Gender Analysis in
Mary B. Anderson
Catherine A. Overholt
Bangladesh: The Chandpur Irrigation Project 3
India: Access to Schooling in Ambakach 6
India: The Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme 10
Indonesia: The P2WIK-UNDP Batik Project 13
Philippines: The Aslong Irrigation Project 16
Thailand: The Saraburi Dairy Farming Project 21
Gender Analysis in Development Planning: Teaching Notes.
Copyright 1991 Kumarian Press, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book
may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or information storage and retrieval
system, without prior written permission of Kumarian Press, 630 Oakwood
Avenue, Suite 119, West Hartford, Connecticut 06110-1529 USA.
Printed in the United States of America
First edition published 1991
Cover design by Laura Augustine
Edited by Ida May Norton
Proofread by Kevin R. Frazzini
Typeset by Rosanne Pignone
Printed by Cricket Press
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gender analysis in development planning: a case book / editors, Aruna Rao,
Mary B. Anderson, Catherine A. Overholt
p. cm. (Kumarian Press library of management for
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-931816-61-0 (alk. paper). ISBN 0-931816-62-9 (teaching notes)
1. Women in rural development-Developing countries-Case studies.
2. Rural development projects-Developing countries-Case studies.
I. Rao, Aruna. II. Anderson, Mary B., 1939- III. Overholt, Catherine,
1942- IV. Series.
95 94 93 92 91
5 4 3 2 1
A CASE PROVIDES A vehicle for discussion through which learning takes
place. Each classroom setting is different and has its own requirements.
Thus, each case teacher will approach the process of preparing for a case
discussion with her or his own set of learning objectives in mind. Prepa-
ration for the classroom discussion will reflect both the particular cir-
cumstances of a given class and the case teacher's designated learning
The purpose of these teaching notes is to provide some guidance to the
instructor in her or his preparation process. These notes are brief. They
are intended to be suggestive rather than exhaustive and to prompt a case
teacher to consider optional approaches to using the cases contained in
Gender Analysis in Development Planning to meet different pedagogical
It is important to realize that any given case may fulfill more than one
set of learning objectives. There is not a unique and "correct" way to teach
a case. The cases in this volume can be used to illustrate various aspects of
the importance of gender in development.
It is the instructor's job to clarify what learning she or he expects to
take place and to develop a complete and full series of questions that will
facilitate and structure the classroom analysis.
The overall learning objective underlying each of the case studies pre-
sented in Gender Analysis in Development Planning is to apply the concepts
of gender analysis in actual development situations. The gender analysis
framework presented before the cases sets out the concepts of gender
analysis as the guiding focus for the case discussions. Any of the cases
could be taught by following the three steps of gender analysis (activities
analysis, access and control analysis, and determinants analysis) and relat-
ing these to project design and outcomes as described in the cases.
2 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
However, the teaching notes presented here do not refer to each step of
gender analysis as set forth in the framework. Rather, as classes have
become more familiar with gender issues and sophisticated in their knowl-
edge of gender roles, we have found that it is more interesting and useful
to approach each case in terms of its own particular interesting lessons.
Gender analysis (knowing who does what, their use and control of re-
sources, benefits flows, etc.) underlies the discussions as suggested in
these guidelines but does not dictate the order of discussion. The point is
to encourage the practical application of the concepts of gender analysis to
a variety of development projects.
To illustrate this approach for instructors, we have proposed a set of
learning objectives for each case. These objectives are then reflected in a
suggested set of study questions (to be given to participants as guidance
for preparation of the case) that are intended to structure and bring analyt-
ical depth to the classroom discussion. We then provide an outline of a pos-
sible order for a discussion, and sometimes we even suggest wording of
questions that could be used to guide the discussion.
These teaching notes provide guidelines and ideas only. We hope they
prove useful as background and in prompting further ideas for fruitful
Bangladesh: The Chandpur
1. To examine the relationships among irrigation, cropping patterns,
and employment and the ways these are affected by project design.
2. To apply the concepts of the gender analysis framework and assess
the effect of the Chandpur irrigation project on male and female
employment patterns, especially as these vary across classes.
3. To assess the impact of the project on prices and the different effects
on land distribution, income, spending, and employment among men
and women of different classes.
1. What were the effects of the Chandpur irrigation project on the pro-
duction and employment patterns in the project area?
2. How did the project affect the gender-based division of labor for dif-
ferent classes of people?
3. How did the project affect men's and women's access to control over
resources in the CIP area?
4. What were the unforeseen/unplanned consequences of the project?
How might these have been better accounted for in project design?
5. What suggestions, if any, would you make for project redesign and
The Chandpur irrigation project was intended to improve farmers' crop
output through the provision and control of water. This was to be achieved
4 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
primarily through the introduction of high-yielding varieties (HYV) of rice
that could only be used with adequate irrigation. However, the project also
intended to improve agricultural employment (especially for the landless)
and to improve living conditions for all people in the area.
This case is well designed to illustrate forthrightly the relevance of
understanding gender roles for predicting project outcomes and impacts.
It adds the further dimension of class/family type to the analysis. There-
fore, it could be used as the opening case or an early case in a sequence
for a gender workshop. If it were used this way, its teaching would follow
the sequence of activities analysis, access and control analysis, factors
influencing activities, control, and access, project description and evalua-
tion, and redesign. However, in both activities analysis and access and con-
trol analysis, the differences among classes requires careful delineation.
If the case were taught later in a workshop, it could be used to focus on
the issues of prediction of project outcomes. In particular, the case leads to
rich discussion about secondary and tertiary project outcomes and how
anticipation of these can be improved if gender and class analyses are inte-
gral to project design.
The class influence on male and female activities is significant both for the
differences one finds among classes and the similarities. For example,
poor and landless women are the only ones who work outside their homes,
and because of the mobility restrictions on wealthier women, poor women
gain employment when women's work increases among all households.
Women in every class are solely responsible for all household production.
Women also are responsible for postharvest operations; thus, as produc-
tion increases, women's labor increases.
Men's work varies widely depending on whether they own land or not
and the size of landholding. Status is derived from not having to do any
The division of labor between men and women is clearly defined in all
Access and Control Analysis
Land is the most important resource to be considered in this case, and
access and control vary both by gender and by class. The influence of irri-
gation on this resource was merely to increase its price, not to effect any
redistribution of it. In addition, irrigation actually reduced the access of
the landless to river fishing and, by making ponds possible on larger tracts
of land, increased the access and control of wealthier farmers to fish
Benefits that can be discussed include food, education, employment
The Chandpur Irrigation Project 5
opportunities, and the potential for a secure life and old age. These can be
analyzed in both preproject and postproject contexts.
Class, land ownership, drought conditions, purdah, health, mobility, educa-
tion, and political power are all factors that underlie and determine the pat-
terns of activities and access and control. The class should be encouraged
to identify these (and others) and to trace out the ways in which they
affect gender divisions among each of the classes.
The case contains little description of the project arrangements but more
about actual areas irrigated and impacts of the irrigation. The discussion
would concentrate, therefore, on the project impacts and outcomes. It is in
this area that the instructor's questions should be carefully constructed to
ensure that the class thinks through the connections between the project
results and the gender/class divisions laid out previously. The board
should be used to emphasize these relationships.
For example, a diagram could be constructed (in response to class dis-
cussion) that shows the employment effects of the irrigation as they ripple
through the class structure of the CIR
The series of questions should always include the theme of prediction:
Knowing what you know about the gender/class structures of CIP, would
you have been able to predict this project outcome? Why? Why not?
Finally, if time permits, there is enough information in this case to warrant
a full project redesign discussion. This discussion should include not only
the actual content of the project--e.g., irrigation canals, technical assis-
tance, new crop types-but also discussion of the methods and processes
used for introducing the new technologies. The class should be encour-
aged to consider alternative approaches to designing and implementing an
irrigation project that would be more carefully based in the local economic
and social structure and that would, therefore, have an even greater posi-
tive impact on people's lives in the area.
India: Access to
Schooling in Ambakach
1. To explore the relationships between gender roles and assigned pro-
ductive and household activities and opportunities or constraints for
2. To explore the relationship between economic and cultural determi-
nants of roles as these affect school attendance.
3. To explore and compare policy/program options to effect children's
access to education in the light of these determinants.
1. What are the factors influencing children's attendance in school in
Ambakach? Are they the same or different for boys and girls?
2. How are these related to the work their parents do?
3. How do you think the two programs, the nonformal education pro-
gram or the incentives program, are designed to increase children's
access to education? For boys? Girls? Why?
4. What suggestions, if any, would you make to Ninama to improve or
alter his incentives program?
The case discussion could begin with an exploration of the reasons chil-
dren do and do not attend school in Ambakach. The discussion would
Access to Schooling in Ambakach
soon focus on poverty as the principal cause of the failure to attend. The
discussion should explore both the direct costs of education and the indi-
The trainer should lead the class to analyze these as they differ for boys
and for girls. This line of reasoning would lead to an implicit (or explicit)
activities analysis discussion. It is clear that opportunity costs are higher
for families with girls in school than boys, given the information in the
case about activities, at least at the primary school age levels. When chil-
dren are old enough to migrate for work, this may well reverse.
Other reasons children do not attend school include the following:
1. There seems to be no expected return to education. This again can
be analyzed as it differs for males/females, a discussion that will
open up some of the other social/cultural determinants of access to
schooling. The fact that girls marry into other families and that the
dowry does not seem to be related to educational attainment will be
mentioned. The need to have one family member, usually a boy, edu-
cated enough to find better wage employment will also arise in the
2. Expectations differ for girls and boys about what amount of educa-
tion is socially or culturally appropriate. This issue goes beyond the
returns to education argument just mentioned. That is, parents sim-
ply have different expectations about what their girls and boys
should do in terms of schooling.
Getting these discussions out is important when the class turns to anal-
ysis of the two programs and their impact The issue will be: How do the
two program approaches address (or fail to address) these factors that
influence parents' decisions of whether to send their children to school?
The nonformal education experiment in Hema's village was designed to
address the issues of cultural misfit between formal education and poor
rural children. The objective was to place the school and the responsibility
for running it in the hands of the community and to encourage participa-
tion as a social/community activity. Also, organization of the experiment
addressed one major constraint to education: time. It was arranged at the
end of the day when other tasks seem to have been mostly completed.
There were no direct costs that we know of, and opportunity costs were nil
because other work was completed before these classes began each day.
Even if future returns to education were not clear, the student fairs pro-
vided one opportunity for students to demonstrate what they had learned
-a kind of short-term return to their effort in any case.
The school incentives program at Ninama's school was planned to
8 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
address both direct and opportunity costs of education. By providing text-
books, uniforms, and other supplies, it intended to lower the direct costs of
schooling. In addition, by providing the grain allotment each month, it
intended to lower the opportunity costs of education (that is, to supply an
amount of grain to offset the loss of income or contribution to family sub-
sistence that could have been earned by a young child out of school). The
differential grain allotment to girls over boys (ten kilograms versus eight)
reflected an awareness that parents were more reluctant to send their girls
to school and would need higher incentives to be persuaded to do so. It
may also indicate that project designers recognized girls' greater contribu-
tions to household survival through their work and, therefore, undertook
to reimburse families for opportunity costs proportional to children's
The timing of the primary school seems to coincide with daily activities
except for those done earliest in the morning. Because we do not have any
time information about work, except in the case of collection of water, we
do not know how important this is. One might surmise, however, that it
makes some difference because cattle grazing goes on during the daylight
hours, not after dark (when the nonformal classes were held).
The discussion should then turn to evaluating the impact of the two pro-
grams. The class has to do a fair amount of analysis in the case of the
incentives program to assess its impact. Information on the outcomes of
the nonformal experiment are given in the text and should simply be
brought out. That is, it is interesting that many more girls than boys attend
school. The class should discuss why they think this is so. What does this
program offer that specifically addresses the constraints on girls' access to
education in Indian society?
From the incentives program, some of the following can be seen as
1. Total enrollment in Standards 1 through 4 increased by 33 percent in
1983-84 over 1982-83. The number of girls enrolled doubled.
2. Total enrollment in 1984-85 again increased by 3 percent. The jump
was mainly in the first two standards. Standard 4 increased only by 6
percent; Standard 3 enrollment actually decreased by 42 percent
3. In 1983-84, girls accounted for 31 percent of the total enrolled in
Standard 1; they accounted for 53 percent of this class by 1984-85.
4. Increases in enrollments in Standard 2 reflected almost entirely an
increase in boys' enrollments.
5. Girls' enrollments in Standards 3 and 4 as a percentage of the whole
6. Average monthly attendance for both boys and girls increased.
Access to Schooling in Ambakach 9
7. Figures in the retention rates diagram show that retention rates for
boys exceed those for girls. Similarly, the retention rates for nonre-
peaters are higher than those for repeaters. Because all girls were
repeaters, this compounds their failure to stay in school.
8. Allocations of uniforms, textbooks, and supplies were skewed heavily
The class should think through the implications of these findings as
they attempt to think of ways to improve the incentives program. They
may possibly learn from Hema's enthusiasm as they discuss how Ninama
could improve school attendance and retention.
India: The Maharashtra
Employment Guarantee Scheme
1. To apply gender analysis to the context in which the employment
generation scheme (EGS) operated in order to analyze the gender-
differentiated impacts of the program.
2. To examine the possibility of improving the design and implemen-
tation of EGS through recognition of the gender factor.
1. How do you assess the importance of gender roles as they might
affect the implementation of the employment guarantee scheme?
2. Do you think there is any relationship between the work that is done
through EGS and people's productivity? Explain.
3. What suggestions, if any, would you make to the Minister of Plan-
ning about how to change and improve the EGS?
The case lends itself well to an analysis of how a poverty-alleviation pro-
gram could be better designed to improve the regional asset base and,
hence, labor productivity while it provides income to those who need it. In
particular, we can identify the assets that are needed in the community to
improve people's lives and work conditions. Because these can be under-
stood better through gender differentiation, we can illustrate how the
The Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme
application of gender analysis could have improved the design and imple-
mentation of the EGS.
The discussion could begin with a complete description of the EGS. The
class should go through each of its provisions and identify all the rich
descriptive detail that the case includes.
Next, the class could be asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the EGS
as it actually worked. This order of teaching is unusual because it moves
into evaluation before any gender analysis has been done. The purpose of
this approach would be to bring the class to the recognition that many of
their evaluative comments about the program arise from their under-
standing of gender roles and their sense of the importance of gender to
the project design. This case, therefore, is better taught second or third in
a sequence of gender cases after the class has become skilled in the tech-
niques of gender analysis and is aware of how to apply this analysis to
1. The wage scale. Because the wage scale was set according to the type
of task performed, and because tasks were assigned according to
gender, women consistently received lower wages from their work
with EGS than men did.
2. Location of work. Women's double roles may limit their ability to
travel for work more than that of men. The plan of the project to
provide employment within a five-kilometer radius was good. Was it
close enough? What about the times when EGS failed to provide
work this close? How would one understand the impact of this on
employment opportunities for women and men?
3. The work of children. This discussion could be linked to the dis-
cussion of educational opportunities and would explore the normal
work roles of children and the way in which these affect children's
participation in the EGS and in school.
4. Availability of labor The case provides an interesting insight into
intrafamily labor allocations in its point that in the case of small
farmers, men continue to work on the family land and women are
seen as the redundant labor. Hence, they are the ones to seek em-
ployment elsewhere. Does the EGS take advantage of this phe-
nomenon sufficiently? How might it be designed to do so? It also pro-
vides the basis for discussion of the seasonality of labor. Are there
any differences for men and for women in their availability for
employment as a result of the stages of work for which they are re-
sponsible in agricultural production? How could the program take
these into account?
5. Exploitation. What elements of the design and implementation of
12 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
EGS lend themselves to exploitation of workers? Is there any differ-
ential in likely exploitation between men and women?
6. Asset creation. The case implies that the assets created through EGS
have not been enormously helpful to the people who work on them.
In fact, we have an indication that contractors might be the ones who
gain the most from the scheme. How might the program be designed
to ensure that assets produced are truly useful and, in the long run,
productive? What are the gender implications of the choices among
assets to be produced?
Each of these areas of discussion provides a context for exploration of
the design, implementation, and possible redesign of the program, taking
into account the realities (including the gender realities) of the program.
In each instance when the class suggests some criticism of the EGS or
some idea for redesign, the instructor should direct the discussion back to
these circumstances, explicitly asking the questions about the implications
of the gender divisions for the criticism or proposal being made. Through
this approach, the instructor could draw out and put on a board a complete
gender analysis as a result of the evaluative discussion.
Indonesia: The P2WIK-UNDP
1. To demonstrate the power of the gender analysis framework in
assessing the design and outcomes of the P2WIK-UNDP project.
2. To assess the changes that occur in men's and women's work when
production patterns change; in particular, to explore the impacts of
the introduction of technologies on men's and women's work.
3. To examine alternative project designs that might address the par-
ticular work/environmental conditions of rural women and men in
Indonesia, using the information gained through gender analysis and
review of economic trends.
1. What were the role assignments in typical Indonesian families for
whom the P2WIK-UNDP project was designed?
2. What were the major forces at work affecting how families gained
their livelihoods in rural Indonesia?
3. How did the P2WIK-UNDP project intend to affect the income poten-
tial of the families involved?
4. How do you assess the design and implementation of the P2WIK-
5. What suggestions, if any, would you make for changing the project to
improve its effectiveness?
14 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
This case provides an opportunity for a great deal of discussion about
whether the project was a success or not. As is always true in such
situations, the task of the instructor is to ensure that the analysis of the
case has been adequate before evaluative discussions begin so that the
class can use the gender analysis tools effectively in tracing the project's
impacts and arriving at their judgments.
The discussion should begin with a good description of socioeconomic
conditions in rural Indonesia. This includes the changes in agriculture
brought on by technological innovations. It should include the information
available in the case about industrial changes as well. Government
policies, insofar as they are known, should be discussed. In each instance,
the instructor should be sure that the discussion brings out the gender
differences. What is happening with men? With women? The major in-
crease in female-headed households should certainly be highlighted.
When the class has thoroughly described the situation, the discussion
can move on to a description of the project. This should cover the ob-
jectives, the design, and the implementation mechanisms. The instructor's
questions during this discussion should be focused sufficiently to prevent
evaluative comments at this stage. Project design and rationale should be
Finally, the evaluative discussion of the project should be directed so
that it not only evaluates this project but raises general issues of project
design under comparable circumstances. This discussion should begin
with description of the impact of the project. Income figures given in the
tables should be used to provide the basis for analysis of the project's
Class discussion should cover the following salient issues:
1. In situations of rapid economic change (changes in technology,
mobility, and migration patterns), the impacts often differ for men
and for women. These differences arise from the gender-based
division of labor in existence before the changes, as well as from
certain elements in the changes themselves. These should be
2. The scale of a project in the face of such large changes may be very
important. If small, the project may help so few people as to be
insignificant. Its smallness may also, however, mean that it will not
set in motion major disturbances so that its environment or context
remains sufficiently fixed for planning to be effective. If a project is
large, it may have a more significant impact in terms of the people's
lives it affects, but it also may, by its own force, cause additional
changes in the context that change the effect it has. (For example,
The P2WIK-UNDP Batik Project 15
there may be price changes or changes in relationships between
middlepeople and entrepreneurs.)
3. When the productive capacity of people is increased, the issue of
marketing is critical. How and when should it be addressed? Must
project design address this issue? What are the risks of not doing so?
4. When either traditional or new job roles systematically disadvantage
one group relative to another in terms of the potential for earnings,
what strategies can or should a project undertake to overcome or
mitigate this disadvantage? Is this a legitimate function for an aid
project? Why or why not?
5. What is the potential for improving people's income-earning
capacities in small-scale, household-based production when the
trends are for increasingly large-scale batik enterprises? Did the
project take this into account sufficiently? How might it have done so
better? What are the circumstances in which it is generally
appropriate or useful to encourage small-scale activities alongside
larger ones? What are the circumstances in which such a strategy
would be futile?
Philippines: The Aslong Irrigation Project
1. To examine the importance of gender analysis in an area where the
gender division of labor is flexible within households.
2. To examine the implications of gender roles for actual participation
in decision making and other project activities in a project designed
to emphasize such participation.
1. How do you assess the designation of head of household as the unit of
project participation in the Aslong irrigation project? Explain.
2. What were the patterns of project participation among family mem-
bers, and how well did these coincide with the original intentions of
the project planners?
3. How do you assess the design and outcomes of the participatory
aspects of the project? How was participation affected by gender
roles in this project?
4. What changes in project design, if any, would you suggest to improve
the achievement of project goals in Aslong?
The case lends itself to exploration and analysis in two basic areas: first,
the designation of head of household as the unit of project participation and,
second, the participatory design of the project as affected by gender roles
in the society.
The first of these areas raises interesting project design issues. As the
case notes, the project designers chose household head as the designation
The Aslong Irrigation Project 17
for project participation without a clear awareness of the extent of wom-
en's roles in farming and their stake in farming decisions. They assumed
that male heads of households were in a position to commit household
resources to the project. But because of the interactive nature of male and
female roles in farming in the Philippines and because women have
particular responsibilities for family survival, the male farmers challenged
the project designers' incorrect assumptions regarding membership and
the participation of women in project implementation and benefits.
Much of the literature and experiences of projects show that project
planners have often designed elements of their projects on false assump-
tions about male/female prerogatives and relationships. There is a great
deal of experience indicating that women need to be identified explicitly as
project participants and their roles in society taken into account in project
design if they are to be equally involved with men. This case shows one
situation in which it was the male members of the community-who had
been designated as participants-who first raised this issue. They also
sent female proxies to the irrigators' association meetings. However, this
did not change the official designation, and women from households with
a male head thus remained ineligible to vote in association meetings and
did not have access to training programs available to members. This case
allows careful analysis and discussion of the issue of identification of
beneficiaries (in this case, designated participants) and of ways in which it
can impede project effectiveness.
There is an additional piece of information not included in the case that
the trainer may want to introduce toward the end of the discussion. After
her study, Illo presented to the NIA officials her findings about the
importance of female involvement in the decisions and activities of the
project She was able to document that it was critical for women to have
formal access to and involvement in the decisions regarding the irrigation
system management As a result, NIA made a policy decision to change
the membership criterion from head of household to household. This change
applied to all communal participatory irrigation projects in the Philippines
under NIA's auspices and allowed households to decide for themselves
whether the male or female adult would become the formal member.
Although the case discussion would begin based in the actual ex-
perience of the Aslong project, it would lend itself to abstraction. Thus, the
instructor should encourage the class to consider the contextual issues of
when a designation is effective for achieving project goals and when it may
impede their achievement. Specifically, the class could consider the desig-
nation head of household and analyze its impact in different circumstances,
considering whether it mainstreams women or results in their being left
out of project involvement.
The second issue-the importance of considering gender roles as these
affect a participatory project design-also is raised but not resolved by
this case. Thus, again, the instructor would encourage the class to con-
18 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
sider the more general circumstances in which gender affects participation
and lead the class into a discussion of alternative participatory designs that
would take account of various gender divisions in different societies.
Sequence of Case Discussion
The case discussion should begin with a full exploration of the project
design. This would include (a) the project objectives, (b) the implemen-
tation, and (c) the actual outcomes as represented in the tables. The
instructor should repeatedly ask the class to consider whether the design
is appropriate for the given objectives. The class should also consider
actual outcomes and whether these could have been predicted. Thus, the
discussion would go as follows for each objective:
1. What was the objective?
2. What was the project design to achieve that objective?
3. What was the rationale behind this design that made it seem appro-
priate to that objective?
4. Do you think the rationale was correct? Why or why not?
5. How did gender roles have an effect on actual outcomes?
The structure of this questioning should focus especially on the two
issues of unit designation (head of household) and participatory objective.
Other issues that will come out include the location of a farm within the
irrigation scheme (whether upstream or down); the impact on the landless
as well as the landed; the failure of the project to pay back the loans; and
the impact of irrigation on crop output.
The Jeanne ilo study, which provided the data for most of this teaching
[W]omen, although not explicitly identified as project participants, were
not excluded . [and] many chose to engage in project endeavors.
Women who were not heads of households and hence members fre-
quently served as members' proxies. The various roles women played
suggested that for a project to reap full benefits, organizing and extension
strategies should be redesigned to involve the household as a unit instead
of a specific household member.
Case information indicates that it is primarily women's responsibility to
manage household budgets and to make up for any deficits that occur.
Thus, women are directly interested in any activities that alter work pat-
terns and have the potential for changing family income. They are espe-
cially concerned with project activities that may take a lot of time, on the
one hand, and have uncertain or long-term paybacks on the other. In
The Aslong Irrigation Project 19
addition, as already noted, by not being explicitly included in the member-
ship categorization, women were excluded from voting on decisions that
affected their lives and livelihoods and from the benefits of training and
extension services available to project participants.
The case also notes that women work much longer hours than men in
the Aslong region. Discussion should cover the relative decision-making
stances of men and women as they decide to take on participatory involve-
ment in any project
Discussion could also focus on the actual outcomes of the project. How
many hectares were planted in each season relative to the amount planted
before the irrigation project? What were the changes in income and work
patterns? How did these affect families, and did they have different
impacts on men and women? Points in the case which address these
issues include the following:
Actual cultivated area did not increase notably as a result of the
There were definite increases in work load for families participating,
but because of the relatively high substitutability between men's and
women's labor (except for household production deemed women's
work and heavy physical labor deemed men's work), the fact that
men did not work so many hours per day in the area meant that the
project did not encounter labor bottlenecks. However, the class
might explore the possible difference between bottlenecks in con-
struction and maintenance activities of the project and those involv-
ing meetings, collection of fees, and the like. That is, men might have
had time for the physical labor required, but in those areas where
women as well as men could be expected to engage in project
activities, such as in meetings and collection of fees, the burden on
female family time meant that some women resented the extra work.
Family income improvements were essentially offset completely by
price increases. This could explain the surprising fact that the
irrigators' association had paid back only a very low percentage of
the initial loan by the time our information ends.
After the project has been fully explored in this way, the discussion
should turn to the abstraction of the two issues. Questions the instructor
could use to address the head of household issue include these:
1. Have you ever known of a project that used the head of household
designation that fully integrated (failed to include) women?
2. Under what conditions of gender roles do you think the designation of
household as the project focus would work best? The least well? Why?
(Trace out the implications of carefully described gender roles.)
20 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
The following questions focus on the participatory issue:
1. What do we usually mean by participatory projects? How do we
measure success in achieving participatory goals? (The thrust here
would be to keep the class alert to gender differences rather than
talking of all participants as if they are the same.)
2. What conditions seem to affect people's abilities to be active par-
ticipants in a participatory model? (Again, the point would be to
identify those effects that are linked to gender roles.)
3. How can one design a participatory model that takes account of
gender role differentiation and uses it in the most positive sense?
In the conclusion of this discussion, the instructor should be careful to
reiterate the findings from the Aslong case because these suggest broader
considerations in project design. The instructor should also make explicit
the points where gender roles can be important in achieving stated goals
of equal family inclusion and full participation. A summary of the most im-
portant contextual considerations that the class has brought out would
help ground the abstract discussion in practical, tangible terms.
Thailand: The Saraburi
Dairy Farming Project
To identify the pedagogical objectives, it is first important to note that this
case may be taught from at least three different perspectives:
To trace project impacts on activities, resources, and benefits (access
and control) to determine gains and losses for women and men. This
approach would raise project design issues.
To teach financial analysis and project design.
To raise issues of project replicability.
Gender analysis of this case provides different insights from those usu-
ally expected. This is because in this region in Thailand, there is high flu-
idity among farm families in the division of labor between men and women.
That is, with the important exception of household labor, there is a high
degree of substitutability between genders for farm tasks. Although chil-
dren of both genders play some role in household labor, most children
under fourteen or fifteen are in school. Thus, their contribution to house-
hold livelihood is limited. These insights are important in project design.
In a gender workshop, therefore, the case would be best taught late in
the sequence of cases when the demonstration of labor substitutability
would be useful for a class that has already learned gender analysis. This
substitutability means that labor constraints do not affect the dairy cooper-
ative project to any significant degree, but because care of cattle is quite
time-consuming, time is a very important issue for this project. However,
the impact of the project on the gender division of access and control is
22 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
significant. This is an additional reason for teaching this case after activi-
ties analysis has been fully explored.
Therefore, depending on the approach taken, following are the peda-
1. To identify and evaluate the fluidity of the gender division of labor
and to assess its importance to project design.
2. To evaluate and assess the impact a project can have on male/female
differences in access to and control over resources and benefits.
3. To apply concepts of financial analysis and project design.
4. To identify and examine the range of elements that affect project suc-
cess and to prompt students to consider which of these are essential
if the project is to be replicated.
Study Questions (depending on the pedagogical focus)
1. How does the gender-based division of labor in Muek Lek affect the
potential success of the dairy farming project?
2. How does the gender-based division of access and control over re-
sources and benefits affect the success of the dairy farming project?
How does the project affect the access and control profile?
3. What factors would you consider in assessing the financial viability of
the dairy farming project?
4. Do you think that owning dairy cattle will be profitable for the
women of Muek Lek? What constraints do you think are important?
5. What factors, in both the macro and micro contexts, made the great-
est difference in getting the Muek Lek dairy project started? What
would have happened had some of these not been present? Which
were necessary for project success and which were of less conse-
Whether teaching the case from a financial analysis point of view or from a
replication point of view, it would be important at the start of the discus-
sion to elicit a full description of the project area, what people did there,
and what their problems were. One element that should be included in the
discussion is the fact that income from crops was variable by season. This
resulted in certain lean periods for farmers in which they often had to bor-
row from local moneylenders. This is background to the discussion that
will follow in the dairy project analysis, which should show that income
from dairy enterprises is fairly even over the months.
The discussion would then turn to a description of the project This, too,
should be thorough, covering the way in which it began; the many ele-
The Saraburi Dairy Farming Project
ments supplied by the project-credit, the terms of credit, the technical
assistance (including visits to villages to begin discussions of the project),
feasibility studies, veterinary services, purchasing of the cattle, guarantee-
ing insurance, and so on-the establishment of the feed cooperative; the
arrangement for transportation to the milk collection centers, and the like.
In particular, the arrangements by which the payments were made for
feed and to the bank should be discussed. This project component is
somewhat surprising because it is known that women in the area have
experience with household financial management. One would assume that
they would be able to handle direct financial management of the cattle.
However, the project design takes this function almost entirely out of their
hands by skimming off the two primary payments they must make-for
feed and for their loans-before the women ever see any of their income.
Is this a strong or weak aspect of project design?
After the instructor has elicited full descriptions of the setting and the
project, discussion participants should then list and examine, each of the
elements necessary for dairying to succeed. These would include:
Cows that are high producers, hence imported;
Capital to purchase the cows and support systems;
Demand for the product;
Method for marketing the product;
Inputs (e.g., land, labor, capital, feed, veterinary services, insurance,
technical assistance in caring for cattle and in milk production).
Each of these elements represents a rich pasture for discussion. In each
case, the class can explore what existed in this regard before the project,
how the project designers did or did not assess this in deciding to start the
project, what factors affected the elements, and who was responsible for
them. Each can be discussed as being in--or beyond-the control of the
actual dairy farmers. Do the farmers control this project or not? What dif-
ference might this make in the project's success or future?
Project Replication Approach
If the teaching approach is to explore issues affecting project replication,
the discussion might center on which elements were absolutely essential
to the success of the project and which were less so. How might one
assess the possibilities of replication given this discussion?
Financial Assessment Approach
If the focus of teaching is on financial assessment, the discussion should
take the class through the actual costs of each input, per month or per
year, and relate these to income to assess profitability. Issues include
costs, returns, and reproduction costs and income:
24 GENDER ANALYSIS IN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING
Purchase price/cow $1000, or 25,000 baht (Bt)
Interest on the loan is 13 percent per year. Over an eight-year repayment
period, the principal and interest costs total about Bt 65,000 ($2,600), or an
average of Bt 8,125/cow/year or Bt 677/cow/month. Thus,
Principal and interest/cow/month Bt 677
Insurance costs/cow/month (Bt 800/year) 67
Average transport costs/cow/month 200
Land, labor, and veterinary services are free 0
Total monthly costs per cow Bt 1,494
One cow gives 11 to 22 kg of milk per day
Price paid per kg of good milk is Bt 6.5
If 11 kg, then Bt 71.5/cow/day x 30 days Bt 2,145/cow/month
Subtract costs from returns to determine profit.
Multiply by number of cows.
Add in division of profits made through feed mill.
Cattle Reproduction Costs and Income:
Costs for artificial insemination (AD):
(AI costs Bt 150/trial and usually requires two to three trials before
Average costs/successful insemination Bt 450
Milk income/kilogram of milk Bt 6.5
Milk production increases for a lactating cow by 11 kilograms/day; thus,
11 kg/day x Bt 6.5 Bt 71.5 increased milk income/day
This increased production continues for 240 days (8 months); thus,
240 days x daily increased income of Bt 71.5 Bt 17,160
Other income includes:
if male calf Bt 200
if female calf Bt 5,000 (or can be kept for milk production)
Comparing Income from Dairy Farming with Other Sources
Average net cash income per agricultural household in Thailand in 1986
was calculated at Bt 36,567. Dairy cattle income seems good.
The Saraburi Dairy Farming Project 25
Average monthly wages for females in 1986 were as follows: municipal
private employment, Bt 1,997 (Bt 23,964/year); nonmunicipal employment,
Bt 1,168 (Bt 14,016/year); government employment in municipal areas, Bt
4,086 (Bt 49,032/year); nonmunicipal areas, Bt 3,265 (Bt 39,180/year).
Which expenses or returns could be accurately assessed before the
project and which might have been surprises?
In both instances, the discussion could conclude by considering re-
design issues. What might have been done differently, or what else might
have been done to ensure a better project?
About the Editors
ARUNA RAO has for five years coordinated the Population Council program
on Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development, under whose
auspices most of the cases in this volume were prepared. On behalf of the
program, she has worked closely with researchers in developing new frame-
works for gender analysis, with project planners and managers in working
through the policy and management implications of gender issues, and with
donors and other international agency personnel in building support for
incorporating the findings of the study into ongoing development planning.
She holds a doctorate in educational administration from Columbia Univer-
sity and currently lives in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
MARY B. ANDERSON is President of the Collaborative for Development Ac-
tion, a small consulting firm based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She holds a
doctorate in development economics from the University of Colorado in
Boulder and has consulted with and carried out training for many interna-
tional and bilateral development agencies. Her major fields of work include
gender analysis and case method training, access to education, and the rela-
tionships between disasters and development. Her field work has been pri-
marily in Asia and eastern Africa.
CATHERINE A. OVERHOLT is Vice President of the Collaborative for Devel-
opment Action. She holds a doctorate in health economics from the Harvard
School of Public Health and she has consulted with and conducted training
for many multilateral and bilateral development agencies. Her major fields
of work include gender issues, health economics and financing public health
systems, case writing and case method training. Her field work has been
primarily in Latin America and Africa.
Catherine Overholt and Mary Anderson are part of the original team that
developed the Gender Analysis Framework and case training approach in
cooperation with USAID's Office of Women in Development and the
Harvard Institute for International Development. They were co-editors, with
Kathleen Cloud and James E. Austin, of the groundbreaking Gender Roles in
Development Projects: A Case Book, published by Kumarian Press in 1985.
KUMARIAN PRESS Library of Management for Development
0-931816-62-9 Teaching Notes