was among the fifteen experts from
developed and developing countries
who were appointed to advise and
assist the Secretary-General of the
United Nations in enhancing the effi-
ciency of the United Nation's struc-
ture for the control of drug abuse.
In accordance with the Global Pro-
gramme of action adopted by the Gen-
eral Assembly, Jamaica has established
a comprehensive programme to combat
drug abuse and illicit trafficking, deal-
ing with transshipment, supply and
demand reduction. That programme
has received bilateral as well as multi-
lateral support through the United
Nations system.

The status of women
The Charter of the United Nations is
the first international instrument to
mention equal rights of men and women
in specific terms, and, from its estab-
lishment in 1946, the United Nations
Commission on the Status of Women
embarked on the task of defining and
then implementing the principles of
nondiscrimination and equality for
women. However, it was not until
1975, International Women's Year, that
the international community sought to
give a more sincere recognition to the

need to bring women more fully into the
mainstream of economic, political and
social life, contributing as vital ele-
ments to the process of development
and benefiting equally from that
process. Spanning the 1970s and 1980s
was the United Nation's Decade of
Women (1975-1985) with its theme
Equality, Development and Peace.
Jamaica has actively participated in
the work of the General Assembly and
other international forums to promote
women's advancement, and was in-
volved in the establishment of the
United Nations Voluntary Fund for the
United Nations Decade for Women
and its successor organization, the
United Nations Development Fund for
Women (UNIFEW), from which
Jamaica has benefited small commu-
nity projects are established with techni-
cal and financial assistance from
Jamaican women have distinguished
themselves in the work of the United
Nations system. To cite but one ex-
ample, Dr Lucille Mair served success-
fully as Secretary-General of the World
Conference of the United Nations
Decade for Women, held in Copen-
hagen in 1980 at the mid-point of the
Decade for Women. Prior to that, Dr
Mair was Special Adviser to UNICEF
on Women's Development. In 1983, she
was invited to serve as Secretary-
General of the United Nations Confer-
ence on the Question of Palestine
which was held in Geneva. That
Conference was described as the most
'politically fraught conference' in the
history of the United Nations. In agree-
ing to organize the Palestine Confer-
ence, Dr Mair became the first woman
to hold the title of Under-Secretary-
General of the United Nations.

Jamaica's contributions
Jamaica has been able to make a
substantial contribution to the United
Nations for a variety of reasons. One
of these has been the quality of its rep-
resentatives. Among these, the first was
the late Sir Egerton Richardson, at the
time our most eminent public servant Dr
Lucille Mair has, more recently, been an
outstanding representative.
Another reason has been the interest
of our Governments in the United
Nations and the support and leadership
it has displayed in international matters
of concern to Jamaica and other
developing countries. A vital reason
was the early recognition that a small

nation could influence international
affairs not merely by putting forward
new ideas and proposals but, of cru-
cial importance, by cooperating with
other countries with similar concerns
and seeking to obtain changes through
a collective approach. The most obvi-
ous and immediate example is the
close and intimate working relation-
ship that exists between Jamaica and
our fellow members of the Caribbean
Community. It is of some significance
that together we possess today twelve
votes within the wider Latin America
and Caribbean Group of thirty-four
states. The CARICOM states try to co-
ordinate their views within the Latin
America and Caribbean Group with
those of other countries of the Group of
77 developing states.
Jamaica has also been an active par-
ticipant in the Non-Aligned Movement.
The fundamental principles of the Non-
Aligned Movement are a commit-ment
to peace and disarmament, indepen-
dence, economic equality, cultural
equality and universalism and multicul-
turalism through strong support for the
United Nations system. Originally polit-
ical in perspective with a sharp anti-
imperialist focus, the Movement is
becoming more and more concerned
with economic and social issues.
In recognition of its contribution to
international affairs, Jamaica was
selected at the conclusion of the Non-
Aligned meeting in Belgrade in Sept-
ember 1989 as one of the Group of
Fifteen developing countries to meet at
Summit level at the level of Heads
of State or Government. The primary
purpose of the Group of Fifteen is to
perform a catalytic role in the promo-
tion of South-South Cooperation among
themselves and other developing coun-
tries. Such cooperation would lend
greater cohesion and credibility to
developing countries and their efforts to
pursue a more positive and productive
North-South Dialogue.
Jamaica is the smallest member of
the Group of Fifteen, which is a clear
reflection of our role and influence in
international affairs, demonstrating that
size is not a limitation where there are
clear policies, outstanding representa-
tion and dedication to the organization.
We must, however, make the fullest
use of this and other opportunities to
sustain and increase our influence in
the post Cold War era. Despite the end
of the Cold War many problems remain
and new ones have emerged, which



require an enhanced role for the United
Nations, if it is to fulfil the functions
for which it was established, and real-
ize the ideals and aspirations enunciated
in the Charter. With the lessening of
tensions resulting from the end of
superpower rivalry, and the conse-
quent reluctance among some major
powers to provide adequate resources
to the United Nations, the enlargement
of membership the fifteen constituent
republics of the former Soviet Union
are now members of the United
Nations and other factors, it will be
no easy task for, a small nation such as
Jamaica to exert influence in the
United Nations, notwithstanding its
remarkable record and the wide
recognition of its positive and con-
structive role in international affairs.
This will demand even closer co-
operation with the Caribbean Com-
munity, the Association of Caribbean
States, the Latin American and Carib-
bean region and the developing coun-
tries generally.
Jamaica began its contribution to
the United Nations by putting emphasis
on the promotion and encouragement of
human rights. Much has been achieved

in putting into effect the fundamental
principles of the United Nations in the
area of civil and political rights.
However, so long as many, many mil-
lions of people in the world exist in
abject poverty, and vast numbers of
children are undernourished and with-
out even basic health and educational
facilities, it is a major challenge to pro-
mote economic, social and cultural
rights to facilitate a better, more equi-
table distribution of the fruits of the
productive process. Moreover, the em-
pirical evidence is that the wealth of
nations is enhanced by better education
and health care and improving living
conditions. The twin objectives of
human rights and economic well-being
would therefore be achieved by closer
international economic cooperation.
Jamaica has participated in the
efforts mad to deal with issues of global
concern, such as debt, the transfer of
technology and the environment These
and other problems, such as the alle-
viation of poverty, require the strength-
ening of multilateral cooperation and
new ways of dealing with global prob-
lems in a cooperative and constructive
fashion. Accordingly, at the United

The first UN Secretary-General,
U Thant, on a visit to Jamaica,
meets Prime Minister Sir
Alexander Bustamante and the
Hon. Donald Sangster

Nations greater emphasis should be
placed on economic and development
matters, and the issue of development
should be at the very centre of the
international agenda. Jamaica could
make a further contribution to the
United Nations by working with
other nations on this issue which could
enhance human rights and foster eco-
nomic and social progress through-
out the international community.

Jamaica was re-elected to the 54-member
Economic and Social Council at the 49th General
Assembly to serve for the period 1995-1997.
Researcher: Vilma McNish, Ministry of
Foreign Affairs & Foreign Trade.

Ambassador H.S.Walker was Jamaica's
Permanent Representative to the Office and
Specialized Agencies of the UN in Geneva
(1972-1978) and Permanent Representative
to the UN in New York (1989-1992). While
in Geneva he was chairman of the Group of
77 (1973) and President of the UN Confer-
ence for the Negotiation ofa Common Fund
(1977). In New York he was the Personal
Representative of the Prime Minister on the
Group of 15.

Jamaica's Permanent Representatives to the United Nations since 1962
UN Headquarters UN & Specialized Institutions
New York Geneva
Ambassador Egerton Richardson 1962 1967 Ambassador K.B.Scott 1963 1972
Ambassador Keith Johnson 1967 1973 Ambassador H.W.Walker 1973 1978
Ambassador Donald Mills 1973 1981 Ambassador K.G.Anthony Hill 1978 1989
Sir Egerton Richardson 1981 1984 Ambassador Lloyd H. Barnett 1989 1992
Ambassador Lloyd H. Barnett 1984 1989 Ambassador Richard Pierce 1992 present
Ambassador Herbert Walker 1989 1992
Ambassador Lucille Mair 1992 1995
Ambassador Patricia Durrant 1995 present


Two Tributes

Sir Egerton Richardson
and G Arthur Brown

Sir Egerton Richards (1912-1988)

Sir Egerton Rudolph Richardson, OJ, KCMG, made a major
contribution to his country by preparing Jamaica for the
administrative responsibilities of nationhood. He did this at a
time when many Jamaicans did not recognize that the country
was ready to accept such a responsibility. Sir Egerton insisted
that Jamaicans had been well trained and that they were
sufficiently prepared to tackle the task of running the country.
Sir Egerton was largely responsible for the development of
Jamaica's public finance system and gave overall direction to
the team which drafted the Financial Administration and
Audit Law. In 1956 he, along with a team of Jamaican public
officers, raised the first international loan for Jamaica in New
York. He later served as Jamaica's first Financial Secretary
from 1956 to 1962, playing a pivotal role in the formation of
several public sector institutions such as the Development
Bank and the Central Bank where, with N.N. Nethersole, he
laid a good deal of the groundwork for the Bank of Jamaica.
Between 1962 and 1968 Sir Egerton left the field of
finance for the field of diplomacy to become Jamaica's first
Permanent Representative to the United Nations, a post he
would hold again from 1981 to 1984. He took with him to the
United Nations the same supreme confidence in his ability as
a Jamaican to take an independent stand when needed and
used that confidence to define the role which Jamaica was to
play there. He championed the cause of Human Rights and
was appointed Chairman of the Committee established to
organize the first Conference on Human Rights. In the UN he
was recognized as a man of great integrity. He chaired or
served on numerous committee and Jamaica's contribution
was always seen as major despite the size of the country.
From 1967 to 1972, he served with distinction in Washington
as Jamaica's Ambassador to the United States. He returned to
Jamaica to assume the position of Permanent Secretary in the
Ministry of the Public Servvice from 1973 to 1975.
In 1987, Sir Egerton was the recipient of the prestigious
Norman Manley Award for Excellence. He was described as
'a man of towering intellect who imbued the senior civil
servants of the day with a clearly defined understanding of
their new powers, and of their responsibility to function like
independent, intelligent leaders of a nation.'

From 1978 to 1990 the Honourable G. Arthur Brown served
first as Deputy Administrator and then Associate
Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP). In the latter position, he was responsible for all
UNDP operations throughout the world. His previous
experience as one of the most outstanding public officers in
Jamaica in the fields of finance and development made him
uniquely fitted for service at UNDP.
G. Arthur Brown's performance at the world's largest
technical assistance organization, which provides grants to
about 160 countries, will be remembered for his deep
knowledge of development issues, his unparalleled capacity to
grasp and simplify complex issues, his understanding of the
concerns of donors and the needs of recipients, his sustained
capacity for hard work, his management and leadership
qualities and the consideration and concern he showed to
other human beings.
Prior to his career at the United Nations, G. Arthur Brown
played a major role in Jamaica's economic development. In
1955 he became Director of the Central Planning Unit where
he drew up Jamaica's first Five-year Development Plan. From
1962 to 1967 he was Financial Secretary and Head of the
Public Service. Thereafter he became Governor of the Bank of
Jamaica and Economic Adviser to the Government. After his
retirement from UNDP in 1990, he again became Governor of
the Central Bank, the post he held at the time of his death.
G. Arthur Brown also served on a wide range of national
development corporations and institutions. From 1977 to 1978
he was Secretary-General of the International Bauxite
Association. For fifteen years, he was Alternate Governor of
the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and for
ten years, of the Inter-American Development Bank and the
Caribbean Development Bank. He was actively involved in
preparing the Charter of the Caribbean Development Bank.
In paying tribute to G. Arthur Brown on his retirement
from the UNDP, the organization's Administrator said: 'Of all
the many who have served UNDP over almost forty years,
Arthur Brown stands out as the perfect model of professional
competence, integrity and extraordinary hard work.'


We the Peoples of the United Nations....
United for a better world...
An overview of the
H "__ L:D

HN u -ir-


Donnette Chambers
Michelle Marston


United for a better world,

the theme of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations, echoes the beginning of the

Charter of that Organization. As the United Nations celebrates its Fiftieth Anniversary

in 1995, our interest turns to the organization as a whole,

and its impact on Jamaica as a country.

The United Nations arose out of the renewed need after
World War Two for an organization that could main-
tain international peace and security and promote eco-
nomic and social progress. The League of Nations, the precur-
sor to the United Nations, was established in 1919 after the
devastating results of the First World War but failed to pre-
vent the Second World War which broke out in September
1939. This failure together with the horrors of World War
Two re-emphasized the need in international relations for an
organization such as the United Nations. Accordingly, as
early as 1941, the allied democratic governments began to
plan for just such an organization. By the time the Allies
emerged victorious, the Charter of the United Nations had
already been adopted by an international conference in San
Francisco in June 1945. The United Nations Organization
came into existence on 24th October 1945, some two months
after the end of World War Two.
The purposes of the United Nations were set forth in the
Charter. They are: to maintain international peace and securi-
ty; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate
in solving international, economic, social, cultural and
humanitarian problems; to promote respect for human rights;
and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations
towards those common goals.
The Charter sets forth in Article 2 the principles on which
the organization is based: all its Members are equal; and all
are committed to fulfil in good faith their obligations under
the Charter to settle their disputes with other nations by
peaceful means, to refrain from the threat or use of force in
their international relations, to give the United Nations every
assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the
Charter, and to refrain from assisting any State against which
the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement

The organs of the United Nations
The six principal organs of the United Nations are the
General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and
Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, the International
Court of Justice (ICJ) and the Trusteeship Council.

The General Assembly is the plenary organ of the United
Nations, and is made up of all Member States each of which
has one vote. The General Assembly may discuss any subject
coming within the scope of the Charter, or concerning any
body established under the Charter, except matters already

being dealt with by the Security Council, unless the Council
so requests.

The Security Council is made up of five permanent members
- China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and
the United States and ten non-permanent members elected
by the General Assembly for a period of two years.The
Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of
international peace and security. While other organs may
make recommendations to Governments, The Security
Council alone has the power to make decisions which
Member States are obligated under the Charter to accept and
carry out.

The Secretariat of the United Nations has the function of car-
rying out the day to day work of the organization. It consists
of the Secretary-General, who is Chief Administrative
Officer, and the staff which works at the United Nations
Headquarters in New York as well as other United Nations
personnel working in the field. It services the organs of the
United Nations and administers the programmes and policies
of the United Nations itself.

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), which oper-
ates under the authority of the General Assembly, coordinates
the economic and social work of the United Nations and its
specialized agencies and institutions in areas such as interna-
tional cooperation for development, world trade, industrializa-
tion, use of natural resources, human rights, the status of
women, population and social welfare, health and related mat-
ters, science and technology, crime prevention and drug con-
trol. The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, the
Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the regional Economic
Commissions such as the Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) are some of ECOSOC's
subsidiary bodies.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judi-
cial organ of the United Nations. It functions in accordance
with its Statute which forms part of the Charter of the United
Nations. All members of the United Nations are ipso facto
parties to the Statute of the ICJ. The Court has the jurisdiction
over all matters specifically provided for in the Charter, and
over various treaties or conventions in force.
The Trusteeship Council is responsible for the supervision of
Territories placed under the International Trusteeship system
which was set up under the Charter to provide international


A celebration of lights for the 50th Anniversary of the United Nations

supervision for eleven non self-governing territories. Since
1977 however, the trusteeship system has covered only one of
the original eleven Trust territories, the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, all the others having achieved independence.

Specialized Agencies
The United Nations carries Out its operations with the help
of a network of specialized agencies and subsidiary bodies.
Specialized agencies include:the International Labour Organi-
zation (ILO); the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO);
the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); the
World Food Programme (WFP); the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO); the United Nations
Child-ren's Education Fund (UNICEF); the United Nations
Educa-tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO); the World Health Organization (WHO); the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(World Bank); and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Jamaica has benefited from the specialized agencies of the
United Nations. These organizations use funds allocated by
the United Nations to provide much-needed technical assis-
tance and cooperation aimed at enhancing Jamaica's develop-
Amongst these are the notable achievements of the United
Nations Development Programme in terms of their develop-
ment activities carried out through multilateral technical and
pre-investment cooperation. The UNDP is the world's largest
multilateral grant assistance organization.
The UNDP has further assisted Jamaica in the areas of
economic planning, agriculture, forestry, industry, health
education and disaster management. This specialized agency
also supports programmes which promote public sector effi-
ciency, increased production and productivity in the manu-
facturing sector, poverty alleviation and environmental man-
In the area of Human Resource Development, Jamaica has
been assisted by UNDP in the upgrading of the skills of civil
servants. The effective management of Jamaica's scarce
resources has also benefited from the UNDP's Institutional
Capacity Building programme. With a strategy focused on
Sustainable Human Development, the UNDP has also been
involved in projects such as the 'Typhoid Control Prevention
Project' in Jamaica.
Since 1964, UNICEF has provided substantial financial
and technical support to the Government of Jamaica to carry
out programmes for the survival, development and protection
of children. Various programmes have been implemented
through a diversity of Ministries and organizations. The
UNICEF projects include primary health care, women in
development, the development of urban communities and
social mobilization and advocacy.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is the
largest multilateral agency providing global technical assis-
tance in the field of population. The UNFPA sub-regional
office located in Jamaica serves nineteen countries and territo-
ries in the Caribbean Region. UNFPA has supported thirty pro-
jects over the past two decades in Jamaica with allocations
exceeding J$100 million to cover areas such as the strength-
ening of Family Planning Services, information and commu-


nications activities, reduction of teenage pregnancies, improv-
ing the status of women and youth, demographic data collec-
tion and analyses, and integration of population factors in
development planning.
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) carries out a
major programme of technical advice and assistance for the
agricultural community on behalf of governments and devel-
opment funding agencies. The programmes of cooperation
between the FAO and the Government of Jamaica began in
1963, and have provided technical assistance in the areas of
agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Special emphasis is given
to promoting rural youth and women in providing expertise
and equipment Projects undertaken by the FAO provide tech-
nical assistance in agroforestry, marine cage fish farming,
agricultural training, soil erosion control, irrigation and agro-
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the United Nations
Agency for food aid. The poorest people in developing coun-
tries are its target. In Jamaica, WFP supports the School
Feeding Programme and the Food Stamp Programme. It also
extends assistance to the HEART Trust/NTA and to trainees in
need of financial aid to increase their job opportunities and to
upgrade their skills for self-employment
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization
(UNIDO) is aimed at promoting and accelerating industrial
development in developing countries. In Jamaica, UNIDO's
activities are concentrated mainly on manufacturing in appar-
el, agro-industry, furniture, plastics and metal working and
also in the bauxite/alumina sub-sectors. UNIDO helps the
Government to develop industrial strategies to promote indus-

trial entrepreneurial activities while providing private compa-
nies with direct support to assist them to develop and improve
their operations.
The primary role of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is the preser-
vation of peace through international cooperation. Since the
1950s, Jamaica has benefited from a variety of UNESCO's
programmes. Of special note are the eradication of illiteracy,
the strengthening of the electronic and print media, and the
preservation of Jamaica's cultural heritage.
The composition of the United Nations has changed signif-
icantly over the years. At its inception there were 51 mem-
bers. Today, fifty years later, there are 184 members, the
majority being developing countries.This majority provides
these countries with an opportunity to exert greater influence
in the United Nations and to press for more international eco-
nomic cooperation, placing greater emphasis on economic and
development matters and a more equitable relationship be-
tween developed and developing countries.
The end of the Cold War has also had a positive effect on
the United Nations and its activities. Provided it continues to
receive the full support of the major countries, it should now
be better able to carry out its function in the maintenance of
international peace and security and the promotion of eco-
nomic and social progress.

Donnette Chambers and Michelle Marston are officers of the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade.

It takes all kinds of

to serve Jamaica

We are manufacturers of
Sa variety of gases
and gas mixtures
for diversified purposes



FERRY, BOX 13, KGN. 10





in today's Jamaica

is the UDC's business
The UDC has been creating and upgrading new and existing urban and rural centres across Jamaica since 1968.
It aims to stimulate economic growth and improve the social fabric of communities.
The Corporation operates in designated projects areas in Kingston, Hellshire on the outskirts of Kingston where a
newtown development is underway, the Comprehensive Rural Township Development Programme (CRTDP) which
spans the entire island, the South West Coast and in the tourist centres of Negril, Montego Bay and Ocho Rios.
The UDC offers investment opportunities in it's project areas for resort, commercial and industrial developments.

Aerial of Mandeville (CRTDP South Manchester micro region)

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Living in



i Nature

t Linking development with the
preservation of the environment is a
deep concern of West Indies Home
Contractors Limited
Nowhere is this more evident than in
the Greater Portmore Project, where
the planting of fruit and shade trees
is a common feature in the new
communities and where dying
mangroves and wetlands are being
resuscitated through...
SPANIS a system of natural processes
ON using stabilization ponds and
reed beds for reliable,
high-quality sewerage treatment;
the removal of storm water flows
P via shallow grassed drains;
Sthe replanting of damaged areas
of mangrove stands.
4'' KI'NGSTON This is all being done with a view to
re-establishing plant, bird and animal
S life in a stable, sustainable
E T ~ -eco-system... creating, in harmony
GREATER r. with nature, an environmentally
PORTMORE friendly community in Greater Portmore.

27- 29 Harbour Street, Kingston, Jamaica W.L
Telephone: 922-6670-9
SWIHCON FAX: 92-27512

Dedicated to Better Living for Jamaicans.




Simon Clarke

T he United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, estab-
lished at the end of the Second World War,
will this year celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of
the adoption of its constitution at a London confer-
ence on November 16, 1945.
In 1946 the Organization, with twenty Member States,
began to function as a specialized agency of the United
Nations, dedicated to the promotion of peace and intellectual
cooperation. The establishment of UNESCo came after twenty-
five years of attempts to establish international cooperation in
education and culture, and was the successor to the League of
Nations International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.
UNESCO's mission is essentially an ethical one. The
Organization seeks to promote peace and security throughout
the world through its involvement in education, science, cul-
ture, communications and the social sciences. It is concerned

with universal respect for justice, for the rule of law and for
the human rights and fundamental freedoms of all, without
distinction of race, sex, language or religion.
The constitution of the Organization puts it succinctly:
That since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of
men that the defenses of peace must be constructed;
That ignorance of each other's ways and lives has been a common
cause, throughout the history of mankind, of that suspicion and
mistrust between peoples of the world through which their differ-
ences have all too often broken into war;
That the great and terrible war which has now ended was a war
made possible by the denial of the democratic principles of the
dignity, equality and mutual respect of men, and by the propaga-
tion, in their place, through ignorance and prejudice, of the doc-
trine of the inequality of men and races;
That the wide diffusion of culture, and the education of humanity for
justice and liberty and peace are indispensable to the dignity of
man and constitute a sacred duty which all the nations must fulfil
in a spirit of mutual assistance and concern;


That a peace based exclusively upon political and economic arrange-
ments of governments would not be a peace which could secure
the unanimous lasting and sincere support of the peoples of the
world, and that the peace must therefore be founded, if it is not to
fail, upon the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind.
The General Conference of UNESCO, which brings together
representatives of its 183 Member States every two years, lays
down the Organization's programme and budget. The fifty-
one member Executive Board supervises the programme's
implementation by the Organization's Secretariat. Mr Hector
Wynter of Jamaica is a former chairman of the Executive
Board. Current Caribbean Board Members are Professor Rex
Nettleford (Jamaica), Dr Lawrence Carrington (Trinidad and
Tobago) and Dr David Dabydeen (Guyana).
The staff of the Secretariat, representing more than 140
nationalities, is based at Headquarters in Paris and in UNESCO
field offices throughout the world. The Executive Head of
UNESCO is the Director-General. The post is currently held
by Professor Federico Mayor Zaragoza of Spain, who was
first elected in 1987 for a six-year term and re-elected in
To support the Organization's work at the national level,
some 160 Member States have set up National Commissions
for UNESCO. The present chairman of the Jamaica National
Commission for UNESCO is Hon. Mr Burchell Whiteman,
Minister of Education, Youth and Culture. The Secretary-
General is Miss Sylvia Thomas.
The main purpose of the National Commission is to act as
an organ of liaison, information, discussion and implementa-
tion of UNESCO's programmes and to involve, at the local
level, the educational, scientific, cultural and communications
communities and institutions, in supporting the objectives of
UNESCO. In addition to the National Commissions, some 140
countries have established permanent delegations to the
Organization in Paris. Jamaica's present permanent delegate
is Miss Sybil Campbell. Others who have served in this
capacity in the past are Mr Henry Fowler, Miss Elaine
Melbourne and Mrs Jacqueline Wynter.
The office of the UNESCO representative to the Caribbean
was established in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1978 to serve the
seventeen English and Dutch-speaking countries of the sub-
region. The office was soon to be expanded to include UNESCO
advisers to the Caribbean in education, culture, science and
technology, and communications. Since 1991 the sub-region
has been divided into three zones. The UNESCO office in
Bridgetown, Barbados, which is also the office of the coordi-
nator of the Caribbean Network of Educational Innovation for
Development (CARNEID), provides representation functions to
Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean. The office in Port-of-
Spain, Trinidad, now also the Science and Technology office,
represents the organization in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana,
Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles. The Kingston office is
the office of the UNESCO Representative to the Common-
wealth of the Bahamas, Belize and Jamaica. This office con-
tinues to provide for the entire Caribbean advisors in educa-
tion, communication and culture. The present advisors are Mr
Alwin Bully, Culture; Ms Jocelyne Josiah, Communications;
Dr Winthrope Wiltshire, Science and Technology; Mr Hubert
Charles, Coordinator of CARNEID; and this writer for
Education. The associate expert in Education is Miss Monica

Education and the Future
The Organization gives top priority to education at all lev-
els. The Education Programme consists of three interlinking
1. Towards Basic Education for All
2. Education for the Twenty-First Century
3. Promoting and Supporting Educational Development
The concept of Basic Education for All was defined by the
World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien,
Thailand in 1990. A key event in International Literacy Year,
this conference was convened by the executive heads of the
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and
the World Bank. The Conference was organized in response
to the widespread concern over the deterioration of education
systems during the 1980s and the millions of children and
adults who remained functionally illiterate and poorly pre-
pared for life.
The World Declaration on Education for All, adopted at
the Conference, reaffirms the international community's com-
mitment to ensuring the right to education for all people. It
also broadened the scope of basic education to include Early
Childhood Development, Primary Education, Non-Formal
Learning (including Literacy) for youth and adults and learn-
ing conveyed through the media and social action. The
Education for All programme aims at providing for everyone
access to quality basic education that will lay the foundations
for lifelong learning. Each Member State, however, must
define basic education in the light of its own cultural, social
and economic values. Some countries have included the envi-
ronment, science and technology, nutrition, health and com-
puter literacy as basic for survival into the twenty-first century.
After gaining their independence, developing nations
have made remarkable progress in expanding their primary
school enrollment and many countries have launched literacy
programmes. UNESCO estimates that if the present encourag-
ing trend continues, the figure of 905.4 million illiterate adults
in the world recorded at the and of the 1980s, will be reduced
to 869.4 million by the end of the century. This decline will
be mainly due to the progress made in East Asia, and to a
lesser extent, Latin America and the Caribbean. Despite this
achievement, the absolute number of illiterates, 98 per cent of
whom live in developing countries, will increase in all other
parts of the developing world. Nearly two-thirds of the
world's illiterates are women. The situation in the Caribbean,
however, is somewhat different. The present trend indicates
that in the English-speaking countries of the region, there are
more illiterate men than women. The estimated illiterate pop-
ulation in Latin America and the Caribbean in 1990 was 43.3
million. It is expected that this number will be reduced to 41.7
million in the year 2000. Illiteracy and poverty are linked
together and the world's illiteracy map is the same as the
world's poverty map.
UNESCO's programme, Education for the Twenty-First
Century, is designed to determine what kind of education
should be given to children and adults to prepare them for the
rapidly changing world. It seeks to foster innovation and coop-
eration in order to adapt educational content and methodolo-
gies to the future needs of society. Two basic principles are
accepted under this programme: Firstly, that the overall level


of education must be raised and secondly, that more people
must be empowered to achieve more relevant and higher lev-
els of education. In response to the rapidity with which infor-
mation and knowledge are evolving, it is now more important
for one to learn how to access and process information and
develop critical and creative thinking than to follow tradition-
al encyclopaedic content-laden studies. The objectives of the
programme therefore, are to improve the quality and rele-
vance of education and to adapt educational content and
methods to the requirements of contemporary societies.
The third programme, Promoting and Supporting
Educational Development, aims at helping Member States to
develop effective policies and strategies and to improve the
management of the human and financial resources. Developing
countries, on the whole, are confronted with severe financial
constraints. This has led many to seek cost-effective innova-
tions and new funding arrangements. Examples of these are
cost recovery and cost-sharing schemes and the support of
the private sector and NGOs in partnership arrangements such
as the Adopt-A-School-Programme in Jamaica.
In addition to these three main programmes in Education,
UNESCO places a great deal of emphasis on teacher-training,
education for peace and international understanding, environ-
mental education, education for AIDS prevention, nutritional
education, scientific and technological education and voca-
tional and technical education. In addition, under UNESCO,
agreements have been adopted between countries to facilitate
the mobility of students and teachers. This is made possible
through the mutual recognition of their certificates, diplomas
and degrees.
At the tertiary level, the Organization has recently intro-
duced a project for inter-university cooperation (UNrTWIN).
This programme aims at supporting higher education by fos-
tering a sense of common purpose based on twinning, net-
working and the establishment of subregional, regional and
interregional cooperation. Under the UNESCO Chairs
Programme, scholars of the highest calibre are made avail-
able to universities in developing countries.
The Kingston office of UNESCO is engaged in a variety of
activities in education. Examples of these are the establish-
ment of a basic education/skills training project for rural and
out-of-school youth in Blackstonedge, St. Ann. Within its
Education for Peace Programme there are its collaboration
with the government of Jamaica in the campaign to strength-
en positive values and attitudes; its assistance to the Joint
Board of Teacher Education in the establishment of a com-
puter network between fourteen teacher training institutions
in Jamaica, Belize and the Bahamas and the training of
approximately two hundred teachers in mathematics and
computer science through its annual four-week summer pro-
grammes. In addition, a programme in basic education was
set up for Haitian refugees at Montpelier in St. James.
The office assisted the Bahamas in the launching of its
'Let's Read Bahamas' programme and has published six sup-
plementary readers within the framework of Education for
All It has also collaborated with the Faculty of Education,
University of the West Indies, in the publication of a series of
texts on Environmental Education.

Science and Technology for Development
The speed of scientific and technological progress and the
rapid application of the results of research play a key role in

human development and in shaping the life of present and
future societies. But while expenditure on research and devel-
opment amounts to between two and three per cent of the
gross national product in the technologically advanced coun-
tries, it barely exceeds one tenth of that in most developing
Under the Science and Technology for Development pro-
gramme, UNESCO aims at assisting Member States to
strengthen their scientific and technological capacities and
thereby to narrow the gap between the industrial and the
developing world. Within this programme, priority is being
given to the training of young scientists in all the disciplines.
Special attention is being given to ensure greater access of
women to scientific and technological training and careers.
Other areas of emphasis are the development of biotech-
nology, the aim being to facilitate international cooperation
and the establishment of networks in such areas as microbiol-
ogy and plant biotechnologies. Emphasis is also being placed
on renewable energy sources and energy conservation.
Cooperation between UNESCO and the international sci-
entific community is being facilitated through organizations
such as the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU)
on frontier areas of science such as mathematical modelling,
molecular biology and genetics, the human genome, new
materials, superconductivity and energy sources.
UNESCO also carries out a large number of environment-
oriented scientific activities within the frame work of its four
intergovernmental programmes:

1. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
(IOC) co-ordinates various branches of scientific re-
search on the ocean and its resources.

2. The Man and the Biosphere Programme (MRB),
launched in 1971, promotes international cooperation in
the areas of research, training and dissemination of infor-
mation concerning the conservation, development and
management of terrestrial ecosystems and their resources.
The MAB programme concentrates on sustainable human
development and the conservation of biological diversity.

3. The International Geological Correlation Programme
(IGCP) aims at improving knowledge in the field of geol-
ogy, geophysics and the distribution of mineral and ener-
gy resources.

4. The International Hydrological Programme (IHP) is
designed to develop the scientific and technological
bases of hydrology and to promote the rational manage-
ment of water resources.

Science and Technology
UNESCO has collaborated with Caribbean countries in the
promotion of science and technology in a variety of fields.
The Organization has developed a programme called UNISPAR
- University/ Industry Science Partnership, to stimulate
research in indigenous resources and to promote greater
University/ Industry collaboration. UNESCO is also helping
with the establishment of an inter-governmental informat-
ics programme and is assisting the University of the West
Indies to develop a computerized student information man-
agement system.


Biotechnology and research into alternative uses of energy
are areas in which UNESCO is also very active in the
Caribbean. Recent activities included research into the man-
agement of bacterial diseases in sweet peppers and tomatoes
in Barbados and Grenada and a seminar in the Dominican
Republic on 'Threatened Useful Plants of the Caribbean'. In
addition to this, the Organization is supporting the establish-
ment of biosphere reserves in Caribbean countries, within the
framework of the 'South-South Cooperation on Environ men-
tally Sound Socio-Economic Development in the Humid
Tropics' programme.
Jamaica, through the Data Management Centre at the
University of the West Indies, is an active member of the
UNESCO-CONMAR, Coastal Marines Productivity Project
(CARICOMP), which is one of the major pilot projects of the
interdisciplinary and intersectoral project on the Environment
and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small Islands.
Beginning in September 1995, UNESCO will be providing
substantial financial support over a three-year period, to the
University of the West Indies, for the transformation of the
Centre for Nuclear Sciences into an International Centre for
Environmental Sciences within the Network of Centres of
Excellence in Science and Technology for the countries of the
UNESCO is also currently collaborating with Jamaica in
the preparation of a hydrogeological map and will hold in
Kingston, in November 1996, an international symposium on
Hydrology in the Humid Tropical Environment.
UNESCO's other scientific activities include those carried
out as a part of the International Decade for Natural Disaster
Reduction. In addition, the Organization is intensifying its
efforts to alert public opinion worldwide to the dangers facing
the environment. The UNESCO-Chernobyl Programme, for
instance, is concerned with the consequences in the Ukraine,
and in neighboring countries, of the disastrous accident that
occurred in reactor No. 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power sta-
tion in 1986.
The Science, Technology and Society Programme aims at
enhancing understanding of the connection between science
and culture, and assisting in the provision of teaching equip-
ment and information for out-of-school introductory science
and technology courses.

Culture: Past, Present and Future
One of UNESCO's principal activities is related to the
World Decade for Cultural Development (1988-1997). The
main purpose of this programme is to arouse awareness of the
fundamental importance of culture in the lives of human
beings and societies and to demonstrate the integral role that
culture plays in development.
UNESCO's projects to protect the world's natural and cul-
tural heritage highlight the interdisciplinary nature of its
approach. By December 1992, the Convention concerning the
Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage will
have been ratified by 132 countries. This Convention aims at
preserving some 378 outstanding sites and monuments
around the world as part of the heritage of mankind. The
selected sites include the Great Wall of China, the
Kilimanjaro National Park, Old Havana, the Tower of
London and the old city of Antigua in Guatemala. The
Jamaica National Heritage Trust had taken initiatives to have
three Jamaican sites placed on the World Heritage List: the

old capital of Spanish Town, New Seville in St Ann and Port
Royal. A delegation from the International Council on
Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) visited Jamaica in 1987 and,
as a result, Spanish Town qualified for inclusion in the list.
The National Heritage Trust, with the assistance of UNESCO
is engaged in the preparatory work for Spanish Town to be
formally included.
As a part of this Decade, UNESCO has launched the
'Integral Study of the Silk Roads: Roads of Dialogue'. This
vast project consists of studying the land and sea trading
routes that for centuries linked East and West.
In September 1994, UNESCO launched an international
study project on the slave trade, 'The Slave Route'. The pro-
ject will help to promote research and other activities related
to this major historical phenomenon. The objective is to re-
examine the causes of the slave trade and the manner and
sequence in which it proceeded. This will entail retracing the
slave routes of the 'middle passage'. The initiative came from
Haiti and a number of African countries, including Benin,
which is particularly concerned with the project. During the
days of slavery, the port of Ouidah on Benin's west coast was
one of the leading centres of the black slave trade.
The slave trade has had a cultural impact not only in
Africa, where the violence originated. Its consequences can
also be detected, although in a less conspicuous manner,
among its European perpetrators. It was to influence their
ways of thinking, their forms of artistic expression, most sig-
nificantly in the Americas and the Caribbean.
The intercultural projects that fall within the framework of
the Decade are all designed to enhance awareness of the
mutually enriching interaction that is possible between cul-
tures. Examples of these are the 'Commemoration of the
Five-Hundredth Anniversary of the Encounter Between Two
Worlds', 'The Baroque World' and 'The Maya World'.
UNESCO is also playing an active role in the revival of the
ancient Library of Alexandria in Egypt. A centre of learning
in antiquity, the Alexandria Library-Museum, founded around
295 BC by Ptolemy I, was entirely destroyed by fire in the
war waged against Egypt by Julius Caesar. The Organization
works actively in support of the preservation of oral tradition,
the promotion of books and reading and it sponsored the
Universal Copyright Convention of 1952 for international
copyright protection.
The Organization has also launched a series of innovative
activities at the regional level to promote the performing arts
in Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean. International
programmes are currently under way in the areas of craft,
audio-visual production, artistic exchange networks and the
protection of artists and craft workers.
Over the years, the Organization has engaged in the publi-
cation of significant works on cultural and related themes. The
production of the 'Music of the World' series on CD and cas-
sette, video and film documentaries and a series of travelling
art exhibitions, including the most recent, 'Carib Art', in
association with the Netherlands Antilles, have provided an
opportunity for dialogue and collaboration among the peoples
of the world.
Historical publications currently in preparation include the
six-volume General History of the Caribbean. The coordina-
tion of this publication has been one of the major projects of
the Culture Sector in the Kingston Office. The work is super-
vised by a bureau comprising several eminent historians from
the Caribbean and the rest of the world. Two-thirds of the


ninety-five authors involved are of Caribbean origin. The
publication will present the history of the region in an entire-
ly new perspective and will therefore be of major significance
to the teaching of the subject as well as in the perception held
by Caribbean people of themselves and their countries.
A major publication already in print is the General
History of Africa, published in eight volumes and translated
so far into English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese,
Portuguese, Japanese and Italian. It is also available in widely
spoken African languages such as Hausa and Kiswahili.
Other histories include the History of Central Asia and an
updated edition of the History of the Scientific and Cultural
Development of Mankind.
In collaboration with the United Nations Development
Programme (UNDP) the Cutural Heritage of Jamaica
Projects, One and Two, have produced major development
plans for Spanish Town, Port Royal and New Seville as well
as enhancing Jamaica's conservation capabilities. Under the
same arrangements, the Caribbean Regional Museum
Development project has produced six manuals on museum
management, conservation, registration, cataloguing, travel-
ling exhibitions and museum education. Ninety-five museum
workers across the Caribbean were trained. The project
examined existing legislation and drafted model laws for the
protection of cultural property.
The office has also been instrumental in the formulation of
CARICOM Regional and National Cultural Policies and has
supported programmes in the Departments of Culture for the
preservation of the physical and non-physical cultural her-
itage of the region and the promotion of exchanges, harmony
and understanding among nations.

Communication in the service of humanity
As set out in its Constitution, one of UNESCO's primary
objectives is 'to promote the free flow of ideas by word and
image'. Through its programmes in Communication, Infor-
mation and Informatics, the Organization works in support of
press freedom, pluralism, independence and diversity of public
and private media. It is also actively engaged in helping
developing countries to enhance their means of communica-
tion by the application of new technologies. The objectives of
the programme are to promote improvement in the free flow
of information at the international as well as the national
level, and its wider and better balanced dissemination, with-
out any obstacle to the freedom of expression, both through
understanding of the factors which inhibit its circulation, and
encouragement of measures which promote it; the promotion
of endogenous capacities in the developing countries; and the
promotion of international understanding and mutual knowl-
The International Programme for the Development of
Communication (IPDC), which was set up in 1980, is the
main instrument for the provision of support in communica-
tions. Under its institution-building mandate, the IPDC has
successfully set up several national and regional news agen-
cies such as ALASEI in Latin America, CANA in the
Caribbean, WANAD in West Africa, CANAD in Central
Africa and SEANAD in Southern and East Africa. The pro-
gramme has also supported the establishment of several com-
munity media entities all over the world, including rural radio
stations and rural newspapers. Committed to the development
of communications capacities, the IPDC strives to reinforce

radio and television stations, media training institutions and
production houses throughout the developing countries. In
Jamaica, these include the Caribbean Institute of Mass
Communications (CARIMAC) of the University of the West
Indies and the Creative Production and Training Centre
(CPTC) which benefited substantially from the provision of
studio and broadcast equipment.
The Organization also provides training for communica-
tion professionals in a variety of specialized fields within and
outside the region. Under its programme in support of press
freedom, pluralism, independence and diversity, a number of
radio stations and community media projects in the Caribbean
are being boosted by the provision of solar-panelled FM
transmitters for use as relay stations or in the establishment
of small community radio stations. Institutions in St Lucia,
Guyana, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Barbados,
Haiti and Jamaica, have all benefited in this respect.
A major focus of the communication programme in the
Caribbean is the production of more and more local pro-
grammes and messages with particular relevance to the elec-
tronic media. Television coproductions are widely encour-
aged between broadcasting stations and production houses.
The production of the TV series, 'Caribbean Eye' as well as the
more recent joint production by CPTC (Jamaica) and ARTEVI-
SION Foundation (Venezuela), 'Point-Counterpoint', are
cases in point.
The General Information Programme (PGI) is the focal
point of the Organization's activities designed to create and
strengthen information and documentation facilities, libraries
and archives in member states. It specifically aims at increas-
ing the capacities of the developing countries to organize,
disseminate and utilize information received from the outside
Acting on the premise that access to information technolo-
gies is crucial to achieving sustainable human development,
UNESCO designed its 'International Informatics Programme'
(IIP) to train computer specialists and thereby reduce the
inequalities in this field between industrialized and develop-
ing countries.
At the dawn of a new century, the peoples of the world in
general, and of Latin America and the Caribbean in particu-
lar, are faced with unprecedented challenges which bring
with them extraordinary opportunities. In seeking for sustain-
able human development, we must all recommit ourselves to
ensuring that this generation, as well as those unborn, will
find a world of peace, of understanding, of democracy; a
world in which there is total respect for human rights, a
world in which material and spiritual conditions make it pos-
sible for everyone to live in harmony and in dignity. It is to
this end that UNESCO, after fifty years of its existence, has
rededicated itself.

For many years a leading Jamaican educator and consultant to
UNESCO on educational matters, Simon Clarke is now the
UNESCO Representative for the Caribbean.




4-6 Trafalgar Road, Kingston 5,
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JAMAICA and the


Fifty Years after

Bretton Woods
Sheldon McDonald

The entry into force of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea the
Montego Bay Convention or UNCLOS -
occurred on November 16, 1994, with the
opening of the Inaugural Meeting of the
International Seabed Authority in Kingston


The steps to put in place the institutions
created by that Convention should be
finalized this year, in the middle of the
United Nations Decade of International
Law and, more importantly, in time for
the United Nations' fiftieth birthday
The two main institutions to be
created by the Convention are the
Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and the
International Seabed Authority (ISA).
The former will be sited in Germany
while the ISA is to be established in
It is not strange that such an
accolade has been awarded to this small
country. Our geographic position gives
Jamaica a geopolitical and strategic
importance far beyond its size, even as
an archipelagic state. Since Indepen-
ence, and under both political parties,
Jamaica has remained at the forefront in
major issues concerning international
relations. Whether it is Bustamante's
'We are with the West' declaration in
1962, Michael Manley and the PNP's
desire to 'Walk to the mountaintop'
with Fidel Castro and the Cuban
Revolution during the 1970s or Edward
Seaga's firm alliance with the
aggressive cold war politics and right-
wing monetarism of Reagonomics and
Thatcherism we have played, when our
size is considered, a disproportionately
significant role in world politics.
If, internally, we are at times
almost ungovernable, in external
relations we have demonstrated a
capacity to take on the major powers
with daring. The part which the
negotiators from this Small Island
Developing State played in the
elaboration of the the Law of the Sea,
the 'most comprehensive legal regime'
completed under the auspices of the
United Nations, is a demonstration of
our leadership qualities.
This paper will address some of the
aspects and some of the issues involved
in the creation of the ISA and
particularly, though not exclusively, in
the context of the contribution made by
Jamaicans. The relationship between
the new legal regime and developing-
country action, through the Movement
of Non-Aligned Countries and the
Group of 77, is essential to the
discussion. It is also necessary to
examine the essential features of the
ISA and, finally, the impact of the new
regime on major facets of national

Part I

Early Developments
The first United Nations Conference
on the Law of the Sea took place in
1958, four years before Jamaica was to
become a member state of the UN.
Over the next eight years, little
substantial progress was made.
However, at the Twenty-second Session
of the UN General Assembly in 1967
another Small Island State made an
unprecedented request. The Govern-
ment of Malta, through its Permanent
Representative to the United Nations,
Dr Avid Pardo, submitted a request for
the inclusion of a supplementary item
on the agenda of the session. It was
entitled: 'Declaration and Treaty
concerning the reservation exclusively
for peaceful purposes of the seabed and
of the ocean floor, underlying the
seabed, beyond the limits of present
national jurisdiction, and the use of
their resources in the interests of
This initiative on the part of Malta
... aroused some astonishment, if
not suspicion, in the minds of some
delegations, and even among
legislators in some countries.. .2
It would lead to what Ambassador
Tommy Koh, President of the Third
United Nations Conference of the Law
of the Sea, could call the 'Constitution
for the Oceans'3
In the debate on the item submitted,
Dr Pardo would father the concept
which has come to remain central to all
Law of the Sea themes; that the oceans
and their resources were, are, and must
remain 'the common heritage of
mankind'. Dr Pardo outlined the
Maltese vision of this concept in the
First Committee in December 1967.
He stated:
Whatever we may do on land, we
must avoid at all costs a ruinous
arms race on the ocean floor and
ensure that it is reserved exclusively
for peaceful purposes. Whatever
national rivalries exist for the
exploitation of the natural resources
of the land areas of the world for the
benefit of the rich, these rivalries
must be excluded from the ocean
floor. All countries, rich and poor,
landlocked and maritime, must
benefit from the virtually inexhaust-

ible resources lying on and under the
ocean floor. Whatever wasteful
methods of exploitation we use on
land, destructive of our soil, poison-
ing our atmosphere or dissipating
blindly the priceless heritage of
nature, at least on the ocean floor we
must not betray our sacred trust, and
we must hand on this area, the very
well-spring of life on this small
planet of ours, unimpaired to our
children and our children's
In assessing the tasks facing the
Committee on the Peaceful Uses of the
Seabed and the Ocean Floor beyond the
Limits of National Jurisdiction, Dr Ken
Rattray asserted in a 1974 paper that the
Committee faced a gargantuan task: that
of pulling together disparate and
divergent national interests into a
comprehensive whole. If successful,
this would render the existence of any
single ideology an impossibility:
And yet this search for a new
international order of international
social justice for which the new
Law of the Sea would act as a
catalyst must find some central
motivating force which will cement
the fragile and disparate linkages
within the international com-

Dr Rattray proposed that this
'central motivating force' should be
'pragmatic realism', not to be confused
with the realism of Hans Morgenthau.

A New International Order
With the 1960s and 1970s came a
far-reaching change in the membership
of the United Nations. More and more
countries which had been colonies of
imperialist powers gained their freedom
and moved onto the international stage
as independent states. Small though
many of them were, they soon realized
that by working together they could
exert significant pressure on the policies
of the UN especially since the rule was
one nation, one vote, regardless of size.
By 1973 the Movement of Non-Aligned
States had taken shape and in that year
a Summit Conference of Non-Aligned
States was held in Algiers. Prime
Ministers Michael Manley of Jamaica
and Forbes Burnham of Guyana
travelled to the Conference with Fidel
Castro of Cuba. There they would meet


Muamar Khaddafi of Libya, Mwalimu
Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Houari
Boumedienne of the host state and other
national leaders who together would
fashion a Declaration on the need to
create a New International Order. These
Third World States would, in the
following year, use their negotiating
skills and their numerical majority
within the General Assembly of the UN
to secure the adoption of a Resolution
calling for the Creation of a New
International Economic Order: A Plan
of Action and also a Charter on the
Economic Rights and Duties of States.
The concepts being presented in
those instruments included sovereignty
over natural resources and the con-
comitant right to form producers'
groupings of states: a right to
development and a duty on the part of
developed countries to assist devel-
oping ones; and the latitude to create
development models based on the
principles of self-reliance and co-
operation among developing countries.
Control of the activities of the large
transnational corporations and rules
governing the transfer of technology
and investment flows from rich to poor
countries also formed critical elements
of the strategy.
It is noteworthy that although the
then socialist bloc was regarded as the
'natural allies' of the developing
countries of the G77, the latter largely
remained on the margins of this debate
and did not wholeheartedly support the
concept of a New International Eco-
nomic Order.
The elements of the normative
fabric of the New International
Economic Order regime did not all
emerge at once. They developed as the
unfamiliar experience of independence
increasingly revealed to the new
members of the international forum a
disjuncture between political autonomy
and economic and social development.
The reality was economic backward-
ness and dependence on the former
colonial powers who now retained
economic control without any attendant
responsibility to look after the welfare
of their former subjects. Just as radical
action regarding exerting sovereign-
ty over natural resources emerged in
the late sixties, so too did the realization
that no terra nullius (land without an
owner) remained. It was also realized

that outer space had already become the
new theatre for superpower rivalry in
the Cold War. In that scenario, the 'last
frontier' was the vast untapped pool of
resources that humankind could draw
upon, as yet undivided, not carved up
among the major powers: the oceans
covering three-quarters of the earth's
surface. Dr Avid Parvo's vision,
expressed in 1967, now became a focus
of thought and action.

Evolution of the Convention of the
Law of the Sea
The constraints of space will not
allow for a full discussion of the actual
evolution of the Convention of the Law
of the Sea. However, it is possible to
paint a picture for the reader by using a
chronology and presenting excerpts
from Policy Statements made by the
representatives of the Government of
Jamaica at UN General Assemblies. For
successive Jamaican governments, Law
of the Sea policy and action have been
one of the few areas of genuine cross-
party, non-partisan consensus over the
period. That policy is therefore
characterized, concomitantly, by
Indeed, that was one of the factors
which sustained the campaign for the

site of the International Seabed
Authority in face of the very worthy
challenge from no less a source than
Malta itself. From the days when
Prime Minister Manley and his gov-
ernment initiated a policy response to
this challenging issue, Jamaica can be
proud of both its politicians and its
public servants. Successive Foreign
Ministers, from Dudley Thompson to
P.J.Patterson, Hugh Shearer, David
Coore, Paul Robertson and now
Seymour Mullings, have shown an
active interest in the Law of the Sea.
They have been more than ably assisted
by a core of technocrats, led by Dr
Rattray, who have negotiated not only
on our behalf, on behalf of the
Caribbean Community and Region, on
behalf of the Group of 77, but far more
importantly, on behalf of the vast but
silent majority of mankind whose
common heritage deserves to be
protected. It is due to this kind of total
commitment of an entire country that
the international community is
confident that the International Seabed
Authority will find a comfortable,
welcoming home in which it will be
allowed to 'bloom and flourish within
its natural limits'.

Prime Minister P.J.Patterson and the Secretary-General of the UN, Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali


Excerpts from Jamaica's National
Policy Statements, 1974-1984
From 1974 almost every Jamaican
Policy Statement to the General
Assembly of the United Nations made
mention of the Law of the Sea
Conference and Convention. Those
made by PNP Government Ministers
had a strong tilt towards the New
International Economic Order and even
those made by JLP Ministers still
contained interstitial elements of that
Third World strategy.6

The Hon. Dudley Thompson, Minister of Foreign
1. 1974 A strong new ray of hope and
promise for international cooperation
has recently emerged. The General
Assembly . over the period 1967-
1973 invited the nations of the world to
create a new legal order of the sea. I say
this is a hopeful turn because the Third
United Nations Conference on the Law
of the Sea, recently held in Caracas,
saw the greatest collection of experts
and representatives deliberately and
collectively seeking to redress the
imbalance in the world order in a
quest for a new regime of international
justice. I repeat, hopeful, because in
the Declaration of Principles, as well as
in the procedures adopted by the
Conference, this distinguished group
made serious, strenuous efforts over a
considerable period towards creating
and preserving a new order of
international economic justice designed
to bring about control of pollution on a
global scale, and the regulation of the
orderly exploration and exploitation of
the seabed, among other things. Never
before had the international community
attempted such a comprehensive task.
Today the revolution in the approach
to the sharing of world's resources and
the acknowledgement of the rights and
claims of the weak and poor among the
nations, including the landlocked and

otherwise geographically disadvantaged
States, to the resources of the sea are
firm steps towards establishing an era
of permanent peace. . Today, the
world realizes that this Conference has
a new opportunity to put into effect
accepted principles of justice where
man's poverty takes priority of
consideration over man's power. Even
here, however, let me sound a note of
caution: to bring satisfaction to the
millions who expectantly await the
finality of these deliberations, it is
necessary to overcome traditionally
nationalistic acquisitive postures and
substitute political will and a new faith
in mankind.
Finally, whether the activities
occupying the attention of mankind be
in the sea, on land or in the air, whether
it be the creation of more food, housing
or otherwise to enhance the dignity of
man; whether it be to assail the
economic ills of the world: we need
each other.

2. 1975 Let me turn for one moment to
the ongoing international Conference
on the Law of the Sea. There have been
expressions of dissatisfaction at the rate
of progress. This is understandable
because there is real danger that
unnecessary delay may cause States to
make unilateral and precipitate
declarations against the moratorium and
against the spirit of the convention
itself. My delegation, however, sees
some signs of hope: from new ideas,
such as a concern for the less-developed
countries, including the landlocked,
island-developing and others; identi-
fication of the treasures of the ocean
beyond national jurisdiction as the
common heritage of mankind; and
deliberate efforts at adjusting the
existing economic imbalances.
My delegation believes that there has
been evidence of deliberate and
unnecessary delay by some of the great
maritime hegemonies which are not yet
prepared to concede these economic
adjustments during the negotiations. It
seems they would rather preserve a
system that retains an advantage for the
more technologically advanced.
When we consider that the immense
wealth, both mineral and organic, of the
sea and ocean bed means for some
countries not merely an improvement in
the quality of life but survival itself, the
Assembly will, I am sure, share my
hope that the same speed and
application manifested during this past

Seventh Special Session will be applied
to the next session of the Law of the
Sea to bring it to its final phase.
With so many experts and special-
ists, there can be no excuse to the
peoples of the world for this issue
drowning in the sea of indecision.

The Hon. P.J.Patterson, Deputy Prime Minister
and Minister of Foreign Affairs.

1. 1977 Another area we regard as
being of fundamental importance for
the establishment of the New Inter-
national Economic Order is the Third
United Nations Conference on the Law
of the Sea. An international agreement
on a convention for the equitable
distribution of the resources of the
seabed is long overdue and I urge all
participants to work seriously towards a
successful conclusion of the Conference
at its next session. Jamaica looks
forward to accommodating the Head-
quarters of the International Seabed

2.1978 My government attaches the
greatest significance to the negotiations
being conducted in the Third United
Nations Conference on the Law of the
Sea. We see this Conference as an
integral part of the challenge to the
international community in the creation
of the New International Economic
Order. We are committed to the
realization of the establishment of an
International Seabed Authority that
would regulate the exploration,and
exploitation of the resources of the
seabed beyond the limits of national
jurisdiction, as the common heritage of
. [This] cannot be allowed to
remain an idle dream. Considerable
time and effort, at great expense and
sacrifice to developing countries, have
been devoted to this Conference, and it
is generally recognized by participants
in the negotiations that much of the


difficult and intricate work for the
completion of a comprehensive treaty,
as mandated by the General Assembly,
has already been accomplished.
The Jamaican Government, there-
fore, views with the greatest concern
the taking of unilateral action for the
exploitation of these resources in the
midst of these negotiations....
My Government, therefore, appeals
to all those States which have proposed
and are contemplating unilateral action
to think again and to refrain from
unilateral action, so that the Third
United Nations Conference on the Law
of the Sea may have every chance of
successfully concluding its work within
a reasonable time.

mnie m. rlnu. nuyfir t .. ofornI ri LU.
Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs

1982 In the midst of all these
problems, we cannot ignore that
singularly important achievement of the
United Nations, the adoption of the
United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea on 30th April, 1982. Jamaica
is among the developing and developed
countries that welcome this event. The
Convention has codified and progres-
sively developed international law in
several important areas, but I cite the
following as its most significant
achievements. First, the proclamation
that the area beyond national juris-
diction is the common heritage of
mankind is a significant landmark in
the history of international relations.
We believe that the regime which it
establishes for the exploration and
exploitation of the natural resources of
the deep seabed is just and equitable,
and will operate to the mutual
advantage of developed and developing
countries. Secondly, the Convention
has solved the age-old question of the
breadth of the territorial sea by the
establishment of an economic zone of
two hundred miles, including a
territorial sea of twelve miles...

A major achievement of the
Conference which we wish to highlight
is the exemplary use in its proceedings
of the device of consensus as a system
of decision-making. It is indeed remark-
able and commendable that in a
Conference in which as many as 150
countries participated and which
extended over eight years, the
negotiations were almost entirely
conducted and concluded without a
vote being taken.
Jamaica has a great sense of pride at
having been selected as the site of the
International Seabed Authority, of the
Preparatory Commission for the
International Seabed Authority and for
the International Tribunal for the Law
of the Sea, and of the ceremony for the
signing of the Convention from 6 to 10
December, 1982. I want to assure you
that Jamaica is sensitive to the
obligations which go with the
conferment of those honours.
We exhort all States to sign and
ratify the Convention as quickly as
possible so that it will enter into force
in the shortest possible time. An early
entry into force of the Convention can
only operate to the advantage of all
countries, developed and developing,
particularly where it deals with the
regime for the exploration and exploit-
ation of the deep seabed.
We would not wish anyone to be left
in doubt as to our view that activities in
the international seabed area can take
place lawfully only within the
framework established by the Con-
vention on the Law of the Sea. We hope
that no country or group of countries
will engage in actions or adopt
measures whose effect will be to
undermine the Convention.

Senator the Hon. Oswald Harding, minister without
Portfolio in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
1984 Two years ago, when the United
Nations Convention on the Law of the
Sea was adopted, a new chapter was

opened in multilateral cooperation for
the management and exploitation of
resources which are the common
heritage of mankind. The implemen-
tation of the arrangement provided for
in the Convention... is one of the most
important tasks before the international
community. The Preparatory Com-
mission held a formal and an informal
session in the past year and we are
satisfied that it has made good progress
and should continue to be fully
supported by Member States. We urge
all States which have not yet done so to
sign the convention before the closing
date for signature on 9 December,
thereby becoming full participants in
the work of the Preparatory Com-
mission. We also urge signatories
which have not yet done so to ratify the
Convention as soon as possible. It is
our belief that the most effective
response to those who would wish to
undermine the Convention is early
ratification, thus allowing its provisions
to come into effective force.
It should be clear that there can be
no viable or legal arrangements for
seabed mining outside the Conven-
tion.We therefore warn against any
attempt to conclude a mini-treaty or
other arrangements which purport to
confer legal rights for seabed mining.
The position of the Government of
Jamaica is that the Convention on the
Law of the Sea is the only legally
acceptable international regime
applicable to the seabed and its
We reiterate our opposition to
documents based on national legislation
and reciprocal agreements that purport
to regulate activities in the deep seabed.
Such agreements are contrary to the
letter and spirit of the Law of the Sea
Convention and have no legal validity.
In this regard, the Jamaican delegation
must express its concern at the
conclusion of a so-called provisional
understanding between eight Member
States on 3 August this year. In our
view, this goes beyond its avowed
purpose of conflict resolution and
contains terms which are incompatible
with the provisions of the Law of the
Sea Convention. We urge all States to
join together to resist any selective
application of the convention and any
attempt to undermine the arrangement
being made for the establishment of the
International Seabed Authority.


A Chronology of the Law of the Sea

Finally, in this section, we present a
chronological look at the evolution of
the Law of the Sea.7

1958: First United Nations
Conference on the Law of the
Sea. Eighty-six States meet
in Geneva and adopt four
International Conventions
covering the territorial seas,
the high seas, the continental
shelf, fishing and conser-
vation of living resources.

1960: Second United Nations
Conference on the Law of the
Sea fails to produce any
substantive agreement on
limits of the territorial zone
and fishing rights.

1967: The United Nations General
Assembly decides that
technological and other
changes in the world require
the international community
to address the matter of laws
governing the sea beyond
national jurisdiction. An ad
hoc committee with 35
members is set up by the
Assembly to study the matter.

1968: The ad hoc committee grows
to 41 members and is
renamed the Committee on
the Peaceful Use of the
Seabed and the Ocean Floor
beyond the Limits of National

1970: As a result of the work of the
Seabed Committee, the
General Assembly adopts a
Declaration of Principles
Governing the Seabed and
Ocean Floor and the Subsoil
thereof beyond the Limits of
National Jurisdiction. These
areas are declared 'the
common heritage of
mankind'. The Assembly also
decides to convene the Third
United Nations Conference
on the Law of the Sea. The
Seabed Committee, enlarged
to 91 members, is given the
job of preparing the
Conference. By 1973 it puts
out a six-volume report.

1973: First Session of the Third
United Nations Conference
on the Law of the Sea
Organization, New York,
elects officers, begins work

on rules of procedure.
Hamilton Shirley Ameri-
singh of Sri Lanka is chosen
to be President of the

1974: Second Session, Caracas.
Adopts rules of procedure;
115 Countries speak in
general debate. First attempt
to deal with alternate texts
submitted by the Seabed

1975: Third Session, Geneva. A
'single negotiating text'
produced by Committee
Chairman, sets out in treaty
language the provisions to be



Fourth Session, New York.
Results of negotiations set out
in a 'revised single negoti-
ating text'.

Fifth Session, New York.
Further progress in some
areas, but there is an impasse
on how deep-sea mining
should be organized and

1977: Sixth Session, New York. An
'Informal composite negoti-
ating text' marks continuing

1978: Seventh Session, first Gen-
eva, then New York. First
revision of the 1977 negoti-
ating text emerges. Decision
taken to complete work on
the Convention by 1980.




Ninth Session, first New
York, then Geneva. 'Informal
Text' of Draft Constitution
produced. Plans made to hold
Final Session in 1981.

Tenth Session, first New
York, then Geneva. First
official text of Draft Con-
vention issued. Jamaica and
the Federal Republic of
Germany chosen as seats of
the International Seabed
Authority and the Inter-
national Tribunal for the Law
of the Sea respectively. The
US cites difficulties in seabed
provisions. 'Final decision-
making session' set for 1982.

Eleventh Session, Part I,
March 8-April 30, New York.
All efforts to reach general
agreement exhausted. The



Conference votes on a num-
ber of amendments to the
draft Convention. At the end,
at the request of the United
States, there is a recorded
vote. The Convention is
adopted on April 30 by 130
votes to 4 against, with 17
Eleventh Session, Part II,
September 22-24, New York.
Drafting Committee's changes
to the Convention approved.
Draft Final Act approved.
Jamaica selected as site of
signing Session.
December 6-10 Montego
Bay, Jamaica. Convention
and Final Act are signed by
119 nations.

Preparatory Commission
meets in Kingston, Jamaica,
to begin work on the creation
of the International Seabed
Authority and the Inter-
national Tribunal for the Law
of the Sea

April. Establishment of the
Kingston Law of the Sea

1987: December. Registration of
France, Japan and the Soviet
Union as registered pioneer

1990: May. Training programme
established for potential
technical staff of the
Authority and Enterprise.
July. Establishment of
Secretary General's informal
Consultations to achieve
Universality of the Con-

1993: November. Guyana became
the 60th State to ratify the
Convention, thereby bringing
it into force on that date one
year later.

1994: July 27-29, New York.
General Assembly adopts
Implementation Agreement.
Receives Part XI of UN
Convention of the Law of the
Sea III, followed by signing
November 16-18. Inaugural
Meeting of the International
Seabed Authority, Kingston,

Source: Handbook on Jamaica [on the
occasion of the Inaugural Meeting of the
ISA] 1994.


Part II

The Contribution to International
Law of the Law of the Sea Convention

This regime, which represents a high
point in the codification and progressive
development of international law, is of
concrete value to humanity. For
different participants in the process,
there are distinct lessons to be learnt
and distinct advantages. This
possibility is evident in the words of of
Tommy Koh who said in 1982:

In the final analysis, I believe that
this Conference succeeded because
it brought together a 'critical mass'
of colleagues who were outstanding
lawyers and negotiators. We
succeeded because we did not
regard our counterparts in the
negotiations as enemies to be
conquered. We considered the
issues under dispute as the common
obstacles to be overcome.
We worked not only to promote our
individual national interests by also
in pursuit of our common dream of
writing a constitution for the
oceans. 8

For this outstanding Singaporean
lawyer, the answer to the question as to
whether or not a comprehensive ocean
regime had been fashioned is
affirmative. He cites seven powerful
points to support that contention.
The question is whether we
achieved our fundamental objective
of producing a comprehensive
constitution for the oceans which
will stand the test of time. My
answer is in the affirmative for the
following reasons:
1. The Convention will promote the
maintenance of international peace
and security because it will replace
a plethora of conflicting claims by
coastal States with universally
agreed limits on the territorial sea,
on the contiguous zone, on the
exclusive economic zone and on
the continental shelf.
2. The world community's interest
in the freedom of navigation will be
facilitated by the important
compromises on the status of the
exclusive economic zone, by the
regime of innocent passage through

the territorial sea, by the regime of
transit passage through straits used
for international navigation and by
the regime of archipelagic sea lanes
3. The world community's interest
in the conservation and optimum
utilization of the living resources of
the sea will be enhanced by the
conscientious implementation of
the provisions in the Convention
relating to the exclusive economic
4.The Convention contains
important new rules for the
protection and preservation of the
marine environment from pollution.
5. The Convention contains new
rules on marine scientific research
which strike an equitable balance
between the interests of the
research States and the interests of
the coastal States in whose econ-
omc zones or continental shelves
the research is to be carried out.
6. The world community's interest
in the peaceful settlement of
disputes and the prevention of use
of force in the settlement of
disputes between States have been
advanced by the mandatory system
of dispute settlement in the
7. The Convention has succeeded
in translating the principle that the
resources of the deep seabed
constitute the common heritage of
mankind into fair and workable
institutions and arrangements.
Though far from ideal, we can
nevertheless find elements of
international equity in the Con-
vention, such as revenue sharing on
the continental shelf beyond two
hundred miles, giving landlocked
and geographically disadvantaged
States access to the living resources
of the exclusive economic zones of
their neighboring States, the
relationship between coastal fisher-
men and distant-water fishermen,
and the sharing of the benefits
derived from the exploitation of the
resources of the deep seabed. 9

Dr Rattray, for his part, highlights six
areas in which the Law of the Sea
Convention makes significant con-
tributions to world relationships.

1. The Convention reserves as the
common heritage of mankind the
Area and its resources beyond the
limits of national jurisdiction. This.

. Area is not subject to
appropriation, is reserved ex-
clusively for peaceful purposes and
is to be developed, and the benefits
it yields distributed countries.10
2. The 'interdependence and
indivisibility' of the ocean space',
is recognized in the UNCLOS.
Because of the interrelatedness of
the problems of ocean space, the
latter has to be dealt with
holistically. Therefore, '.
selective application of the
Convention is inadmissible.. .[It]..
was negotiated and adopted as a
package and cannot be selectively
3 and 4 concern delimitation issues
and the establishment of the
territorial sea, the exclusive
economic zone and continental
shelf boundaries.
5. The Convention provides a
comprehensive regime for the
protection and preservation of the
marine environment and for the
promotion and regulation of marine
scientific research.
6. Finally, the UNCLOS
highlights the importance of the
peaceful settlement of disputes by
providing for a wide range of
choices and the establishment of
new institutional machinery by the
International Tribunal on the Law
of the Sea.12

A Brief Outline of the International
Seabed Authority

In December 1982, the Final Act of
the Third United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea was signed in
Montego Bay. Among other terms, the
Final Act established the Preparatory
Commission which would bring the
Law of Sea into being and also
confirmed that the permanent seat of
the International Seabed Authority
would be in Jamaica. In the following
year, the Preparatory Commission met
in Kingston to begin work on the
formation of both the ISA and the
International Tribunal for the Law of
the Sea.
For the next eleven years, Jamaica
hosted each Spring Session of the
Preparatory Commission until, finally,
the United Nations Convention on the
Law of the Sea was signed in Kingston
on November 16, 1994. At the same
time, the Final Draft Headquarters
Agreement between the ISA and the


Government of Jamaica and the Final
Draft Protocol on the Privileges and
Immunities of the International Seabed
Authority also set out the duties that
Jamaica and the ISA are expected to
carry out vis a vis each other, as well as
their rights, together with the rights and
responsibilities of representatives at
meetings of the Authority. Jamaica and
the ISA will need to sign the
Headquarters Agreement before it can
come into force, while the Protocol has
to be acceded to by States Party to the
Convention, including Jamaica.
Article 2 of the Draft Headquarters
Agreement states:

1. The Seat of the Authority shall be in
2. Jamaica grants to the Authority and
the Authority accepts from
Jamaica for the permanent use and
occupation by the Authority the
area defined in the Annex to this
Agreement and such other
facilities on such terms and
conditions as specified in
supplementary agreements.
3. The Headquarters shall not be
moved, either temporarily or
permanently from the area defined
in the Annex to this Agreement to
any other place in Jamaica, unless
the Authority, with the agreement
of the Government, so decides.

The effect of this article is that at some
point in the near future, the Government
will have to designate the '. . area
defined in the Annex . .' to the HQ
Agreement. This is the juridical
backdrop to the current intense debate
and jockeying taking place between
Kingston and Montego Bay.

The Institutions of the Convention
The Convention, perhaps the most
comprehensive legal regime ever
elaborated under the auspices of the
UN, although dealing with the sea, in
facts touches upon most facets of life in
the international community. As the
common heritage of mankind, the sea
represents a final frontier for human
cooperation and collaboration, which
were absent from mankind's conquest
of the earth and outer space. The
Convention establishes an international
legal person in the Authority to
implement the myriad provisions of the
regime. The International Seabed

Authority is made up of:
The Assembly; the plenary body
on which is represented all state
parties and which acts as the
legislative arm.
The Council; the executive body
made up of members elected on a
periodic basis, on criteria set out in
the Convention and related
The Secretariat, the administrative
arm of the ISA, to be headed by a
Secretary-General, whom it was
recently agreed would be appointed
on a level of an Under-Secretary-
General of the United Nations, thus
putting the organization on par with
most other entities in the UN
The Enterprise: the commercial
arm of the Authority.

The International Seabed Authority
was born out of, and needs to develop,
extremely close links with the UN and
its related agencies including the office
for Ocean Affairs, the International
Maritime Organization, and the World
Hydrographic Organization. However,
the Authority is not within the
jurisdictional competence of the UN.
The Convention makes clear, in Article
176, that the Authority shall have
international legal personality and such
legal capacities as are necessary for the
fulfilment of its functions and for
exercising its purposes.
The juridical separateness of the
Authority from other organizations is
further underpinned by the elaboration
of a Draft Agreement on the
Relationship between the Authority and
the United Nations. In order to assert
the autonomy of the ISA, it is necessary
to escape the inevitable competition,
power bloc politics and other negative
aspects of global organization which
have at times hindered the UN from
functioning effectively. In addition, in
order to support this autonomy, the
Convention provides for independent
sources of funding for the Authority.
These are:
1. assessed contributions of
2. funds received from activities
carried out in the Area (the
portion of the maritime space
outside national jurisdiction) by
private, public companies, joint
ventures and consortia;

3. funds transferred from the
4. funds borrowed under its treaty-
granted borrowing power,
5. voluntary contributions from
both members and other entities;
6. payments to a compensation
These provisions are necessary if the
Authority is to be able to fulfil its
mandate which empowers the ISA to
organize and control activities in the
Area and also to exercise powers and
authority as vested in it by the
Convention, as well as 'incidental
powers' not inconsistent with the
constituent instruments which are
deemed necessary.
The specific duties of the Authority
also involve many other contingent
tasks set out at numerous points in the
Convention. The Preparatory Com-
mission has attempted to consolidate
these duties into its draft rules and
regulations which the Assembly has to
formally adopt. The ISA is also
empowered to set up 'such regional
centres or offices as it deems
necessary ...'
While the HQ Agreement and the
Protocol on Privileges and Immunities
purport to ensure extensive protection
for the organization, its representatives,
its members and their representatives, it
is now accepted that the 'common law'
of international organizations has given
rise to rules of customary international
law whereby State Responsibility
attaches to a country which fails to
protect or give effect to such privileges
and immunities of an organization
which may not be contained in its
constituent instrument or other treaties.
This means that Jamaica may be
accused by other States of failing to
protect the organization by virtue of
some occurrence on its national
territory, which though not specifically
stipulated in a treaty or the Convention,
impacts negatively on the privileges
and immunities guaranteed to the
organization and, therefore, on the legal
personality and capacities, of the

Jamaica's undertakings in the Draft
Headquarters Agreement
In general terms, Jamaica's
undertakings in this agreement are the
same as those given by all other


countries which have international
offices. Jamaica has similar
agreements with respect to all offices
of international organizations sited in
the island. Without these undertakings
we could not secure the seat of the ISA
Many of the undertakings are
equivalent to, others similar to, and yet
others comparable to the diplomatic
privileges and immunities we grant
foreign missions and which foreign
governments grant to our missions.

The legal personality and capacity of
the Authority
As we have seen, the ISA has
international legal personality by virtue
of the Convention and the Agreement.
This means that it will be necessary for
provision to be made in Jamaican law
for the Authority to have the capacity
to enter into contracts; to acquire and
dispose of moveable and immoveable
property; and to be a party to legal
The Law in the Authority's
Headquarters will be governed by the
regulations it adopts, and it must
inform the Government of Jamaica of
those regulations.
While Jamaica retains the sovereign
right to enact, enforce and apply
sanctions for breaches of its criminal
and civil laws, where specific
provisions of such laws run counter to
the regulations of the international
entity such provisions are void, ab
initio, in relation to the internal
operation and control of the
By the provisions of Article 5, the
Headquarters are inviolable. In the
case of service of legal process, the
consent of the Secretary-General is
required before it can be effected. In
emergencies, such as fires, the consent
of the Secretary-General is presumed,
if after 'every effort is made to secure
such consent', the Chief Executive
cannot be reached. Nothing prevents
the Jamaica Postal Service from
delivering letters and documents to the
Seabed HQ.
It is to be noted that this in-
violability carries a concomitant duty
on the part of the Headquarters.
Paragraph 3 of this Article states that
the Authority 'shall prevent the
Headquarters from being used as a
refuge from justice by persons
avoiding arrest under any Law of
Jamaica, or who are required by the

Government for extradition, expulsion
or deportation to another country, or
who are endeavouring to avoid Service
of Legal process.' In other words,
Jamaica's legitimate sovereign
interests are protected.
Several other Articles such as
Articles 9 on public services to the
Headquarters, communications and the
freedom to broadcast and publish as
well as the standard of inviolability of
archives, privileges and immunities of
relevant persons and their spouses and
children are covered in the Agreement,
with the concomitant duty on the part
of the ISA not to abuse such privileges
and immunities and other rights.
Articles 6 and 7 are of great
significance. Taken together, they
require Jamaica to ensure that neither
individuals nor entities, whether
official or private, disturb the
tranquillity of the Headquarters.
National authorities are to be required
to act against persons who disturb that
tranquillity and also to provide police
to take action where appropriate and
Over-zealous landlords are
precluded from seeking to execute
against the property of the Authority,
except as specifically allowed by a
waiver of the immunity by the
Secretary-General in particular cases.
These Articles also ensure 'quiet
possession' for both the Authority and
its neighbours by preventing both the
ISA and Jamaicans (public or private)
from constructing obnoxious or
inappropriate buildings in the vicinity
of the Authority.
On the other hand, Article 41
requires the Authority to cooperate
with the Jamaican bodies responsible
for the administration of justice in its
widest sense. Article 42, Respect for
the Laws of Jamaica reaffirms this
Without prejudice to the
privileges, immunities and
facilities accorded by this
Agreement, it is the duty of all
persons enjoying such privileges,
immunities and facilities to respect
the laws of Jamaica. They also
have the duty not to interfere in the
internal affairs of Jamaica.

Private persons dealing with the
Authority will not be put at any
disadvantage by the fact of the
Organization's immunity from
criminal or civil jurisdiction, including

execution. The Authority is required
to make 'suitable provisions' for the
settlement of (i) disputes arising out of
contracts or other private legal
agreements to which it is a party; and
(ii) issues involving officials of the
Authority or any other persons who,
because of their official position, enjoy
immunity. This does not apply if the
Secretary-General has waived such
Provision is made for the settling of
any disputes arising between the ISA
and Jamaica, first for a bilateral
solution using consultation, negotiation
or some other agreed mode. Failure to
resolve the dispute by these means will
lead to settlement by binding

The Enterprise
The fourth organization of the
Convention of the Law of the Sea is
the Enterprise, the commercial arm of
the International Seabed Authority. It
is charged with carrying out
commercial deep seabed mining in
respect to the 'Area', which has been
designated'the common heritage of
mankind'. The Enterprise acts on
behalf of the Authority which is itself
acting on behalf of the international
Article 1 (i) of the Convention of
the Law of the Sea provides the
following definition: 'Area' means the
seabed and ocean floor and sub-soil
thereof beyond the limits of national
The traditional concept of the High
Seas is thus maintained as being the
superjacent waters beyond national
jurisdiction. Such national jurisdiction
incorporates the following regimes:
The Territorial Sea
The Contiguous Zone
The Exclusive Economic Zone
The Continental Shelf
The legal status of the Enterprise is
also set out in the Convention,
incorporating the proscription on any
State claiming sovereignty or
sovereign rights over any part of the
Area or its resources. Natural or
juridical persons or States are
precluded from appropriating any part
of the Area. Article 137 states: 'No
such claim or exercise of sovereignty
or sovereign rights shall be
recognized.' The Article adds that the
Authority acts on behalf of mankind in


whom the rights in the resources of the
Area are vested. These resources are not
subject to alienation,' If such alienation
should occur, it must be subject to Part
XI of the Convention, in which the
rules, regulations and procedures of the
Authority are established.
The context in which the instrument
was negotiated was one of high Third
World solidarity. Contrary to popular
opinion, in Law of the Sea matters the
developing world and the Socialist
camp not infrequently did not see eye to
eye. In fact, there were also divisions
among the developing countries of the
G 77, often exploited by others, as
between island and continental States,
landlocked and coastal States,
geographically disadvantaged and small
island States versus others. In the end,
the global community of interest
arguably won out by both affirmation of
principles and compromises.
Compromise resulted largely from
the dramatic shift in the world political
economy, the effects on international
relationships of the collapse of
communist regimes in the USSR and
the Socialist States of Eastern Europe
together with severe and traumatic
experiences within the developing
countries themselves. These factors
provided invaluable assistance to the
Developed Market Economy countries
in delaying the entry into force of the
Convention and in exacting significant
concessions from the G 77 countries.
Revised assessments as to the
earliest date by which deep sea mining
would become commercially feasible,
from the latter years of this century to
the first third of the next, also helped to
delay the setting up of the regime and to
reduce the scale originally anticipated
for the International Seabed Authority.
Nevertheless, the detractors did not
succeed in dismantling Part XI and, as
it became clear from 1992 that entry
into force was imminent, a process of
'concentration of minds' came about in
certain capitals. Everyone found it
easier to secure compromises, within
both the Preparatory committee and the
Informal Consultations initiated by
Javier Perez de Cuellar, the former
Secretary-General of the UN and
continued by his successor, Dr Boutros
Finally, by a Resolution of the
General Assembly, an Agreement to
implement Part XI of the UNCLOS was
passed in what was essentially a 'tied
package' which also saw approval of

Dr Ken Ratray
the Budget of the ISA.
The Implementation Agreement
also set out the functions of the
Enterprise and laid down the basis for
its establishment and the initiation of its
activities. The Secretariat of the ISA is
to perform the functions of the
Enterprise until it begins to operate
independently. Meanwhile, an interim
Director-General is to be appointed
from the staff of the ISA by the
Secretary-General to oversee the
following functions.
1. Monitoring and review of trends
and developments relating to deep
seabed mining activities, including
regular analyses of world metal
market conditions and metal prices,
trends and prospects;
2. Assessment of the results of the
conduct of marine scientific
research with respect to activities in
the Area, with particular emphasis
on research related to the
environment impact of activities in
the Area;
3. Assessment of available data
relating to prospecting and
exploration, including the criteria
for such activities;
4. Assessment of technological
developments relevant to activities
in the Area, in particular
technology relating to the

protection and preservation of the
marine environment;
5. Evaluation of information and
data relating to areas reserved for
the Authority;
6. Assessment of approaches to
joint-venture operations;
7. Collection of information on the
availability of trained manpower;
8. Study of Managerial policy
options for the administration of the
Enterprise at different stages of its
The second paragraph of this section
stated: 'The Enterprise shall conduct its
initial deep seabed mining operations
through joint ventures. Upon the
approval of a plan of work for
exploitation for an entity other than the
Enterprise, or upon receipt by the
Council of an application for a joint-
venture operation with the Enterprise,
the Council shall take up the issue of
the functioning of the Enterprise
independently of the Secretariat of the
On the question of Universality and
the relationship between the Im-
plementation Agreement Part XI, the
Jamaican Statement to the Inaugural
Session of the ISA in Kingston in
November 1994 was widely endorsed.
It was presented by Dr Ken Rattray, an
outstanding statesman who had been


dubbed 'the conscience of the
Convention' by one delegation. It also
alluded to the NIEO theme, though not
mentioning it by name:
[The] search for universality has
always recognized that the integrity
of the Convention as a whole must
be maintained. Although the
fundamental political, economic
and social changes within the
international community may have
served to change the timetable
within which the promises of the
Convention were expected to be
realized, it is our conviction that
these changes have in no way
invalidated the fundamental basis
of the Convention or the principles
of the common heritage of mankind
on which Part XI of the Convention
is based.
It is significant that the
fundamental premise on which the
Convention was negotiated,
namely, its unified character, has
been expressly reaffirmed by the
Implementation Agreement. It is
therefore inadmissible to apply
selectively the provisions of the
Convention. The Implementation
agreement which has been adopted
is essentially concerned with the
manner of the implementation of
the Convention and does not in any
was derogate from the statement of
principle that 'the seabed and ocean
floor and the subsoil thereof,
beyond the limits of national
jurisdiction, hereinafter referred to
as the 'Area', as well as the re-
sources of the Area, are the
common heritage of mankind.
We welcome and support the
Implementation Agreement be-
cause it provides an opportunity to
secure true universality in the
application of the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea.

And it devises mechanisms for
securing that universality even in
advance of ratification, by allowing
for provisional application of Part
XI of the Convention. Today's
participation in this Inaugural
Meeting by many States which are
applying Part XI provisionally is
living embodiment of the creativity
and success of our efforts.
The evolutionary approach
adopted in the implementation of
the regime for the common heritage
Area recognizes the need for a cost-
effective Authority which takes
into account the functional needs of
the organs and subsidiary bodies of
the Authority to discharge effect-
ively their respective responsi-
bilities at various stages of the
development of activities in the
Area.... We subscribe to the view
that structure must follow and that
our legitimate concern for cost
minimization must not be carried to
such lengths as would deprive the
Authority both quantitatively and
qualitatively of the resources
necessary to carry out its functions
from time to time, for to do so
would be a certain recipe for
paralysing the realization of the
common heritage of mankind. We
must not lose sight of our vision of
the common heritage of mankind as
we forget the links which will
secure the universal participation in
the Convention through the
Implementation Agreement.
This paper has attempted to trace
the evolution of the Law of the Sea
regime, including the ideo-political
influence of the attempt to create a
New International Economic Order. In
the years between then and the
Inaugural Meeting of 1994, many
modifications and compromises have

been made. However, the vast majority
of the States, Parties to the Convention,
will be true to its letter and spirit.
The challenge for all Jamaicans is
to guarantee that the International
Seabed Authority will be provided with
the most appropriate physical, social
and political environment. We stand tall
in the eyes of the world in terms of our
contribution to the evolution of the Law
of the Sea regime: we have to continue
to demonstrate that we deserve that
respect. And let us always remember Dr
Ken Rattray's words at the Inaugural
Meeting: 'After all, this Convention is
not just for one generation, but for all

Notes and References

1. Statement by Saviour F. Bourg,
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta, to
the Inaugural Meeting of the Inter-
national Seabed Authority, Kingston,
Jamaica, 17.11.94. p.1.
2. Ibid.
3. United Nations,The Law of the Sea,
United Nations Convention on the Law
of the Sea, New York, 1983, p.xxxiii.
4. Bourg. Supra, p.3
5. Dr Ken Rattray, The Third United
Nations Conference on the Law of the
Sea Reflections on Caracas -
Perspectives for Geneva', Kingston,
1974. p.3
6. Information Division, Policy Statements
of Jamaica at the United Nations: 1962-
1987. Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Trade and Industry, 1987.
7. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign
Trade, Handbook on Jamaica, [on the
occasion of the Inaugural Meeting of
the ISA], 1994.
8. Tommy Koch. 'A constitution for the
oceans', in Law of the Sea at note 3,
supra p.xxxvi i
9. Ibid. pp.xxxiii-xxxiv.
10. Ken Rattray, 'Statement on the occasion
of the Inaugural Meeting of the
International Seabed Authority'.
Kingston, Jamaica, 18.11.94. p.4.
11. Ibid.
12. Ibid. p.5.


,~:,J,. Jamaica is a small country
with a fragile ecosystem. Its
size and topography expose it
to certain risks in terms of
the preservation of the

Don Mills

In the fifty years of the
;,'.',< I 'existence of the
United Nations there
have been many great
changes in the world -
changes in the
conditions of peoples
and nations and
their relationships; in
technology, with very
far-reaching conse-
quences; and in
perceptions about the
global society which
has been emerging
and the way in which
human beings live on
Riversmeet Courtesy of Ray Chen
planet Earth.

JAMAICA, the UN and the Environment

Today it is impossible to imagine the
world without the United Nations.
Coming into existence as it did in 1945
out of the economic turbulence of the
1920s and 1930s, the conflict of the
Second World War and the failure of its
predecessor, the League of Nations, its
purpose was to bring some coherence
and discipline and peace to the world.
That purpose remains today, although
the UN's preoccupations have changed
over the past fifty years. The Organi-
zation's record has been mixed; but it
has survived. It has survived the danger-
ous years of superpower rivalry, the
Cold War and the threat of a nuclear
holocaust. It has survived the considerable
impact of the entry of a large number of
former colonies into its community as
independent states and as participants in
the work of the United Nations system.
And it has survived shifts in the distrib-
ution of power, growing regionalism
together with the globalization of trade,
of finance and other activities, all
demanding new thinking and new insti-
tutional designs in the public and pri-
vate spheres worldwide.
There has been no global war in the
past fifty years but there have been
well over a hundred conflicts and wars
in different parts of the world. The UN
has managed, somehow, to survive
these also and has made some contribu-
tion toward the cessation of hostilities
or the resolution of the problems in a
number of cases. It has survived the
troubling phenomena of ethnic tensions
and conflicts which are imposing new
pressures and new obligations upon it
and upon the global community.
The UN system has been particularly
active in the exploration of the issue of
development, an issue which came into
prominence after the Second World
War. Development became more and
more a central theme in global affairs,
first with the effort to restructure the
industrialized countries torn by war, and
later with the entry of over one hundred
countries into the community of
nations. The attempts of these countries
to redress the imbalances between them-
selves and the industrialized countries -
the North-South issue especially in
international economic relations,
brought about considerable activity and
tension. It still remains an area very
much in need of sensitive consideration
and attention.
In these and other matters, the UN
has played a most significant role. It has
brought the world together in a forum

which allows great powers and smaller
countries, peoples of different cultures
and at different stages of development,
into situations of dialogue and negotia-
tion on a wide variety of matters. It has,
to an increasing extent, opened its doors
to the civil society and especially in its
relationships with Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGOs) and with repre-
sentatives of a wide variety of interests
outside the official systems. They have
been allowed to participate in the affairs
of the world.
Security and the future of the world
and its peoples have always been at the
centre of the UN's work and its preoc-
cupations.The preamble to the UN
Charter begins: 'We the peoples of the
United Nations, determined to save suc-
ceeding generations from the scourge of
The preamble is followed by the first
chapter which states the purpose and
principles of the Organization. The first
is 'To maintain international peace and
Concerns for security have been cen-
tred on the threat of war, the dangers of
nuclear annihilation, widespread and
persistent poverty, the deprivation and
starvation affecting some parts of the
world, and the terrible conditions of the
scores of millions of refugees.
But another concern about the secu-
rity of the earth and its peoples was to
emerge. Ironically, perhaps, this con-
cern might have grown out of the
intense focus on development in the
1950s and the 1960s. During this peri-
od, industrialized countries experi-
enced the greatest economic boom in
the history of the world. But in some
quarters anxiety grew as to whether or
not economic development and growth
might exhaust some of the raw materi-
als and other natural resources on which
such development relied. This concern
was projected in particular by the 'Club
of Rome'. The fact that the developing
countries, many of which produced
some of these resources, could share in
their use as a means to their own devel-
opment only to a limited extent became
a parallel issue.

The Stockholm Conference

Serious concern about the world
environment was articulated in the early
1970s. The United Nations Conference
on Environment and Development held
in Stockholm in 1972 was an event of
the greatest importance, bringing

together, as it did, governments and
civil society interests to examine the
dangers to the natural environment, par-
ticularly those which are the result of
human activity or neglect, and to fash-
ion a programme which would establish
effective systems of management and
protection of basic resources, both at the
global and at the national levels. Non-
governmental interests deserve great
credit for their contribution to the ideas
which were the basis of this conference.
The importance of the Stockholm
Conference can be judged from the fact
that the environment was not of central
concern to the UN when it was first
formed. Of course, there were related
issues, and in particular public health
concerns, which were fully represented
by the World Health Organization with
its origins in the League of Nations well
before the United Nations came into
being. But the UN Charter does not
have any direct reference to environ-
ment or to sustainable development,
matters now so important in world
affairs and in the affairs of the UN.
These would seem to be set, in the years
ahead, to be the most crucial areas,
involving, as they do, the very survival
of the capacity of planet Earth to sup-
port life, including human life.
Once again, therefore, security has
become the central preoccupation of the
United Nations system.
The environment and sustainable
development touch upon almost every
aspect of human existence and human
activity. They are concerned with all the
ways in which human beings treat the
resources which nature has provided:
the soils, the air, the water, the oceans;
the minerals which are used in prod-
uctive processes, including those from
which we extract energy; the forests,
and other forms of plant life, as well as
animal life, whether creatures which we
use as food, including sea life, or others
whose existence and survival are seen
as critical elements in a natural system.

Results of Stockholm
The programmes emanating from the
Stockholm Conference, and those which
came later, cover all these matters and
more. Countries of the world were
encouraged to establish the appropriate
institutional machinery, particularly
within the government structures, for
environmental protection and manage-
ment, and many or most of them, in
varying degrees, proceeded to do so.
Non-governmental interests took the


subject of environment as a very special
area of interest and the growth in this
movement over the last twenty years has
been spectacular.
The United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) which was estab-
lished out of the Conference, with its
headquarters in Nairobi, is the central
agency in the UN's work in this sphere.
But associated with it are all the rele-
vant UN bodies with work touching on
any of the issues involved. Among these
are the World Health Organization, the
Food and Agriculture Organization, the
World Food Programme, the UN
Industrial Development Organization,
the World Meteorological Organization,
the UN Development Programme,
such institutions as the World Bank.
The scope of the UN activities in
these matters and the large number of
UN agencies involved is a measure of
the extent to which environmental
issues and sustainable development are
integral to a wide range of human con-
cerns and activities. In addition, of
course, the UN system is very much
involved in matters related to natural
phenomena, for example, climatic con-
ditions, natural disasters such as storms,
hurricanes and flooding, volcanic activi-
ty and earthquakes, as well as the state
of the protective ozone layer around the
Earth, all of these part of the world's
natural environment.
The issue of the capability of the
international community to deal with
environmental emergencies provides an
illustration'of the evolution of the UN's
activities in some of these matters. In
recent years it has become clear that
existing facilities are insufficient to pro-
vide adequate technical advice or to
deliver urgent environmental assistance
where a country is faced by some seri-
ous accident or natural disaster. There
are, of course, actual and potential
bilateral and international sources of
assistance in such cases. But it has
become clear that, in the words of a UN
report, 'industrialization in the devel-
oping world carries with it a significant
risk of humanitarian and environmental
disaster, whether caused by man or
nature. There is also evidence that many
countries haven't yet developed the
infrastructure to cope with the results of
such disasters.' The report continues,
'The accidental release of large quanti-
ties of substances that pose a significant
threat to the natural environment is a
subject of growing concern to the world

community. Despite many efforts to
reduce accidental releases, accidents
will continue to occur in the foreseeable
future, and an ever-growing amount of
attention to faster and better response
capabilities is being paid to this topic.'

The Caribbean Sea
Protection of the oceans is another
area which has received very special
attention. All around the world, the
oceans are threatened by pollution and
degradation from activities in the oceans
themselves and from land-based
sources. The UN therefore set out from
the early stages of the establishment of
UNEP to bring together the countries in
each region whose shores were washed
by a particular regional sea. Discussions
were arranged in each case by the UN at
the technical and at the political levels,
resulting in the establishment of a com-
pact between the countries, and eventu-
ally a convention, binding them in a
cooperative effort to protect the regional
sea. So far, twelve regional seas have
come under such arrangements.
The Caribbean is one of those
regional seas. The political agreement
was reached at a ministerial meeting in
Montego Bay in 1981, and was re-
inforced by the Cartagena Convention
of 1983. The Headquarters of the Carib-
bean Environment Programme are in
Kingston, Jamaica. Of the nearly thirty
countries of the region, from Mexico
and Central America to the countries of
the northern coast of South America and
the Islands, and including 'metropoli-
tan' countries the United States,
France, Britain, the Netherlands and the
European Union nineteen have so far
ratified the Convention, including
Jamaica. Some of the other countries,
however attend meetings and participate
in the work of the Programme.
The countries which have ratified the
Convention have thereby agreed to
adopt measures designed to prevent or
to reduce the incidence of pollution, or
to deal with such events, whether the
pollution comes from ships, from
land-based sources or from activities on
the seabed. The Caribbean Environment
Programme includes such matters as
emergencies, research and monitoring,
and the preservation of rare species.
Particular attention has been paid to the
risk of oil spills within the region.
Because of the large number of ships,
including oil tankers, passing through,
the Caribbean is extremely vulnerable in
this respect. As a result, a special proto-

col on oil spills has been established.
Recent discussions of the governing
body of this programme, consisting of
representatives of the countries in-
volved, have included such matters as
climate change and the implications of
this for insurance coverage and rates,
possible grave danger involved in the
conveying of nuclear fuel by sea
through the area, which recently caused
serious concern in the region, sustain-
able tourism, and sustainable industrial
development. It is a fact, however, that
far too little interest in the existence and
the work of this organization has been
evident in the years of its existence.

Conditions and responses in Jamaica
Jamaica, however, has taken a strong
interest in the international environmen-
tal movement and the work of the
United Nations system in this respect.
This interest stems from its own vulner-
able situation brought about by the cir-
cumstances of the country, and the
threats to the natural environment com-
ing from the activities of human beings
as well as from the forces of nature.
Jamaica is a small country with a fragile
ecosystem. Its size and topography
expose it to certain risks in terms of the
preservation of the environment. The
mountainous nature of the terrain ex-
poses it to the risk of the denudation of
the hills as a result of the indiscriminate
cutting of trees and the failure to
replant. The considerable quantities of
soil inevitably washed away cause silt-
ing of rivers and coastal areas and dam-
age to the coral reefs. The fragile coastal
areas are the scene of a great deal of
industrial and commercial activity,
including tourism and resort develop-
ment, and most of the population of the
island is concentrated there.
Within these areas, urban growth and
the significant incidence of poverty
together with the absence of facilities,
particularly in the field of sanitation and
waste management, represent a major
problems for the country. In addition,
the island lies in the hurricane belt and
is subject to natural disasters such as
storms, hurricanes and flooding. It is
also visited occasionally by earth-
quakes. Considerable efforts to protect
the environment have been made over
the years through the special govern-
ment institutions which have been
established, and the activities of a vari-
ety of interests, and in particular the
Non-Governmental Organizations which
have an increasing presence in Jamaica.


Regrettably, as in the case of many
other countries, while there are many
indications of successful activity and of
improvements in the field of environ-
mental management and protection, the
abuses continue.
A variety of UN agencies have
offices in the island and engage in
numerous activities, many of which are
concerned with the environment. Jamai-
ca's involvement in environmental mat-
ters therefore has come by way of its
participation in global and regional
activities and discussions as well as in
activities at the national level. Many of
these activities involve cooperation with
United Nations bodies as well as with
bilateral agencies which have taken a
strong interest in environmental matters.
These have provided a measure of sup-
port as well as some pressure on the
Jamaican authorities in respect of effec-
tive environmental management.

Global and regional environmental
Jamaica's awareness of and responsi-
bility in respect of environmental condi-
tions, therefore, can be seen as going
well beyond an immediate preoccupa-
tion with national concerns. The dan-
gers threatening the global environment
must be of immediate concern to
Jamaica, and the efforts of the glob-
al community, mainly under the leader-
ship of the UN system, to deal with
global environmental issues require the
involvement and support of all coun-
tries. In this matter, as in others, the
existence of the UN system provides
opportunities for Jamaica and countries
worldwide to participate, to learn, to put
forward their interests, and to provide
leadership both at the level of intergov-
ernmental committees, and other bod-
ies, and by way of the occupation of
official posts in the secretariats of the
UN system.
However, while Jamaican involve-
ment in such matters has been acknowl-
edged, the truth is that there is as yet
inadequate awareness in the country of
the issues and the amount of work

involved at regional and international
levels. There is serious need for greater
attention to be focused on such matters
by different elements within the govern-
mental system and by society at large.
Non-Governmental Organizations, es-
pecially those working in the field of
environment and development, are
already taking an increasing interest and
are, in fact, participating more and more
in UN conferences related to the envi-
ronment and sustainable development.
In addition, the government of Jamaica
has developed the practice of including
civil society representatives on the offi-
cial delegations at many conferences.
Private sector interests and scientific
and other bodies in the country, howev-
er, have not yet shown, on the whole, a
comparable interest, especially where
global and regional environmental
issues are concerned. The UN system in
particular offers wide opportunities for
such participation and for the acquisi-
tion of information. The truth is that
there are some issues which have a
direct bearing upon the interests of
some of these elements of the society so
that, apart from any other reason, it is in
their own interest that they should fol-
low such matters and seek to assist in
influencing decisions and activities at
the national and international levels.

The Earth Summit in Rio
There have, therefore, been major
signs of progress in the past two
decades. But on the negative side there
has been continuing degradation while a
number of specific developments have
resulted in rising alarm about the state
of the global environment. Among these
there is the erosion of the ozone layer,
due in particular to the use of chloro-
fluoro-carbons. Another is the burning
of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas
which has been creating what is called
'the greenhouse effect' the formation
of a blanket of gases around the earth,
which is expected to result in global
warming, a rise in sea levels, and cli-
matic changes including more frequent
weather disturbances. Another danger

stems from the serious problem of the
disposal of waste, including hazardous
It was because of the deep concern
and fears arising from such develop-
ments that the UN again organized a
conference on environmental develop-
ment. The UN Conference on Environ-
mental Development (UNCED), The
Earth Summit, was held in Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil, in mid-1992 after two
years of preparation.
It was an extraordinary event. The
lengthy preparations had drawn together
a very wide variety of interests including
governments, many inter-governmental
organizations, and almost the entire UN
system; and from the civil society,
NGOs, representatives of business inter-
ests, women's organizations, youth
organizations and, of course, the media,
and many others. All participated in
varying degrees in the meetings of the
United Nations Preparatory Com-mit-
tee. And the meetings took place all
over the world, at the national and
regional levels.
Over one hundred presidents and
prime ministers attended the Earth
Summit in Rio, with a great many other
ministers and officials, UN personnel,
and some fourteen hundred represen-
tatives of NGOs and other civil society
interests. Thousands participated in the
parallel NGO Forum in Rio. The meet-
ings received massive media coverage
across the world. Jamaica and other
Caribbean countries, of course, paid
very special attention to these events
and participated very actively in the
meetings and in Rio.
Out of the serious concerns which
led to the Rio Summit, the concept of
sustainable development came into
prominence. This was embodied in
conclusion of the summit, the Pro-
gramme of Action, entitled Agenda 21,
an Agenda for the Twenty-first Century.
The Agenda put forward sustainable
development as the central concept and
purpose to which all countries and all
peoples must now seek to adhere. It
should be recognized that the entire


This article was sponsored by



two-year process of preparation, and the
summit itself, were based on the
requirement that all the conclusions and
the programme of action, which the
global community must now work
towards implementing, were to be estab-
lished on a basis of consensus.
Among the fundamental statements
made in Agenda 21 are the following:
1. Environmental protection is an
essential element in the pursuit of
sustainable development;
2. The eradication of poverty is an
indispensable requirement of sus-
tainable development
3. In order to achieve sustainable
development and a higher quality of
life, unsustainable patterns of pro-
duction and consumption must be
reduced and eliminated;
4. States must cooperate towards
the protection of the global environ-

Sustainable development

Although simple definitions exist
for the concept of sustainable devel-
opment, in practice it is a very com-
plex matter indeed. Sustainable devel-
opment is development that meets the
needs of the present without compro-
mising the ability of future generations
to meet their own needs. It is devel-
opment that 'must be socially desir-
able, economically viable, and eco-
logically sustainable.' It is concerned
with equity, not only among the peo-
ple of the current generation but also
between generations.
A more complex definition can be

The call for sustainable develop-
ment is not simply a call for envi-
ronmental protection. It is a process
in which economic, fiscal, trade,
energy, agricultural, industrial, and
all other policies are so designed as
to bring about development that is
economically, socially and ecologi-
cally sustainable. It is a comprehen-
sive concept, embracing all facets
of human life. Implementation of
models of sustainable development
would require far-reaching changes
in both national and global
Each of the countries is therefore
expected to study its own circumstances
in the light of these requirements and to
adapt its plans, programmes and poli-
cies, governmental systems as well as
the processes in the civil society
towards meeting those requirements.

The very large numbers of Non-
Governmental Organizations of all sorts,
including representatives of business
and professional interests, attending the
Rio Conference and the preparatory
meetings leading to it, are an indication
of the realization that governments by
themselves, whilst they have a very
important role to play in the matter of
environmental management and sustain-
able development, cannot perform the
task without the fullest involvement and
cooperation of all interests in the soci-
Agenda 21 repeatedly stresses this
fact. Sections of that programme
describe the roles which various civil
society interests are expected to per-
form. Included in those are women, who
bear particular responsibilities related
to the environment; children and youth;
local authorities; workers and trade
unions; business and industry; the scien-
tific and technological community;
farmers; and, of course, the convention-
al Non-Governmental Organizations,
which have shown such a strong interest
in environmental matters. Agenda 21
speaks of the need for a social partner-
ship. It states that the commitment and
general involvement of all social groups
are critical to the effective implementa-
tion of the policies and mechanisms
agreed by the governments, and that the
achievement of sustainable development
will require broad public participation in
decision making. It emphasizes that
new forms of participation have already
emerged and that individuals, groups
and organizations should have access
to information relevant to environ-
ment and development held by national
authorities, including information on
products and activities that have, or are
likely to have, a significant impact on
the environment, and information on
environmental protection measures. The
Agenda also recognizes that community
interest and involvement, which are so
vital in this matter, require adequate
programmes for developing public
awareness. In addition, the regular for-
mal educational system will have to be
adapted to ensure that the environment
and sustainable development are ade-
quately represented across the various
Obviously the requirements of effec-
tive environmental protection and man-
agement, and of sustainable develop-
ment, present a major challenge to gov-
ernments, to communities, to private
sector and other interests, to the global

community and to the United Nations
system. Because of this, the UN seeks to
give assistance in a number of areas,
and especially to developing countries.
First of all, capacity building, the devel-
opment of adequate capability to handle
these and other critical matters, has
received special attention. Jamaica is
one of the countries which are likely to
receive UN assistance in this area and
this assistance is being directed not at
the government alone but also at the
Non-Governmental Organizations.
Following the Rio Conference and
the agreement on Agenda 21, the UN
established a Commission on Sustain-
able Development which has been meet-
ing regularly. Participants in the meet-
ings are the representatives of member
countries, UN officials, and other inter-
ests. Their purpose is to examine the
efforts which are being made by coun-
tries towards the implementation of
Agenda 21. A special fund, the Global
Environment Facility, has been estab-
lished to assist developing countries, by
way of grants and low-interest loans, in
their efforts to deal with the major
threats to the global environment posed
by global warming, destruction of bio-
diversity and erosion of the ozone layer
protecting the planet. All of these are
the subject of international conventions.
Jamaica would qualify for some assis-
tance from this source.
Clearly, the issue of the environment
and sustainable development has come
to occupy a dominant position in human
affairs. It has demonstrated, more than
any other issue, the meaning of the term
'the global village'. We all live on one
planet: that globe is our only home and
we are in grave danger of making it
incapable of supporting life, including
the life of humankind.
The pursuit of a path of sustainable
development will require great changes
in the way in which human beings live,
including the way in which they pursue
their economic activities, their con-
sumption habits, and their relationships
within their communities. The achieve-
ment of sustainable development, then,
will call for enormous effort and inge-
nuity on the part of the peoples of the
Earth and for a great deal of cooperation
between countries.
In an article entitled 'Trade-Environ-
ment Links: The Global Dimension',
Jim McNeil asks:
Who in 1985 would have predicted
that the concept of sustainable
development would capture the


imagination of people, politicians,
industrialists, and environmental
leaders all over the world? Who
would have predicted that leader
after leader would undergo a public
baptism as a born-again environ-
mentalist? And who would have
predicted that sustainable develop-
ment would be a regular feature of
the debates of the UN system, the
OECD, and the annual Summits of
the G7 group of major industrial
democracies or that it would have
become the concern of many com-
panies in the Fortune 500? 2

Small Island interests

Small Island Developing Countries
have always been aware of their unusual
circumstances, not least their economic
fragility, and their exposure to the forces
of nature. Therefore, during the period
of preparation for the Rio Summit, a
number of these states initiated activity
towards the formation of what turned
out to be the Alliance of Small Island
Developing States (AOSIS). That group
of forty or more countries, spread across
the globe, some sixteen or seventeen of
them in the Caribbean, by successful
negotiation managed to have a number
of their concerns included in Agenda
21, particularly in the section of that
programme dealing with the protection
of the oceans, seas and coastal areas,
and the living resources within them.
They also requested that a special con-
ference should be organized by the
United Nations for the examination of
the issue of the sustainable development
of Small Island Developing States, and
for the development of a relevant pro-
gramme of action.

Preparations for that conference went
ahead and the meeting was held in
Barbados from April to May, 1994. The
Programme of Action approved at that
conference covers in the main the issues
which would most affect small islands,
including climate change and sea-level
rise, natural and environmental dis-
asters, the management of wastes,
coastal and marine resources, fresh-
water resources, land resources, energy,
tourism, and biodiversity resources. In
addition, the programme deals with
national institutions and administrative
capacity, science and technology, trans-
port and communication, and human
resource development. This Programme
of Action must be seen as an extension
of Agenda 21 from the Rio Summit. It is
the responsibility of Island Developing
Countries, hopefully supported in mate-
rial and other terms by the international
community, to implement the pro-
The United Nations General
Assembly Resolution authorizing the
holding of the conference on Small
Islands gave some indication of their
peculiar circumstances. It speaks of the
fact that they represent a special case
with regard to both environment and
development, that they are ecologically
vulnerable, and that their small size,
limited resources, geographic disper-
sion, and isolation from the market,
place them at an economic disadvan-
tage, precluding economies of scale and
that, for Small Island Developing States,
the ocean and the coastal environment
are of strategic importance and consti-
tute a valuable development resource. In
Barbados, the representative of the

Republic of Nauru, stated in his address
to the conference:

We are small in numbers; we are
small in land area; and our econ-
omies are comparatively small, but
we are also the guardians of the
world's oceans; the exclusive eco-
nomic zone of just one of our
Pacific island nations occupies an
ocean area that is no less than the
land area of the United States of

The fact is that under the Inter-
national Convention on the Law of the
Sea, each country has under its jurisdic-
tion an exclusive economic zone reach-
ing two hundred miles from its shores.
Of course, where a neighboring coun-
try is less than two hundred miles away,
negotiations have to take place about
sharing the space. But it has been calcu-
lated that the small islands of the world,
by reason of this Convention, have
jurisdiction of a sort over a very signifi-
cant portion of the world's oceans.
The UN General Assembly resolu-
tion states that small island developing
states are considered to be extremely
threatened by the impact of potential
climate change and sea-level rise, with
certain small low-lying island develop-
ing states facing the growing possibility
of the loss of their entire national territo-
ries. It also states that most tropical
islands are currently experiencing the
more immediate impacts of an in-
creasing frequency of cyclones, storms
and hurricanes associated with climatic
change. These are causing major set-
backs to their socioeconomic develop-

Poster for UN Global Conference for Sustainable
Development for Small Island Developing States.
Bridgetown, Barbados. 28 April-4 May, 1994


In addition, because the development
options of small island developing
states are limited, there are special chal-
lenges to planning for and implement-
ing sustainable development. They
therefore will require the cooperation
and assistance of the international com-

Sustainable Development Difficulties

Environment and Trade
Complex problems have arisen in
respect of the environment and sustain-
able development. One of them is the
introduction by some countries, espe-
cially among industrialized nations, of
certain environmental considerations
which they are applying to trade. For
example, there is the requirement that
imported products should not be pack-
aged in non-biodegradable material.
Eco-packaging is one of the hurdles
which countries such as Jamaica will
have to face more and more in the
future. Similarly, eco-labelling has been
introduced in some countries.This can
involve the granting in the importing
country in respect of one of their prod-
ucts of what amounts to a certificate of
environmental acceptability to be
shown on the container. Such a require-
ment could place imports from, say,
Jamaica at a serious disadvantage in any
competition with goods produced with-
in the importing country, since it is
unlikely, certainly in the foreseeable
future, that products from Jamaica
would be able to acquire such a label,
even if it were merited.
Eco-packaging and eco-labelling are
seen as posing possible dangers to
developing countries in particular, and
might, in some cases, represent non-
tariff barriers. The UN system has been
discussing these issues in such bodies as
the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT), WTO, and UNCTAD. The
latter and the UN Environment Pro-
gramme have been holding a series of
meetings, sometimes at ministerial
level, to which they have been inviting
representatives from some developing
countries, including Jamaica, as well as
representatives from industrialized
countries. The discussions allow open
and free examination of the issues,
including the dangers involved, and
give the developing island states an
opportunity of presenting their point of
view and perhaps of influencing the
final determinations.

Environmental Economics
Another matter which is becoming
more and more important in respect of
environmental and sustainable devel-
opment is the way in which, traditional-
ly, the costs of production of goods, and
services are measured. Production on
the farm or factory, in the extraction of
minerals, in providing services such as
tourism, involve the use of nature's
resources. However, by convention,
much of this use has not been reflected
in the costs of the product. There might
be the actual use of a particular re-
source, such as water, or minerals, or
degradation of resources such as the
atmosphere, rivers, soils or coastal
areas. In each case, there is a cost
involved. The international community
has now accepted the principle that the
polluter must pay. For this, and for
other reasons, it is clear that the practice
of sustainable development must require
a more rational system of accounting
and pricing.
Complex theoretical and practical
considerations and computations arise
from these activities. Countries which
fail to include the full cost of their
products and services by omitting the
environmental costs in their final prices
can find themselves in serious difficul-
ty, especially when they export local
goods, since they will be seen as under-
pricing their products in comparison
with competitors who include environ-
mental costs in their prices.
The United Nations system has been
doing a considerable amount of work in
the matter of environmental economics
and environmental statistics through
such institutions as the UN Statistical
Office, the United Nations University
and the World Bank. Each of the last
two institutions held a training course in
environmental economics in Kingston
late last year for the benefit of Ja-
maicans and others from Universities
and other fields in the region. Both
Government and Private Sector interests
will have to come to terms with these
requirements, and will be able to draw
on the UN and other sources, including
local expertise.

Poverty and the environment
One of the very far-reaching conclu-
sions in Agenda 21, arrived at, as in all
cases, by consensus between all the
countries of the world, is that the eradi-
cation of poverty is an indispensable
requirement for the attainment of sus-

tainable development. The issue of
poverty has received considerable atten-
tion, especially in recent times, notably
at the Social Summit held by the United
Nations in Copenhagen recently. The
government of Jamaica has indicated
that poverty is a priority matter, and its
reduction and eventual eradication are
major elements in its policy. The United
Nations system, in association with a
number of donor organizations, is there-
fore cooperating with the Jamaican gov-
ernment in its attempt to establish a
comprehensive programme on poverty.

The UN in the Caribbean
The United Nations' chief regional
institution is the Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean,
with Headquarters in Santiago, Chile,
and a Caribbean Division in Port of
Spain, Trinidad. Jamaica participates in
the activities of that organization which,
among other things, has promoted the
development of a regional action plan
for the environment. The Regional
Centre of the UN Environment Pro-
gramme for Latin America and the
Caribbean is located in Mexico City.
CARICOM is, of course, an important
focus for the pursuit of some sub-
regional matters related to the environ-
ment. The organization played a partic-
ularly active role in the preparations for
the Earth Summit in Rio.
Two issues have created special con-
cern in the area in the matter of environ-
ment protection. The first is the ques-
tion of the passage of ships carrying
nuclear material, in particular plutoni-
um, through the Caribbean Sea. In the
face of what is seen as a potentially
great danger and an unacceptable risk,
the countries of the Caribbean have
sought to call upon the UN to assist in
their purusit of this matter which also
concerns a number of UN agencies:
the International Atomic Energy
Agency, the International Maritime
Organization and the UN Environment
Again, there was the threat of a
tourism boycott against a CARICOM
member arising from the position it
took in the governing body of the
International Conventin on whaling to
which it is a party.
These events serve to emphasize the
wide-ranging coverage of the environ-
ment and sustainable development
issue, and the extensive involvement of
the UN system.


He's Jamaican


When we harm
our environment,
we harm ourselves.
Like this Jamaican Owl
(Pseudoscops Grammicus or Patoo),
every tree, river, fish and bird...every creature of
Nature contributes to life on this planet and deserves
our respect. In Jamaica we must take care to sustain the
quality of our air, sea and land.
Shell is helping the cause of environmental
conservation in Jamaica. Shell helped found
the Jamaica Junior Naturalists which teaches our
children to value our country's
plant and animal life.
Shell uses its calendar to encourage the protection of
endangered marine life. Company representatives
have discussed with community organizations
the need to balance economic progress with
environmental preservation. They also have urged
business groups to "bring the environment into
the boardroom." Within its own operations, Shell uses
many opportunities to show its customers how to use
its products safely...and in ways that won't hurt the
environment. It was Shell's marketing initiative that
brought unleaded gasoline to Jamaica.
But Shell knows it still has some way to go in its own
operations. The company conducted an exhaustive
environmental audit at all its installations, then
hired a full time, in-house environmentalist to
carry out the improvements.
Everyone of us ... children, professionals,
the man & woman in the street... must help make
sure we have a healthy environment. .
After all, we're all Jamaicans too! i

The Shell Companies in Jamaica
Rockfort, Kingston 2. Tel: 928-7301-9 / 928-7231-9

The issue will evolve in the coming 1
years and into the twenty-first century.
It is imperative that Jamaica and other
countries prepare themselves to meet the
requirements which flow from this.
In the face of recurring doubts about
the effectiveness of the United Nations,
and about the need for that organization,
the role that it has already played and
the even more critical role it must play
in the future in such matters affecting
the security of the Planet and its people
represents more than a justification for
its continued existence.

1. Sustainable Development: From
Concept to Action, The Hague Report,
March 1992.
2. Jim McNeil in Trade, Environment
and Competitivenes, edited by John Kirton
and Sarah Richardson. The National Round
Table on the Environment and the Economy,

Ambassador the Hon. Don Mills was
Jamaica's Permanent Representative to
the UN in New York (1973-1981). During
that time, Ambassador Mills was
Chairman of the Group of 77 (1977-1978),
President of the Economic and Social
Council and twice President of the United
Nations Security Council. He is now work-
ing actively on environmental issues.

(Benson Court Apartments

Under the warmth of the t

the Berger landscape of p

protecting Jamaican Hor

to every Jamaican sector,

Adding tone to modem Ji

...weathering the element

season ...Proven Quality



, St. Andrew)

ropical sun -

es adding colour

amaican Architecture

s ...season after

r Lasting Beauty and Protection

The UN an


Jamaican point view

Equality, Development and Peace. This was the slogan of the first Decade of
Women declared by the United Nations in 1975.

It is the slogan of the Fourth World
Conference on Women which will
open in Beijing on September 4,
1995, and it shows clearly not only the
priorities of women in the world today
but also how universal peace might be
achieved if each stage of the slogan
could lead into the next.
At the end of August, Jamaica's offi-
cial delegation to the Conference will
be setting out on the long journey to
Beijing. The delegation will be headed
by the Hon. Portia Simpson, Minister of
Welfare, Social Services and Welfare.
The members include Carole Narcisse,
Coordinator of the Association of Wo-
men's Organizations; Elsa Leo- Rhynie,
Head of Gender Studies, UWI; Lisa
Lawrence, Head of the Bureau of
Women's Affairs; and attorney Mar-
garet McCauley. Representatives of
local Non-Governmental Organizations

dealing with women's affairs will also
be present at the concurrent NGO
Forum, a powerful force for change, as
was demonstrated at the 1992 UN
Environmental Conference in Rio. Some
thirty thousand representatives from
women's organizations worldwide are
expected to attend either the official
Conference in Beijing or the NGO Forum.
One thousand delegates attended the
first international meeting dealing exclu-
sively with women's issues, the Inter-
national Women's Year Tribune in
Mexico City in 1975. The surprise that
was expressed that so many women
would attend such a conference suggests
that few people then could have envis-
aged a Conference on Women on the
scale of the one to be held in Beijing.
Certainly it would have been unimagin-
able in 1945 when the first fifty nations
adopted the United Nations Charter. Only

four women signed the Charter, from
China, Brazil, the Dominican Republic
and the USA. In the male world of inter-
national relations then, it was remarkable
that even four women could be signato-
ries to the Charter.
Most remarkable, however, was the
fact that the Charter was the first inter-
national document of its kind to men-
tion equal rights of men and women in
unmistakable terms. In the Preamble,
the Charter proclaims the determination
of the peoples of the United Nations 'to
reaffirm faith in fundamental human
rights, in the dignity and worth of the
human person, in the equal rights of
men and women'. Article 1 of the
Charter states that one of the purposes
of the United Nations is 'to achieve inter-
national cooperation in solving interna-
tional problems of an economic, social,
cultural, or humanitarian character, and


in promoting and encouraging respect
for human rights and fundamental free-
domsfor all, without distinction as to
race, sex, language or religion.
In other Articles, the Charter repeat-
edly calls for the realization of human
rights and fundamental freedoms 'for
all without distinction as to race, sex,
language or religion'. In Article 8, the
United Nations looks within its own
organization and declares that 'the
United Nations shall place no restric-
tions on the eligibility of men and
women to participate in any capacity
and under conditions of equality in its
principal and subsidiary organs'. The
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
which was adopted by the General
Assembly in December 1948, stated in
Article 1: 'All human beings are born
free and equal in dignity and rights.'
Forty-eight states voted in favour of the
Declaration and eight abstained. The
two binding Covenants which were the
outcome of the Declaration were not rat-
ified by enough Member States to enter
into force until 1976. Each of them reaf-
firms the principle of equality of men
and women as regards human rights and
also enjoins states to make that principle
a reality.
In the year following the first signing
of the United Nations Charter, two
Commissions were set up which would
be of great importance for the women of
the world. One was the Commission on
Human Rights, a cause which in the
1960s would be strongly supported by
Jamaica's Permanent Representative to
the United Nations, Ambassador Egerton

Richardson; the other was the Commis-
sion on the Status of Women. The latter
was set up to promote the political, eco-
nomic and social rights of women and it
benefited from the powerful influence of
Eleanor Roosevelt who was a US dele-
gate to the UN until 1952. She took up
the cause of human rights, and particu-
larly women's rights. The Commission
on the Status of Women became increas-
ingly, over the years, a driving force
behind the efforts made to improve the
condition of women around the world.
Change came slowly at first, with the
Commission working for increased civil
and political rights for women. In 1967
there was a major breakthrough with the
Declaration on the Elimination of all
Forms of Discrimination Against Women
which went beyond civil and political
rights to include others such as access to
education, health care, and employment
opportunities. The principles of the
Declaration were written into a binding
international Convention which was
signed by one hundred countries. The
first international Women's Year was
declared in 1975 and the Declaration
and World Plan of Action adopted by
the Mexico City Conference provided
guidelines and standards for future action.
Following these developments came
the first decade for Women, 1975-1986,
the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women (CEDAW), adopted by the
General Assembly in 1979, the Second
Conference on Women in Copenhagen
in 1980, in which Jamaica's Dr Lucille
Mair played a major role, and the Third

Conference in Nairobi in 1985. Nairobi
produced the Forward-Looking Strategies
for the Advancement of Women to the
Year 2000. The Commission on the
Status of Women reviewed these strat-
egies in 1990 and recommended the
convening of the Fourth World
Conference on Women. Since 1990, the
UN Conference for Environment and
Development, held in Rio in 1992, has
recognized the importance of the role of
women in the preservation of the envi-
ronment; the Declaration on the Elim-
ination of Violence Against Women has
been adopted by the General Assembly
in 1993; and the 1994 International
Conference on Population and Develop-
ment in Cairo became the first occasion
on which the empowerment of women
was seen as an integral part of develop-
ment. In addition, the World Conference
on Human Rights in Vienna in 1993
moved the whole issue of women's
human rights, including violence against
women, into the mainstream of the
human rights agenda. These issues would
no longer be dealt with as being separate
from human rights concerns as a whole.
In theory, women's issues are now fully
integrated into the world's most impor-
tant economic and social concerns.
High ideals are expressed in these
statements, strategies and declarations.
Questions might well be put as to
whether or not they can be realized and,
if so, when and to what extent. The
United Nations system itself presents an
interesting picture in this regard in that
many of the UN programmes worldwide
promote women's self-reliance and

^ ^

Left to right: The Hon. P.J. Patterson, then Minister for Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Don Mills, Delegate Marcella Martinez in the General Assembly, June 1978.
Unlike many Member States of the UN, Jamaica has, since 1964, always included women delegates as members of the country's Mission to the UN.


The Hon. Dr Lucille Mair, addressing the 44th

advancement while inside the United
Nations itself women for many years
have played a subsidiary role. Only in
recent years have substantial changes
begun to come into effect.
Within the United Nations system,
there are three widely different areas in
which women are active. There are the
Permanent Missions of the Member
States of the UN with their Permanent
Representatives together with delegates
and other representatives for special
interests which form the General
Assembly. There is the Secretariat, the
working centre of the UN, concerned
with putting into effect the decisions
made by the General Assembly. The
third area covers the world. It consists
of the Special Agencies, for example,
the World Health Organization (WHO),
the International Labour Organization
(ILO), UNICEF, all of which implement
the policies agreed upon within the UN
itself. Jamaican women have con-
tributed notably to all these areas.

Clearly the third area directly affects
vast numbers of women, those working
in the Specialized Agencies in the mem-
ber countries of the UN and those
whose conditions of life they are work-
ing to improve. There has been steady
progress for women in many countries,
although at varying rates, and in spite of
some recent setbacks, especially in
Eastern Europe. The UN's work in the
field today can bring about improve-
ments in health, medical care, education
and employment skills which can empow-
er women and assist in the development
of their communities.
The original drive by the UN to
improve the status of women concen-
trated on increasing their civil and polit-
ical rights but this gradually expanded
into the movement for the recognition
of women as equal partners with men in
the broader society. More recently, and
especially since the Rio Conference, the
awareness emerged that women can be
powerful agents for change. This became

clear partly because of the activities of
the Non-Governmental Organizations
and partly because it came to be seen
that women's concerns are inextricably
tied into environmental issues. Women
have a key role to play in solving envi-
ronmental problems.
The World Conference on Human
Rights held in Vienna in 1993 and the
International Conference on Population
and Development in Cairo in 1994
moved women's issues, including vio-
lence against women, onto the main
agendas of human rights and connected
activities. No longer would they be
dealt with separately as issues affecting
women only. In theory, women's issues
are now fully integrated into the world's
most important economic and social
concerns. The Fourth World Conference
on Women will review the present situ-
ation and adopt a new 'Platform for
Action', identifying women's aims for
the twenty-first century.
The conventions signed and the poli-
cies adopted which bring the UN pro-
grammes into being are decided by the
Member States of the UN and take their
final shape in the UN Headquarters in
New York where the Permanent Rep-
resentatives and the members of their
Mission sit in the General Assembly.
The Member States of the United
Nations select their representatives to
the UN and the result is that the General
Assembly is heavily dominated by men.
That has been the case for fifty years,
largely because of the political realities
within the Member States and the world
of international relations. At the
moment, only five Permanent Missions
to the UN are headed by a woman. One
of those is the Jamaican Mission led by
Ambassador Patricia Durrant. Little can
be done to change this situation until the
policies of most Member States are
changed. Then, perhaps, at some future
point, the Secretary General of the
United Nations will be a woman.
However, in Ambassador Lucille Mair,
Jamaica has provided the first woman to
hold the title of Under-Secretary-
General of the United Nations.

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s iui w uI e mvy uv wrar issemoryy

Ambassador Lucille Mair has worked
in the United Nations System for some
twenty years, serving in both Jamaica's
Permanent Mission and the Secretariat.
She joined the Jamaican Mission to the
UN as Deputy Permanent Representative
in 1975 after having been, since 1957,
the first Warden of Mary Seacole Hall,
UWI. After her tour of duty ended in
1978, she became Special Adviser to
UNICEF on Women's Development and
in 1980 was appointed Secretary-
General of the Copenhagen Conference
on Women. Partly as a result of her
work on that occasion, she was later
invited to organize the United Nations
Conference on the Question of Palestine,
to be held in Geneva in 1983, perhaps
the most difficult and controversial sub-
ject on the UN agenda. This was the
only UN World Conference to be held
behind barbed wire and with anti-air-
craft artillery mounted on top of the
building. As Secretary-General of the
Conference, Dr Mair had to have twen-
ty-four-hour security. However, she was
not only Secretary-General of the
Geneva Conference. When she agreed
to organize the Conference, she became
the first woman to be appointed Under-
Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Between 1985 and 1989, Dr Mair
returned to the University of the West
Indies as Consultant Regional Coordinator
for Women and Development Studies.
She was then appointed to the Senate
and became Minister of State in the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign
Trade. From 1992 to 1995, she was
Jamaica's Permanent Representative to
the United Nations. She retired in early
1995. The United Nations invited her to
participate in the Beijing Conference.
Ambassador Lucille Mair has made
extraordinary contributions to Jamaica
and to the United Nations.

The last area of women's activity
within the UN system to be looked at
here is the least widely known but it is
essential to the functioning of the
Organization. The Secretariat is respon-
sible for the secretarial, clerical and
administrative affairs of the UN and,
unlike the General Assembly, it is
staffed largely by women. Here, howev-
er, the UN's own worldwide policies
promoting the equality of women were
not being put into effect. The United
Nations itself was described as a 'male
bastion'. Women staff did not have the
same opportunities for promotion, deci-
sion-making and training as men and

Angela King, Deputy Head, Human Resources Management in the UN

could reach only the lowest levels of the
Professional grades. Gradually, there
began to be some change in the early
1970s with greater awareness of wom-
en's effectiveness and credibility. In
1971, the Group of Equal Rights for
Women was formed as an effective
pressure group and today still continues
to focus on key issues for the advance-
ment of women. One of the founding
members of this group was a Jamaican,
Angela King, who is still active in the
In a recent speech to the women of
the UN, referring to the achievement of
true balance and equality for women in
the Secretariat by the end of this centu-
ry, Angela King said, 'When equality is
achieved, it will not only mean equality
for women but for all staff, irrespective
of gender, and the enhancement of the
Organization as a whole.' Among the
problems she listed were slow promo-
tion, lack of high-level appointments;
and poor representation of women from
Member States. However, she also
pointed out that progress was being
made and that the target of fifty per cent
of the Professional level posts being
held by women in the year 2000 would
be achieved.
When Angela King was posted to the
United Nations in 1964 it was as one of
the first two women Foreign Service
Officers in the Permanent Mission of

Jamaica. She worked particularly on mat-
ters relating to Human Rights. In 1966,
she became a member of the UN
Secretariat in Conference Services, moved
to the Branch for the Advancement of
Women in 1972, participated in the
Conferences on Women in Mexico City
(1975) and Copenhagen (1980) and in
1987 became the First Woman Director of
Recruitment and Placement in the Office
of Human Resources Management, which
required travelling on recruitment mis-
sions to China, the Russian Federation and
Mongolia. In 1990 she became the
Director of Staff Administration and
From 1992 to 1994, Angela King held
one of the most challenging positions
ever allotted to a woman in the UN. She
was Chief of the United Nations Observer
Mission in South Africa. During those
two years, the team she headed grew
from fifty to almost two thousand
observers. Their purpose was to monitor
peace, diffuse tensions between political
factions, and help to create an atmos-
phere in which peaceful elections could
be held. She was subsequently named
Deputy Special Representative of the
Secretary General.
At present, Angela King is Deputy to
the Head of Human Resources Manage-
ment in an office responsible for fifteen
thousand UN staff worldwide.


Ambassador Lucille Mair and Angela
King are two Jamaican women who
have made exceptional contributions to
the United Nations system. Many others
have worked in the UN in a wide range
of capacities in the Permanent Mission
of Jamaica in New York and Geneva as
delegates and special representatives in
health, education, social services and
women's issues. Many more have
worked here in Jamaica in the Special
Agencies, making the UN programmes
a reality for Jamaicans.

With grateful acknowledgments to Vilma
McNish of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Ambassador Patricia Durrant and the staff
of her office, Angela King, Marcella Martinez,
and Joan Allman of the UNDP Library,
Kingston, all of whom contributed to the
compilation of this article.

All of the items on the global agenda
demand new forms of international
cooperation. They challenge our tra-
ditional approached to international
action. But the situation of women
encompasses them all. To examine
the situation of women in any of
these fields is to provide both a yard-
stick, and a measure, of progress.

We can see from the situation of
women in a society whether power
and entitlements are distributed fair-
ly. We can see from women's health
statistics, or from information about
women's educational attainments,
how developed a society really is.

Without progress in the situation of
women, there can be no true social
devleopment. Human rights are not
worthy of the name if they exclude
the female half of humanity. The
struggle for women's equality is part
of the struggle for a better world for
all human beings, and all societies.
It is in the interests of all that the
situation of women should improve.
Thanks to the world of women, and
of the United Nations, the situation
of women is today high on the global

UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-
International Women's Day,
8 March 1994


Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this
Declaration without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, lan-
guage, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, proper-
ty, birth or other status...
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 2

The struggle for women's rights and the task of creating a new United
Nations, able to promote peace and the values which nurture and sustain it,
are one and the same.
Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali

The history of the United Nations for the past 50 years has also been the his-
tory of steady progress for women,from a drive for civil and political rights
to recognition of women as equal partners in the broader society.

Women and the UN 1945-1995
INSTRAW publication

All democratic experiments, all revolutions, all demands for equality have so
far, in every instance, stopped short of sexual equality.

Rosalind Miles, writer

The United Nations Association of Jamaica

Founded as early as 1949, the Jamaica United Nations
Association is a voluntary, non-profit organization dedicated to pro-
moting the aims and ideals of the United Nations. Throughout its
forty-five years of existence, the Association's members have
included determined individuals who have been essential to its sur-
vival. The Association has also survived by responding to the
changes which have marked Jamaica's recent history. The
Constitution of the Association has been revised from time to time,
notably at Independence in 1962 and, most recently in 1991.
The UNAJ disseminates information about the United Nations
and its Special Agencies and organizes local activities to celebrate
the UN's special days and participates in the International and other
Special Years. Much of its work is with young people, forming
UNAJ Youth Clubs and presenting a Model United Nations General
Assembly every year.
The President of the Jamaican Association is Dr Lucille
Buchanan. In June of this year, Dr Buchanan attended a World
Conference of United Nations Associations in San Francisco. At that
Conference she was elected Vice President of the World Federation
of National UN Associations (WFUNA).
For further information about the United Nations Association of
Jamaica, contact Dr Lucille Buchanan at 33, Anthurium Drive,
Kingston 6, Jamaica, W. I.

T e title of this paper is
ambiguous, and somewhat
misleading, but deliberately so.
Fifty years from now or, better,
ten years from now, could the
question even arise and if it did,
in what terms?
The certainties and questions that
heralded the formation of the United
Nations Organization fifty years ago are
no longer with us; the philosophical
underpinnings have largely been replaced,
the actors have changed, the aspirations
have altered and, most important, the
distribution of power has shifted. In the
altered international environment will
the United Nations, as we know it, have
any relevance?
For our purposes in this discussion,
we will exclude the specialized agen-
cies. There are, in effect, at least two
United Nations: one is concerned with
the major peace and security issues and
the other with functional cooperation in
specific areas of activity which require
globally agreed rules in order to operate
efficaciously. While the latter organiza-
tion very often has a more immediate
impact on our everyday lives, it is with
the former that nation-states, as the enti-
ties articulated for action in a society
mainly of nation-states, must be primar-
ily concerned. Peace and security are no
longer defined in traditional terms: peace
has long since moved from being mere-
ly the absence of war or conflict; securi-
ty is far more than the protection of bor-
ders or frontiers from outsiders or
It is precisely out of redefinitions
such as these that future difficulties
are bound to occur. When peace be-
comes equated with or subsumes devel-
opment (a concept itself undergoing
redefinition) and security embraces the
environment (which doubles back to
development), we have almost become
hostages to the unknown. Even given
the over-simplification that the above







implies, it is clear that the current global
institutions are at a grave disadvantage
and will find it increasingly difficult to
cope with the changes.

Origins of the UN Charter
Drawing on their memories of the
1920s and 1930s, the drafters of the
documents which were to establish the
new system for managing relationships
among nation states after the Second
World War had ended sought to correct
the perceived deficiencies of the past
and, in a way, to prepare for the future.
But theirs was an essentially static view
of the world. The concept of the
Concert of Europe combined with col-
lective security led to the Security
Council of the United Nations while the
United Nations General Assembly
sought to give voice to the outsiders.
The economic depressions of the 1930s
together with currency instability, beg-
gar-my-neighbour policies, protection-
ism, and the collapse of commodity
prices would be corrected and managed
through global institutions: the Inter-
national Monetary Fund, the Inter-
national Bank for Reconstruction and
Development, and the General Agree-
ment on Tariffs and Trade, itself a pro-
visional agreement in the wake of the
failure to ratify the International Trade
The earliest important step towards
the formation of the United Nations
Organization was the Inter-Allied
Declaration signed in London in June
1941 by the representatives of fourteen
governments indicating their intention
'to work together, and with other free
people' both in war and peace. This was
followed by the enunciation of the
Atlantic Charter on August 14 by the
US President, Franklin D. Roosevelt,
and Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
The Charter set out 'certain common
principles in the national policies of
their respective countries' regarding 'a
better future of the world'.

Reflections and Speculations

at its 50th Year

L M H Barnett

The Charter refers to the need for all
states to abandon the use of force and
calls for the establishment of 'a wider
and permanent system of general securi-
ty', for 'fullest collaboration between all
nations in the economic field' in order
to secure higher standards of living for
the peoples of the world. This was to
serve as the basis for the 1942 Declaration
by the United Nations (i.e. the grand
coalition against the Germans, Italians,
Japanese and their supporters).
Meeting in Moscow from October
18 to 30, 1943, the Foreign Ministers of
the USSR, the USA, the UK and the
Chinese Ambassador to the USSR
endorsed a Declaration (drafted earlier
by the United States' Secretary of State,
Cordell Hull, and already accepted by
the Chinese) for 'a general international
organization, based on the principle of
the sovereign equality of all peace-lov-
ing states, and open to membership by
all such states, large and small, for the
maintenance of international peace and
security' and to provide for post-war
collaboration between the Allies. A
series of meetings was held in 1943
among the Allied Powers during which
time was found to discuss aspects of the
future world organization; the discus-
sions led to a conference at Dumbarton
Oaks between August 21 and October 7,
1944, involving representatives of the
Big Four at below Foreign Ministers
level. With the exceptions of voting pro-
cedures in the Security Council and
membership of the constituent parts of
the USSR in the General Assembly, they
agreed on some recommendations in a
document, 'Proposals for the Establishment
of a General International Organization'.
At the Yalta Conference in the USSR
in 1945 (February 4-11), however,
Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin were
able to resolve their differences suf-
ficiently to agree to the summoning of a
conference in San Francisco on April
25, 1945, to prepare a Charter for the
United Nations along the lines proposed
in the informal conversations of Dum-
barton Oaks. The invitations in the
names of China, the UK, the US and the
USSR were issued on March 5 to those
states that had declared war on Germany
or Japan and had signed the Declaration
by the United Nations of 1942.1
The San Francisco Conference was
preceded by meetings of groups of
states to agree on their collective posi-
tions in what were anticipated to be
long, difficult negotiations. The Latin
Americans met from February 21 to
March 8, the then British Commonwealth

countries from April 4 to 13. On June
26, 1945, the Conference eventually
adopted the one hundred and eleven
Articles of the Charter of the United
Nations. It came into effect on October
24, 1945.

Supporting organizations
A word must be said about the other
pillars of the post-Second World War
international management system.
These related to economic and trade
relations. Strictly speaking, they were
not parts of the United Nations system
but were related to it in some way.
Repeated attempts to bring them more
firmly within that system failed, yet
they were part of the post-war effort to
create and revitalize some global institu-
tions in the form of specialized agen-
cies. For agriculture there was the Food
and Agriculture Organization (FAO);
health, the World Health Organization
(WHO); labour, the International Labour
Organization (ILO); telecommunica-
tions, the International Communications
Union (ITU); civil aviation, the Inter-
national Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO); education and science, UNESCO;
postal services, the International Postal
Union (IPU); and for weather, the
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO). The ILO, the ITU and the WMO
predated the San Francisco Conference
and drew on the experience of the
League of Nations.
The International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and the International Bank of
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD
or World Bank) formed the linchpin of
the economic institutions. They had
been established as a result of a series of
meetings and conferences that culminat-
ed in the UN Monetary and Financial
Conference at Bretton Woods in July
1944. The World Bank, established to
promote the reconstruction and develop-
ment of its members by making loans
available for commercially viable pro-
jects, came into existence in December
1945. The International Monetary Fund,
set up to promote international coopera-
tion in monetary matters and to provide
monetary stability through orderly
exchange arrangements, likewise came
into force in December 1945.
In 1946 the recently established
United Nations decided to convene an
international conference on trade and
employment, through its Economic and
Social Council (ECOSOC). The Confer-
ence was held in Havana, Cuba, and a
Charter was drawn up for an Inter-

national Trade Organization (rID) which,
as a specialized agency, was to provide
support to national policies for econom-
ic development and full employment,
and also contribute to the gradual liber-
alization of world trade. The inability of
the US Administration to get Senate
approval for the ITO in 1950 caused its
death, but the Preparatory Committee's
concurrent draft of principles to guide
tariff negotiations and reduce other trade
restrictions led to tariff concessions
which were embodied in the multilateral
treaty called the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The
Agreement which had originally been
intended to be an interim arrangement,
pending the formation of the International
Trade Organization (ITO), became effec-
tive on January 1, 1948. It was not
superseded until earlier this year when
the World Trade Organization came into
These economic and trade institu-
tions enshrined liberal capitalism under
the leadership of the United States as
the fundamental philosophical underpin-
ning of the management of the interna-
tional economic system. They were con-
structed by and for the major industrial
countries which found them comfort-
able, reflecting as they did in their vot-
ing structure the existing distribution of
economic power, thus ensuring the con-
tinued dominance of those major pow-
ers. The developing countries, such as
they were, had little voice in determin-
ing the rules of the international game,
and the USSR, having withdrawn from
the Bretton Woods negotiations, was not
a player. Not until 1964 was the United
Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) established by
the United Nations, at the insistence of
the developing countries, to comple-
ment GATT which from the beginning
had focused on reconciling the trade
problems of the industrial countries.

A changing world
The United Nations is an organi-
zation of nation-states based, at least in
theory, on their sovereign equality. Its
principal concern is international peace
and security. Initially oblivious to the
fate of colonial peoples, it later became
their champion; economic development,
very much a secondary issue, was to
have its place (and space) in UNCTAD
which was never allowed to do much.
The grand alliance against Nazism
became, in the hands of the West, a cru-
sade against communism; most efforts


were skewed in that direction. But the
end of the Cold War meant much more
than the collapse of ideological and
strategic confrontation between the
West, led by the USA, and the East, led
by the USSR. A whole mindset had
altered. The disintegration of Yugoslavia
and the peripheries of the Soviet Union
bodes ill for other multinational states.
Smouldering conflicts in Spain, India,
Russia and elsewhere could flare up at
any time. The aspirations of repressed
or suppressed nationalities worldwide
can find justification aplenty in the
ambiguous responses to date of the
international society to their efforts to
achieve self-determination.

That the world has become more
complex is not at issue; the nature of the
complexity may be, and whether or not
the UN can cope with the resulting chal-
lenges. Take the matter of the nation-
states and sovereignty. The post-Second
World War years with their East-West
antagonism buttressed by alliance sys-
tems competing for the 'hearts and
minds' of the so-called Third World
countries had presented such a picture
of permanence that few had bothered to
think that such a state of affairs was an

After the Cold War
The euphoria that followed the col-
lapse of the Berlin Wall has now evapo-
rated, leaving questioning and uncer-
tainty and, perhaps, some nostalgia for
the former simplicities. The internation-
al society that is emerging is distinctly
more anarchic and less malleable, not
because of the end of the Cold War but
because the end of ideological conflict
allowed subsequent trends to emerge.
The nation-state is alive and well and
prospering; at least the idea, or ideal, of
it is. Suppressed, repressed or hidden
nationalities are clamouring ever more
loudly for their place in the society of
nations. This movement is worldwide
even though there is a contrary tenden-
cy towards larger groupings, mainly for
economic, bread-and-butter reasons.

Conflicts are inherent; they may
become civil wars, very bitter, unleash-
ing unimaginable cruelties. Sri Lanka
and Yugoslavia are prominent exam-
ples. The fashionable, and untutored,
encouragement of self-determination of
peoples is not a benign gesture: it can
be fraught with unhappy implications.
The most important lesson to be learned
from the UN presence in Yugoslavia is:
do not go into a civil war. The tempta-
tion to advance long dormant strategic
and political interests is too often diffi-
cult to curb.
With the nation-state goes sovereign-
ty. This implies freedom, independence
and the exercise of undivided jurisdic-

tion within defined borders. That con-
cept will not be surrendered lightly.
Although national sovereignty is being
eroded by advances in information tech-
nology, the increasing global integration
of the world's economies, the work of
influential Non-Government Organiza-
tions, issues of trans-border importance
such as the environment, migration of
peoples, pandemics and international
terrorism, these factors will be insuffi-
cient to undermine the deep desire
among peoples to decide for them-
selves, to be in charge of their future.
Thus, the condition of the inter-
national society has reverted to 'normal'
in the sense that nation-states claiming,
and exercising sovereignty are its prin-
cipal and dominant components.
Something else is new. At no time in
modern history has any state dominated
its fellows so much in so many ways,
military, economic and strategic, as the
United States. For some, its cultural
reach is suffocating; and its technologi-
cal and scientific prowess leaves its
competitors gasping. Its markets are so
important that it determines the rules of
the international economic game. The
misleading but self-serving metaphor, 'a
level playing field', has become a tired
though influential cliche. On the whole,
successive US Administrations have
been able to curb the almost self-right-
eous nationalism of its citizens but that
is becoming increasingly difficult.

Nationalist feelings are also on the rise
elsewhere, sometimes mixed with reli-
gious fervour.
Nation-states have their own partic-
ular interests and concerns, whether or
not they are democracies. Similarity in
domestic political organization does not
eliminate these individual interests nor
the desire and right to pursue them.
After the end of the First World War, it
was a Wilsonian doctrine (recently
echoed by the Clinton Administration)
that democracies will not go to war with
one another. That has yet to be proved.
The fact that the most powerful country
in the world is a democracy gives
important support to the notion, but a
world full of democracies would still
have conflicts to be resolved.
The present international situation
consists of one superpower, the USA;
some major powers, including one ex-
military-superpower, Russia (formerly
the USSR); a potential and rising super-
power, China; Europe, Japan, and India;
and the rest, the medium and small
For small states in a bipolar world,
the United Nations used to be a haven
that gave them some degree of inde-
pendence of action, even though that
independence was much less than they
thought. But this is no longer the case.
A state can now be punished or penal-
ized for its failure to abide by norms or
to act in accordance with laws estab-
lished by the major powers even though
designed in response to their own domes-
tic electoral considerations that funda-
mentally have nothing to do with the
outside world. Small states are therefore
naked and exposed. They must seek
accommodation with the major powers
on matters of interest to the latter, not-
withstanding the freedom permitted
them on the margins. A similar situation
exists for the so-called medium powers.

Developing countries today
Long gone are the days at the United
Nations when the concerns and aspi-
rations of the developing countries,
whichever they might be, were taken
seriously by those that mattered.The
Non-Aligned Movement has faded into
oblivion; the Group of 77 struggles to
escape anonymity; Sub-Saharan Africa,
apart from the towering figure of
Mandela, has been marginalized: wit-
ness the shocking display over Liberia,
the breast-beating and hypocrisy over
Angola and Mozambique, the hesita-


The fashionable, and untutored, encouragement of self-
determination of peoples is not a benign gesture: it can be
fraught with unhappy implications. The most important lesson
to be learned from the UN presence in Yugoslavia is:
do not go into a civil war.

tions over Rwanda and the abysmal con-
fusion and failure in Somalia. Latin
America's headlong plunge into the new
economic orthodoxy has been brought
up short by the Mexican experience;
Asia goes its own eclectic way and the
'emerging economies' or 'the economies
in transition' (i.e. the former Communist
countries of Eastern Europe) scramble
for scraps at the banquet table of the
affluent while making believe that they
rightfully are of the West.
In an international society with few
common moral bonds or shared tra-
ditions, states must either practice
realpolitik, or judicious pragmatism, or
persuade the others to adhere to or
accept their own traditions. The latter is
the prerogative only of the strong or a
combination of the like-minded. The
important new players do not necessari-
ly share either bonds or traditions.
China, potentially the most influential,
brings a distinct perspective born of
three thousand years as a different civi-
lization with its own philosophical and
ethical premises; Japan, the first chal-
lenger to the Eurocentric dominance of
the international system, cannot yet
align its own strengths with its eco-
nomic power, but that time will come;
India, whose seemingly babbling chaos
hides a strange cohesion, is the weakest
of the newcomers but as a former imper-
ial colony is superficially closest to
European traditions. Europe, as the
European Union, struggles to define
itself and act a single entity. The odds
are still against the success of the endeav-
our, however much the internal dynam-
ics move in that direction. Germany is
still a problem, as are conflicting eco-
nomic interests and the inevitable redef-
inition of Germany's relationships with
the USA (and, in the case of the United
Kingdom, with the Commonwealth).
Henry Kissinger succinctly summarized
the problems:

In the years ahead, all the traditional
Atlantic relationships will change.
Europe will not feel the previous need
for American protection and will pursue
its economic self-interest much more
aggressively; America will not be wil-
ling to sacrifice as much for European
security and will be tempted by isola-
tionism in various guises; in due course,
Germany will insist on the political
influence to which its military and eco-
nomic power entitles it and will not be
so emotionally dependent on American
military and French political support.2

There are fundamental difficulties in
Europe's path; its response to the
revival of the old Balkan problems in
what was Yugoslavia does not inspire
much short-term confidence. Russia has
jettisoned an ideology and is in search
of another. Nationalism, humiliation,
loss of empire and status in addition to
acute economic distress could be a potent
mixture for ill. Only time will tell how
that will work out. And there is Islam.

Relationships in flux
The West had been able to persuade
the rest of the world to see the inter-
national order in a certain way and, with
the help of the Cold War, was able to
sustain it and build the requisite institu-
tions. The rest of the world has scarcely
had a significant role. The end of the
Cold War has put virtually all the old
relationships into flux: countries are
seeking positions vis-a-vis each other,
questioning existing institutions and
assumptions, reworking old under-
standings with one another. In addition,
there is the emergence of a new interna-
tional agenda, shaped largely by the

West, comprising transnational issues
such as environment, population, dis-
eases, human rights. The significance of
all these issues is that they can neither
be resolved at the national level nor can
they be ignored. Therefore, it is as-
sumed, they can and should be resolved
at the global level. But can they?
Among some other changes in the
system is the appearance of new actors
on the international stage: multi-national
companies; Non-Governmental Organ-
izations with influence and power with-
out responsibility; major media houses
which define the news and purvey it as
they see fit but hardly ever to the advan-
tage of the countries of the South; huge
flows of international funds; organized
crime. Another phenomenon worthy of
note is the emergence of what Robert
Scalapino has called 'natural economic
territories' or trans-boundary economic
regions, a prime example being the Hong
Kong, Taiwan, Guangdong Province
border region.

The next fifty years
The United Nations begins its second
fifty years in this new world of shifting
international relationships very different
from the apparent certainties of the days
when it was formed. Coincidentally,
two other institutions opened the quin-
quagenary: the International Seabed
Authority (together with the Law of the
Sea Convention) and the World Trade
Organization (WTO). It is interesting to
note that the long gestation of the for-
mer had almost everything to do with
satisfying the concerns of the industrial
countries, particularly one of their num-
ber, the USA, while the latter's laboured
birth was due to the need to reconcile
differences among them. In both cases,
the developing countries were given
fairly short shrift.
The Secretary General of the United
Nations, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, has
acknowledged the new complexity. In
his Report to the Forty-Ninth Session of
the United Nations General Assembly,
he wrote: 'Looking to the sources of con-
flict, we see that the agenda presented to
the United Nations by today's world is

greater in complexity and scale than at
any other time in the history of the
Organization'. He stated: 'We (the United
Nations) have the potential to create
new ways to use the original mecha-
nisms provided by the Charter within
the emerging global context.'3
To have the 'potential' is one thing:
to be able 'to do' is quite another. For
the United Nations to try to do too much
would condemn it to a creeping irrele-
vance. The United Nations will continue
to be, and moreso now, one of several
instruments of management available.
Alliances, pacts, groupings and various
institutional arrangements will be used
to pursue specific objectives or goals. In
these circumstances modesty is a virtue.
The large number (184) and the diversi-
ty of the Member States require it. It is
true that there is renewed interest in the
United Nations as a forum for discus-
sion and standard-setting. This comes
principally from the Western countries
who expect that the standards will be
theirs on the issues they choose. A


For small states in a bipolar world, the United Nations used to
be a haven that gave them some degree of independence of
action, even though that independence was much less than they
thought. But this is no longer the case.

revealing example is 4de attempt to
establish universal, norms for the envi-
ronment. Another is labour standards
and trade. At the same time, trade, the
search for a share in the markets of the
world, and the imperatives of interna-
tional competitiveness have all added
new intensities to inter-state rivalries.
The US Administration has used Section
301 of the Trade Act to bludgeon coun-
tries into opening their markets.
Preferential arrangements in favour of
developing countries are all under con-
centrated assault; bilateral investment
treaties are used as levers for all sorts of
other purposes, as are the so-called
international financial institutions; pow-
erful NGOs threaten retaliation against
countries which do not heed their pre-
ferred concerns and even sponsor laws
in their own legislatures in order to have
their point of view enforced. The World
Trade Organization will be the arena for
much of this activity. The birth of that
organization signalled the virtual death
of the United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
Concurrently, the United Nations will
become less and less able to deal sub-
stantively with matters concerning trade
and development.
Notwithstanding the 'Agenda for
Peace' and 'An Agenda for Develop-
ment', the United Nations does not
begin its second fifty years in any shape
to carry out successfully the elaborate
tasks it seeks to assume. One important
reason is money. Member States are
unwilling either to finance the peace-
keeping and peace-making enterprises
which the Organization undertakes
(with their approval!) or to channel
more resources into development.The
expansion of the UN's peacekeeping
role has so far been an unhappy one,
leading to calls for a clearer definition
of scope, duration and objectives of
these efforts.
Peace-keeping is an invention of the
United Nations but as the need for it
seems to grow following the end of the
Cold War so too has the resistance to
the costs involved. Between 1945 and
1987, thirteen peace-keeping operations
were established; since then there have
been thirteen others. Until April 1994,
the costs of these operations amounted
to $104 billion with $2.1 billion unpaid.
Over one thousand persons from forty-
three countries have died. Much of the
logistical support falls on the United
States which, not only uncomfortable
with the burden but also mindful of pos-
sible casualties, has refused to allow its

troops to serve ader non-US com-
mand. Therefore its presence (or
absence) in itself defines the UN's role.
Such a situation is unhealthy! The use
of the North Atlantic Treaty Organi-
zation has led to problems. As NATO
strives to find a new role for itself, any
expanded use could lead to additional
difficulties. The Secretary General is
correct in writing '... the very features
that make regional entities effective
may also make regional involvement
seem threatening... in short, regional
involvement may raise old fears of
regional hegemony and intervention.'4
But apart from all this there are impor-
tant principles at stake which have not
been fully examined.
Despite the little the United Nations

has done for the development of its
Member States, there is still an interest
in international action in favour of the
poorest countries. Unfortunately, that
interest appears to be waning. The
report, An Agenda for Development,
purports to seek 'to provide a compre-
hensive framework for thinking about
the pursuit of development as a means
of building foundations for enduring
human progress.' Much thought has
gone on already. Fashions have come
and gone and have returned in new
guises. A welter of institutions has been
spawned. After reviewing briefly the
changes in the approaches of the
Bretton Woods institutions, An Agenda
for Development concludes 'Taken
together, these trends indicate a need for
greater interaction between the policy
advice and country operations of the
Bretton Woods institutions and the ap-
proaches and practices of other actors in
development.' Is that likely? But insti-
tutional problems aside, can there be
ever an international consensus? Taking
a slightly different tack, the UNDP
argues that 'the new compulsions of
human security demand a strong role
from the United Nations in promoting
sustainable human development' and
suggests some new or redesigned insti-
tutions: 'The only feasible strategy is to
enlarge the scope of existing institutions
- step-by-step to cope with the chal-
lenges of the 21st century.'5
The Charter of the United Nations
needs to be drastically overhauled. A

tenamM tetion would be most desir-
able, but that would be impossible. So,
something less, but not much less,
needs to be undertaken. The structure,
dynamics and distribution of power in
the real international society will
always have to be taken fully into
account. So, too, will the varied philo-
sophical premises of the one hundred
and eighty-four principal actors.
Enough has been said to suggest that
the United Nations, as constituted at
present, will be unable to function ade-
quately in the emerging world. That
does not mean it will be unable to do
anything. States are the members and
they will decide how much. The
absence of a threatening enemy has
made unified or collective action all the

more difficult and therefore all the more
unlikely. Very few persons see AIDS,
ozone depletion, ecological decay, any
variety of pandemics to date, as power-
ful a unifier as international commu-
nism backed by nuclear weapons and a
large military establishment has been.
States are therefore less inhibited in
making choices. At the same time,
racism, the growing and rapidly widen-
ing gap between the rich and poor coun-
tries and international migration will
continue to undermine formal institu-
There have been proposals for
reform. But few seem to understand that
the nature of the international society
today no longer admits old-time
answers or remedies.

1. Dolman, Anthony J. Resources, Regimes,
World Order. Pergamon Press.NY. 1981.
2. Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. Simon &
Schuster, NY. 1994.
3. Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. Report of the
Secretary General on the Work of
the Organization. September 1994.
4. -'Beleaguered are the Peacekeepers'.
New York Times. Sunday, Oct. 30, 1994.
5. Human Development Report, 1994.
UNDP. OUP 1994. NY.

Ambassador L.M.H. Barnett was Jamaica's
Permanent Representative to the UN in New
York (1984-1989) and Permanent Represent-
ative to the Office and Specialized Agencies
of the UN in Geneva (1989-1992).


The United Nations begins its second fifty years in this new
world of shifting international relationships very different from
the apparent certainties of the days when it was formed.


Peace and


Jamaica's National Dance

Rex Nettleford
For fifty years the United Nations has been in search of the ideal
of peace, having enjoined founding nations to transform their
swords into ploughshares and to opt for creating rather than
destroying, for building rather than demolishing. They could
have asked of themselves no less in the wake of Nagasaki and
Hiroshima and the bombed-out cities of Europe.

They can ask for no less today in the face of escalating
international terrorism, ethnic cleansing, international
drug trafficking accompanied by gun violence, and
deepening poverty among the world's expanding powers.
Jamaica has been a member of the United Nations for thirty-
three of the organization's fifty years. During that time the
ideal of peace has come to mean more than an absence of
war; inherent in that ideal is the strengthening of bonds
between Member Statess on the basis of mutual respect,
understanding and tolerance.
Jamaica has been able to make its contribution to these
aspects of global peace through the promotion of such mutual
understanding by cross-cultural interaction between herself
and other Member Statess of the United Nations. This is no
surprise since Jamaica's own strengths lie in the artistic and

cultural products the island has been able to engender and
share with people of many countries of the world.
Peace, after all, resides in the minds of men. It is the
challenge that the creative arts present to the human mind that
often brings people around to the tolerance and understanding
which are still the best deterrents to conflict.
At the height of the Cold War in which the Communist
system and Western capitalism confronted each other, it was
the exchange of artists which brought the Soviet Union and
the United States in compassionate embrace, albeit intermit-
tently. The Bolshoi Ballet toured the United States and
American jazz, rather than the Pentagon, conquered Moscow.
So behind the threat of nuclear annihilation there was always
the hope of survival through the exercise of the creative


Outside the Scala Theatre, London, 1965. Yvonne da Costa, Eddy Thomas, Barbara Requa, Sheila Barnett

Similarly, behind the stereotype notions of backwardness
and underdevelopment, of racial inferiority and the image of
sun-drenched, beach-fringed playground frivolity, there was
reason for serious contemplation of a Jamaica capable of
excellence, if not in GNP and GDP statistics, certainly in
artistic output.
The past thirty years of Jamaican Independence have
demonstrated this beyond a doubt, and today the nation's
achievements in music, dance, literature and the plastic arts
are internationally acknowledged. The phenomenal Robert
(Bob) Nesta Marley and reggae giants such as Jimmy Cliff
and Peter Tosh wailed against social injustice and racism
(prime causes of conflict) and won worldwide attention from
a young generation that demolished the Berlin Wall and
helped to dismantle apartheid.
But before all this, our writers had carried Jamaica far
afield into international awareness. John Hearne, the novelist,
had a number of his works translated into Russian.Vic Reid
was also well-known among literary scholars in St Petersburg
(then Leningrad) and Jamaica's Claude McKay was no
stranger to the Russian Revolution though he was better
known in the United States as a seminal figure in the Harlem

Renaissance. His poem, 'If We Must Die' was even quoted
by Churchill during the Second World War. Mightier than
war is the power of the arts indeed!
It was in full grasp of this that the National Dance
Theatre Company (NDTC) of Jamaica was formed at the time
of Jamaica's Independence to find a 'voice' of our own with
which to communicate with ourselves, drawing on the self-
confidence and that sense of self-worth dictated by the very
fact of Independence, and to serve as ambassadors for our
native land.
So, a mere year after the NDTC's formation, the
ensemble of unpaid and daring dancers, singers, musicians
and creative technicians journeyed to Stratford, Ontario to
help inaugurate the Shakespeare Festival of that year. The
great Louise Bennett accompanied the group as did Barbara
Gloudon, a young reporter on the culture circuit, sent by the
Gleaner's editor, Theodore Sealy who saw in this 'cultural
exchange' a special international significance for the
fledgling nation. Lester Pearson, the then Prime Minister of
Canada, attended the gala performance in the Avon Theatre
and was sufficiently moved by it to include Jamaica, years
later, on the Board of his Development Research Centre, the





At left: Prime. Minister of
Canada, LesteTWearson, with
the Company backstage in
Stratford, Ontario, 1963. The
author stands at first right.
Below. Minister of Culture,
Edward Seaga, with members
Sof NDTC before their departure
for Stratford on their first
international tour.

watershed facility in North-South relations and in the
encouragement of 'partnership' in development efforts
between the rich and the poor of the world. To this day a
Jamaican, Ambassador Lucille Mathurin-Mair, sits on the
prestigious Board of Governors of the IDRC in Ottawa.
The political directorate on both sides of Jamaica's
political divide also understood. With the Stratford tour, the
NDTC won the full support of the then Administration, with
a young Edward Seaga in charge of the Culture portfolio. So
keen was he that, for a time, he felt that only 'things
Jamaican' should constitute the fare exported. It was soon
understood that things 'Jamaican' comprise the texture of
unity in diversity and of reconciling differences to form
distinctive and integrated wholes. This last fact of the
Jamaican reality has not failed to astonish and engage foreign
audiences when they see the wide range of the NDTC's
repertoire and the versatility of the dancers, singers and

Diplomatic goodwill
Our Jamaican diplomats serving abroad were no less
seized of this abiding cultural asset. Ambassador Keith
Johnson heads the list of such diplomats. He himself was
recruited from the UN system where he worked as a
demographer in the glass castle on the East River before
becoming the first Jamaican Consul-General in New York. At
the request of Premier Norman Manley, he had, before
Independence, facilitated the appearance of an ensemble of
dancers, musicians and singers in Sun Over the West Indies, a
show which opened the Cramton Auditorium at Howard
University in 1961. It was partly out of this experience that
the NDTC was born.
Ambassador Johnson was later to facilitate several
appearances by the NDTC: in New York, at the Brooklyn
Academy of Music; in the Republic of Germany (in Bonn,
Aachen, Berlin, Hamburg and Munich); and at the Kennedy
Centre in Washington DC when he, his Minister Counsellor


At right: Ambassador Keith Johnson
and Consul-General Kay Baxter-
Collins with NDTC's artistic director at
the Brooklyn College Center for the
Performing Arts, December 1994,
Below: HRH. Prince Philip, Duke of
Edinburgh, with NDTC in Cardiff,
Wales, during the Commonwealth
Arts Festival, 1965.

and Noel Hylton's Air Jamaica worked miracles to have the
NDTC appear before a sold-out audience a mere three days
after the disastrous Hurricane Gilbert ravaged Jamaica
Others of his colleagues have been equally responsive to
the NDTC's ambassadorial role in fostering international
understanding. High Commissioner Ivo deSouza handled the
very first tour to Stratford, Ontario, and was later to greet the
Company in Trinidad. LeslieWilson, also in Canada, Herbert
Walker in the United Kingdom, and Stafford Neil in Trinidad
and Tobago, all did much to help reinforce Jamaica's
friendship with our Commonwealth cousins in these
countries. Ambassadors Lloyd Wright, Reg Phillips and Ben
Clare were great facilitators in Mexico, Venezuela and the
USSR respectively when the NDTC visited those countries.
Kay Baxter, the current Consul-General in New York,
started her support of the NDTC during her days in Ottawa
and Toronto where the Company played to enthusiastic
audiences and high critical acclaim. Derrick Heaven, who

preceded her in New York, helped to make the Company's
appearances at the Brooklyn Centre for the Performing Arts
(BCPA) the tremendous success they have been if only
because thousands of young people of all ethnic origins have
been exposed to Jamaican culture through the dance. The
events have always been organized with the intention of
developing better understanding between children of different
races interacting with children of West Indian ancestry living
in the Caribbean Diaspora. The strong Cuban-Jamaican links
of the seventies, forged in the spirit of the United Nations
even if frowned on by the United States, were strengthened
by the appearances of the NDTC in Havana and Santiago,
alone in 1974 and as part of the Jamaican Carifesta team in
1978. Ambassador Lloyd Barnett and Mrs Barnett were on
hand to guide the Company through the protocol of cultural
exchange on which Cuba, in its effort to maintain a place in
the wider world, was very strong and energetically

The Company on Tour
With this kind of diplomatic
goodwill and the access to a home
away from home, the NDTC has
made some seventy overseas tours to
lands near and far. The countries
visited outside the Caribbean
Community (CARICOM) have been
(a) the United Kingdom, (Scotland,
England and Wales) where the artists
appeared not as 'citizens of the
United Kingdom and Colonies' but
as inhabitants of an independent
country with a seat in the United
Nations alongside the former Mother
Country; (b) the United States
(Miami, Atlanta, Philadelphia,
Washington DC, Hartford, and New
York); (c) Canada (Toronto, Ottawa,
., Stratford, Edmonton, Montreal)
which has seen Jamaica as a kindred
spirit, being a member of the

Commonwealth family with multicultural, cross-fertilized
features of dance-theatre; (d) Germany, including West
Berlin, which was to become an economically profitable
market for Jamaican reggae in the late seventies and since;
and (e) the then Soviet Union (USSR) where the audiences
in Moscow, Leningrad (once more St Petersburg) and Kiev
responded to the dance and traditional music of Jamaica
with great warmth and enthusiasm.
There were other places and hearts to be conquered by
art. Australia immediately comes to mind. Naturally, the
Australians spoke of our cricketing greats the West Indies
was yet to be defeated by the Aussies. But they were also
struck by the efforts on the part of the Jamaican dance
company to find form out of disparate elements and to speak
unequivocally with its own voice. The then recently
dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam had invited the
NDTC to Australia when he was in Jamaica for the 1975
Commonwealth Heads of Government Conference. The
Company had performed at the Ward Theatre for the heads of
government and Whitlam immediately felt that the dancers
had something to offer his country.
Australia under Whitlam had begun to change from the
perception of itself as 'Europe in antipodal isolation' to the
multi-racial, multi-cultural South Pacific country it has now
become. The NDTC visit was compared and contrasted to
this background by many Australians who marvelled at how
Jamaicans seemed to be able to live together rather than just
side by side ... an abiding aim of the United Nations'
strategy for world peace.
Then there was Latin America and the cultural gulf to be
spanned. History had after all divided the entire Western
Hemisphere into sharply differentiated geocultural zones
determined by language, race and religion. The NDTC's
visits to Latin America fostered a special kind of under-

Gough Whitlam, previous Prime Minister of
Australia on stage with NDTC in Canberra

standing on both sides and finally made sense when Jamaica
along with Barbados, Guyana and Trinidad opted to seek
membership in the Organization of American States. The
NDTC had won hearts in Mexico from as early as 1969 when
it filled to capacity the Palacio De Bellas Artes and the
splendid Teatro Degollado in Guadalajaro where Placido
Domingo grew up as a singer. A later return prompted
President Echeverria to offer the Company a three month tour
of the provinces, an offer which had to be refused.
To both Echeverria and Michael Manley, who took the
NDTC to Mexico as part of his State Visit delegation in
1975, Mexican-Jamaican relations clearly turned on more
than negotiations about trading in oil and bauxite. For the
Company, dancing in Mexico City at such a high altitude was
a new experience which had some performers running
backstage between sequences for oxygen from cylinders and
others falling like ninepins in classes. What thrilled the
Jamaicans was to see the members of the Ballet Folklorico
taking NDTC classes and coming to watch rehearsals in very
much the way the Moiseyev dancers did while the NDTC
rehearsed in the great Tchaikovsky Hall in Moscow in 1979.


NDTC with Russian guide,
Red Square, Moscow, 1979.

The United Nations ideal of understanding between peoples
was here being realized without fuss or flurry. There was no
need for bombs, nuclear warheads, or the threat of war for
each to know the other.
Still in Latin America, in 1983 Venezuela invited the
Company to perform on the occasion of the bicentennial of
Simon Bolivar's birth. The performance of 'Misa Criolla' by
both the NDTC dancers and singers to Marjorie Whylie's
arrangement of the Ariel Ramirez classic brought the house
down in one of Venezuela's leading universities in Caracas.
Later performances in the richly gilded Teatro Municipal in
central Caracas stirred friendship and affection between the
two peoples Jamaica and Venezuela already forged by
the friendship between the heads of government and their

Backstage at the Bellas
Artes. Mexico City, 1975
iu^ 'l ^^^^

efforts at South-South economic initiatives. Countries making
love rather than war was certainly a United Nations' ideal.
Costa Rica and Panama, both with pockets of immigrant
Jamaicans and other West Indians, were also anxious to see
the NDTC. The Panamanians found the members of the
Company to be the messengers of national pride, conveying a
sense of self-esteem and aesthetic confidence, according to
one Panamanian commentator. Costa Rico found in the
Jamaican ensemble the sort of expression rooted in
Jamaican/Caribbean reality which they said they wanted to
emulate. Both territories, like Venezuela, have Caribbean
coastlines and wish to identify with Jamaica. The NDTC
facilitated some of this. The dance does overcome the
barriers of language, race and geography.


President of Venezuela, Sr Luis Herrera
Campins,welcomes NDTC to Caracas,
January 1984

Within the Caribbean itself, the Company contributed to
the strengthening of bonds already established by history and
ongoing experience. The NDTC was a flagship participant at
the first Carifesta in Guyana in 1972 as it was to be at the
fifth, hosted by Trinidad and Tobago in 1992.
The leadership of Jamaica in the arts did not spark
jealousy. Rather, it established a regional claim to the NDTC
as a Caribbean entity and spurred Commonwealth Caribbean
cousins to press on with what they are doing. Admittedly by
Carifesta V, cricket (long the unifying West Indian glue),
calypso and carnival and later reggae were serving to
have that part of the region feel that 'all o' we is one'. But the
NDTC had, since the mid- sixties, established through its
appearances in Grenada, Barbados and Trinidad that Carib-
bean dance theatre has common threads which indeed make

the region a unity. In the spirit of the UN, regional coopera-
tion was giving place to regional confrontation. And the arts,
including the dance, were helping in the promotion of this.
Cuba, which has long declared itself a 'Caribbean'
country, found common cause with the NDTC especially in
terms of the work done by its Danza Nacional (now Danza
Contemporeana) and its Conjuntos Folkloricos, both based in
Havana and Santiago. Cultural exchanges were frequent in
the seventies and the NDTC took into its repertoire the Cuban
classic 'Sulkari', choreographed by Eduardo Rivero who will
give yet another work (inspired by the music of Bob Marley
and Jimmy Cliff and also by the NDTC's use of such music)
in the fiftieth anniversary year of the United Nations.
The Caribbean, from the Bahamas to Guyana, saw in the
National Dance Theatre Company some of the signifiers that

President Fidel Castro and members
of NDTC, Jamaica House, 1977


give Caribbean life ideal form, purpose and meaning and a
sense of cultural certitude so necessary to fledgling nations
taking their place in the world.
Such high regard at home in the Caribbean was echoed in
the internationally critical acclaim the Company by and large
attracted and the corresponding respect it brought to young
independent Jamaica as a place that was far more than a
beach and an outpost of exoticism.
Europe insisted that the 'versatility' of the Company
could only have been 'mastered by a good foundation in
Jamaica's past and present [since] in its rich culture, this
seems to exist'. The Australians clearly understood
something of their guests. One critic wrote, 'Earnest visiting
national dance companies are not noted for the variety of
their offerings... most have, after all, but one basic life-style
to give this country. This can't be said, however, about our
latest visitor, the National Dance Theatre Company of
Jamaica.' British critics at the first Commonwealth Festival
of Arts suggested that it would 'take a lot in the Arts Festival
to surpass the not inconsiderable talents of the Jamaica
National Dance Theatre Company'. One felt that 'the dancers
are well trained, as some could take their place in any of the
world's important companies' an acknowledgement
suggesting a grasp of the excellence that can be found in a
third world country.
The North Americans admitted to another view of the
country. To the Canadians the NDTC's repertoire was
colorfull without being gaudy, has a low-life humour which
passes over vulgarity .... Like the polyrythmic musical
tradition that it so effortlessly draws upon, it is rich and
irresistible.' And the major dance critic of the New York
Times was forced to observe: 'Jamaica is a matriarchal
society in Mr Nettleford's view. But the refusal to depict this
in terms of the man-destroying, castrating female, so
common to many choreographers, is one of the company's
most refreshing and healthy aspects.'
At least in this regard, some people in the US had
understood the Jamaican reality. Posses and drugs were later
to become stereotypes; so the Company in its more recent
tours has targeted that myth by playing to thousands of
young children in places such as Brooklyn and Hartford to
project positive images of what richly creative people
Jamaicans can be.
Back in Jamaica, State visits have become occasions for
the display of the nation's artistic culture to seal the
international bonding.The seventies, when Jamaica acquired
a high profile on the international scene, had many such State
visits and the NDTC performed on some of those occasions,
notably the visits of some thirty-six Heads of State from the

Commonwealth, of Samora Machel, the President of
Mozambique, and of Fidel Castro, the Cuban revolutionary
leader. It was Castro who kept repeating on stage at Jamaica
House how universal the work of the Company was and he
characteristically issued an invitation for the NDTC to revisit
Cuba in 1979. The Jamaica Tourist Board in earlier times
also saw the point of making it possible for the NDTC to
perform before vacationers and give another picture of the
island long marketed as a sun-sand-sea destination. Such
appearances have become less frequent but exposure on
television has increased considerably, both locally and
abroad, and millions on both sides of the Atlantic have
actually seen the work of the Company over the past twenty-
five years.
Beyond the Fiftieth Anniversary of this global quest for
peace and understanding, the challenges remain. The best
responses are found in the fields of education and culture,
particularly artistic culture. Bilateral contacts work well when
trade includes the exchange of cultural goods. Military
weapons of war are replaced by tools of cultural power.
Small countries such as Jamaica, which comprise the world's
majority, are not poor in artistic achievement though they
may lack economic prosperity. Their accomplishments, like
those of all civilizations, become the stock and capital of all
nations. And the acceptance of a common proprietorship of
all that is the best and finest of human artistic expression is at
once the occasion, cause and result of that culture of peace
which the founders of the United Nations system fifty years
ago intended for the world inherited by the post-war
The hope expressed in Isaiah 2:4 still reads: 'They shall
beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into
pruning hooks; nations shall not lift up their sword against
nation, neither shall they learn war any more.' Jamaica's
weaponry of development and peace-fostering constitutes the
implements of creativity producing works of art. We will
continue to lift every voice and sing, carve in space with our
bodies myriad designs for peaceful living, and write our
poems and stories in celebration of the nobility of the human

Rex Nettleford, Professor of Continuing Studies and
Pro Vice Chancellor of the University of the West Indies is a
founder, principal choreographer and artistic director of
Jamaica's National Dance Theatre Company.



Jamaican Art for UNICEF Cards

The United Nations Children's Fund
(UNICEF), dedicated exclusively to the
welfare of children, came into being in
1946 to aid the thousands of destitute
young victims of World War Two. In 1949
a seven-year-old Czechoslovakian girl
painted a picture for UNICEF as a thank
you for the help it gave to her war-
damaged village. That picture became
the origin of UNICEF's use of greeting
cards and calendars as fund-raisers.
The cards and calendars have
become major money-earners for
UNICEF, bringing in over US$200 million
for UNICEF programmes. Many Jamai-
cans buy the cards knowing that all the
profits go towards providing basic
services worldwide for mothers and
children, including health care, improved

nutrition, education and social services.
Jamaica is represented among the UNICEF cards by the
two colourful works shown here: Caribbean Regatta (above) by
Jamaican Audrey Lazarus and Santa Fish (right) by Jamaican
resident, Rita Genet.
Designs for the cards are contributed by artists all over the
world and each year an international Art Committee selects the
most suitable. Artists from over one hundred countries have
contributed their works to the Fund.

UNICEF, VOUCH and Richard Brown

At six years old, little Richard
Brown was a street boy, but with
a difference. He had a father who
kept Richard near to him all day
and took him to their home at
night. But Mr Brown sold goods
on the road. He had nowhere to
keep Richard during the days and
the little boy's mother had
vanished when he was still a
baby. So Richard lived on the
street without proper care and L
with too little to eat.
It was a social worker, ta p
Genevieve Tomlinson, attached
to the Voluntary Organisation for the Upliftment of Children
and working in the UNICEF-funded outreach programme at the
Bustamante Hospital for Children who noticed him outside a
bank one day. She arranged for him to be admitted to the
Children's Hospital where he was found to be malnourished
and suffering from jaundice. He appeared to be retarded with
poor motor skills. He did not speak much nor did he seem to
understand what was said to him, but this was attributed to his
having had no contact with other children.
Richard was soon ready to leave the hospital. Normally, a
child in such a situation would be taken from the parent and
placed in a home. But Richard's father did not abuse or ill-
treat him. He was simply unable to cope with the situation. So,
almost a year ago, Richard was put into the care of VOUCH.

A 1
q ===OMRO

He spends his days there and is taken home every evening.
VOUCH takes care of Richard's needs and has organized
sponsorship for him from a number of sources. He still attends
the nutrition clinic at the Children's Hospital and is still very
small for his age, but he is making good physical progress.
Richard attends the Basic School at VOUCH although he is
much older than the other children. He is making good
progress now, speaking better and can identify objects and
recognize letters and numbers. Much of his improvement can
be attributed to the love and affection he gets from the children
and staff at VOUCH and especially from Mrs Joan Cole, the
Acting Principal of the Basic School. Richard now calls her
'Mommy'. He shows signs of growing into a bright and
responsive little boy who loves to push around anything with
wheels attached, just like any boy with a happier background.
Thanks to UNICEF and VOUCH, Richard's future looks far
more hopeful than it did a year ago.



As part of the celebrations marking Earth "

Day on May 5,1995, a display was

mounted in the Exhibition Room of the

Institute of Jamaica. Among the exhibits The Rodney emoria

were three outstanding models, or

maquettes, representing three of Jamaica's

most famous sites: Spanish Town Square;

the archaeological site of Sevilla la Nueva;

and Black River and the YS Falls.

The UNESCO The House ofAssembl

World Heritage Project

The maquettes were the work of
members of UNESCO Clubs in
nine schools across the island.
They had all taken part in a worldwide,
interregional project for the Participation
of Young People in the Preservation and
Promotion of World Heritage. It was, in
fact, an experimental pilot project of
which the second stage was a Young
People's Heritage Forum to be held in
Bergen, Norway, in June. The Project
Coordinator in Jamaica was Mrs Marjorie
Humphreys, Chairman and CEO of the
Jamaica Institute for Excellence in
Jamaica was one of sixteen countries
which had been invited by the World
Heritage Centre Organization to take
part in the project and to send three rep-
resentatives to the Forum. The World
Heritage Organization is concerned with

preserving the cultural and natural her-
itage of countries around the world. It
identifies important sites which are
placed on UNESCO's World Heritage
List which so far includes over four
hundred sites in one hundred countries.
It also seeks pledges of international
cooperation to preserve the sites for
future generations. Spanish Town Square
is being considered for inclusion on the
UNESCO List, once all the requirements
have been met. A major objective of the
Organization is to increase the awareness
of young people as to the importance of
their heritage and what can be done to
safeguard it.
Once Jamaica had accepted the invi-
tation to participate in this international
project, the first step was to set up a
Project Team. This included UNESCO
Club Coordinators, Principals of partici-

pating schools, once they had been
identified, the Project Coordinator, the
Secretary-General of the Jamaica National
Commission for UNESCO, Miss Sylvia
Thomas, and resource persons. The team
decided on the best approach to the pro-
ject, selected suitable sites to be studied
and identified the schools which might
wish to join the project. All the selected
schools have active UNESCO Clubs. The
members of the team also had to consid-
er how best the objectives of the project
could be met. These included making
young people aware of the importance
of their own heritage; learning to work
independently and in small and large
groups; promoting a holistic approach to
learning and teaching, cutting across
subject boundaries; and developing a
wide range of practical and communca-
tion skills. Perhaps the most important




objective was the development of an
appreciation of the way the people of
the past have affected our lives today
and of the importance of preserving and
protecting the heritage they left for
future generations.
In addition, the Project Team had to
consider the funding of the project.
Schools and students contributed towards
expenses, including meals and trans-
portation. Resource persons offered
their services free of cost, but more was
needed. Sponsors were found; Rhone-
Poulenc of France, through UNESCO;
Kentucky Fried Chicken; Burger King;
Colour World; and Photo World. Their
sponsorship made the project viable.
Three sites were finally selected and
the schools assigned to them The Munro
College club worked on the Black River
and the YS Falls while Mount Alveria,
Westwood, Knox College and St Hilda's
were assigned to Sevilla la Nueva. The
Spanish Town site was studied by St
Jago, St Andrew High, Denham Town
and Cornwall College.
The project got under way. Field
trips, workshops and videotaping were
included in the methodology as well as

The Institute of Jamaica
"nON was founded in 1879. Its main func-
tions are to foster and encourage the devel-
opment of culture, science and history, in
the national interest.
It operates as a statutory body under the
Institute of Jamaica Act 1978 and falls
under the portfolio of the Minister of
Culture. The Institute's central decision-
making body is theCouncil which is
appointed by the Minister.
The Institute of Jamaica consists of a cen-.
tral administration and a number of divi-
sions and associate bodies operating with
varying degrees of autonomy.
Chairman: Sonia Jones
Acting Executive Director: Elaine Fisher
Deputy Director Yvonne Dixon

research, the making of models and
effective presentation. Close coopera-
tion among students, Club Coordinators
and resource persons was essential to
the success of the individual projects.
Denham Town and St Andrew High
collaborated on a presentation of cos-
tume through the ages to accompany the
Spanish Town Square maquette. The
Sevilla la Nueva group produced a
maquette of the Governor's Castle and
three background paintings showing the
landscape in the time of the Tainos, the
Spaniards and the English. The students
also prepared a display of indigenous
plants and their uses.
Munro College was the only school
to work alone. The model the students
produced was a topographical map of
the Black River up to the YS Falls,
accompanied by colour photographs
illustrating points of interest along the
river. They also used a camcorder to
make a videotape of their field trip up
the Black River.
The exhibits were adjudicated before
they were set up in the Institute of
Jamaica. One had to be selected to be
sent to Bergen to be shown at the Youth

Central Administration
12-16 East St., Kingston. Tel 922-0620
African Caribbean InstitutelMemory
Roy West Building, 12 Ocean Boulevard
KingstonMall. Tel: 922-4793
Institute of Jamaica Publcations Ltd.
2a Suthermere Rd., Kingston 10
Tel: 929-4785/6 926-8817
Junior Centre
19 East St., Kingston. Tel: 922-0620
Head Ofice: 12-16 East Street., Kingston
Tel: 922-0620
National Museum of Historical
Aichaeology, Port Royal. Tel: 924-8871

Conference. The judges chose the Spanish
Town Square maquette and it was sent
off to Norway to join the winners from
the other fifteen countries participating
in the project.
The three representatives who went
from Jamaica to the Young People's
World Heritage Forum were Mrs Dahlia
Repole, the Principal of St Andrew High
School for Girls and the Coordinator of
the UN Club, Taskia Fraser, who was
the President of the St Andrew Club,
and Oneil Blair of Munro College. They
joined the representatives of twenty-nine
other countries, ranging from Argentina
to Zimbabwe, and took an active part in
the Forum.
The Director-General of UNESCO,
Professor Federico de Mayor, was pre-
sent at the Forum. He has been pressing
for greater involvement of young people
in UNESCO. The success of this pilot
project, which has enhanced young peo-
ple's awareness of their heritage, and of
the Forum in bringing together young
people from around the world who can
work in unity to preserve their heritage
are important early steps towards mak-
ing that objective a reality.

Port Charles Maritime Museum, Port
Arawak Museum, White Marl
Military Museum.
Up Park Camp, 3rd,GR Compound.
Jamaica People's Museum of Craft and
Spanish Town Square Tel: 984-2452
Old King's House Archaeological
Museum. Spanish Town Square Tel:
National Gallery of Jamaica
Roy West Building, Ocean Boulevard
Kingston Mall. Tel: 922-1561/4
National Library of Jamaica
12-16 East Street., KingstonTel 922-0620
Natural History Library and Museum
12-16 East Street, Kingston. Tel: 922-0620


JAMAICA JOURNAL is indebted to the following for assistance with the preparation of this issue:
Members of the Publications Sub-Committee of the National Preparatory Committee for the Commemoration of the 50th
Anniversary of the UN: Ambassador Herbert S. Walker, Ambassador L.M.H. Barnett, Dr E. Fisher and, representing the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and Foreign.Trade, Michelle Marston, Donna Chambers and, in particular, Vilma McNish; Ambassador Pat
Durrant and the staff of her office at the UN in New York; Anibassador the Hon. Don Mills; Miss Sylvia Thomas, Secretary-
General of the Jamaica National CommissiinTor UNEsco and Mrs Marjorie Humphreys of the Jamaica Institute for Excellence in
Education; Dr Lucille Buchanan, President of the UN Association of Jamaica; Miss Gloria Clarke of the Jamaica Library Service;
Mrs M. Dias and Miss C. Macko of UNICEP; Mr Andrew Holness, Director, and Miss Paulette Harrison of voucH; Ray Chen; Errol
Harvey; Mrs M. Cole of the Gleaner Library; and to UNESCO for their support.
; =_ .:--


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The United Nations and Jamaican Music Makers

Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers

s early as December 1964,
Jamaican music was singled out
for recognition by the United
Nations. The Frats Quintet was invit-
ed to perform before the UN General
Assembly in a concert in honour of
She Sixteenth Anniversary of the
Proclamation of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. The
only singers of folk music on the pro-
gramme, the Frats appeared with
Sartistes of international fame,
among them, Sir John
Gielgud. In the words of
Winston White, leader of the
group. IheN sang 'as we had never sung before'.
The audience response was tremendous.
O\cr mtenty years later, in 1987, Third World, was awarded a
United Nations Peace Medal for their music which has transcended inter-
national boundaries. The most recent recognition came in 1993 when the
United Nations declared Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers Goodwill Youth
Ambassadors for their music reaching out to youth around the world.

Institute of Jamaica Publications Limited
2a Suthermere Road, Kingston 10

Thom Girvan A community development pioneer for the
United Nations in South America 1958-1967
The Man
DTM 'Thom' Girvan is remembered for his pioneering work with Jamaica
Welfare, a programme of community development which stressed self-
help based on cooperative action.
Thom Girvan is also remembered for his community work for the
United Nations in Ecuador and Chile. His warm personality and
unselfish dedication to improving the lives of rural poor have been a
lasting inspiration to other workers in the field.
The Book
Norman Girvan has brought together selections from his father's
papers, from Jamaica Welfare Publications, including the Welfare
Reporter, and his own memories of his father.
The result is, Working Together for Development, an illuminating
insight into the scope and effectiveness of Jamaica Welfare and the
contribution of Thom G irvan to community development in the Caribbean
and South America.
'A major contribution to the social history
of Jamaica during the period 1930-1962 ..' Sir Philip Sherlock
9 X 6" 450 pp. Hardcover ISBN 976-8017-17-1 J$750, US$30, UK18
Paperback ISBN 976-8017-18-X J$500, US$20, UK12

Institute of Jamaica Publications Limited
Publishers of Jamaica Journal
2a Suthermere Road, Kingston 10

invites you to the IOJP Booth
at the

Explore culture through books


Venue: Merl Grove High School Auditorium
Date: November 3 -5, 1995

The Preamble
to the
Charter of the United Nations


to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime
has brought sorrow to mankind, and

to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the
human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and
small, and

to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising
from treaties and the other sources of international law can be maintained, and

to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,


to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good
neighbours, and

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and

to ensure by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed
force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and

to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social
advancement of all peoples,


Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives assembled in the
city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full powers found to be in good and
due form, have agreed to the present Charter of the United Nations and do hereby
establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.

The Charter of the United Natrions was adopted at San Francisco on 25 June 1945, and was signed the
following day. It came into force on 24 October 1945, when a majority of the signatories had ratified it.



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Glimpses of Jamaica's Natural History

Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.


1. Pimento Tree (Pimenta dioica (L.)
2. Cluster of ripe pimento berries
3. Tree trunk showing stripping bark

Photos E. Fisher

Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Synonym Pimenta officinalis Lindl)
belongs to the family Myrtaceae which includes such plants
as the guava, otaheiti apple and rose apple. Native to
Jamaica, pimento is one of island's traditional export crops.
Some 2,666 tonnes of the dried pimento berries were export-
ed in 1994 while large amounts of pimento were also
processed for export in the form of berry oil, leaf oil, jerk sea-
soning and mixed spice.
Pimenta is also native to southern Mexico (including
Yucatan), Central America, Cuba and Hispaniola and intro-
duced in Puerto Rico and Barbados. It is occasionally grown
as an ornamental in southern Florida. Widely distributed
throughout Jamaica, the trees thrive best in rocky lands.
An evergreen tree with greenish-white flowers and dark
purple fruit, the allspice grows to a height of 7m to 20m.
Although the Pimenta flowers appear to be hermaphroditic,
that is, having male and female reproductive parts, Pimenta
dioica functions as a dioecious plant (i.e. with male and
female reproductive structures on separate trees). As a
result, certain trees bear no fruit, a situation which presents
difficulties when attempts are made to improve the crop.
The trunk of the tree is usually straight and smooth with
ashen-coloured bark which readily peels away. The fruit
grows in clusters of aromatic, nearly round berries with one
or two small seeds. The commercial product is gathered
when the berries are mature but still green, as tha rina frijit

loses most of its aromatic qualities.
Pimento is reaped by breaking off
branches and removing the berries
by hand or by beating with flails.
The mature berries are dried in the
sun for several days until they
become dull brown and wrinkled and the aroma is more pro-
nounced. The dried green berries were given the name all-
spice because of the complex flavour of the spice a combi-
nation of cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg.
Pimento leaves and berries are used in a variety of ways
apart from seasoning food. Pimento oil is distilled from dried,
crushed but unripe berries. Perfume and flavouring manufac-
turers seem to prefer the oil produced from Jamaican berries
to that from other Caribbean islands or from Central America.
Pimento leaf oil has been used to some extent in medicine
and dentistry. Eugenol is the principal constituent of both
leaves and berries and they are used in a wide range of
herbal remedies: as an infusion for stomach pains in
Guatemala and Jamaica and as a tonic in the Bahamas; as a
'remedy' for diabetes in Costa Rica; in a popular tonic in
Cuba where the leaves are sold by herb vendors; and as a
poultice to allay fever and pain in Jamaica where crushed
leaves are put into baths for the same purpose.

mr,-1 hu the Natural History Division of the Institute of Jamaica

82/18/88 3476B
P-ned n Jamacaby Pea T-e Pess L

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