• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Agriculture and natural resour...
 Democratic initiatives
 Human resources
 Poverty
 Statistics/indicators on women
 Trade and investment
 Index














Title: Bibliography
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 Material Information
Title: Bibliography gender issues in Latin America and the Caribbean
Alternate Title: Gender issues in Latin America and the Caribbean
Physical Description: 85 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mauzé, Suzanne B
GENESYS Project
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: GENESYS,
GENESYS
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1992
Copyright Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Women -- Bibliography -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Status of women -- Bibliography -- Latin America   ( ltcsh )
Economic conditions -- Women -- Bibliography -- Latin America   ( ltcsh )
Social conditions -- Women -- Bibliography -- Latin America   ( ltcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Suzanne B. Mauzé, compiler.
General Note: Includes index.
General Note: "May 1992."
General Note: "June 1992, prepared for Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Research and Development, Agency for International Development"--Cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00090004
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 31037578

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Agriculture and natural resources
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Democratic initiatives
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Human resources
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Poverty
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Statistics/indicators on women
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Trade and investment
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Index
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
Full Text
L *


MERGE
127


Bibliography: Gender Issues in Latin America
and the Caribbean


By:
Suzanne B. Maiz6


June 1992
Prepared for.
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
Agency for International Development
Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-CM-9044-00


GCNESTY.


Q h\; kC~ L -2$ S




& J


BIBLIOGRAPHY:

GENDER ISSUES IN LATIN AMERICA

AND THE CARIBBEAN



























Suzanne B. Mauze, compiler
The Futues Group
GENESYS Project
May 1992









TABLE OF CONTENTS


AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES 1

I. Agriculture 1
1. Sustainable Agriculture
2. Agricultural Research 7
EL Natural Resources 9
1. Women's Role in Natural Resource Management and Conservation 9
2. Agroforestry 14

DEMOCRATIC INITIATIVES 17

I Women's Civic Participation and Roles in Democratization 17
I. Legal Issues in Relation to Gender and Women's Status 25

HUMAN RESOURCES 29

I. Education 29
1. Formal Education 29
2. Economic Returns to Education 33
3. Vocational Training 35
IL Health Care Issues 36
1. Maternal and Child Health Care 36
2. Health Care Financing and Delivery to Women 38
III. Institutional Programs in WID (Including NGO Initiatives) 39

POVERTY 42

L Female-Headed Households (Determinants and Consequences) 42
II Women and Poverty in Urban Areas 45
II. Meeting Basic Human Needs 47

STATISTICS / INDICATORS ON WOMEN 49

TRADE AND INVESTMENT 52

L Economic Policy 52
1. Impacts of Recession and Structural Adjustment on Women 52
2. Investment/Trade Development 56
L. Labor Force 61
1. Female Labor Force 61
2. Female Employment in Free Trade Zones/Manufacturing 63
3. Women in Agricultural Export Production 67
4. Women in the Informal Sector and Microenterprise 69
5. Women in Tourism 75


INDEX








AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES


L AGRICULTURE

1. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE


Alberti, Amalia M. 1986. "Gender, Ethnicity, and Resource Control in the Andean Highlands of
Ecuador." PhD. Dissertation. Stanford: Stanford University.

Allison, C. 1985. "Women, Land, Labour and Survival: Getting Some Basic Facts Right" IDS
Bulletin VoL 16, No. 3, pp. 24-29.

Almy, S. 1976. Principal Sources: Women in Agriculture. New York: Ford Foundation.

Altieri, M.A. 1987. Agroecolo.v: The Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture. Boulder: Westview
Press.

Altieri, M.A; Hecht, Susanna, eds. 1989. Agroecologv and Small Farm Development. New York:
CRC Press.

Anderson, Mary B. 1989. "Technology Transfer: Implications for Women." pp. 57-78 in Overholt,
Catherine and others, eds. Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book. West
Hartford: Kumarian Press.

Ashby, Jacqueline A.; Gomez, Stella V. 1985b. "Women, Agriculture and Development in Latin
America." Cali- Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical/IFDC.

Berger, Marguerite; DeLancey, Virginia; Mellencamp, Amy. 1984. 'Bridging the Gender Gap in
Agricultural Extension." Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

Bishop, John P. 1984. "Backyard Animal Production in the Humid Tropics.' In Animals in
Farming Sstems. (pp. 135-144) Flora, Cornelia Butler, ed. Kansas Farming Systems
Research Paper No. 6, Kansas State University 1984.

Bonilla, Elssy. 1990. "Working Women jn Latin America." Special Section of Economic and Social
Progress in Latin America. W? .hington, D.C: Inter-American Development Bank.

Buvinic, Mayra; Mehra, Rekha. 199V "Women in Agriculture: What Development Can Do." In
Agricultural Development in : .. Third World. Staats, John; Eicher, Carl, es. ICRW. Johns
Hopkins University Press.

Carloni, Alice Stewart. 1983. T"I' :grating Women in Agriculture Projects: Case Studies of Ten
FAO-Assisted Field Proje Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Carri6n, Lucia. 1983. "Modern z.ci6n Agraria y Cambio en el Rol de la Mujer." Paper presented
at the Conference on t'.: Impact of Modernization on Women's Roles in Latin American







Agriculture, Atibaia, Brazil, Sept. 1983.


Chancy, Elsa; Lewis, M.W. 1980. "Women, Migration and the Decline of Smallholder Agriculture."
Paper presented to the Board for International Food and Agricultural Development,
Washington, D.C., Oct. 1980. Washington, D.C.: United States International Development
Cooperation Agency.

Chaney, Elsa. 1983. "Scenarios of Hunger in the Caribbean: Migration, Decline of Smallholder
Agriculture, and the Feminization of Farming." Working Paper No. 18. East Lansing:
Michigan State University.

Clay, Jason. 1988. Indigenous Peoples and Tropical Forests: Models of Land Use and Management
from Latin America." Cambridge: Cultural Survival

Cloud, Kathleen. 1989. "Women's Productivity in Agricultural Systems: Considerations for Project
Designs." pp. 17-56 in Overholt, Catherine and others, eds. Gender Roles in Development
Projects: A Case Book. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.

Davis, Ted J.; Schirmer, Isabelle A., eds. 1987. "Sustainability Issues in Agricultural Development:
Proceedings of the Seventh Agricultural Sector Symposium." Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Deere, Carmen Diana; Leon de Leal, Magdalena. 1981. "Peasant Production, Proletarianization,
and the Sexual Division of Labor in the Andes." Sins VoL 7, No. 2, Winter, pp. 338-360.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1982a. The Division of Labor by Sex in Agriculture: A Peruvian Case
Study." Economic Development and Cultural Change VoL 30, No. 4, pp. 335-366.

Deere, Carmen Diana; Leon de Leal, Magdalena. 1982b. "Women in Andean Agriculture." Work
and Development Series No. 4. Geneva: ILO.

Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. 1982. "Women in Agricu':. re: Counting the Labor Force in Developing
Countries." Population and Development -.gview VoL 8, No. 3, pp. 539-566.

1983. Women's Work in Third Worli Agiculture Geneva: International Labour
Organization.

Ellis, Cynthia. 1988. "Enhancing Participation: The Case of Belize." pp. 109-113 in FAO Caribbean
Women in Agriculture. Santiago, Chile: Food and Agriculture Organization.

Elmendorf, Mary L 1976. "The Dilemma of the Peasant Women: A View from a Village in
Yucutan. In Women and World Develoment Tinker, Irene; Bramsen, M.B, eds.
Washington, D.C.: Overseas Development Council.

Estes, Valerie. 1991. "Women and the Cochabamba Regional Development Project." Prepared for
USAID/Bolivia and PPC/WID. San Francisco: University of California.

Estes, Valerie; Poats, Susan V, eds. 1989. Working Together: Gender Analysis in Agriculture. VoL
1, Case Studies and VoL 2, Teaching Notes. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.










Eeder, Gershon; Just, Richard; Zilberman, David. 1982. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations
in Developing Countries." Staff Working Paper No. 542. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Fissha, Yacoob. 1985. "The Contribution of Small-Scale Forest-Based Processing Enterprises to
Rural Non-Farm Employment and Income in Selected Developing Countries." Rome: FAO.

Elora. Cornelia Butler, Santos, Bias. 1986. "Women in Farming Systems in Latin America."
pp. 208-228 in Nash, June; Safa, Helen Icken; and others. Women and Change in Latin
America. South Hadley- Bergin and Garvey Publishers.

rood and Agriculture Organization. 1989. "The State of Food and Agriculture: World and Regional
Reviews, Sustainable Development and Natural Resource Management" Rome: FAO.
Agriculture Series, No. 22.

eGittiager, J. Price; Chemick, Sidney; Horenstein, Nadine R.; Saito, Katrine. 1990. Household
Food Security and the Role of Women. Discussion Paper No. 96. Washington, D.C.: World
Bank.

3Cliessnan, Stephen R. 1990. "Understanding the Basis of Sustainability for Agriculture in the
Tropics: Experiences in Latin America." pp. 378-390. In Edwards, Clive A. and others.
Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water Conservation Society.

<3rove, Thurman L; Edwards, Clive A.; Harwood, Richard R; Colfer, Carol J.P. 1990. 'The Role
of Agroecology and Integrated Farming Systems in Agricultural Sustainability." Keynote
address at the workshop to plan USAID's Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource
Management (SANREM) CRSP, Nov. 13-16. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of
Sciences.

H1arman, Inge Maria. 1984. "Women and Cooperative Labor in the Southern Bolivian Andes."
Working Paper No. 65. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

-Hart, Robert D.; Sands, Michael W. 1990. "Sustainability: Abstract Goal or Operational Objective?"
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for International Agriculture and
Rural Development, June 12-14. Washington, D.C.

Institute for Food and Development Policy. 1980. "Tough Row to Hoe: Women in Nicaragua's
Agricultural Cooperatives." San Francisco: Institute for Food and Development Policy, Rural
Research Team.

Knowles, Jane. 1989. "Women and Land Tenure in Africa.' Prepared for a panel on Land Tenure:
'Gaining Access to Productivity," for the International Development Conference.
Washington, D.C Feb. 21,1989.

Knudsen, Odin; Nash, John and contributors. 1990. "Redefining the Role of the Government in
Agriculture for the 1990s." Discussion Paper No. 105. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Knudson, B.; Yates, B. 1982. The Economic Role of Women in Small-Scale Agriculture in the
Eastern Caribbean: St Lucia. Washington, D.C.: Midwest Universities Consortium for









International Activitie.


Lele, Uma; Agarwal, Manmohan. 1990. "Smallhoider and Large-Scale Agriculture: Are There
Trade-Offs in Growth and Equity?" MADIA Discussion Paper No. 6. Washington, D.C.:
World Bank.

Leon te Leal, Magdalena; Deere, Carmen Diana. 1980. "The Study of Rural Women and the
Development of Capitalism in Colomb in Agriculture." In Women and Rural Development.
Geneva: ILO.

Leon de Leal, Magdalena. 1982. Women in Andean Agriculture: Peasant Production and Rural
Wage Employment in Colombia and Peru. Geneva: ILO.

Lewis, Barbara C. 1981a. "Females, Farming and Food: Rural Development and Women's
Participation in Agricultural Production Systems." Blumberg, Rae Lesser. In Invisible
Farmers: Women and the Crisis in Agriculture. Washington: USAID. PN-AAX-770

Lewis, Barbara C, ed. 1981b. Invisible Farmers: Women and the Crisis in Agriculture. WID
Monograph. Washington, D.C.: Office of Women in Development USAID.PN-AAL-948

Monson, Jamie; Kalb, Marion, eds. 1985. Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries.
Los Angeles: UCLA African Studies Center and OEF International.

Nations, J.D.; Nigh, R.B. 1980. 'The Evolutionary Potential of Lacandon Maya Sustained-Yield
Tropical Forest Agriculture." Journal of Anthropological Research VoL 36, No. 1, pp. 1-30.

Norton, S.; Russo, S.; Poats, Susan V. n.d. "West Indian Tropical Produce Support Project Social
Soundness Analysis.' Consulting Report submitted to Regional Development
Office/Caribbean (RDO/C) Bridgetown: USAID. Project Paper, PD-ABB-026

S Onger-Hosner, T. 1983. "The Effects on Women of Land Tenure Changes and Agrarian Reform.
Rome: FAO.

Padoch, Christine; Pinedo-Vasquez, Migue 1991. "Floodtime on the Ucayali" Natural History
May, pp. 4&857.

Palmer, Ingrid. 1985. The Impact of Male Out-Migration on Women in Farming. Series on
Women's Roles and Gender Differences in Development West Hartford: Kumarian Press.

Parker, J. Kathy. 1989a. "Integrating Gender Concerns into the Asia and Near East: Environmental
Strategy in the 1990(s. Prepared under IQC with Tropical Research and Development, Inc.
fcr USAID. Gainesvile: Tropical Research and Development, Inc.

1989b. The Role of U.S. Universities in Development Assistance: Integrating Gender
Concerns in Agriculture and Natural Resource Development." Submitted to the U.S.
Congress Office of Technology Assessment.

1989. "The Roles of Women in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management








in the Third World." Invited paper for the American Society of Agronomy Meetings in Las
Vegas, Nevada. Oct. 16,1989.

1991a. "Challenges to Our Effectiveness in Third World Contexts: Facing the Human
Dimensions of Forestry and Natural Resources Management Professions." Paper presented
for the School of Natural Resources Seminar Series. Burlington, Vermont: University of
Vermont

1991b. "Signs of Despair/Signs of Hope: The Human Dimensions of the Loss and
Conservation of Biological Diversity." Paper presented for the Colorado State University,
College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Seminar on New Perspectives in Natural
Resources Management Fort Collins, Colorado: Colorado State University.

1991c. 'Strands in the Web of Life: Human Dimensions of Sustainable Development and
Global SurvivaL" Proceedings of National Conference of the Society of American Foresters.
Washington, D.C: Society of American Foresters. in press.

Parker, J. Kathy; Burch, William R., Jr. 1989. The Social Sciences in Asian Fore;try Curricula:
Issues to Consider for Curriculum Development." New Haven: Tropical Resources Institute
of the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

__ 1989. "Toward a Social Ecology for Agroforestry in Asia." In Social Science Applications
in Asian Agroforestry. New Delhi: Winrock International, USA and Oxford and IBH
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. in press.

Paulson, Susan. 1991. "Women in Mizque: The Heart of Household Survival. Prepared for USAID
Bureau for Science and Technology. Worcester: Clark University Institute for Development
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Peluso, Nancy. 1990. "Studying Household Dependence on Forests and Trees: A Method and a Trial
Study." Draft report to FAO, Community Forestry Unit

Poats, Susan V.; Schmink, Marianne; Spring, Anita. 1988 Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension Part II: Latin America and the Caribbean. Westview Special Studies
in Agricultural Science and Policy.

Poore, Duncan, ed. 1989. No Timber Without Trees: Sustainabilitv in the Tropical Forest London:
Earthscan Publications.

Population and Development Review. 1982. "Women in Agriculture: Counting the Labor Force in
Developing Countries." Population and Development Review VoL 8.

Powell, D. 1984. "Women in Agriculture in the Caribbean." Paper presented at the conference on
Women's Action for Progress-Caribbean, Central America, May 20-23. Miami.

Redclift, MichaeL 1987. Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions. New York:
Methuen.








Roark, Paula. 1980. "Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women."
Washington, D.C.: Agency for International Development PN-AAJ-323

Ruddle, K. 1974. The Cultivation System: A Study of Shifting Cultivation in Colombia and
Venezuela. Berkeley: University of California Press.

RDO/C. 1988. "Social Cultural Setting of Small Farm Agriculture in Eastern Caribbean." Annex
F: Social Analysis. CARDI FSR/D Project Paper (538-0099). Bridgetown, Barbados:
Regional Development Office/Caribbean. PD-AAN-213

Sautu, R. 1980. The Female Labor Force in Agriculture, Bolivia and Paraguay." Latin American
Research Review VoL 15, No. 2, pp. 152-161.

Schwartzmann, S. 1989. "Extractive Reserves: The Rubber Tappers' Strategy for Sustainable Use
of the Amazon Rainforest" In Fragile Lands of Latin America: Strategies for Sustainable
Development Browder, J., ed. Boulder Westview Press.

Skar, S.L; Samaney, N.A; Cotarma, S.G. 1982. "Fuel Availability, Nutrition and Women's Work
in Highland Peru: Three Case Studies from Contrasting Andean Communities." World
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Solis, Vivienne; Trejos, Marta. "Women and Sustainable Development in Central America." San
Jose, Costa Rica: ORCA (regional office of IUCN).

Somnasang, Prapimporn, et aL 1988. The Role of Natural Foods in Ncrtheast Thailand." In
Lovelace, George et al, eds. "Rapid Rural Appraisal in Northeast Thailand: Case Studies."
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Stavrakis, O.; Marshall, M.L 1978. "Women, Agriculture and Development in the Mayan Lowlands-
Profit or Progress." In International Conference on Women and Food University of Arizona
and Consortium for International Development, Arizona.

Stein, J.P. 1982. "Children and Women in Traditional Cash Crop Agriculture: A Preliminary Cross-
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AAM-019

Tadesse, Z. 1979. "Women and Technological Development in Agriculture: An Overview of the
Problems in Developing Countries." Science and Technology Working Papers Series No. 9.
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United Nations. 1980. "Rural Women in Latin America and the Caribbean: Results of Projects and
Programmes." Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

World Bank. 1990. "Renewable Resource Management in Agriculture." Operations Evaluation
Study. Washington, D.C. World Bank.








2. AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH


Arauz, Jose Roman; Martinez, Juan Carlos. 1983. "Institutional innovations in National Agricultural
Research: On Farm Research with IDIAP, Panama." In Farming Systems in the Field. (pp.
99-125) Flora, Cornelia Butler, ed. Manhattan, Kansas: Farming Systems Research Paper
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Ashby, Jacqueline A. 1985a. "Conclusions from the Regional Reviews." Subsection of Panel on the
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Technoloev: Relevance for Research. Vol. I Analyses and Conclusions. Report from the
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Rockefeller Foundation and The Hague: International Service for Nationr. Agricultural
Research.

Beebe, J. 1985. "Rapid Rural Appraisal: The Critical Firt Step in a Farming Systems Vpproach to
Research.' FSSP Networking Paper No. 5. Gainesville: University of Florida.

Cernea, Michael M.; Coulter, John K.; Russell, John F.A, eds. 1985. "Researc -Extension-
Farmer: A Two-Way Continuum for Agricultural Development." A World Bank Symposium.
Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Chambers R.; Ghildyal, B.P. 1985. "Agricultural Research for Resource-Poor Farmers: The
'Farmer-First-and-Last' ModeL" Agricultural Administration VoL 20, pp. 1-30.

Elz, Dieter, ed. 1985. "Planning and Management of Agricultural Research." World E nk-ISNAR
Symposium. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Flora, Cornelia Butler. 1984. "Intra-Household Dynamics in Farming Systems Researca: The Basis
of Whole Farm Monitoring of Farming Systems Research and Extension." Position Paper.
mimeo.

Feldstein, Hilary Sims; Poats, Susan V.; Cloud, Kathleen; Norem, Rosalie. 1987. "Intra-Household
Dynamics and Farming Systems Research and Extension Conceptual Framewor." Working
Document New York: Population Council.

Frankenburger, T.R. 1985. "Adding a Food Consumption Perspective to Farming Systems Research."
Prepared for the Nutrition Economics Group. Washington, D.C.: United States Department
of Agriculture Office of International Cooperation and Development

Fresco, L 1985. "Food Security and Women: Implications for Agricultural Research." Presented
at the International Workshop on Women's Role in Food Self-Suffidency and Food Securitv
Strategies, Jan. Paris: ORSTOM/CIE.

Jiggins, Janice. 1986. "Gender-Related Impacts and the Work of the International Agricultural
Research Centers." CGIAR Study Paper No. 17. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Lele, Uma; Stone, Steven W. 1990. "Population Pressure, the Environment, and Agriculture
Intensification: Variations on the Boserup Hypothesis." MADIA Discussion Paper.







Washington, D.C.: World Bank.


Lpton, Michael; Longhurst, Richard. 1985. "Moder Varieties, International Agricultural
Research, and the Poor." CGIAR Study Paper No. 2. Washington, D.C.: CGIAR.

Meyers, L Richard, ed. 1989. "Innovation in Resource Management: Proceedings of the Ninth
Agricultural Sector Symposium." Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Plunkett, Donald L; Smith, Nigel J.H.; Ozgediz, Selcuk. 1990. "International Agricultural
Research: A Database of Networks." CGIAR Study Paper No. 26. Washington, D.C.:
CGIAR.

Pritchard, Anthony J. 1990. "Lending by the World Bank for Agricultural Research: A Review of
the Years 1981 through 1987." Technical Paper No. 118. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Sachs, Carolyn; Caye, Virginia. 1989. "Women in Agricultural Development" In Compton, J. Lin
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Scobie, Grant 1988. Partners in Research: The CGIAR in Latin America. Washington, D.C.
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Shaner, W.W.; Phillip, P.F. 1982. Scheme Farming Systems Research and Development:
Guidelines for Developing Countries. Boulder Westview Press.

Swaminathan, M.S. 1985. "Proposed Recommendations for Discussion." In Women and Agricultural
Technology: Relevance for Research. Vol. 1 Analyses and Conclusions. Report from the
CGIAR Inter-Center Seminar on Women and -.gricultural Technology. New York: The
Rockefeller Foundation and The Hague: International Service for National Agricultural
Research.

World Bank. 1985. "Agricultural Research and Extension: An Evaluation of the World Bank's
Experience." Washington, D.C.: World Bank.







IL NATURAL RESOURCES


1. WOMEN'S ROLE IN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/CONSERVATION


Aga Khan, Sadruddin; Talal Hassan bin. 1990. The Vanishing Forest: The Human Consequences
of Deforestation. A report for the Independent Commission on International Humanitarian
Issues. London: Zed Books.

Agarwal, Bina. 1989. "Rural Women, Poverty and Natural Resources: Sustenance, Sustainability and
Struggle for Change." Economic and Political Weekly Oct. 28.

Agency for International Development 1986. "Final Report: Database Development Forestry
Support Program." July 1986. Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN-AAZ-519

1989a. "AID Approach: Using Agriculture and Forestry Wastes for the Production of
Energy in Support of Rural Development." Bioenergy Systems Report. Washington, D.C.:
A.LD. PN-ABC-825

1989b. "Environmental and Natural Resource Management in Central America: a Strategy
for AJ.D. Assistance." Washington, D.C.: Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean,
A.LD. PN-ABC-110

1990. "Toward an Environmental Strategy for Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues
and Options Paper." Washington, D.C.: Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, A.LD.
and World Resources Institute.

Blaikie, P.; Brookfield, H., eds. 1987. Land Degradation and Society. London: Methuen.

Blustain, Harvey. 1982. "Resource Management and Agricultural Development in Jamaica: Lessons
for a Participatory Approach." Special Series on Resource Management Ithaca: Cornell
University. Breslin, Patrick, Chapin, Mac. 1984. "Conservation Kuna-style.' Grassroots
Development VoL 8, pp. 26-35.

Bromley, D.W.; Cernea, Michael M. 1989. "The Management of Common Property Natural
Resources: Some Conceptual and Operational Fallacies." World Bank Discussion Paper No.
57. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Browder, John, ed. 1989. Fragile Lands of Latin America: Strategies of Sustainable Development.
Boulder: Westview Press.

Brown, LR. 1980. "Food or Fuel: New Competition for the World's Cropland." Worldwatch Paper
No. 35. Washington, D.C.: Woridwatch.

Brush, S.B. 1977. Mountain, Field and Family: The Economy and Human Ecolovg of an Andean
Valley. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Burch, William R, Jr.; DeLuca, Donald R. 1984. "Measuring the Social Impact of Natural
Resource Policies." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.








Cano, Guillermo J. 1984. "Progress in the Development of Natural Resources Legislation in Latin
America." Natural Resources Forum VoL 8(3), 1984, pp. 241-248.

Carroll, T.; Baitemann, H. 1987. "Organizing Through Technology." Grassroots Development
VoL 11, pp. 12-20.

Cavieres, A.; Lara, A. 1983. "La Destrucci6n del Bosque Nativo para Efectuar Plantaciones de
Pino Insigne an la Cuenca del Rio Caficura, Comuna de Quilleco, Provincia de Bio Bio, VIII
Region." Informe T6cnico, No. 1. Santiago, Chile: Comisi6n para la Defensa de la Flora y
Fauna, CODEFF.

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Latin America." Proloue VoL 11, Winter 1979, pp. 237-250.








Schuler, Margaret, ed. 1986. Empowerment and the Law: Strategies of Third World Women.
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National Income and the Distribution of Resources Between Women and Men." Washington,
D.C. American University, Department of Sociology.







HUMAN RESOURCES


I. EDUCATION

1. FORMAL EDUCATION


Adams, Frances McStay. 1980. "Early Education for Girls: A Priority for Literacy.' Conference
Proceedings/Paper, Oct. 1980. Washington, D.C: USAID. PN-AAX-029

Almeida, J.G.; Barros, RI 1989. 'Income Inequality and the Distribution of Education." Yale
Labor and Population Workshop, March 10. New Haven: Yale University.

Anderson, Mary B. 1986. "Gender Issues in Basic Education and Vocational Training." From the
AID/R&D/WID Gender Manual Series. Washington, D.C.: USAID. PN-AAW-364

Behrman, Jere; Wolfe, Barbara L 1981. "Knowledge and the Use of Moder Contraceptives in
a Developing Country: Are the Effects of Schooling Often Misunderstood?" A.LD. supported
study, June 1981. Pittsburgh: University of Pennsylvania. Department of Economic and
Population Studies Center. PN-AAP401

1987. "Schooling and Other Human Capital Investments: Can the Effects be Identified?"
Economics of Education Review VoL 6, No. 3, pp. 301-305.

Benavot, A. 1989. "Education, Gender, and Economic Development: A Cross-National Study."
Sociology of Education VoL 62, No. 1, Jan., pp. 14-32.

Bowman, MJ.; Goldblatt, P. 1984. "School Attainments in a Development Perspective: Transition
Patterns in Mexico." Working Paper Series No. 84-6 Chicago: University of Chicago.

Braslavsky, C. 1984. Muier v Educaci6n. Desigualdades Educativas en Am6rica Latina v el Caribe.
(Women and Education: Inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean) Santiago:
OREALC.

Bustillo, Ines. 1989a. "Female Educational Attainment in Latin America: A Survey." Washington,
D.C.: World Bank Education and Employment Division.

Bustillo, Ines. 1989b. Improving Female Education in Latin America. Education and Employment
Division. PHREE Background Paper Series. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Chamie, Mary. 1983. "National, Institutional and Household Factors Affecting Young Girl's School
Attendance in Developing Societies." Washington, D.C. ICRW.

Colclough, C. 1982. "The Impact of Primary Schooling on Economic Development: A Review of
the Evidence." World Development VoL 10, pp. 167-185.

Conde, E. 1986. "Education and High-level Employment: The Case of Latin American Women."
Statistical Bulletin of the OAS VoL 8, Nos. 1-2, pp. 1-31.








Cuadra, Ernesto; Anderson, Mary; Moreland, Scott; Dal, Frank. 1988. Female Access to Basic
Education: Trends, Policies and Strategies." Washington, D.C.: USAID, Basic Research and
Implementation in Developing Education Systems (BRIDGES), mimeo. PN-ABH-865

Da Silva, Lea Melo. 1982. 'Greater Education Opportunities for Women Related to Population
Growth." WID Working Paper No. 11. East Lansing. Michigan State University.

Eisemon, Thomas Owen. 1988. "The Consequences of Schooling: A Reviev of Research on the
Outcomes of Primary Schooling in Developing Countries. Cambridge: Harvard University,
mimeo.

Farrell, J.; Schiefelbein, E. 1985. "Education and Status Attainment in Chile: A Comparative
Challenge to the Wisconsin Model of Status At'ainment" Comparative Education Review
Vo. 29, No. 4, pp. 490-506.

Fernandez, H. 1986. "Women's Educational Situation in Peru." Lima: INIDE.

Fuller, B. 1987. "What School Factors Raise Achievement in the Third World?" Review of
Educational Research VoL 57. No. 3.

Gomez Campo, V.M.; Pena, M. 1987. "La Educaci6n Superior en Colombia: Anilisis de Tres
Modalidades Recientes.' Revista Latino Americana de Educaci6n Vol 17, No. 2, pp. 47-77.

Haddad, Wadi; Carnoy, Martin; Rinaldi, Rosemary; Regel, Omporn. 1990. "Education and
Development: Evidence for New Priorities." Discussion Paper No. 95. Washington, D.C:
World Bank.

Hernandez, A. 1986. "Formal Educatio-: and the Dominican Woman." Santo Domingo:
Autonomous University of Santo Djmingo.

Herz, Barbara K.; Khandker, Shahidur R., eds. 1991. Women's Work, Education, and Family
Welfare in Peru. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Hyde, Karin A.L 1989. "Improving Girl's School Attendance and Achievement in Developing
Countries." Washington, D.C.: USAID Office for Education Bureau for Science and
Technology. PN-ABE-782

Jimenez, Emmanuel; Tan, J.P. 1987. "Selecting the Brightest for Post-Secondary Education in
Colombia: The Impact of Equity." Education and Training Report No. 61. Washington.
D.C.: World Bank.

Kamel, Rachel 1988. Growing Tcgether: Women, Feminism and Popular Education. Isis
InternationaL Latin American Council on Adult Education.

Kaneko, M. 1987. The Educational Composition of the World's Populaticn: A Database."
Education and Training Report No. 29. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Kelly, Gail P.; Elliott, Carolyn M. 1982. Women's Education in the Third World: Comparative
Perspectives. Albany: State University of New York Press.







King, Elizabeth; Bellew, Rosemary. 1990c. "Gains in the Education of Peruvian Women, 1940
to 1980." Working Paper Series No. 472. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Population and
Human Resources Department

; Hill, M. Anne, eds. 1991. Women's Education in Developing Countries. Washington,
D.C.: World Bank.

Klein, S. 1987. The Role of Public Policy in the Education of Girls and Women." Educational
Evaluation and Policy Analysis Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 219-230.

Leonard, Virginia W. 1988. "Latin America: Education in a World of Scarcity." Latin America
Research Review VoL 23, No. 2, pp. 234-41.

Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Verspoor, Adrian. 1989. Improving Primary Education in Developing
Countries: A Review of Policy Options." Education and Employment Division Population
and Human Resources Department. Washington, D.C: International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development.

Lockheed, Marlaine E. 1990. "Improving Primary Schools in Developing Countries: Investments that
Accelerate Learning." Finance and Development March, pp. 24-26.

Miller, Linda. 1983. "Female Educators, Development, and Human Capital: A Brazilian Case." WID
Working Paper No. 35. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Organization of American States. 1984. Los Perfiles Educativos en Amnrica Latina. (Educational
Profiles in Latin America) Washington, D.C.: OAS.

Piotti, D. 1988. "Mujer Joven y Educaci6n en Uruguay." (Young Women and Education in Uruguay)
Paper presented at the Semenario Taller de Politicas sobre la Mujer Joven en Latinoamerica.
Montevideo.

Rama, G. 1987. "Educaci6n y-Sociedad en America Latina.' (Education and Society in Latin
America) La Educaci6n VoL 101, No. 2, pp. 45-66.

Romain, Ralph. 1982. "Advances and Problems of Basic Education in Latin America." Paper
presented at Oslo Seminar Programme on Education in Developing Countries. University
of Oslo, Oct. 18-20.

Schiefelbein, E. 1984. "La Investigaci6n Sobre Calidad de la Ensefianza en Amdrica Latina."
(Research on Quality of Education in Latin America) La Educaci6n VoL 28, pp. 88-116.

Smock, A. 1981. Women's Education in Developing Countries: Opportunities and Outcomes. New
York: Praeger Publishers.

Stromquist, N. 1986. "Empowering Women Through Knowledge: Policies and Practices in
International Cooperation in Basic Education." Draft report prepared for UNICEF. School
of Education. Palo Alto: Stanford University.

1987. "School-Related Determinants of Female Primary School Participation and








Achievement in Developing Countries: An Annotated Bibliography." EDT Discussion Paper
No. 83. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

1988. Determinants of Educational Participation and Achievement of Women in the Third
World: A Review of Evidence and Theoretical Critique. Stanford: CERAS.

Saynal, Bikas C. 1987. Higher Education and Employment: An International Comparative Analysis.
London: Falmer.

Schultz, T. Paul 1989. "Returns to Women's Education." Washington, D.C.: World Bank Women
in Development Division.

S1990. "Human Capital Investments and Rates of Return to Women and Men." Paper
presented at the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in
New Orleans. Feb. 17. New Haven: Yale University.

S1991. "Returns to Women's Education." In King, Elizabeth; Hill, M. Anne, eds. Women's
Education in Developing Countries. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

UNESCO. 1982. "Estudio de Referencia Sobre Educaci6n en Poblaci6n para Amdrica Latina."
(Reference Study on Education in Latin American Populations). Santiago, Chile: OREALC
(Oficina Regional de Educaci6n para America Latina y el Caribe).

Verspoor, Adrian. 1990. "Educational Development: Priorities for the Nineties." Finance and
Development March, pp. 20-23.

Weinberger, Mary Beth; Lloyd, Cynthia; Blanc, Ann Klimas. 1989. "Women's Education and
Fertility: a Decade of Change in Four Latin American Countries." (Colombia, D.R., Ecuador,
Peru) International Family Planning Perspectives. VoL 15, pp. 4-14, March.

Wolfe, Barbara L; Behrman, Jere. 1984. "Who is Schooled in Developing Countries? The Roles
of Income, Parental Schooling, Sex, Residence and Family Size." Economics of Education
Review. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 231-245.






2. ECONOMIC RETURNS TO EDUCATION


Behrman, Jere; Wolfe, Barbara L 1984. "The Socioeconomic Impact of Schooling in a Developing
Country." Review of Economics and Statistics Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 296-303.

1987. "Schooling and Other Human Capital Investments: Can the Effects be Identified?"
Economics of Education Review VoL 6, No. 3, pp. 301-305.

Haddad, Wadi; Carnoy, Martin; Rinaldi, Rosemary: Regel, Omporn. 1990. "Education and
Development: Evidence for New Priorities." Discussion Paper No. 95. Washington, D.C.:
World Bank.

Khandker, Shahidur R. 1989. "Returns to Schooling and Male-Female Wage Differences in Peru."
Paper presented at Yale University Conference on Family, Gender Differences and
Development, Sept. New Haven: Yale University.

King, Elizabeth. 1990a. Does Education Pay in the Labor Market? The Labor Force Participation.
Occupation and Earnings of Peruvian Women. LSMS Working Paper No. 67. Washington,
D.C.: The World Bank.

S1990b. "Educating Girls and Women: Investing in Development." Washington, D.C.: World
Bank.

Levin, H.M., et aL 1984. Improving Production Through Education and Technology. Stanford:
CERAS.

McMahon, W. 1988. Potential Resource Recovery on Higher Education in the Developing
Countries and the Parent's Expected Contribution." Economics of Education Review VoL
7, No. 1, pp. 135-152.

Psacharopoulos, George. 1984. "Contribution of Education to Economic Growth: International
Comparisons." In Kendrick, J.W, ed. International Comparisons of Production and Causes
of the Slowdown, pp. 335-360. Cambridge: American Enterprise Institute.

; Woodhal, Maureen. 1985a. Education for Development: An Analysis of Investment
Choices. New York: Oxford Press for the World Bank.

1985. "Returns to Education: A Further International Update and Implications." Journal
of Human Resources VoL 20, No. 4, Fal, pp. 584-604.

1988. "Education and Development- A Review." The World Bank Research Observer
VoL 3, No. 1, Jan, pp. 99-116.

Schultz, T. Paul 1987. "Educational Investment and Returns in Economic Development." Center
Discussion Paper No. 528. New Haven: Yale University Economic Growth Center.

1988 "Educational Investment and Returns." In Chenery, H.; Srinivasan, T.N, eds.
Handbook of Development Economics VoL 1. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing.







1989. 'Returns to Women's Education." Washington, D.C: Women in Development
Division, World Bank.

1990. "Human Capital Investments and Rates of Return to Women and Men." Paper
presented at the meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in
New Orleans. Feb. 17. New Haven: Yale University.

S_ 1991. "Returns to Women's Education." In King, Elizabeth; Hill, M. Anne, eds. Women's
Education in Developing Countries. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 1989. 'Education and Its Relation to Economic Growth, Poverty, and Income
Distribution: Past Evidence and Further Analysis." Discussion Paper No. 46. Washington,
D.C.: World Bank.







3. VOCATIONAL TRAINING


Adams, A.; Schwartz, A. 1988. "Vocational Education and Economic Environments: Conflicts
on Convergence." PPR Working Paper No. 70. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Anderson, Mary B. 1986. "Gender Issues in Basic Education and Vocational Training." From the
AID/R&D/WID Gender Manual Series. Washington, D.C: USAID. PN-AAW-364

Bacchus, K. 1988. "The Political Context of Vocationalisation of Education in Developing
Countries." In Lauglo; Lillis, eds., Vocationalising Education. London: Pergamon Press.

Bellew, Rosemary; Moock, P. 1990. "Vocational and Technical Education in Peru." Economics of
Education. Special Issue on Vocational Education.

Chin-Aleong, M. 1988. "Vocational Secondary Education in Trinidad and Tobago and Related
Evaluation Results." In Lauglo; Lillis, eds., Vocationalising Education. London: Pergamon
Press.

Demsky, Terry. 1989. "Review of World Bank Investments in Vocational Education and Training
for Commerce." PHREE Background Paper No. 88/03. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Goodale, G. 1989. "Training for Women in the Informal Sector." DP No. 36. Geneva: ILO.

Fluitman, Fred, ed. Training for Work in the Informal Sector. Geneva: ILO.

King, Elizabeth; Arriagada, A.-M. (forthcoming) "The Effect of Vocational and Technological
Training on Women's Earnings and Employment in Developing Countries." Washington,
D.C.: World Bank.

; Shifferaw, M. (forthcoming) "Vocational and Technical Training Opportunities
for Women in Developing Countries." Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Metcalf, David. 1985. "The Economics of Vocational Training: Past Evidence and Future
Considerations." World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 713. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Middleton, John. 1988a. "Changing Patterns in Vocational Education. PPR Working Paper No. 26.
Washington, D.C: World Bank.

; Demsky, Terry. 1988b. "World Bank Investments in Vocational Education and Training."
PPR Working Paper No. 24. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

1989. "Vocational Education and Training: A Review of World Bank Investment."
Discussion Paper No. 51. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Moock, P.; Bellew, Rosemary. 1988. "Vocational Training and Education in Peru." PPR Working
Paper No. 87. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Psacharopoulos, George. 1986. "To Vocationalize or Not to Vocationalize? That Is the Curriculum
Question." EDT Discussion Paper No. 31. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.






I. HEALTH CARE ISSUES


1. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH CARE


Acuna, Hector R. 1981. "Health and Development in Latin America." World Health Forum VoL
2, No. 4, pp. 461-63.

Agency for International Development. 1984. "Oral Rehydration Therapy." Project Paper No. 42,
January. Washington, D.C.: Bureau for Africa, USAID. PD-BAT-312

Barrera, A. 1988a. The Role of Maternal Schooling and Its Interaction with Public Health
Programs in Child Health Production." Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper No. 551.
New Haven: Yale University.

1988b. Maternal Schooling and Child Health. Unpublished PhD. dissertation. New
Haven: Yale University.

Behm. H. 1980. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Mortality in Latin America." In Socioeconomic
Determinants and Consequences of Mortality. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO).

Behrman, Jere; Deolalikar, Anil B. 1988. "Health and Nutrition." In Chenery, H.; Srinivasan, T.N.
eds. Handbook on Economic Development. VoL 1, Chap. 15. Amsterdam: N. Holland
Publishing Company.

Bobadilla, Jose Luis. 1987. "Report on the International Workshop, 1985, on Child Survival:
Problems and Priorities." Mexico: Population Council, Regional Office for Latin America and
the Caribbean.

Browner, C.H. 1989. "Women, Household and Health in Latin America." Social Science and
Medicine VoL 28, No. 5, pp. 46-73.

SBuvinic, Mayra; Leslie, Joanne. 1981. "Health Care for Women in Latin America and the
Caribbean." Studies in Family Planning VoL 12, pp. 112-15, March.

Elmendorf, Mary L 1986. "Summary of the Proceeding of the World Conference of the United
Nations Decade for Women: NGO forum (July 13-20, 1980)." Washington, D.C.: USAID.
Bureau for Development Support and the American Public Health Association. PN-AAP-679

International Center for Research on Women. Task Force on Women's Health Research. 1989.
"Strengthening Women: Health Research Priorities for Women in Developing Countries."
Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

Leslie, Joanne; Lycette, Margaret; Buvinic, Mayra. 1988. "Weathering Economic Crises: The
Crucial Role of Women in Health." In Bell, David E.; Reich, MichaeL, eds. Health, Nutrition
and Economic Crises: Approaches to Policy in the Third World. Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

Leslie, Joanne. 1988. "Women's Time: A Factor in the Use of Child Survival Technologies?"
Published in Health and Policy Planning VoL 4, No. 1. New Yorik Oxford University Press









(ICRW).


Leslie, Joanne; Gupta, Geeta Rao. 1989. "Utilization of Formal Services for Maternal Nutrition
and Health Care in the Third World." Washington, D.C: ICRW.

Locay, Luis; Sanderson, Warren C.; Weeks, Ethel Carillo. 1990. "Prenatal Care in Peru."
Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

Kramer, Ellen; Schlossman, Nina; Gupta, Geeta Rao. 1990. "Improving Nutrition Interventions
for Women." Washington, D.C: ICRW.

Menendez-Dominguez, Alfredo. 1990. "Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior Limiting the Demand for
Prenatal Care among Guatemalan Indian Adolescent Girls." Washington, D.C: ICRW.

PAHO. 1984. "Salud Maternoinfantil y Atenci6n Primaria en las Americas: Hechos y Tendencias."
(Maternal and Child Health and Primary Health Care in the Americas: Facts and Tendencies)
Washington, D.C.: PAHO (Pan American Health Organization).

Parker, Laurie Noto; Gupta, Geeta Rao; Kurz, Kathleen M.; Merchant, Kathleen M. 1990.
"Better Health for Women: Research Results from the Maternal Nutrition and Health Care
Program." Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

Pillsbury, Barbara; Brownlee, Ann; Timyan, Judith. 1990. "Understanding and Evaluating
Traditional Practices: A Guide for Improving Maternal Care." Washington, D.C: International
Center for Research on Women.

Potts, Malcolm; Janowitz, Barbara., eds., et aL 1983. "Childbirth in Developing Countries." US.
AID. MTP Press Ltd. Washington, D.C: USAID. PN-ABC-924

Rawlins, Joan; Sargent, Carolyn. 1990. "Factors Influencing Prenatal Care Use Among Low-
Income Jamaican Women." Washington, D.C: International Center for Research on Women.

Smith, Sally S. 1984. "Educaci6n Sobre Nutrici6n para Trabajadores de Planificaci6n Familiar."
(Nutrition Education for Family Planning Workers). Study sponsored by the Office of
Nutrition of the Bureau of Science and Technology USAID. Washington, D.C.: Development
Associates, Inc. PN-AAS-059

Thomas, D; Strauss, J. Henriques, H.M. 1987. "Child Survival, Nutritional Status and Household
Characteristics." Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper No. 542. New Haven: Yale
University.

Wolfe, Barbara L; Behrman, Jere. 1982. "Determinants of Child Mortality, Health and Nutrition
in a Developing Country." Journal of Developmental Economics pp. 163-193.

Yamada, Tadashi 1983. "Economic Development, Infant Mortality, and Their Dynamics in Latin
America." National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 1206:1-27 Sept
Washington, D.C. World Bank.






2. HEALTH CARE FINANCING AND DELIVERY TO WOMEN


Agency for International Development 1986. "Summaries of HCF-LAC Country Studies: Synthesis
Report: Appendix A." Stony Brook. Health Care Financing in Latin America and the
Caribbean.

Baird, Robert; Clarkson, Frederick, et aL 1981. "AID-Assisted Primary Health Care Projects;
Summary Reviews." USAID Supported Study. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health
Association.

De Kadt, EmanueL 1982. "Community Participation for Health: the Case of Latin America." World
Development VoL 10, pp. 573-84, July.

Gwynne, Gretchen; Zschock, Dieter K. 1989. "Health Care Financing in Latin America and the
Caribbean, 1985-89: Findings and Recommendations." Albany: State University of New York.
S Department of Economics.

Mesa-Lago, Carmelo. 1983. "Financing Health Care in Latin America and the Caribbean with a
Special Study of Costa Rica." Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Population, Health and
Nutrition Department.

Musgrove, Philip. 1983. "Family Health Care Spending in Latin America." Journal of Health
Economics VoL 2, Dec, pp. 245-57.

Raymond, Susan Ueber. 1987. "Financing and Costs of Health Services in Belize." Washington,
D.C: SAID. PN-AAZ-228

Rosenthal, Gerald. 1987. "Toward Self-Financing of Primary Health Care Services: A Market Study
of PROSALUD in Santa Cruz, Bolivia." Washington, D.C.: USAID. Group Health
Association of America. PN-ABE-060

SRussell, Sharon Stanton; Zschock, Dieter K. 1989. "Health Care Financing in Latin America and
the Caribbean: Research Review and Recommendations." Washington, D.C: USAID. PN-
ABF-596

Solari, Alfred. 1987. "Private Health Care Financing Alternatives in Metropolitan Lima, Peru."
Washington, D.C.: USAID and Group Health Association of America. PN-AAY-882









I. INSTITUTIONAL PROGRAMS IN WID (INCLUDING NGO INITIATIVES)


Agency for International Development. 1982. Policy Paper on Women in Development.
Washington, D.C.: Bureau for Policy and Program Coordination, Agency for International
Development PN-AAL-777

1986. "Gender Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean." The AID/R&D/WID Gender
Manual Series. Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN-AAX-047

S1990. "Women in Development: A Report to Congress by the U.S. Agency for
International Development." Washington, D.C.: Office of Women in Development, A.LD.
PN-ABH-695

Anderson, Mary B.; Chen. Marty. 1988. "Integrating Women in Development or Restricting
Development?" Paper prepared for the Association of Women in Development Conference.
Washington, D.C.: AWID.

Arizpe, Lourdes. 1982. "Women and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean; Lessons
from the Seventies and Hopes for the Future." Development Digest VoL 1/2, pp. 74-84.

Baxter, Shelley. 1985. "Feminist Theory, State Policy, and Rural Women in Latin America: A
Rapporteur's Report." Working Paper No. 49. Notre Dame: The Kellogg Institute for
International Studies.

Blumberg, Rae Lesser. 1989. "Making the Case for the Gender Variable: Women and the Wealth
and Well-Being of Nations." Washington, D.C.: A.D. PN-ABC-454

Blumberg, Rae Lesser. 1990. "Gender Matters: Involving Women in Development in Latin America
and the Caribbean." Paper prepared for the LAC Bureau. Washington, D.C.: USAID. PN-
ABH-323

Brockmann, C. Thomas. 1985. "Women and Development in Northern Belize." Journal of
Developing Areas VoL 19, pp. 501-514, July.

Buvinic, Mayra. 1986. projectss for Women in the Third World: Explaining Their Misbehavior."
World Development VoL 14, No. 5 (May), pp. 653-664. Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

Carloni, Alice Stewart. 1987. Women in Development: AID's Experience. 1973-1985. Vol L
Synthesis Paper. AID. Program Evaluation Report No. 18. Washington, D.C: Agency for
International Development PN-AAL-087

Edmunds. Marilyn; Helzner, Judith F. 1982. Peru-Mujer: Women Organizing for Development."
Chesnut Hill: Pathfinder Fund.

Eichler, Magrit. 1988. Non-Sexist Research Methods: A Practical Guide. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Enlace. 1976. "Inter-American Commission of Women." Enlace No. 28, June 1976: whole issue.







Gill, Margaret 1984. "Women, Work and Development: Barbados 1946-1970." From Women and
Work. Barbados: Institute of Social and Economic Research.

Journal of International Affairs. 1977. "Women and Change in the Developing World." Journal of
International Affairs VoL 30, Fall-Winter.

Krawczyk, Miriam. 1990. "La Creciente Presencia de la Mujer en Desarrollo." Revista de la
CEPAL, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (International) No. 40, pp.
73-86, ApriL

March, Kathryn S.; Taqqu, Rachelle. 1982. "Women's Informal Associations and the Organizational
Capacity for Development" Ithaca: Rural Development Committee, Center for International
Studies, Cornell University.

Massiah, Joycelin. 1989. "Women's Lives and Livelihoods: A View from the Commonwealth
Caribbean." World Development Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 965-977.

Overholt, Catherine; Anderson, Mary B.: Cloud, Kathleen; Austin, James E. 1985. Gender Roles
in Development Projects: A Case Book. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.

Rein, Judy; Winkler, Carmen. 1990. "A Survey of Women's Organizations and Projects and
Activities in Women in Development in Guatemala." Columbus, Ohio: Midwest Consortium
for International Activities.

Rogers, Barbara. 1979. "What Do Women Want?" Appropriate Technoloeg VoL 5, No. 4, Feb.

Saulniers, Suzanne Smith; Rakowski, Cathy A. 1977. "Women in the Development Process: A
Select Bibliography on Women in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America." University of
Texas, Institute of Latin American Studies. Austin: U.T. Press.

Schmink, Marianne; Bruce, Judith; Kohn, Marilyn. 1986. "Learning about Women and Urban
Services in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Report on the Women, Low-Income
Households and Urban Services Project of the Population Council." Washington, D.C:
International Center for Research on Women and Equity Policy Center.

Schultz, T. Paul 1989. "Women and Development: Objectives, Framework and Policy Interventions."
New Haven: Yale University, mimeo.

Signs. 1977. "Women and National Development" Signs VoL 3 Autumn: whole issue.

Sivard, Ruth Leger. 1985. Women.A World Survey. Washington, D.C: World Priorities, Inc.

Snyder, Margaret as quoted in SID. 1989. "Genderless Development Aid Harms Women." Compass:
Newsletter of International Development No. 39/40, May.

United Nations. 1977. 'Report of the Regional Conference on the Integration of Women in the
Economic and Social Development of Latin America, Havana, Cuba, June 13-17, 1977.' New
York: UN.






1983. "Five Studies on the Situation of Women in Latin America." Santiago, Chile: United
Nations.

S1985. "Women's Participation in Development: An Inter-organizational Assessment"
New York: United Nations Development Programme.

S1989. 1989 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development New York: UN.
Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs.

USAID/Guatemala. 1990. Cable: Report to Congress on WID. November 1990, to AID/R&D/WID.

USAID/Honduras. 1990. Cable: Report to Congress on WID. November 1990, to AID/R&D/WID.

USAID/Jamaica. 1990. Cable: Report to Congress on WID. November 1990, to AID/R&D/WID.

USAID/Mexico. 1990. Cable: Report to Congress on WID. November 1990, to AID/R&D/WID.

Votaw, Carmen Delgado. 1979. "Women in Development." Americas Vol. 31, pp. 26-31, May.

Waring, Marilyn. 1988 If Women Counted: A New Feminist Economics. New York: Harper and
Row, Publishers.

Wasserstrom, Robert. 1985. "Grassroots Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Oral
Histories of Social Change." New York: Praeger Publishers.

White, Karen, et. aL 1986a. "Gender Issues in Latin America and the Caribbean." The Gender
Manual Series. Washington, D.C.: Agency for International Development PN-AAX-047

White, Karen. 1986b. "Integrating Women into Development Programs: A Guide for
Implementation for Latin America and the Caribbean.' Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

Williams, AR. 1983. "Integrating Women into the Developing Process." Americas VoL 35, p. 51,
Sept-Oct.

World Bank. 1989. "Rural Women in Latin America and the Caribbean: Results of Projects
and Programmes." Washington, D.C.: UN and the World Bank.

1990. Women in Development: A Progress Report on the World Bank Initiative.
Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Yudelman, Sally W. 1986. 'After Nairobi: A Retrospective of Women's Development Organizations
in Latin America." Grassroots Development VoL 10, No. 1, pp. 20-29.

1987a. "Hopeful Openings: A Study of Five Women's Development Organizations in Latin
America and the Caribbean." West Hartford: Kumarian Press.

1987b. "Integration of Women into Development Projects: Observations on the NGO
Experience in General and in Latin America in Particular." World Development Supplement
Autumn. VoL 15, pp. 179-87.






POVERTY


L FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS (DETERMINANTS AND CONSEQUENCES)


Altimir, Oscar. 1984. "Poverty, Income Distribution and Child Welfare in Latin America: A
Comparison of Pre- and Post-recession Data." World Development VoL 12, No. 3, pp. 26-
82.

Alonso, Ana Rico de. 1987. "La Feminizaci6n de la Pobreza en Colombia: Aproximaci6n a un
Diagn6stico y Recomendaciones para la Acci6n." Repor for Fundaci6n para la Educaci6n
Superior. BogotA, Colombia: FES.

Badri, Balgis. 1986. "Women, Land Ownership and Development" In Schuler, Margaret, ed.
Empowerment and the Law: Strategies of Third World Women. pp. 26-34. Washington,
D.C.: OEF International.

Balakrishnan, Revathi; Firebaugh, Francille M. 1987. "Profile of Female-Headed Households
in El Salvador." Working Paper No. 87-02. Columbus: Ohio State University.

Birdsall Nancy; McGreevey, William P. 1989. "The Second Sex in the Third World: Is Female
Poverty a Development Issue?" Washington, D.C.: ICRW Roundtable.

Bolles, Lynn. "Economic Crisis and Female-Headed Households in Urban Jamaica." In Nash, June;
Safa, Helen Icken, eds. Women and Change in Latin America. Boston: Bergin and Garvey
Publishers, Inc.

Bruce, Judith; Dwyer, Daisy. 1988 A Home Divided: Women and Income in the Third World.
Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Buvinic, Mayra; Youseff, Nadia H.; Von Elm, Barbara. 1978. Women-Headed Households; The
Ignored Factor in De',elopment Planning." AID supported study, Jamaica. Washington D.C.:
International Center for Research on Women. PN-AAF-595

Buvinic, M-yra. 1990. "Women and Poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Primer for
Policy Makers." Washington, D.C: International Center for Research on Women.

1991. "The Vulnerability of Women-Headed Households: Policy Questions and Options
for Latin America and the Caribbean." Serie Mujery Desarrolo. Santiago, Chile: Economic
Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Chant, Sylvia. 1985. "Single-Parent Families: Choice or Constraint? The Formation of Female-
Headed Households in Mexican Shanty Towns." Development and Change VoL 16, pp. 635-
656

De la Paz Lopez Barajas, Maria. 1988a. "Alternative Ways of Detecting Female Headship and
Maintenance Roles in Mexico." Presentation at joint ICRW/Population Council Seminar
Series: The Determinants and Consequences of Female Headed Households." New York:






Dec. 12-13.


1988. "Women Heads of Household: A Census Study." Paper prepared for joint
ICRW/Population Council Seminar, New York, Dec 15-16.

Dwyer, Daisy, Bruce, Judith, eds. 1988. A Home Divided: Women and Income in the Third
World. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Engle, Patricia. 1989. "Women Headed Families in Guatemala: Consequences for Children."
Presentation at joint Population Council/ICRW Conference "Consequence of Female
Headship and Female Maintenance." Washington, D.C. Feb. 27-28, 1989.

Fields, G.S. 1988. "Poverty, Inequality and Economic Growth." Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Folbre, Nancy. 1989. "Family Forms and Implicit Contracts: An Interdisciplinary Approach." Draft
presented at joint Population Councl/ICRW Conference 'Consequences of Female Headship
and Female Maintenance." Washington, D.C:ICRW.

1990. "Mothers on Their Own: Policy Issues for Developing Countries." Discussion Paper.
New York: The Population Council

1991. "Women on Their Own: Global Patterns of Female Headship." In Gallin, Rita S.;
Ferguson, Anne. eds. The Women and International Development Annual. Volume 2. pp.
89-126. Boulder: Westview Press.

Furstenberg, Frank; Nord, Christine Winquist. 1985. "Parenting Apart: Patterns of Childbearing
After Marital Disruption." Journal of Marriage and Family VoL 47, No. 4, Nov. pp. 893-904.

Gomez, Carmen Julia. 1988. 'La Problemitica de las Jefes de Hogar: Evidencia de la
Insubordinaci6n Social de las Mujeres." Report to Centro de Investigaci6n para la Acci6n
Femenina (CIPAF).

Gupta, Geeta Rao. 1989. "Summary of Research Findings of Women Headed Households: The
Relationship with Poverty and the Consequences for Children." Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

International Center for Research on Women. 1988. "Women-Headed Households: Issues for
Discussion." Paper prepared for the Population Council/ICRW Seminar Series on the
Determinants and Consequences of Female-Headed Households. Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

1989. "The Determinants and Consequences of Female-Headed Households." Notes from
Seminar 1I, III, and IV. Washington, D.C.: The Population Council and ICRW.

Kammerman, Sheila B.; Kahn, Alfred J. 1988. "Women, Children and Poverty. Public Policies
and Female-Headed Families in Industrialized Countries." Signs Vol 10, No. 2, pp. 249-271.

Massiah, Joycelin. "Women as Heads of Households in the Caribbean: Family Structure and
Feminine Status." London: UNESCO.

McLeod, Ruth. "Shelter Experiences of Female Heads of Household in Kingston, Jamaica." Draft






presented at joint Population CouncilICRW Conference "Consequence of Female Headship
and Female Maintenance." United Nations Center for Human Settlements.

Merrick, Thomas W.; Schmink, Marianne. 'Households Headed by Women and Urban Poverty in
Brazil." pp. 244-271. In Buvinic, Mayra; Lycette, Margaret; McGreevey, William P. Women
and Poverty in the Third World.

Paes de Barros, Ricardo; Fox, Louise; Pinto de Mendoca, Rosalie. "Poverty, Female-Headed
Families and the Welfare of Children and Youths in Brazil" International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development.

Peters, Pauline. 1989. "The Use and Abuse of the Label 'Female-Headed'." Paper prepared for the
joint ICRW/Population Council Seminar II on the Consequences of Female Maintenance,
Wasiin i on, D.C. Feb. 27-28.

Rao, M.V.S. 988. "Technical Note: Female-Headed Households." Paper prepared for the joint
ICRW/Population Council Seminar I on Concepts and Classifications of Female-headed
Households: Implications and Applications for National Statistics, New York. Dec. 12-13.

Rey de Marulanda, Nohra. 1982. "Las Mujeres Jefes de Hogar." Doc. No. 068. Universidad de los
Andes, Facultad de Economia. Centro de Estudios sobre Desarrollo Econdmico (CEDE).

Rosenhouse, Sandra. 1989. "Identifying the Poor: Is 'Headship' a Useful Concept?" LSMS Working
Paper No. 58. Washington, D.C. World Bank.

Sen, Gita; Grown, Caren. 1987. Development, Crises and Alternative Visions: Third World
Women's Perspectives. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Tienda, Marta; Salazar, Sylvia Ortega. 1980. Female-Headed Households and Extended Family
Fo-mation in Rural and Urban Peru." Madison: University of Wisconsin, Center for
Demography and Ecology.

United Nations. 1991. The World's Women 1970-1990: Trends and Statistics. New York: UN.

Wall, Richard. 1989. "Leaving Home and Living Alone: An Historical Perspective." Population
Studies VoL 43,' No. 3, pp. 369-389.

Weiss, Robert S. 1984. "The Impact of Marital Dissolution on Income and Consumption in Single-
parent Households." Journal of Marriage and the Family VoL 46, No. 1, pp. 115-127.

Wood, Charles H. 1989. "Women Headed Households and Child Mortality in Brazil, 1960-1980.
Draft presented at joint Population Council/ICRW Conference "Consequence of Female
Headship and Female Maintenance, 1989."






I. WOMEN AND POVERTY IN URBAN AREAS


Berger, Brigitte. 1985. "Women in Third World Cities: Paths to a Better Future." In Jenkins, Jerry
et al, eds. Paths to the Future: Women and Third World Development Prepared for the
Sequoia Institute. Washington, D.C: USAID.

Berger, Marguerite. 1988. "Women's Responses to Recession in Latin America and the Caribbean:
A Focus on Urban Labor Markets." Cornell University, Sept 1988. aper presented to the
"Workshop on Economic Crisis, Household Survival Strategies and Women's Work."

; Edwards, Joanna. 1990. "Gender Dimensions of Poverty in Urban Ecuador: Research
Issues." Washington, D.C.: The Futures Group/GENESYS.

Blayney, Robert G.; Lycette, Margaret. "Improving the Access of Women-Headed Households
to Solanda Housing: A Feasible Down Payment Assistance Scheme." Washington, D.C.:
ICRW.

Buvinic, Mayra; Lycette, Margaret; McGreevey, William P., eds. 1983. Women and Poverty in
the Third World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Buvinic, Mayra; Lycette, Margaret 1988. "Women, Poverty and Development in the Third
World." In Strengthening the Poor What Have We Learned? Washington, D.C.: Overseas
Development Council and ICRW.

Buvinic, Mayra. 1990. Women and Poverty in Latin America. Washington, D.C.: ICRW.

Campbell, Tim. 1989. "Urban Development in the Third World: Environmental Dilemmas and the
Urban Poor." In Leonard, H. Jeffrey and contributors Environment and the Poor. Strategies
for a Common Agenda. Washington, D.C.: Overseas Development Council

CEPAL 1984. La Muier en el Sector Popular Urbano: America Latina v el Caribe. Santiago, Chile:
United Nations, Comisi6n Econ6mica para Am6rica Latina y el Caribe.

CEPAL 1988. "Metropolitanization in Latin America and the Caribbean: Quality of Life and Urban
Poverty." Santiago, Chile: United Nations, Comisi6n Econ6mica para America Latina y el
Caribe.

Elizaga, Juan C.. "Migraciones a las Areas Metropolitanas de America Latina." Santiago, Chile:
CELADE.

Glewwe, Paul; Tray, Dennis de. 1989. "Poor in Latin America During Adjustment: A Case Study
of Peru." LSMS Working Paper No. 56. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

International Center for Research on Women. 1979. "Poverty Among Urban Women: Policy
Implications for the World Bank." Sept 12,1979. Washington, D.C. ICRW

Kahnert, Frederich. 1987. Imroving Urban Employment and Labor Productivity. World Bank
Discussion Paper No. 10. Washington, D.C: World Bank.






Upton, MichaeL 1988. The Poor and the Poorest: Some Interim Findings. World Bank Discussion
Paper No. 25. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Moser, Caroline 0. 1989. The Impact of Recession and Structural Adjustment Policies at the
Micro-Level: Low Income Women and Their Households in Guayaquil, Ecuador." London:
Department of Social Administration, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Mueller, Eva. 1983. "Measuring Women's Poverty in Developing Countries." In Buvinic, Mayra;
Lycette, Margaret; McGreevey, William P, eds. Women and Poverty in the Third World.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Musgrove, Philip. 1980. "Household Size and Composition, Employment, and Poverty in Urban Latin
America." Economic Development and Cultural Change. Jan.

1985. "ECIEL Study of Household Income and Consumption in Urban Latin America: An
Analytical History." LSMS Working Paper No. 12. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.


Rodgers, Gerry. 1989. Urban Poverty and the Urban Labour Market: Access to Jobs and Incomes
in Asian and Latin American Cities. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Schmink, Marianne, ed. 1986. "Women in the Urban Economy of Latin America." From Learning
About Women and Urban Services in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.:
The Population Council

UNICEF. 1987. The Invisible Adjustment: Poor Women and the Economic Crisis. Bogota,
Colombia: UNICEF.

United Nations. 1985. La Muier en el Sector Urbano: America Latina y el Caribe. Santiago, Chile:
United Nations.

World Bank. 1982. Poverty and Human Development New York: Oxford University Press.

S1986. Poverty in Latin America: The Impact of Depression. Washington, D.C.: World
Bank.

S1990. World Development Report 1990: Poverty. World Development Indicators.
New York: Oxford Press.







mI. MEETING BASIC HUMAN NEEDS


Ascher, William. 1984. Scheming for the Poor: The Politics of Redistribution in Latin America.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Atkinson, A.B. 1987. "On the Measurement of Poverty." Econometrica VoL 55, pp. 749-764.

Behrman, Jere 1990. "Action of Human Resources and Poverty on One Another. What We Have
Yet to Learn." LSMS Working Paper No. 74. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Birdsall, Nancy, James, Estelle. 1989. "Efficiency and Equity in Social Spending: How and Why
Governments Misbehave." Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper No. 274.
Washington, D.C: Latin America and the Caribbean Department, World Bank.

Francke, Marfil. 1988. "Weathering Economic Crises: Urban Women's Response to Recession in
Lima, Peru: 1975-1985." Draft presented at conference "Weathering Economic Crises:
Women's Response to Recession in Latin America and the Caribbean." Racine, Wisconsin,
June 15-17.

Glewwe, Paul; van der Gaag, Jacques. 1988. Confronting Poverty in Developing Countries:
Definitions, Information, and Policies. LSMS Working Paper No.48.

Jimenez, EmmanueL 1987. Pricing Policy in the Social Sectors: Cost Recovery for Education and
Health in Developing Countries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lewis, John and contributors. 1988. Strengthening the Poor: What Have We Learned? Washington,
D.C.: Overseas Development Council.

"'ycette, Margaret; Jaramillo, Cecilia. 1984. "Low-Incore Housing: A Woman's Perspective."
Paper prepared for USAID/WID. Washington, D.C: ICRW. PN-AAQ-895

Malpezzi, Stephen K. Mayo; Gross, David J. 1985. "Housing Demands in Developing Countries."
Staff Working Paper No. 733. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Pfefferman, Guy P.; Griffin, Charles C 1989. "Nutrition and Health Programs in Latin America:
Targeting Social Expenditures." Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Ram. Rati 1985. "The Role of Real Income Level and Income Distribution in Fulfillment of Basic
Needs." World Development VoL 13, No. 5, May, pp. 589-594.

Renaud, Bertrand. 1984. "Housing and Financial Institutions in Developing Countries." Staff
Working Paper No. 658. Washington, D.C: World Bank.

Schmink, Marianne. 1980. "The Plight of Poor Women in the Latin American Metropolis." New
York: The Population Council

Streeten, Paul; Burki, Shahid Javed; Haq, Mahbub ul; Hicks, Norman; Stewart, Frances. 1981.
First Things First: Meeting Basic Human Needs in the Developing Countries. New York:






Oxford University Press.

Tendler, Judith. 1989. "Whatever Happened to Poverty Alleviation?" World Development Vol. 17,
No. 7, July, pp. 1033-1044.

World Bank. 1986. Poverty and Hunger. Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing
Countries." Policy Study. Washington, D.C- World Bank

1990. World Development Report 1990: Poverty. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Press.









STATISTICS / INDICATORS ON WOMEN


Blumberg, Rae Lesser. 1989. "Making the Case for the Gender Variable: Women and the Wealth
and Well-being of Nations." Washington, D.C.: USAID/WID. (tables include: men's/women's
contributions to economic activities, daily labor time required for major domestic tasks, female
enrollment and educational access) PN-ABC-454

Bustillo, Ines. 1989. Female educational attainment in Latin America: A Survey. Washington, D.C:
World Bank Education and Employment Division. (statistics on women and education in
Latin America)

Chaney, Elsa. 1984. "Women of the World: Latin America and the Caribbean." Washington, D.C.:
USAID, Department of Commerce and Bureau of the Census. (statistical data includes:
fertility, mortality, population and demography) PN-AAT-875

Curtin, Leslie B. 1982. Status of Women: A Comparative Analysis of Twenty Developing Countries.
Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau.

Inter-American Development Bank. 1990. Economic and Social Progress in Latin America: 1990
Reort Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (focus on debt, adjustment, savings and
investment, special section on working women in Latin America, statistical appendix includes:
population, national accounts, central government finances, balance of payments, and external
debt)

International Labor Office. 1985. "Women Workers in Multinational Enterprises in Developing
Countries." Geneva: ILO. (tables include: distribution of labor force by economic sector and
sex and employment of men and women by foreign multinational enterprises)

Joekes, Susan. 1987. Women in the World Economy: An INSTRAW Study. New York: Oxford
University Press.

Johnston, Denis. 1985. The Development of social Statistics and Indicators on the Status of
Women." Social Indicators Research Vol 16, pp. 233-261.

Mason, Karen 0. 1986. "The Status of Women: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in
Demographic Studies." Sociological Forum VoL 1, pp. 284-300.

Nuss, Shirley. 1989. Women in the world of work: tistical analysis and projections to the year
2000. Geneva: ILO. (charts include genckd md industrialized/preindustrialized country
comparisons in: economic activity, distribution n employment sectors and gross years of
working life)

Population Crisis Committee. 1988. Country Rankings of the Status of Women: Poor, Powerless
and Pregnant." Population Briefing Paper No. 20. Washington, D.C.: Population Crisis
Committee.

Schmittroth, Linda, ed. 1991. Statistical Record of Women Worldwide, 1st ed. Detroit: Gale
Research Inc.






Seager, Joni; Olson, Ann. 1986. Women in the World: An International Atlas. New York:
Simon and Schuster.

Sicheri, Paul. 1988. Methods of Measuring Disparity Between Men and Women. Santo Domingo:
INSTRAW.

Sivard, Ruth Leger. 1985. Women..A World Survey. Washington, D.C.: World Priorities. (focus
on women in developing countries, tables include: population, labor force, education, health,
government and gender comparisons)

United Nations. 1989. World Survey on the Role of Women in Development New York: UN.
(tables include: population, households and families; women in public affairs, crime and
justice; economic activity and participation in agriculture; education; and health)

United Nations. 1991. The World's Women 1970-1990: Trends and Statistics. New York UN.
(social statistics and indicators on women, sections include: women, families and households;
public life and leadership; education and training; health and child-bearing; housing, human
settlements and the environment; and women's work and the economy)

United Nations DP. 1990. Human Development Report 1990. New York: Oxford University Press.

United Nations Economic Commission for LAC 1991. Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and
the Caribbean, 1990 ed. Chile: UN.

United Nations Office at Vienna. 1989. 1989 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development
New York: UN.

USAID. 1985. "World Fertility Survey: Final Report." Washington, D.C.: USAID S&T/POP and
International Statistical Institute. PN-AAW-851
(tables include: fertility surveys, family planning, contraceptive use and child mortality)

United States Bureau of the Census. 1980. Illustrative Statistics on Women in Selected Developing
Countries. Washington, D.C: U.S. GPO.
(13 charts giving an overview of some basic aspects of women's participation in selected
developing countries includes: fertility, literacy, education, labor force participation, mortality,
etc.)

Verwayen, Henri 1984. "Social Indicators: Actual and Potential Uses." Social Indicators Research
VoL 14, pp. 1-27.

Ware, LH 1989. "Women, Population and Development Trends Since 1984." In Population Bulletin
of the UN No. 27. New York: UN.

World Bank. 1990a. Social Indicators of Development 1990. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Press.

World Bank. 1990b. World Development Report 1990. New York: Oxford University Press. (focus
on poverty, tables and graphs include: economics, agriculture, manufacturing, consumption
and investment, development assistance and debt, population and fertility, education, and









section on women in development)


Young, Gay; Fort, Lucia; Danner, Mona. 1990. "Moving From the 'Status of Women' to Gender
Inequality: Conceptualization, Social Indicators, and an Empirical Application.' Paper
presented at the American Sociology Association meetings, Aug, Washington, D.C (21
indicators from 70 countries representative of women and men in 5 key dimensions of public
life: family formation, education, economic activity, public power and physical well-being)






TRADE AND INVESTMENT


L ECONOMIC POLICY

1. IMPACTS OF RECESSION AND STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT ON WOMEN


Addison, T.; Demery, L 1985. "Macroeconomic Stabilization, Income Distribution and Poverty:
A Preliminary Survey." Working Paper No. 15. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Agarwal, Bina; et al 1989. Engendering Adjustment for the 1990's: Report Commonwealth
Expert Group on Women and Structural Adjustment. London: Commonwealth Secretariat

Beckford, George; Girvan, Norman, eds. 1989. Development in Suspense: Selected Papers and
Proceedings of the First Conference of Caribbean Economists. Kingston: Association of
Caribbean Economists.

Behrman, Jere. 1989. "Human Resources and Poverty: What We Know and What We Do Not
Know." Mimeo. Philadelphia: Department of Economics University of Pennsylvania.

; Deolalikar, Anil B. 1989. "Impact of Macroeconomic Adjustment on the Poor and Social
Sectors of Jamaica." In Program Performance Audit Report Jamaica. Report No. 8018.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

S1988. The Impact of Economic Adjustment Programs." In Bell, David E.; Reich, M.
eds. Health. Nutrition and Economic Crises. Auburn Press.

Beneria, Lourdes; Sen, Gita. 1981. "Accumulation, Reproduction, and Women's Role in Economic
Development: Boserup Revisited." Sign VoL 7, pp. 279-298.

Berger, Marguerite. 1989. Women's Response to Recession in Latin America and the Caribbean:
A Focus on Urban Labor Markets.

Berry, Albert. (University of Toronto) 1991. "Stabilization, Adju-tment and Income Distribution in
Latin America." Paper prepared for LASA panel on "The Implications of Structural
Adjustment for Earnings and Employment." Washington, D.C. April 6. Pittsburgh: LASA.

Boyd, Derek. 1987. "The Impact of Adjustment on Vulnerabie Groups: The Case of Jamaica,
1973-1985." In Cornia, Giovanni Andrea; Jolly, Richard; Stew-rt, Frances, eds. Adjustment
with a Human Face. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Boyle, Philip. 1988. The Socio-Economic Effects of Structural Adjustment on Women." Paper
presented to OECD/DAC Paris, France. Oct. 5, 1988. Washington, D.C.: PPC/WID. PN-
ABC-276

Brown, Nicole; Seiger, Karen. 1990. "The Effects of Structural Adjustment on Women in Latin
America." In Devlin, Robert "Debt and Development in Latin America."







Chapelier, Georges; Tabatabai, Hamid. 1989. Development and Adjustment: Stabilization,
Structural Adjustment and UNDP Policy. UNDP Policy Discussion Paper. New York:
United Nations.

Chinery-Heese, Mary, et aL 1989. Engendering Adjustment for the 1990s. Report of a
Commonwealth Expert Group on Women and Structural Adjustment London:
Commonwealth Secretariat

Colclough, C.; Herbold, R, eds. 1988 "Stablisation For Growth or Decay?" IDS Bulletin VoL
19, No. 1. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies.

Collier, P. 1989. "Analysis Plan: Role of Women Under Structural Adjustment" SDA Unit Mimeo.
Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

Commonwealth Secretariat 1989. Engendering Adjustment for the 1990's. London: Marlborough
House.

Cornia, Giovanni Andrea; Jolly, Richard; Stewart, Frances. 1987a. Adjustment with a Human
Face. Vol. I: Protecting the Vulnerable and Promoting Growth. UNICEF. Oxford:
Clarendon Press.

Cornia, Giovanni Andrea; Jolly, Richard; Stewart, Frances. 1987b. Adjustment with a Human
Face. Vol II: Ten Country Case Studies. UNICEF. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Davies, Omar, Anderson, Patricia. 1987. "The Impact of the Recession and Adjustment Policies
on Poor Urban Women in Jamaica." UNICEF.

Deere, Carmen Diana. 1990. "Structural Adjustment and the Quest for Participation," Chapter 4
and "Beyond Structural Adjustment: Alternative Development Strategies," Chapter 7 from In
the Shadows of the Sun: Caribbean Development Alternatives and U.S. Police. Boulder
Westview Press.

Elson, Diane. 1989. "How is Structural Adjustment Affecting Women?" Development VoL 1,
pp. 67-97.

S1988 "From Survival Strategies to Transformation Strategies: Women's Needs and
Structural Adjustment" Paper prepared for the Cornoell University Workshop on Economic
Crises and Household Survival. New York: Cornell University.

Fischer, Bernhard. 1991. "Growth Policies for Latin America." The OECD Observer VoL 168,
Feb/March.

George, S. 1988. A Fate Worse than Debt: The World Financial Crisis and the Poor. New Yorck
Grove Press, Inc

Gidwani, S. 1985. "Impact of Monetary and Financial Policies on Women." Study on the Role of
Women in International Economic Relations. Santo Domingo: INSTRAW.

Goldstein, M. 1986. "The Global Effects of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programmes." Occasional






Paper No. 42. Washington, D.C.: The International Monetary Fund.


Griffith-Jones, S.; Sunkel, O. 1988. Debt and Development Crises in Latin America: The End
of an Illusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harker, Trevor. 1991. "The Impact of External Sector Developments on Caribbean Economic
Performance 1983-1988." Caribbean Studies VoL 24, No. 1-2, pp. 1-44.

Harris, Sonja T.; Boyd, Derek. 1988. The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Women -
Jamaica: A Case Study." Kingston: Canadian Cooperative Office.

Hoeven, R. van der. 1987. "External Shocks and Stabilisation Policies: Spreading the Load."
International Labour Review VoL 26, No. 2.

Hood, R_; McGuire, J.; Starr, M. 1988. "The Socioeconomic Impact of Macroeconomic Adjustment"
Washington, D.C.: PPC/WID, A.LD. and Center for Development Technology and the
International Science and Technology Institute. PN-AAZ-319

SJoekes. Susan. 1987. Women in the World Economy: An INSTRAW Study. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

Joekes, Susan; Lycette, Margaret; McGowan, Lisa; Searle, Karen. 1988a. "Women and Structural
Adjustment, Part I: A Summary of the Issues." For meeting of WID expert group of OECD
Paris, April 18, 1988. Washington, D.C: ICRW.

Joekes, Susan; Lycette, Margaret; McGowan, Lisa; Searle, Karen. 1988b. "Women and Structural
Adjustment Part II: Technical Document." For meeting of WID expert group.. Washington,
D.C.: ICRW.

Killick. Tony, ed. 1984. The IMF and Stabilization: Developing Country Experiences. London:
Heineman.

Lele, Uma. 1986. "Women and Structural Transformation." Economic Development and Cultural
Change VoL 34, No. 2.

* MayaTech Corporation. 1991. Gender and Adustment. (Prepared for AID/R&D/WID) Silver
Spring, MD: The MayaTech Corporation. PN-ABI-677

Mehra, Rekha. 1990. "Can Structural Adjustment Work For Women Farmers?" Washington, D.C.:
ICRW.

Moser, Caroline 0. 1989. "Impact of Recession and Structural Adjustment at the Microlevel: Low
Income Women and Their Households in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Part 1." Bogota: UNICEF
Regional Programme for Women in Development, Americas and the Caribbean Regional
Office.

OECD. 1983. Positive Adjustment Policies: Managing Structural Change. Paris: Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development.







Paus, Eva A. (Mount Holyoke) 1991. "Adjustment and Development in La.in America in the 1990's:
An Alternative to the New Orthodoxy." Draft presented at the LASA Annual Meeting in
Washington, D.C. April 4-6 Pittsburgh: LASA.

Rocha, Lola; Bustelo, Eduardo; Lopez, Ernesto; Zuiiiga, Luis. 1989. Women. Economic Crisis
and Adjustment Policies: Interpretation and Initial Assessment UNICEF Regional Office
for Latin America and the Caribbean.

Santiago, Carlos E (State University of New York) 1991. "The Labor Market Implications of the
Structural Adjustment in the Caribbean." Discussion Paper 91-02. Presented at the LASA
Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. April 1991. Pittsburgh: LASA.

Scobie, Grant. 1989. "Macroeconomic Adjustment and the Poor." CFNPP Monograph 89-1. New
York: Division of Nutritional Sciences Cornell University.

Streeten, Paul 1987. "Structural Adjustment: A Survey of the Issues." World Development

Syrquin, Moshe. 1986. "Growth and Structural Adjustment in Latin America since 1960: A
Comparative Analysis." In article "Growth, Reform, and Adjustment: Latin America's Trade
and Macroeconomic Policies in the 1970's and 1980's.' Edwards, Sebastian. Economic
Development and Cultural Change. VoL 34, pp. 423-67, April 1986.

Thomas, Clive. 1988. The Poor and the Powerless: Economic Policy and Change in the Caribbean.
New York: Monthly Review Press.

UNICEF. 1987. "The Invisibtl Adjustment: Poor Women and the Economic Crisis." The Americas
and the Caribbean Regional Office. Chile: UNICEF.

United Nations. 1988. "United Nations Interregional Seminar on Women and the Economic Crisis
(1988: Vienna, Austria) WP#2 "Approaches to the Issue of Adjustment. WP#6 "Latin
America and the Caribbean Women: Between Change and Crisis." WP#11-'Women and
Structural Adjustment. WP#15-"Structural Adjustment and Women: Statement by the
United Nations Development Fund for Women." New York: UN.

United Nations. 1991. "Economic Crisis and the Impact of Stabilization and Adjustment Policies on
Women." In The World's Vomen 1970-1990- Trends and Statistics. New York: UN.

Whitney, Peter D. 1988. Policies for Economic Development in Latin America." United States
Department of State Bulletin VoL 88, Feb., pp. 87-91.

Williamson, John, ed. Latin American Adjustment: How much has happened?

World Bank. 1989. "World Development Report 1989." Financial Systems and World Development
Indicators. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.






2. INVESTMENT/TRADE DEVELOPMENT


Agency for International Development. 1990. "The Business and Development Partnership.' One
of a series of initiatives announced by A.LD. Washington, D.C: A.LD. PN-ABG-976

1991. "Trade and Investment Development Project." Washington, D.C.: Bureau
for Latin America and the Caribbean Office of Trade and Investment, A.LD. Project Paper,
PD-ABD-611

Alschuler, Lawrence. 1988. Multinationals and Maldevelopment. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Becker, David G.; Frieden, J.; Schatz. S.P.; Sklar, R.L 1987. Postimperialism: International
Capitalism and Development in the Late Twentieth Century. Boulder: Lynne Rienner
Publishers.

Bennett, D.; Sharpe, K. 1985. Transnational Corporations Versus the State: The Political
Economy of the Mexican Auto Industry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bernal, Richard L 1984. "Foreign Investment and Development in Jamaica." Inter-American
Economic Affairs VoL 38, Autumn, pp. 3-21.

Bonn, Jurgen Kuhn. 1984. "Developing Countries Rethink their Approach to Foreign Investment."
Intereconomics No. 6, Nov.Dec.

Bornschier, Volker; Chase-Dunn, Christopher. 1985. Transnational Corporations and
Underdevelopment New York: Praeger Publishers.

Brown, M.; McKern, B. 1987. Aluminum. Copper and Steel in Developing Countries. Paris:
OECD.

Bryan, Anthony T. 1984. "The CARICOM and Latin American Integration Experiences." In the
Inter-American Development Bank 1984 Report, pp. 71-94.

Cortes, M.; Bocock, P. 1984. North-South Technolog Transfer. A Case Study of Petrochemicals
in Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.

Diaz-Alejandro, 1983. "Direct Foreign Investment in Latin America." Journal of Development
Studies Vol. 19, p. 324.

The Economist. 1988. "Latin America: Ganging Up On Uncle Sam." The Economist VoL 308, July
16, pp. 36-37.

Ernst & Young. 1989. "Business Services in International Trade and Investment Promotion."
Contract No. DAN-4053-C-00-3086 Market and Technology Access Project (MTAP), Project
#9364053. Washington, D.C.: ALD.

Fischer, Bernhard. 1991. "Growth Policies in Latin America." The OECD Observer VoL 168,
Feb/March, pp. 20-24.







Franko, L 1985. "New Forms of Investment in Developing Countries: Practices of US Companies
in the Automobile, Auto Parts, Food Processing, Pharmaceutical and Computer Industries."
Paris: OECD.

Georgiou, George C; Thoumi, Francisco E. 1990. "U.S.-Latin American Trade Flows: 1967-
1985." Journal of Economic Development VoL 15, No. 2, pp. 39-55.

Girvan, Norman. 1987. "Transnational Corporations and Non-Fuel Primary Commodities." World
Development VoL 15, pp. 732-735.

Good, Alexander H. 1988. Progress in the Caribbean Basin: A Special Report by the CBI
Ombudsman." Caribbean Affairs 1, No. 1 (Jan-March) pp. 16-28.

Henneberry, David M. 1986. "US Foreign Direct Investment in the Developing Nations: A
Taxonomy of Host-Country Policy Issues." Agribusiness VoL 2, No. 1, pp. 91-101.

Inter-American Development Bank. 1984. Ten Years of CARICOM. Washington, D.C.: IDB.

Jackman, Robert. 1982. "Dependence on Foreign Investment and Economic Growth in the Third
World" World Politics Vol. 34, p. 191.

Jones, D.; Womack, J. 1985. 'Developing Countries and the Future of the Auto Industry."
World Development VoL 13, No. 3.

The Latin American Times. 1984a. "US Direct Investment in the Subcontinent. The Latin
American Times No. 62, pp. 21-22.

S1984b. "U.S. Trade With the LAFTA countries." The Latin American Times No. 60, pp.
23-24.

S1986. "Is the Caribbean Basin Initiative a Complete Failure? (US Officials Think So)" The
Latin American Times VoL 7, No. 7, pp. 6-9.

1988a. "Caribbean Basin Initiative." The Latin American Times VoL 8, No. 7, pp. 17-20.

1988b. "Latest Mexican Panacea: Washington's Regional Free Trade Agreement Plan." The
Latin American Times VoL 10, No. 8, pp. 18-20.

S1989a. "Economic Progress? Not Much to Show For It: A Country Analysis of
Washington's Modest Achievements in the Caribbean." The Latin American Times VoL 9,
No. 3, pp. 16-32.

1 989b. "Picking Up the Pieces: US Policy Ambivalence in the Developing Caribbean
Region." The Latin American Times VoL 9, No. 5, pp. 29-31.

1989c. 'Uncertain Future for Ecuador." The Latin American Times VoL 9, No. 2, pp. 1-7.

S1991a. Dominican Republic: Experiment with Multiple Free Trade Zones (FTZs) Is No
Substitute for a Coherent Economic Policy." The Latin American Times VoL 10, No. 3,







pp. 6-10.


1991b. 'The Enterprise for The Americas Initiative: Yet Another Empty Gimmick from
Washington..." The Latin American Times VoL 10, No. 8, pp. 14-17.

1991c. "Performance of the Region's 250 Leading Companies." The Latin American Times
VoL 10, No. 2, pp. 28-31.

Lewis, Vaughn A. 1988. "Some Perspectives on Caribbean Community Integration." Caribbean
Affairs 1, No. 1 (Jan-March) pp. 85-100.

McCoy, James P. 1989a. "Bauxite Processing and the Role of Less Developed Countries." The
Social Science Journal VoL 26, No. 4, pp. 399-413.

McCoy, James P. 1989b. "Bauxite Processing in Jamaica and Guyana: An Estimate of Income and
Foreign Exchange Impacts." World Development Feb. 1989.

McCoy, James P. 1990. "Bauxite Processing and Employment: A Case Study." Social and Economic
Studies VoL 39, No. 2, pp. 1-41.

Mitsolaki, A. Gourdain. 1985. Public Development Finance Corporations: Their Role in New Forms
of Investment in Developing Countries. Paris: OECD.

Moffett, Matt. 1991. "Latin Turnaround: Long-Sickly Mexico Has Investment Boom As Trade
Hopes Grow." The Wall Street Journal May 24, 1991 (front page).

Montavon, Remy et al 1980. The Role of Multinational Companies in Latin America. New York:
Praeger Publishers.

Nathan Associates Inc. and Louis Berger International, Inc. 1990. "Export Promotion and
Investment Promotion: Sustainability and Effective Service Delivery." Prepared for LAC
Bureau and PPCCDIE. Washington, D.C A.I.D. PN-ABG-989

North-South Institute. 1985. "Women and International Development Cooperation: Trade and
Investment." Study on the Role of Women in International Economic Relations. Santo
Domingo: INSTRAW.

Oman, Charles. 1984. New Forms of International Investment in Developing Countries: The
National Persective. Paris: OECD Development Centre Papers.

Oman, Charles. 1989. New Forms of Investment in Developing Country Industries: Mining
Petrochemicals. Automobiles. Textiles, and Food. Washington, D.C.: OECD.

Pastor, ManueL (Occidental College) 1991. privatee Investment and Debt Overhang in Latin
America." Draft presented at the L.3A Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C. April 4-6.
Pittsburgh: LASA.

Paus, Eva A. 1990. "Direct Foreign Investment and Economic Development in Latin America:
Perspectives for the Future." Journal of Latin American Studies VoL 21, pp. 221-239.








Puyana de Palacios, Alicia. 1982. Economic Integration among Unequal Partners: The Case of the
Andean Group. New York: Pergamon Press.

Radetzki, M. 1985. Investments in the Minerals Industry in LDCs: Trends, Issues and Prospects."
New York: UNCC.

Rainford, Roderick G. 1989. "Reflections on the Lessons to be Learned from the Caribbean
Community." Caribbean Affairs 2, No. 4 (Oct-Dec) pp. 6-20.

Ramsaran, Ramesh F. 1985. U.S. Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean. New York: St.
Martin's Press.

Rothgeb, John M., Jr. 1984. "The Contribution of Foreign Investment to Growth in Third World
States." Studies in Comparative International Development. XII '1984-1985).

Rothgeb, John M, Jr. 1986. "Compensation or Opportunity: The Effects of International Recessions
upon Direct Foreign Investment and Growth in Third World States, 1970-1978."
International Studies Quarterly VoL 30, pp. 141-148.

Rothgeb, John M, Jr. 1987. "Trojan Horse, Scapegoat, or Non-Foreign Entity- Foreign Policy and
Investment Penetration in Poor Countries." Journal of Conflict Resolution VoL 31, pp. 229-
236.

Rothgeb, John M, Jr. 1988. "Direct Foreign Investment in Mining and Manufacturing in
Underdeveloped States." The Social Science Journal VoL 25, No. 1, pp. 21-43.

Rothgeb, John M., Jr. 1990. "Foreign Investment and the Decapitalization of Underdeveloped Host
Countries." The Social Science Journal VoL 27, No. 4, pp. 457-473.

Salehizadeh, Mebdi 1983. "Multinational Companies and Developing Countries: a new relationship."
Third World Quarterly Vol 5, No. 1, Jan, pp. 128-138

Schott, Jefferey J. 1989. Free Trade Areas and U.S. Trade Policy. Washington, D.C.: Institute for
International Economics.

Thomas, Clive. 1988. The Poor and the Powerless: Economic Policy and Change in the Caribbean."
New Yorki Monthly Review.

United Nations. 1986. Transnational Corporations in the Man-Made Fibre. Textile and Clothing
Industries. New York: UN Centre on Transnational Corporations.

United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations. 1986. "Foreign Direct Investment in Latin
America: Recent Trends, Prospects and Policy Issues." UNCTC Current Studies Series A,
No. 3. New York: UN.

US Congress. House Committee on Ways and Means. 1986. "Review of the Impact and
Effectiveness of the Caribbean Basin Initiative." 99th Congress, 2nd Session, Feb. 25 & 27.
Washington, D.C.: G.P.O.








US Congress. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. 1987. "The Caribbean Basin Initiative:
Caribbean Views." Sept 18-19. Washington, D.C: G.P.O.

US Congress. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. 1988. "Develop Policy in the Caribbean." 100th
Congress, 2nd Session, July 28, Aug 4,9,10. Washington, D.C: G.P.O.

US Department of Commerce. 1982. US Direct Investment Abroad. Washington, D.C: Department
of Commerce.

Will, W. Marvin. 1991. 'A Nation Divided: The Quest for Caribbean Integration." Latin American
Research Review VoL 26, No. 2, pp. 3-37.

Zorn, Stephen. 1985. Mining and Mineral Processing in Developing Countries. Vienna: United
Nations Industrial Development Organization.






H. LABOR FORCE


1. FEMALE LABOR FORCE


Alberti Amalia M. 1989. "The Process of Development in Four Central American Countries:
Women and Emerging Employment Trends." Paper submitted to ROCAP. Washington,
D.C: A.LD. Contract No. 596-0000-0-00-9769-00, December 1989.

Barrig, Maruja, ed. "Mujer, Trabajo y Empleo." (Women, Work and Employment) Peru: Asociaci6n
de Defense y Capitaci6n Legal (ADEC)

Beneria, Lourdes, ed. 1982. Women and Development: The Sexual Division of Labor in Rural
Societies. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Bonilla, Elssy. 1990. "Poor, Female and Working in Latin America." The IDB Dec. 1990.
Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Bonilla. Elssy. 1990b. Working Women in Latin America," a special section of the IDB 1990
Report Economic and Social Progress in Latin America. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American
Development Bank.

Bossen, Lauren Herbena. 1984. The Redivision of Labor Women and Economic Choice in Four
Guatemalan Communities. Albany: State of New York Press.

Draper, Elaine. 1985. "Women's Work and Development in Latin America." Studies in Comparative
International Development. Spring, 1985. University of California, Berkeley.

Elizaga, Juan C 1976. "The Participation of Women in the Labor Force in Latin America: Fertility
and Other Factors." In Women Workers and Society. Geneva: ILO.

Goldschmidt-Cermont, Luisella. 1987. "Economic Evaluations of Unpaid Household Work: Africa,
Asia, Latin America and Oceania." Geneva: ILO.

Grown, Caren; Sebstad, J. 1989. "Toward a Wider Perspective on Women's Employment" World
Development VoL 17, No. 7, July, pp. 937-952.

Henry, Ralph. 1988. "Jobs, Gender and Development Strategy." In Mohammed, P.; Shepherd, C.
Gender in Caribbean Development Cave Hill Barbados: The University of West Indies.

Hopkins, M. 1983. "Employment Trends in Developing Countries 1960-1980 and Beyond."
International Labor Review July-Aug., pp. 461-478.

INSTRAW and International Labor Organization. 1987. "Women in Economic Activity: A Global
Statistical Survey (1950-2000)." Santo Domingo: INSTRAW.

International Labor Organization. 1985. "Women Workers in Multinational Enterprises in
Developing Countries." Geneva: ILO.







Joekes, Susan. 1987. Women in the World Economy. INSTRAW. New York: Oxford University
Press.

Lewenhak, S. 1988. The Revaluation of Women's Work." London: Croom Helm.

Nash, June; Fernandez-Kelly, M.P, eds. 1983. Women, Men and the International Division of
Labor. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Nuss, Shirley. Women in the World of Work: Statistical Analysis and Projections to the Year 2000.
ILO. Women, Work and Development, 18.

Rosales, Osvaldo Villavicencio. La Muier Chilena en la Fuerza del Trabajo: Participaci6n. EmDleo.
y Desempleo.

Satutu, Ruth. 1981. The Female Labor Force in Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay." Latin America
Research Review 16, pp. 152-159.

Schultz, T. Paul 1990. "Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective."
Economic Development and Cultural Change VoL 38, Apr. 1990, pp. 457-488.

Standing, Guy. "Global Feminization Through Flexible Labor." World Development

Stitcher, Sharon; Parpart, Jane L, eds. 1990. Women. Employment and the Family in the
International Division of Labor. New York: Macmillan.

Young, Gay; Fort, Lucia; Danner, Mona. 1990. "Gender Inequality and GNP per Capita:
National Income and the Distribution of Resources Between Women and Men." Paper
presented at the American Sociological Association meetings in Washington, D.C.






2. FEMALE EMPLOYMENT IN FREE TRADE ZONES/MANUFACTURING


Baerresen, Donald W. 1981. "Mexico's Assembly Program: Implications for the United States."
Texas Business Review Nov-Dec, 1981, pp. 253-257.

Barkin, David. (Universidad Aut6noma Metropolitana Xochimilco) 1991. The Search for a More
Perfect World in Mexico: An Alternative to the Free Trade Area." Draft prepared for
presentation at the LASA Annual Meeting. April 4-6. Pittsburgh: LASA.

Basualdo, Eduardo M.; Lifschitz, Edgardo; Roca, Emilia. 1988. "Las Empresas Multinacionales en
la Ocupaci6n Industrial en la Argentina, 1973-1983." Working Paper No. 51. Geneva: ILO.

Carrillo, Teresa. 1989. "Working Women and the '19th of September' Mexican Garment Workers
Union: The Significance of Gender." WID Working Paper No. 179. East Lansing: Michigan
State University.

Chapkis, W.; Enloe, C., eds. 1983. Of Common Cloth: Women in the Global Textile Industry.
Amsterdam/Washington, D.C.: Transnational Institute.

El-Sanabary, Nagat, comp. 1983. "Women and Work in the Third World: The Impact of Industrial
and Global Economic Interdependence." Berkeley- University of California Center for Study,
Education and Advancement of Women.

Estes, Valerie. 1984. "Factories and Family- Urban Working Women in La Paz, Bolivia." PhD.
Dissertation, Department of Anthropology. Berkeley: University of California.

Estes, Valerie. 1988. These Days to be a Bolivian is to Die Slowly. Women Factory Workers in La
Paz." Case Study from Lucha: The Struggles of Latin American Women. Well, Connie, ed.
Minnesota: The Prisma Institute, Inc.

Favaro, Edgardo; Sapelli, Claudio. 1989. "Export Promotion and Economic Growth." San
Francisco: International Center for Economic Growth.

Fernandez-Kelly, M.P. 1983. For We Are Sold, I and My Teople: Women and Industry in
Mexico's Frontier. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Fritsch, Winston. 1984. "Latin America's Export Growth Imperative in the 1980s: Can the United
States Help Achieve It?" Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Latin American
Program. Working Papers (U.S.) No. 156, pp. 1-30.

Gladhart, Peter Michael; Gladhart, Emily Winter. 1981. "Northern Ecuador's Sweater Industry:
Rural Women's Contribution to Economic Development" WID Working Paper No. 81/01.
East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Gonolaves, Reinaldo. 1987. "Export Expansion, Import Liberalization and Economic Growth in
Latin America." Indian Journal of Economics (India) VoL 68, pp. 169-202, Oct. 1987.

Gonolaves, Reinaldo. 1989. "Export Expansion, Import Liberalization and Economic Growth in






Latin America: An Analysis of Foreign Multipliers." United Nations Conference on Trade
and Development. Discussion Papers (International) No. 24:142, Dec. 14, 1989.

Grunwald, Joseph. 1983. "Restructuring Industry Offshore: The U.S.-Mexico Connection." The
Brookings Review Spring 1983, pp. 24-27.

Hermosilla, Guillermo Pavez. 1987. "Industrias de Maquila, Zonas Procesadoras de Exportaci6n y
Empresas Multinacionales en Costa Rica y El Salvador." Working Paper No. 48. Geneva:
ILO.

Higgs, Elizabeth. (University of Florida) 1991. "Our Survival Takes Precedence Over Our Rights -
Women's Wages in the Sio Paulo Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industry." Paper presented
in panel "Industry, Women's Work and Households in Latin America." April 4 in
'Washington, D.C Pittsburgh: LASA.

INSTRAW. 1986. "Industrialization, Trade and Female Employment in Developing Countries:
Experiences of the 1970's and After." Santo Domingo: INSTRAW.

Inter-American Development Bank. 1986. "El Financiamiento a las Exportaciones no Tradicionales
en el Merczdo Andino." Integraci6n Latinoamericano, Inter-American Development Bank
(International) VoL 11, pp. 22-34.

International Labor Office. 1988. Women Workers in Multinational Enterprises in Developing
Countries. Geneva: ILO.

Joekes, Susan. 1987a. "Employment in Industrial Free Zones in the Dominican Republic." A
Report with Recommendations for Improved Worker Services. Washington, D.C.: ICRW.
PN-AAX-735

Joekes, Susan; Moayedi, Roxana. 1987b. "Women and Export Manufacturing: A Review of the
Issues and AID Policy." Prepared for AID/W. Washington, D.C: ICRW. PN-ABA-128

Lall, Sanjaya. 1979. "The Indirect Employment Effects of Multinational Enterprises in Developing
Countries." Working Paper No. 3. Geneva: ILO.

Long, Frank. 1990. "Employment Effects of MNEs in Twin Plants in the Caribbean with Special
Reference to Puerto Rico." Working Paper No. 63. Geneva: ILO.

Kamel, Rachel. 1990. The Global Factory Analysis and Action for a New Economic Era.
Philadelphia: American Friends Service Committee.

Leavitzer, Moises. 1985. Politicas de Incentivos a la Exportaci6n de Manufacturas en Am6rica
Latina (Estudio Comparative de los Esquemas de Argentina, Brazil, Colombia y Mexico)."
Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos. Serie Cuadernos de Investigaci6n (Mexico)
No. 4, pp. I-IV, 1-155, July 1985.

Meislin, Richard. 1984. "Mexico's Border Industries. The New York Times. March 19, 1984.

Mirowski, Philip; Helper, Susan. 1989. "Maquiladoras: Mexico's Tiger by the Tail? Challenge






May-June 1989, pp. 24-30.


Nieto, Mercedes Pedrero; Saavedra, Norma. 1987. "La Industria Maquiladora en Mexico."
Working Paper No. 49. Geneva: ILO.

Paus, Eva A. 1985. "Manufactured Export Growth in Latin America in the 1970s: Reflection of
Improved Competitiveness?" Ibero-Amerika Institut Fur Wirtschaftsforschung.
Diskussionbeitrage (Germany) No. 37, pp. 1-49, July 1985.

Pavlakovic, Vera K.; Kim, Hak-Hoon. "Outshopping by Maquila Employees: implications for
Arizona's Border Communities."

Pena, Devon Geraldo. 1980. "Las Maquiladores: Mexican Women and Class Struggle in the Border
Industries." Aztlan VoL 7, Fall, pp. 159-229. The Migration Studies Project.

Possas, Mario L; Furtado, Joao E.P.;Carvalho, Eneas C. 1987. "Employment Effects of Exports
by Multinationals and of Export Processing Zones in Brazil." Geneva: ILO.

Rakowski, Cathy A. 1985. "Women in Nontraditional Industry: The Case of Steel in Ciudad
Guayana, Venezuela." WID Working Paper No. 104, Nov 1985. East Lansing: Michigan
State University.

Rodriguez, Arelis M. 1989. "Impact of the Free Trade Zones on Female Employment and
Entrepreneur Development in the Dominican Republic." Washington, D.C.: The World Bank
Aug 1989.

Safa, Helen Icken. 1981. "Runaway Shops and Female Employment: The Search for Cheap Labor.
Signs VoL 7, pp. 418-434.

Saffioti, Heleieth lara Bongiovani 1983. "The Impact of Industrialization on the Structure of
Female Employment." East Lansing: Michigan State University.

San Diego Economic Development Corporation. 1989. "Maquiladora Industry. The Economic
Impact on San Diego's Economy." San Diego: SDEDC.

Sercovich, Francisco C 1986. "Exportaciones de Tecnologia de Paises Semiindustriales." Integraci6n
Latinoamericana, Inter-American Development Bank (International) VoL 11, pp. 3-8, May
1986.

Silvers, Arthur L; Valencia, Lara. 1990. "Labor Absorption and Turnover in the Maquila Industry."
Arizona Review VoL 38, pp. 17-23.

Sosin, Kim; Fairchild, Loretta. 1987. "Capital Intensity and Export Propensity in Some Latin
American Countries." Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (U.K.) 49:191-208, May
1987.

Teitel, Simon; Sercovich, Francisco C. 1984a. "Exports of Technology by Newly Industrializing
Countries- Latin America." Inter-American Development Bank. Reprint Series
(International) No. 160, pp. 654-60, May-June 1984.








Teitel, Simon; Sercovich, Francisco C. 1984b. "Latin America." World Development (U.K.) VoL
12, pp. 645-60, May/June 1984.

Teitel, Simon; Thoumi, Francisco E. 1986. "Growth, Reform, and Adjustment: Latin America's
Trade and Macroeconomic Policies in the 1970s and 1980s." Economic Development and
Cultural Change 34, pp. 423-671, April 1986. section titled "From Import Substitution to
exports: The Manufacturing Exports Experience of Argentina and Brazi.

Tano, Susan. 1984. "Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico." WID
Working Paper No. 43. East Lansing: Michigan State University.

Ward, Kathryn B. 1986. "Women and Transnational Corporation Employment: A World-System and
Feminist Analysis." WID Working Paper No. 120. East Lansing: Michigan State University.






3. WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL EXPORT PRODUCTION


ACEP. 1982. Las Trabajadoras de Agro: Debate Sobre la Muier en America Latina v el Caribe.
VoL 2 Bogota: ACEP.

Agency for International Development 1989. "Peanut Collaborative Research Support Program:
External Evaluation Report." Special Evaluation, Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PD-
ABA-795

"AID Grant to the American Institute for Free Labor Development for Small Farmer
Support Service in Ecuador." AID Contract,'Grant/OPG. Washington, D.C.: USAID. PD-
AAY-978

Alberti, Amalia M. 1991. "Impact of Participation in Non-Traditional Agricultural Export Production
on the Employment, Income, and Quality of Life of Women in Guatemala, Honduras, and
Costa Rica." Submitted to ROCAP. Washington, D.C.: Chemonics International Consulting
Division. PN-ABI-520

Ashby, Jacqueline A.; Gomez, Stella V. "Women, Agriculture and Rural Development in Latin
America." Conference Proceedings/Paper. Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN-AAV-801

Braun, Joachim von; Kennedy, Eileen. 1986. "Commercialization of Subsistence Agriculture:
Income and Nutritional Effects in Developing Countries.' Working Paper on
Commercialization of Agriculture and Nutrition No. 1. Washingto -,, D.C.: IFPRL

Braun, Joachim von; Hotchkiss, David; Immink, Manrten. 1989. "Nontrz :tional Export Crops in
Guatemala: Effects on Production, Income. and Nutrition." R.; arch Report No. 73.
Washington, D.C.: IFPRL

Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. 1985. 'Women's Work in Third World Agriculture." In Work, Women and
Development No. 9. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Flora, Cornelia Butler, Santos, Bias. 1984. "Women in a Dominican Republic Farming System."
Manhattan: FSSP/Kansas State University.

Islam, NuruL 1988. Fast-growing Agricultural Expors of Developing Countries." Food Policy VoL
13, No. 3, pp. 313-316.

1990. "Horticulture Exports of Developing Countries: Past Performances, Future
Prospects, and Policy Issues." Research Report No. 80. Washington, D.C.: TFPRL

Lastarria-Cornhiel, Susana. "Female Farmers and Agricultural Production in Ei Salvador."
Development and Change.

Leon de Leal, Magdalena; Deere, Carmen Diana. 1980. Muier v Capitalismo Agraric. Bogota:
Asociaci6n Colombiano para el Estudio de la Poblaci6n (ACEP).

Magill, John; Bolton, William E.; Dillon, Paul H; Alberti, Amalia M. 1989. "Impact on Employment







and Income of Investments in Export-Oriented, Non-Traditional Agribusiness." Guatemala
City. USAID/ROCAP. PN-ABH-066

Monson, Jamie; Kalb, Marion. 1985. Women As Food Producers in Developing Countries Los
Angeles: UCLA African Studies Center and OEF International

Orlandi, Alberto 1984. "Latin American Commodity Exports; The Case of Cotton Fibre." CEPAL
Review (International) No. 22, pp. 137-58, April 1984.

Signs. "The 'Comparative Advantage' of Women's Disadvantages: Women Workers in the
Strawberry Export Business in Mexico." Sign VoL 7, pp. 453-473.

Van Braun, J. Hotchkiss, David; Immink, Maarten. 1989. "Nontraditional Export Crops in
Guatemala: Effects on Production, Income and Nutrition." Washington, D.C:
IFPRI/INCAP.

Witson, Fiona. 1985. "Women and Agricultural Change in Latin America: Some Concepts Guiding
Research." World Development VoL 13, pp. 1017-1035.






4. WOMEN IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR AND MICROENTERPRISE


Agency for International Development. 1981. "Special Development Activities Program in the
Eastern Caribbean: Impact on Socio-economic Development.' Special Evaluation.
Washington, D.C: Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, A.I.D. XD-AAJ-221-A

1987. "Action Memorandum for the Director Microbusiness Promotion Project."
Washington, D.C: Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, A.LD. PD-AAW-279

"Small Business Development Project." Washington, D.C. Bureau for Latin America and
the Caribbean, A.LD. Final Report: PD-ABB-109; Special Evaluation: XD-AAW-051-A;
Project Design Gender Considerations, Special Evaluation: PD-AAV-591

1987. "CEDPA Experience: A Success Story for Women." Centre for Development and
Population Activities. Concept Paper. Washington, D.C: A.LD. PN-ABA-124

American Home Economics Association. International Federation tor Home Economics. 1981.
"Income Generation for Rural Women: Proceedings Workshop, Montego Bay, Jamaica,
November 23-27, 1981.' Washington, D.C: AHEA.

Barth, Gerald A. 1984. "Street Foods: Informal Sector Food Preparation and Marketing."
Reference Work. Chevy Chase: Equity Policy Center.

Benton, Lauren A. 1989. "Homework and Industrial Development: Gender Roles and Restructuring
in the Spanish Shoe Industry." World Development Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 255-266.

Berger, Marguerite. Gender Differences in the Determinants of Earnings in the Informal Sector: A
Case Study of Microenterprise Borrowers in Quito. Ecuador. PhD Dissertation. Washington,
D.C: American University.

Berger, Marguerite; Buvinic, Mayra, eds. 1989. Women's Ventures: Assistance to the Informal
Sector in Latin America. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.

Bienefield, M. 1981. The Informal Sector and Women's Oppresscn." IDS Bulletin VoL 12, No.
3, pp. 8-13. Brighton: University of Sussex Institute of Development Studies.

Boris, Eileen; Daniels, Cynthia R, eds. 1987. Homework: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives
on Paid Labor at Home. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Bromley, Ray. 1978. "Introduction-The Urban Informal Sector: Why is it Worth Discussing." World
Development VoL 6, No. 9/10, pp. 1033-1039.

Carvajal, Jaime. 1988. Microenterprise: The Most Profitable Social Investment" Conference
Proceedings/Paper. Washington, D.C.: AI.D. PN-ABA-461

Castells. Manuel; Portes, Aejandro. 1989. 'World Underneath: The Origins, Dynamics and
Effects of the Informal Economy." In Portes, Alejandro; Castells, Manuel; Benton, Lauren
A., es. The Informal Economy: Studies in Aavanced and Less Developed Countries, pp. 11-






37. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Connolly, Priscilla. 1985. "The Politics of the Informal Sector: A Critique." In Redclift, Nanneke;
Mingione, Enz, eds. Beyond Employment: Household Gender and Subsistence, pp. 55-91.
Oxford: Basil Blackwel.

Crummett, Maria de los Angeles. 1988 "Rural Women and Industrial Home Work in Latin
America: Research Review and Agenda." Rural Employment Policy Research Programme.
Geneva: ILO.

Danes, Sharon M.; Winter, Mary, Whiteford, Michael B. 1985. "Informal and Formal Market
Participation of Rural Honduran Women." Working Paper No. 82. East Lansing: Michigan
State University.

Delphy, Christine. 1984. "Housework or Domestic Work." In Leonard, Diana, ed. Close to Home:
A Materialist Analysis of Women's Oppression, pp. 78-92. London: Hutchinson.

Dwyer, Daisy;, Bruce, Judith, eds. 1988. A Home Divided: Women and Income in the Third
World. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Ehlers, T.B. 'The Decline of Female Family Business: A Guatemalan Case Study." Women and
Politics.

Farnsworth, Clyde H. 1988. "Micro-loans to the World's Poorest The New York Times Sec. 3,
Feb. 21, 1988&1, 10.

Feldman, Shelley. 1988. The Politics of the Informal Economy: Increasing Opportunities for
Women's Exploitation." Paper presented at the Annual Meetings for the Rural Sociological
Society, Athens, GA. Aug. 23-28

.1991. "Still Invisible: Women in the Informal Sector.' In Gallin, Rita S.; Ferguson, Anne,
eds. The Women and International Development Annual Volume 2. Boulder Westview
Press.

Fernandez-Kelly, M.P. 1989. International Development and Industrial Restructuring: The
Case of the Garment and Electronics Industries in Southern California." In MacEwan,
Arthur; Tabb, William K, eds. Instability and Change in the World Economy, pp. 147-165.
New York: Monthly Review Press.

Fletcher, Lehman B.; Marquez, Gustavo A; Sarfaty, David E. 1988. "Formulaci6n de una
Estrategia para la Generaci6n de Empleo en Ecuador: Temas y Prioridades." (Formulation
of a Strategy for Employment Generation in Ecuador Theme and Priorities) Washington,
D.C.: A.LD. PN-ABC-216

Folbre, Nancy. 1986. Hearts and Spades: Paradigms of Household Economics." World
Development Forum VoL 17, No. 70, pp. 979-991.

Ghersi, Enrique, ed. 1989. "El Comercio Ambulatorio en Lima." (Street Vending in Lima) lima,
Peru: Instituto bertad y Democracia.






Harper, Malcolm. 1988. "Traiaing and Technical Assistance for Microenterprise." Conference
Proceedings/Paper. World Conference on Support for Microenterprises June 6-9.
Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN-ABA-442

Harvard/MIT Women and International Development Group. 1985. "The Women and International
Development Group Second Annual Women, Work and Public Policy Workshop papers."
Cambridge: Harvard Institute of International Development.

Heyzer, N. 1981. "Women, Subsistence and the Informal Sector: Towards a Framework of Analysis."
IDS Discussion Paper No. DP163. Brighton: University of Sussex Institute of Development
Studies.

Hill, M. Anne. 1983. "Female Labor-force Participation in Developing Countries and Developed
Countries Consideration of the Informal Sector." Review of Economics and Statistics VoL
65, No. 3, pp. 459-468.

Hossfeld, Karen J. 1988. "The Triple Shit: Immigrant Women Workers and the Household Division
of Labor in Silicon Valley." Paper presented at the American Sociological Association
Annual Meetings, Atlanta, GA, Aug 23-28.

Hoyman, M. 1987. "Female Participation in the Informal Sector A Neglected Issue." Annals of
the American Academy of Political and Social Science VoL 49, No. 3, pp. 64-82 Sept. 1987.

Inter-American Foundation. 1989. "Rethinking the Informal Sector: An Interview with Maria
Otero." Grassroots Development VoL 13, No. 1, pp. 3-8.

Kirkpatrick, David. 1989. Third World Loans That Don't Go Sour. (MICROENTERPRISES)."
Fortune Nov. 20, 1989. VoL 20. No. 12, p. 14.

Lang, Paola (ed.) 1987. "Gender Issues in Small Scale Enterprise: A Guidebook for Integrating
Women into Small Scale and Microenterprise Projects" by Maria Otero. Washington, D.C.:
AID/PPC/WID. PN-AAY-219

Levitsky, Jacob, ed. "Microenterprises in Developing Countries: Papers and Proceedings of an
) International Conference." Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN-ABD-653

Mackintosh, Maureen. 1981. "Gender and Economics: The Sexual Division of Labour and the
Subordination of Women." In Young, Kate; Wolkowitz, Carol; McCullagh, Roslyn, eds. Of
Marriage and the Market pp. 3-17. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul

Mazumdar, Dipak. 1976. The Urban Informal Sector." World Development VoL 4, No. 8, pp. 655-
679.

Middleton, Alan. 1981. Petty Manufacturing, Capitalist Enterprises and the Process of
Accumulation in Ecuador." Development and Change VoL 12. No. 4, pp. 505-524.

Mingione, Enzo. 1983. 'Informalization, Restructuring and the Survival Strategies of the Working
Class.' International Journal of Urban and Regional Research VoL 7, No. 3, pp. 311-339.







McKee, Katharine. 1988 "Micro-level Strategies for Supporting Livelihoods, Employment, and
Income Generation of Poor Women in the Third World The Challenge of Significance."
Conference Proceedings/Paper. Washington, D.C.: IDB.

Otero, Maria. 1987. "Small Business Development Project and the Fundaci6n Nacional de
Desarrollo Hondurefia: A Review of Project Designs with Special Emphasis on Gender
Considerations." Washington, D.C: A.I.D. PD-AAV-591

Owen, Gail. 1990. "The Participation of Women in the Microenterprise Projects of Genesis
Empresarial and PROSEM." Submitted to Acci6n/AITEC, Guatemala. Washington, D.C.:
A.LD.

Painter, Flora M. "Informal Sector: Perspectives from the Literature." AID/PRE Discussion Paper.
Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN-ABE-377

Pan American Development Foundation. 1986. "The Informal Sector in Central America: A
Preliminary Overview."

Planning Innovations Inc. 1989. "Small Scale Enterprises: A Survey Part ." Final Report.
Washington, D.C.: A.LD.

Portes, Alejandro; Blitzer, A.; Curtis, J. 1986. "The Urban Informal Sector in Uruguay It's Internal
Structure, Characteristics, and Effects." World Development VoL 14, No. 6, pp. 727-741.

Portes, Alejandro; Castells, Manuel; Benton, Lauren A., eds. 1989. The Informal Economy.
Studies in Advanced and Less Developed Countries. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Press.

Poyo, Jeffrey; Hoelscher, David; Malbotra, Mohini. "Microenterprise Stock-taking: The Dominican
Republic." Special Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN ABC-705

Redclift Nanneke; Mingione, EnzF eds. 1985. Beyond Emloment: Household, Gender and
Subsistene. Oxford: Basil Blackwel.

Reichmann, Rebecca L 1984. "Women's Participation in PROGRESO: A Microenterprise Credit
Program Reaching the Smallest Businesses of the Poor in Lima, Peru." Washington D.C.:
A.LD. PN-AAV-492

Richardson, Harry. 1984. The Role of the Informal Sector: An Overview." Regional Development
Dialogue VoL 5, No. 1, pp. 3-40.

Rofman, Alejandro B.; Moreno, Guillermo, ed. 1988. "Generaci6n de Empleo: La Microempresa
Como Alternativa." (Employment Generation: Microenterprise as an Alternative) Buenos
Aires Argentina: Centro de Estudios Urbanos y Regionales (CEUR).

Roldin, Martha. 1985. "Industrial Outworking: Struggles for the Reproduction of Working-Class
Families and Gender Subordination." In Redclift, Nanneke; Mingione, Enzo, eds. Be d
Employment: Household, Gender and Subsistence, pp. 248-285. Oxford: Basil Blackwel.






Sassen-Koob, Saskia. 1988. The Mobility of Labor and CapitaL New York: Cambridge University
Press.

Sawyer, Susan M. 1983. "Dominican Republic: Program for Development of Micro-enterprises."
Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PD-AAW-186

Scott, Alison MacEwan. 1979. "Who are the Self-Employed?" In Bromley, Ray; Gerry, Chris, eds.
Casual Work and Poverty in Third World Cities, pp. 105-129. Chichester: John Wiley and
Sons.

Sethuraman. S.V., ed. 1981. The Urban Informal Sector in Developing Countries: Employment,
Poverty and Environment. Geneva: ILO.

Souza, PaulO; Tokman, Victor E. 1976. "The Informal Sector in Latin America." International
Labour Review VoL 114, No. 3, pp. 355-365.

Standing, Guy. 1989. "Global Feminization Through Flexible Labour." Working Paper No. 31.
Geneva: ILO World Employment Programme Research.

Sternthal, Susanne. 1990. "No Small Change for Bolivia's Poor. (Private, Nonprofit Group "Prodem"-
Foundation for the Promotion and Development of MICROENTERPRISE, Affiliate of
Acci6n International Makes Loans to Self-Employed Working Poor)." Insight May 28,
1990 VoL 6 No. 22, p. 8.

Stitcher, Sharon; Parpart, Jane L, eds. 1990. Women, Employment and the Family in the
International Division of Labour. London: Macmillan.

Strassmann, W. Paul. 1985. "Home-Based Restaurants, Snack Bars, and Retail Stores: Their
Contribution to Income and Employment in Lima, Peru." Working Paper No. 86. East
Lansing: Michigan State University.

1986. "Home-based Enterprises in Cities of Developing Countries." Washington,
D.C.: A.LD. PN-ABC-776

Tendler, Judith. 1983. "Ventures in the Informal Sector and How They Worked Out in Brazil."
AID Evaluation Special Studies. No. 12. Washington, D.C.: A.LD. PN-AAL-009

Tinker, Irene. 1987. "Street Foods- Testing Assumptions about Informal Sector Activity by Women
and men." Current Sociology VoL 35, No. 3, p. 1.

Tokman, Victor E. 1988. "Supporting the Informal Sector: Micro-level Interventions with a Macro
Perspective." Conference Proceedings/Paper. Washington, D.C: ALD and World Bank. PN-
ABB-476

1989. "Policies for a Heterogeneous Informal Sector in Latin America." World
Development VoL 17, No. 7, pp. 1067-1076.

US Congress Commission on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs. 1987. "Multilateral Development
Banks. Hearings, 100th Congress, 1st session." Washington. G.P.O. "Serial No. 100-113"







April 2 May 20, 1987. (Lending to Microenterpriscs in the Third World)


US Congress Select Committee on Hunger. 1986. "Microenterprise Credit Joint hearing before the
Select Committee on Hunger and the Subcommittee on International Development
Institutions and Finance of the Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs, House
of Representatives, 99th Congress, 2nd Session." Washington G.P.O.

Vargas Gonzales, Jorge Enrique. 1989. "La Microempresa en Colombia: Concepto, Estado Actual
y Perspectivas." (Microenterprise in Columbia: Concept, Current State and Perspectives)
Planeaci6n Desarollo VoL 21, pp. 121-168 Ja/Je 1989.

Velez Valarezo, Sergio. 1989. "El Sector Informal Mar ufacturero en el Ecuador.' Tercer Mundo.
(Ecuador)

Young, Kate. 1981. "Women and the Informal Sector Preface." IDS Bulletin VoL 12, No. 3.
Brighton: University of Sussex Institute of Development Studies.






5. WOMEN IN TOURISM


Boo, Elizabeth. 1990. "Ecotourism: The Potential and Pitfalls." VoL 2. Washington, D.C.: World
Wildlife Fund.

Caballos-Lascurain, Hector. 1988. The Future of 'Ecotourism'." Mexico Journal Jan. 27, p. 13.

Caribbean Tourism Organization. 1990. Caribbean Tourism: Statistical Report 1990 Edition.
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The Economist. 1989. "Third World Tourism: Visitors are Good For You." The Economist (UK)
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Fisher, B. 1990. "What Consumers Want in the 1990s." Fortune Jan. 29, pp. 108-112.

Getino, Octavio. 1987. Turismo v Desarrollo en Amnrica Latina. Mexico: Noriega Editores.

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Laarman, Jan G.; Durst, Patrick B. 1987. Nature Travel in the Tropics. Research Triangle Park:
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Lea, John P. 1988. Tourism and Development in the Third World. New York: Routledge,
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INDEX


ACEP ................................. 67
Acosa-Befn, Edna ........................ 25
Acuna, Hector R ......................... 36
Adams, A .............................. 35
Adams, Frances McStay .................... 29
Addison, T. ............................. 52
Aga Khan, Sadruddio ...................... 9
Agarwal, Bina ........................ 9,52
Aarwal, Manmoban ................... 4,9,52
Agency for International Devlopment .. 9, 14, 17, 25,
36,38, 39, 56, 67,69
Albert AmaliaM. ................... 1,61,67
Alexander, Robert J ....................... 17
Allison, C .. ...... ...... .......... 1
Almeida, J.G. ........................... 29
Almond, Gabriel A. ....................... 17
Amy, S ................................. 1
Alonso, Ana Ric de....................... 42
Alscbuler, Lawrence ....................... 56
Attieri, MA ............................ 1, 14
Altimr, Oscar .......................... 42
Alvarez,SoniaE. ................... 17,20,25
American Home Econmics Association ......... 69
Anderson, Anthony B...................... 14
Anderson, Mary B .............. 1,29,35, 39,40
Anderson, Patricia......................... 53
Annis, S eldon ........................... 17
Arauz, Jose Roman ........................ 7
Argentina ............... 18, 20, 24,62-64,66, 72
Arguees, A. ........................... 15
Ariza, Marina ............................ 26
Arizpe, Loordes .......................... 39
Arriagada, A-M.......................... 35
Ascher, William ......................... 47
Ashby, Jacqueine A................... 1,7,67
At son A.B. ........................... 47
Auti, James E........................... 40
Aviel, JoAnn Fagot ........................ 17
Awe, Bolane ........................... 17
Babbitt, Bruce ............................ 17
Baccus, K. ............................. 35
Badri Balgis ................. ........... 42
Baerresen, Donald W...................... 63
Baird, Robert ........................... 38
Baitemann. H............................ 10
Balakrishna, Revathi ...................... 42
Baee, W. ................... .......... 12
Baloo, Eduardo ......................... 17
Baoyra, Enrique A. ....................... 17
Batzano, A ............................. 14
Barbados ..................... 6, 20, 40, 61,75
Barbieri Tersn a de ....................... 17
Barkin, David ............................63
Barnard, G. ............................ 15
Barr a, A. ............................. 36
Barrera Ana Gahz ....................... 25


Barrett, Micele .......................... 25
Barrig, Maruja ........................... 61
Barrs, IL .............................. 29
Barh, Gerald A .......................... 69
Basualdo, Eduardo M. ..................... 63
Ba er, Sheley ........................... 39
Beccker, David G. ........................ 56
Becford, George ......................... 52
Beebe, J. ................................ 7
Behm, H. ............................... 36
Berman, Jere .......... 29, 32,33, 36,37,47,52
Beiz ............................. 2,38,39
Bce, David E ......................... 36,52
Belew, Rosemary ...................... 31, 35
Benavot,A. .............................29
Beeria, Lourdes ................... 25,52, 61
Bennett, D. ................ ........... 56
Benton, Lauren A. ..................... 69,72
Berger, Brigitte ........................... 45
Berger, Marguerite ................ 1,45,52,69
Bergmann, Emie ......................... 18
Berna, Richard L ........................ 56
Berry, Albert ............................ 52
Bifid, M. .............................. 69
Biery-Hanmiton, Gay M. .................... 12
Biles,Robert E. ......................... 18
Birdsan, Nancy ........................ 42,47
Bishop, Jon P. ............................ 1
Black, Naomi .................. ........ 18
Btakie,P.................................9
Blanc, Acn Kimas ........................ 32
Blayney, Robert G....................... 45
Blit r, S. .............................. 72
Bhmberg Rae s................ ..... 25,39,49
B stain, Harvey .......................... 9
Bobadila, Jase Lu ....................... 36
Boock, P. ............................. 56
Bolvia .................. 2,6,21,38,62,63,73
BoDen, Kenone A. ........................25
Boes, Lynn .......................... 25,42
Boltoo, Wiam E. ....................... 67
Border, Goria .......................... 18
Bonepartb, Elen .......................... 18
Bocia, Essy .......................... 1,61
Boon, Jurgen Kun ....................... 56
Boo, Eizabeth .......................... 75
Bookmnan, Ann .......................... 18
Boot, John A ........................... 18
Bors, Eieen............................. 69
Borschier, Voter ........................ 56
Base, Christine E........................ 25
Bosen, Lauren Herbena .................... 61
Bourque, Susan C ........................ 18
Bousquet, Jeanne Pre .................... 18
Bowman, MJ. .......................... 29
Boy Derek .......................... 52,54






Boyle, Philip ............................. 52
Bramsn, M B ............... ........... 2
Brasavsky, C ............ ............. 29
Braun, Joachim von ....................... 67
Brazil ..................... 2, 17,44, 64-66,73
Bremer-Fo, Jennifer ...................... 12
Bresin, Patrick ........................... 9
Brockmann, C.Th ma ..................... 39
Broknsha, David ................... ...... 14
Bromley, D.W. ................ ........... 9
Bromley, Ray ....................... 9,69,73
Brookfi l, ................ ............ 9
Browder, John ............................ 9
Brown, LR. ............................ 9
Brown, M. ..............................56
Brown, Nicoe ................ ........... 52
Browner, CH. ........................... 36
Browniee, Ann ........................... 37
Bruce, J.W ........ ..... ........... ... 14
Bruce,Judith .................... 40, 42,43,70
Brush, S ............................. 9
Bryan, Anthony T. ........................ 56
Budo ski, Gerardo ........................ 14
Burch, Wiliam R., Jr. ................ 5,9, 10
Buri, Shabid Javed .......................47
Burniske, G ................. ........... 11
Burwell, B. ............................. 11
Bustelo, Eduardo ......................... 55
Bustilo, Ines ......................... 29,49
Bavinic, Mayra ......... 1, 25, 36, 39, 42, 44-46, 69
Cabafl -Lascurain, Hector .................. 75
Cabare, B. ............................. 14
Cairns, Ga ............................ 25
Caman, Lcslie J ........................ 25
Camp, Roderic A......................... 18
Campbel, Angus ......................... 18
Campbel, Tim .........................45
Ca G illermo J. ........................ 10
Caribbe Tourism Aoiatio ............... 76
Caribbean Tourism Organiation .............. 75
Canribbean Tourism Research and Developmnt
Cenre ................... 76
CaIoni, Alice Stewart.................... 1,39
Carison, Marifran ......................... 18
Camoy, Marin ........................ 30,33
Carrillo, Terea ........................... 63
Carridn, Lucia ............................ 1
Carrol, T. ............................ 10
Cavajal Jaime ........................... 69
Castam i, Juan Carlos ....................... 20
Castels, Manu ....................... 69,72
Castro, Atfioso Peer ...................... 14
Cavieres A ............................ 10
Caye, Virginia ............................. 8
CEPAL ................................ 45
Cerea, Michael M. .................. 7, 9,10
Cbaftz, Janet............................ 26
Chambers R. ............................. 7


Chamie, Mary ........................... 29
Chancy, E a ........................ 2,18,49
Change International Reports ................ 18
Chant, Sylvia ............................ 42
Chapeier, Georges ........................ 53
Chapin, Mac .................... .......... 9
Chapki, W. ............................ 63
Charton, Sue Ellen M. ................. 18,26
Chasc-Durn, Christophr ................... 56
C en, Mary ............................ 39
Chenery, H. ......................... 33,36
Chernela, J. ............................ 15
Chermic, Sidney ..........................3
Chile 210, 11, 14, 18,20,21,23,24,30,32,41,42,
45, 4650, 55
Chin-A g M. ..................... ....... 35
Chinchila, Norma Stotz .................... 19
Chinery-Heese, Mary ...................... 53
hristopher, Maura ........................ 10
Christy, Carol A.......................... 19
Clark Kate ........................... 11
Care, Robin ................. .......... 14
Oarkson, Frederick ....................... 38
Oay, Jason ................. .......... 2, 14
Cloud, Kathlee ...................... 2,7,40
Cockbur, Aleander ....................... 15
Cohn, Jeffrey ............................ 10
Cotiough, C ......................... 29,53
Cofer, Carol J. ........................... 3
Colectif des Femnes d'Amerique Lami et de
la Caraibe ................. 26
Colier, P ............................... 53
Colli n, Heen ................... ........ 19
Coombia ..... 4,6, 11, 15, 18, 30, 32,42,46, 64, 74
Comisia Naional Forestal .................. 14
Common th Secretariat .................. 53
Conpw J.Ln ........................... 8
Conat, Fra s .......................... 10
Coode, E............................... 29
Counoy, Priscfla ......................... 70
Conroy, C .............................. 10
Coanyers, D. ............................ 19
Coppedgc, Mihael ........................ 19
Corder, Magarita ....................... 19
Cornia, Giovanni Anda ................. 52,53
Cones, M. ............................. 56
Csta Rica .............. 6,11,15, 27, 38,64,67
Catarma, SG ............................. 6
Catrel, An Baker ....................... 18
Coultr, John K .......................... 7
Craig,Ann ................. ............20
Crummnu, Maria de las Angees .............. 70
Cuadra, Erneso ................. ........ 30
Curtain, Leslie B. ...................... 26,49
Cartis, J. .............................. 72
Da Sia, Lea Melo ....................... 30
Da!, Robert A. ...................... 19,26
Dain, Jonathan ........................... 12







Dall, Frank..............................30
Dans SharonM. ...... ...... ........... 70
Danits, Cy uSia R ......................69
Da an, Irece ......................... 10
Danger, Mo.a ................... 26,28,51,62
Davidsoo, Joan ........................... 10
Davies, Miranda .......................... 19
Davis, Onar ............................ 53
Davis Ted J. ............................. 2
De Jog, W ............................. 16
De Kadt, Emanue ..................... 38,75
De ta Paz Lopez Baraja Maria .............. 42
De Soto, Herando ........................ 19
Deer, Carmen Dia .......... 2,4, 19,22,53,67
Defies .............................. 11, 13
elan y, Virginia .........................
Delphy, Christine .......................... 70
Deuca, Donald R......................... 9
Demry, L .............................. 52
Demsky, T rry ...........................35
Deevan, W. .................. ......... 14
Dolafikar, Anl B. .................... 36,52
Devdeopn n .......... ................. 19
Devin, Robert ...........................52
Diamond, Larry ....................... 19,20
Diar-Alandro .......................... 56
DiBon, Paul H. ........................... 67
Dising JI ........................... 12
Divine, D a R. ........................ 18
Dix RobertH. ........................... 20
Dixoo-Mu er, Ruth ..................... 2,67
Drake, P. ............................. 20
Drak,SusanF. .......................... 10
Draper, n ...........................61
Draper,S ............................... 11
Duoae,sis ............................. 26
DuncanNevie ......................... 20
Du Patrikk B.......................... 75
Dumw, George F. ........................ 11
Dwyer, Daisy ................. 42,43,70,43,70
SEckstei Suan ........................... 20
Ecnooist ........................... 56,75
Ecador ..... 1, 14-16,32,45, 46,54,57,63,67,
69-71, 74, 75
Edmuns Marlyn ......................... 39
Edwards, Cve A. .................. 3,45,55
Ebers,T.B. ............................70
Eheanm' h, Dixie ......................... 13
Eicer, Magrit ........................... 39
Eismxoo, 1mas Owen .................... 30
E Salvador.....................19,42,64,67
-Sanabay, Naat ........................63
Eizga, Jan C. ...................... 45,61
EBtt Carolyn M. ........................30
is, Cynthia ............................. 2
EI, Pat ...............................26
Enrf, Mary L ..................... 2,36
Ehi Dian ............................. 53


El, Dieter .................. ........ 7,11
Engle, Carole ........................... 10
Engk, Patricia ...........................43
Englh, E. Philip ................. ...... 75
Enace .............................. 26,39
Enoe C. .... ........................63
Environme Liaison Centre ................. 10
Ernst & Young ........................... 56
Escobar, Art o .......................... 20
Estes, Valrie .......................... 2,63
Estrada, RD. .......................... 15
Everett Jane ............................ 18
Fage, Richard R. ........................ 22
Faircild, Lorena ........................ 65
Fakoner, J.............................. 15
Farnsworth, C de H. ......................70
Farrll J. ............................. 14,30
Favaro, Edgardo ................ .......... 63
Feder, Gershon ............................ 3
Feoo, Marf del Camen ................ 20,26
Fedman, Seley .......................... 70
Fedstein, Hilary Sims ....................... 7
Febaebausan ............................ 20
Ferguso, Anne ...................... 43,70
Fernand L, H........................... 30
Fernandez-Keay, MP ................. 62,63,70
Field, Donald R. .......................... 10
Felds, G.S........................... 43
Figeroa Coon, Jutio ...................... 15
Fiebaugh, Francile M. ..................... 42
Fchaer, Ben rd ...................... 53.56
F her, B. ...............................75
Fissa, Yamoob ...........................3
Fletcher, Lman B ....................... 70
Foa,Cneia Butler ............. 1,3,7,20,67
F *limn Fred ........................... 35
Fotxe, Nancy ......................... 43,70
Fotey, G.............................. 15
Fod and Agrcuture Orqatinm .......... 3,15
For e,Jo E ean ........................... 13
Fort, La ...................... 26,28,51,62
Fortman L ............................ 15
Fo eratr, Joe ........................... 20
Fo Lo ise ............................. 44
Francis, Mkadei J. ........................ 21
France, Marm ........................... 47
Franlenburger, T.. ....................... 7
Frao, L. .................. .......... 57
Fraser, Arvon S. ....................... 25
Freeman, Cara .......................... 26
Fre ch, David ............................ 15
Fresc, L ...............................7
Friedco,J. ..............................56
Fritsc, WV son ..........................63
Fuler, B. ...............................30
Fund for the Development o the Ameris ...... 20
Fundacd Friedrich Naunn................ 20
Fursenberg, Frank ........................ 43







Furtad, Joao EP. ........................ 65
Gallet, HAL .......................... 15
Ga, Rita S...................... 43,70
Garfa Brdgida ........................... 20
Gaat, Raymoyd ....................... 21,26
George,S. ..............................53
Georgi George C ....................... 57
Gerry, C ris ...................... ...... 73
Ge Otio, Ocavio .......................... 75
Gbersi, Enrique ........................ 70
Ghildya B ....... .. .. ............. 7
Gidwani S ............................... 53
G Margaret.............................. 40
Gmls, M...............................12
Girvan, Norman ....................... 52,57
Giinger; J. Price .......................... 3
Gladden, Kathleen ....................... 12
Gtamhar Emily Winter ............. .... 63
GLadart, Peter Michae .................... 63
Glewwe, Paul ......................... 45, 47
Gliessman, Stepben R. ...................... 3
GC, Frank M. ........................... 76
Gldblau, P. ............................. 29
Godschmindt-Cermont, Luisela ............... 61
Goldsmith, Arthur A ...................... 21
Gddstein, ......................... 53
Goaz Campo, VM. ...................... 30
Gomez, Carmen Julia ...................... 43
Gomez,Stel V. ....................... 1,67
Gooolaves Reinaldo ...................... 63
Good, Aleander H. ....................... 57
Goodae, G. .............................35
Gow, David .............................11
Graham, Carl ...........................21
Grasmuck, Sh ri ......................... 26
Gregers H ...................... 11, 16, 11
Griffin, Cbares C ....................... 47
GrifftbJoes, S........................ 54
Gross, David J. .......................... 47
Grove, Thurman L........................ 3
Grown, Care ......................... 44,61
Grunwad, Joseph ........................64
Guatemala ...... 6,12 13,21,40,41,43,67,68,72
Gupa, Geea Rao .................. 37,43
Guairez, Fernando Cadero ................21
Guyana ................................58
Gwynne, Gretcen ........................38
Haddad, Wadi ........................ 30,33
Ha rd, Stephb n .........................21
Haiti ............................ 14,16
Hasworth, EG.............................. 14
Hamiton, Susan .......................... 21
Haq, Mahbub ul .......................... 47
Harker, Trem ........................... 54
Harman, Ine Maria ........................ 3
Harper, Malkom .........................71
Harris, H. .............................. 19
Harr, Snja T. ........................ 54


Hart, Robert D ........................... 3
Harvard/MIT Women and International
Development Group ......... 71
Hard, Richard R. ....................... 3
Hazal, Wmnie ............................26
Healy, Robert ......................... 75
Hecht, Susanna...................... 1, 11, 15
Heise, L .............................. 12
Heper, Susan ............................. 64
Hezer, Judkh F ......................... 39
Henneberry, David M. ....................57
Henriques, HM. .........................37
Henry, Ralph ............................61
Herbod, R. ............................. 53
Hermosia, Guillermo Pavez ................ 64
Hernandez,A. ...........................30
Her, Barbara K. ......................... 30
Heyzer, N. .............................71
Hics Norman ........................... 47
Higgs, E zabeth ..........................64
Hill M. Anne ................... 31,32,34,71
Hoetscer, David ......................... 72
Hoeven, R vander........................ 54
Honduras ................. 16, 20, 24, 27, 41,67
Hood, R. ...............................54
Hopins, M. ............................61
Horenstein, Nadine &. ......................3
Hoski Marilyn ..........................15
Hosfed, Karen .......................... 71
Hotchiss, David .................... 11,67,68
Hoyan, M................ ............. 71
Hum na, Charles .........................26
Huston, Perdita ..........................26
Hyde, Karin AL ......................... 30
Igizin,Lyme B. ..................... 21,27
Immlnin Maheam ...................... 67,68
Institute for Food and Deelopment Policy ....... 3
INSTRAW ......................... 61,64
Inter-American Developmnt Ba .... 11,49,57,64
Inter-American Foundaton .................. 71
Iter-American Parmenary Group on
Population and Deveopme ....27
Intercom ............................... 27
International Center for Research on Women36,43,45
Internationalabor Office ................ 49,64
International La Organaion .............. 61
Intematnonal Union for Cosemvaim of Nature
and Natral Res ............ 11
Intentiona Union of Offial Travel
Organmiat .............. 75
Inuma, J. Cxota .................. ........ 16
ISIS International .........................21
Islam, Nural ............................ 67
Jactanan, Robert.......................... 57
Jamanca .............. 9,41-43,52-54,56,58,69
James, E ele ............................ 47
Janowia Barbara .........................37
Jaquen, Jane ...........................21







Jaramnio. Cea .......................... 47
Jelin, Elizabeth ................ ...... 20,21
J~nim Jerry ................ .... ...... 45
Jrgim, Jani ............................. 7
Jimeez, Emmanuel .................... 30,47
Joe s Susan .................... 49,54,62,64
Johmsto, Deals .......................... 49
JoDy, Richard ......................... 52,53
Jonis D. .............................. 57
Jordan, C.B.K .................. ........ 11
Journal of International Affairs ............... 40
Just, Richard ............................ 3
Kathn Alfred J.......................... 43
Kahnet, Frederich ........................ 45
KairysDavid ............................ 28
Kalb, Mario ........................ 4,68
Kamd, Racnd ....................... 30,64
Kammerman, Sbeia B. ..................... 43
Kaneko,M ..............................30
Key, Gadl P. ............................30
Kelly, Rta Mae .......................... 22
Kendrck, J.. ..........................33
Kennedy, Eleen .........................67
Khandker, Shahidur R. ................. 30,33
Kilick Tony .............................54
Km Hak-Hoon ..........................65
Kim, Jae-On ............................. 24
King. Elizabeth ........................ 31-35
Kirkparick David ......................... 7
Kirkwood, Julitta ........................ .
Klein, S. ...................
K Jen, Ete .............................
Knoiw, Jane ............................
KnudesOdin ...........................3
Knudson, .............................
Konm, Maryn ........................... 4)
Kramer, lEea ........................... .7
Krawzyk, Miria ........................ 40
Knma, Shubb ........................ ..11
Kz, Katleen ....................... 37
KyLe,Paicia A ......................... 21
La..ann Jan G.................. 1i. .6,75
Lal,Sanjaya ........................ ...64
Lan& Pada ............................ 71
Lara, A................... ............. 10
LastarrinCorna l Smaa ...................67
Latin America Perspeives ................. 21
Latin American Tmes ...................... 57
Lango ........................... .... 35
Lavwin, Asun ................... ... 22,27
Lea, John P ............................ 75
Leitingr, se A ................. ....... 27
Lejavizr, Maises ......................... 64
Lee, Uma ..................... .... 4,7,54
Le# de eal, Magdalena ............... 2 4,67
Leonard,J.O. ............................ 11
Leonard, Jeffrey L ........................ 11
Leonard, Virginia W. ...................... 31


Leslie, Joann ......................... 36,37
Levin, M. .............................33
Levitsky, Jacob ...........................71
Lewenhak, S...........................62
Lewi, Barbara C ......................... 4
Lew, John ............................. 47
Lewis, M.W.............................. 2
Lewi, Vaughn A ......................... 58
lifsdia Edgardo .........................63
Llis ................................... 35
Lndberg Krg ........................... 75
UnidR n, Charles E. ......................19
inzJuan ........................... 20,22
Lpset, Seymr Martin .................. 20,22
ipton, Michae ......................... 8,46
Lkvinoff, ............................ 10
Loyd, Cynthia ............................32
Locay, Luis .............................. 37
Locked, Martaine E. .....................31
Logan, Kathlen ..........................22
Long Frank ............................. 64
Lo gnurst, Ricbard ......................... 8
Lope, E nesto ...........................55
Louis Berger nternatoal, Inc. ............... 58
Lovelae, e ge ..........................6
Lowe, David ............................. 15
Luuriaga, H. ............................ 15
Lycent, Margaret ................. 36,44-47,54
Lynn,Naomi B. .......................... 22
MacDoald, T. ........................... 15
MacEwan, Arthur .........................70
Mackinosh, Maureen ......................71
Magl,John ............................. 67
Major, MA ............................. 15
Malbta, M ,inm .........................72
Maoy, James M. .........................22
Mali, Suterhe K. Mayo .................. 47
March, Katryn S.................... 22,40
Marquez, Guavo A ...................... 70
Marshal, ............................6
Martinez, Jua Carls ....................... 7
Mason, Karen 0 .......................... 49
Massiah, Joyceli ..................... 40,43
MayaTcch Crporation ..................... 54
Mazumdar, Dipak ......................... 71
McAdam, Doug .......................... 22
McCaa Skutch, Margart ................... 16
Mcarthy, J.D ........................... 22
McCoy, James ......................... 58
McItBagh, Royn ........................ 71
McDonad, R ............................22
McFaddea, Max W. ....................... 12
McGaugey, S ........................... 16
McGowan, Lisa...........................54
McGreevey, Wiliam P. ............... 42,44-46
McGuire,J. .............................54
McKee, Katharine ......................... 72
McKe B. ............................. 56








McLarny, W............................. 11
McLedx Ruth ........................... 43
McMaon, W. ........................... 33
Mdra, Rekba ......................... 1,54
Mesl Richard ..........................64
Mefocamp, Amy ..........................
Meendez-Domingue, Alfro .............. 37
Merchant, Kathlen M .....................37
Merrick, Tma W ....................... 44
Mesa-Lago, Carmeo ....................... 38
Metcaf, David ........................... 35
Me rs L Richard ......................... 8
MiddleM Alan .......................... 71
Middk ton, John ..........................35
MiWr, Linda ............................31
Mifler, Robnera atad ..................... 11
Mingioe, Eno ....................... 70-72
Muwski, Ph p .......................... 64
Mitsolak A. Goudain ..................... 58
Moayedi, RCzana .........................64
Moffe Mat ............................ 58
Mohammed, P ........................... 61
Motar, Auguta .......................... 16
Molynear, Maxm e ........................ 22
Momso, Jamie .........................4,68
Montao Reny ......................... 58
Moock, P. ................... ........... 35
Moreand, Scoa ..........................30
Moeno, Guiiermo ........................72
Morgan, MarthaL ........................ 22
Morgan, Sandra .......................... 18
Moser, Caroin 0 ...................... 46,54
Mudge, Susana ..........................75
Mueler, Eva ............................46
Maica, Barbara ..........................27
Mulder, R ..............................16
Munk, G rardo .......................... 22
Mnnck, Romak .......................... 22
Murphy, RF. .................. ........ 16
Murphy, Y. ............................. 16
Musgrve, Phlip ....................... 38,46
Mussak, M. ...... ..................... 16
Nader, Laura ........................... 27
Nair, P.XKR............................. 16
Nash, John .............................. 3
Nash,June ...................... 3,22,42,62
Nathan Asociat Inc. ..................... 58
Nations, JD. ........................... 4,11
Nicaragua ....................... 3, 19,24, 27
Nie Norma H. .......................... 24
Nieo, Mercdes Pedrro ................... 65
Nigh, R. ...............................4
Nord, Chr ine Winquit .................... 43
Norem, Rosaie............................ 7
Noronha, Raymnd........................75
North-South In tue ......................58
Norto S ............................... 4
Nuss, Shirey .......................... 49,62


O'Bri Kenneth .........................20
'Donnell, Guillermo ................... 22,23
OECD ................................ 54
Oivera, Ortandina de ...................... 17
Oso Ann .............................. 50
Oman, Charies ...........................58
Onger-Hoser, T. ......................... 4
Oppnheim, Lois Hecht .................... 23
Organizion of American States ........ 31, 75, 76
Orlandi, Albrto .......................... 68
Oter L ............................... 11
Ote Maria ............................ 72
Ovrhot, Catherine ........................ 40
Overse Education Fund ................... 27
Owen, ai .............................. 72
Ozgediz, Secu ...........................8
Padoc, Christine ....................... 4,16
Paes de Barro Riardo .................... 44
PAHO ................................. 37
Painter, F a M. ...................... 23,72
Palmer, Ingrid ............................ 4
Pan Amencan Deve pment Foundation ........ 72
Panama ................................. 7
Paraguay ............................. 6,62
Parker, J. Kathy ...................... 4,5, 12
Parker, Laurie N to ....................... 37
Parpa Jane L ....................... 62,73
Pastor, Manuel ...........................58
Paulson, Susan ......................... 5, 12
Paus,EvaA. ...................... 55,53,65
Pavtaovic, Vera K ........................ 65
Peluso, Nancy ............................. 5
Pena, Deo G ralo ............. ........ 65
Pea, M. ................... ...........30
Perez-Aleman Paoa ....................... 27
Peru 4,6,11,13,16,21,25, 30, 32,33, 35,37-39,44,
45,47,61, 70,72,73
Peters Pauine .......................... 44
Pfefrman, Guy P ........................ 47
Ph ip, P ................ ............ .... 8
Pieta Haka ............................27
Pllsbury, Barbara ......................... 37
Pnedo-Vasquc, Migud .....................4
Pinto de Mendoca, Rosalie .................. 44
Pio, D. .............................. 31
Panning innovation Inc ................... 72
Plunkett D moak L ........................ 8
Pots, Susan V. ................... 2,4,5,7.5
Ponce,J. ................................2
Poore, Duncan ............................
Population ad Dvelopmn Review ............
Populatn Crisis Comite .............. 27,49
Portes Aejandro ...................... 69,72
Portugal, Ana Mara ....................... 23
Posey, DA ............................. 12
Possas, Mario L ..........................65
Poste, S. .............................. 12
Po s, Malcolm .................. ........ 37







Powc, D. ...............................5
Poo, Jef ey ............................. 72
Prcard, Antoy J. ....................... 8
Psachqaopos, George ................. 33,35
PuertoRico .............................64
Puyana de Palacs, Alicia ................... 59
Radetzki, M.............................. 59
Ranford, R deic G ....................... 59
Raiatre, J- .......................... 16
Raowa Cathy A ..................... 40,65
Ram, Rati ..............................47
Ram, G........................... 31
Ramsaran, Rames F............................59
Randa, Vkty ............................ 23
Ra, M.V.S. .................. .......... 44
Rawlis, Joan ............................ 37
Raymod, Susa Ueber ..................... 38
RDO/C ................................. 6
Redcit, Michadj........................... 5
R dclifi, Nanneke ...................... 70,72
Regel, Ompor ........................ 30,33
Ric, M. ............................... 52
Rcichnma, Rebecca L .................... 72
Re, Linda L ............................ 23
Reiy, Chas A.......................... 23
Rein, Judy ..............................40
Reinicke, Wolfgang .......... ........... 19
Reaud, Bertrand ......................... 47
Repeto,L ......... .................. 12
Rey de Maruanda, Nohra ................... 44
Rbxoodi Eschd M. ....................... 27
Richardson, Harry......................... 72
Rinadi Roemary ..................... 30,33
Rork, Paula ............................ 6
Roca, Emiia ................ ........... 63
Roca, Loba .............................55
Rocheean Dimane ..................... 15,16
Roager, G ry ...........................46
Rodriguz de Mulz, Carmen ................ 27
Rodrig aAres M....................... 65
.oam, Alejandro I ...................... 72
Rogers, Barbara ........................40
Roldm Martha ...................... 25,72
Roman, Raph ...........................31
Rosales, Osvaldo Vaianao ............... 62
Rosenhouse, Sandra .......................44
Rosenthal, Gerald ......................... 38
Ross, R .............................. 21,27
Rathgeb, John M-,Jr. ..................... 59
Ruddle, K. .............................. 6
Ruether, Roemary Radford ................. 27
Ruht, J. .............................. 22
Range, C.F ............................ 12
Russel, John F ........................... 7,38
Russll, Saron Stanto ..................... 38
R sso Sanda ........................... 12
Saaedra, Norma ........................ 65
Sachs Caroln ........................... 8


Safa, Helen Icken ............... 3,22,23, 42, 65
SaIffi, Heieth Iara Bongiovan .............. 65
Saito Katrine ............................. 3
Salary, Syvia Ortega ...................... 44
Salrcha e, Medi ........................59
Samaney, NA. ............................ 6
San Diego Economic Development
Corporation................65
Sanders, Thoma G ....................... 23
Sanderso, Warren C. ..................... 37
Sands, Mcael W. ........... ........... 3
Santia3 Carlos E ........................ 55
Sants, Bias .................. ........ 3,67
Sapeli C audio........................... 63
Sarfaty,David E. ........................ 70
Sagen, Caryn ......................... 37
Sassen-Koob, Sasa .......................73
Satuu, Ruth ............................62
Sautnis, Suan Smith .................... 40
Saum R. ................................ 6
Sawy Susan M. ......................... 73
Saynal, Bkas C ..........................32
Schaz S.P ............................. 56
Scbiefelein, E ........................ 30,31
Sctirmer, Isabele A ........................2
Scdink, Mariane ........ 5, 12, 23, 40, 44, 46, 47
Schmier, Philippe C ...................... 22
Sdcmi roth inda ........................ 49
Shneidr, Elizabeh ...................... 28
Schott, Jefferey J. ......................... 59
Sc rieber, Gotz ........................... 16
Sculer, Margaret ...................... 28,42
Schltz, T. Paul .................. 32,33,40,62
Schwar A. ............................. 35
Scwaz, David M. ........................ 12
Sdamimminn, S. ..........................6
Scbie Grant ......................... 8,55
Scott, Alion MaEwan ..................... 73
Scagr, Joi ............................50
Seaandr, Judith ......................... 27
Seaey, Ne E. ...........................76
Seari Karen ............................ 54
Se tadl J. ..............................61
Seigr, Ka nm ................. ..........52
Seigso, Miztcel A .......................18
S ar, Peter .............................23
Sea,Gita .................. ......... 44,52
Seuovic, Francisco C. ............... 65,66,65
Sethrman, S.V ......................... 73
Seward, Shirey ......................... 76
Sbaeff, Gary W. .................. ........ 12
Shanr, W.W. ........................... 8
Shape, K ............................. 56
Sha Gareh ............................76
Shepbhrd,C ..............................61
Shffraw, M. ............................35
Shiva, Vandana ........................... 12
Siche, Paul .......................... 28,50







Signs ............................... 40,68
Siva, E. .......................... 20
Silvers, Aihr L .........................65
Simpson, A ........................... 19
Singh, Tej Vir............................ 76
Sivard, Ruth Leger .................. 28,40,50
Skar, S.L ........ ....... ............... 6
Sklar, R.L .............................. 56
Slater, David ............................. 23
Smeser, Neil ............................ 22
Smith, Nige JL .......................... 8
Smith,Saly S............................ 37
Smoc A. ..............................31
Snyder, Margaret .........................40
Solar Alfred ............................ 38
Sofs, Vivirmne ............................ 6
Somnnasag, Prapmporn ..................... 6
Sons, Kim .............................. 65
Southgate, D............................. 12
Souza, Pauto ............................ 73
Spirad, Bernard K. ....................... 76
Spring, Anita ............................. 5
Srinivasan, T.N. ...................... 33,36
St Lucia ................................3
Standing, Guy ......................... 62,73
Stanftd, David .......................... 20
Stanley, DL ............................. 16
Starr, M. ..............................54
Staudt Katheen ....................... 18,23
Stavrakis, O .............................. 6
Stein, J.P .............. .................. 6
Steinbarn, Pct:- ............. ..... ... 13
Stepan, Alfrd ...........................22
Sterntal, Susanne ........................ 73
Stewart, Fanes ................... 47, 52, 53
Stieh Judith ........................... 23
Stc er, Sharon ....................... 62,73
Stock Mo y ............................. 13
Stocks, A .............................. 13
Stone, Stev W. .......................... 7
Sone, K. Lynn ..........................28
Strsa na W. Paul .......................73
Strauss, J. ............................. 37
Streeten, Pal ......................... 47,55
Stomqut, N. .......................... 31
Sunke,O. ...............................54
Sussian. Lenard R. ..................... 23
Swmmaihat, MLS. ..........................8
Syrqmin, Moshe ........................... 55
Tabaabai, Hamid ......................... 53
Tabb, Wlim K. ........................ 70
Tadesse,Z ..............................6
Talal, Haan bin .......................... 9
Tan, JP. .............................. 30
Taqqu, Rachele ....................... 22,40
Taub, Nad e ............................28
Teitel, Simon ......................... 65,66
Tendler, Judith ........................ 48,73


Theun, I Leo ..........................76
Thomas, Cive......................... 55,59
Thomas, D. ............................ 37
Thoum, Francisco E. .................. 57,66
Tano, Susan........... ..... ........... 66
Tenda, Marta ............................44
Tak, Jandyala B.G. ......................34
Tonyan, Judith ........................... 37
Tinker, Irene ....................... 2,28,73
Tobago ................................ 35
Tokman, Vid r E. ........................ 73
Trenjs Ma a ............................. 6
Trinidad ...............................35
Turner, B.L, I .......................... 13
UNECLAC ............................. 28
UNESCO .......................... 28,32
UNICEF ............................ 46,55
United Nations ...... 6, 24, 28, 40, 44, 46, 50, 55, 59
United Nations Centre on Tranational
Crpoations ............ 59,76
United Nations DP ........................ 50
United Nations Economic Commssion for
LAC ................ 24,50
United Nations Office at Vienna .............. 50
United States Bureau of the Ceus ........... 50
Unruh, J. .............................. 16
Uruguay ................ ......... 18,31,72
US Congress Co mon o an birg, 7minance
and Urban Affairs ........... 73
US Congress Select Committee on Hunger ...... 74
US Congress. House Committee on Foreign
Affairs ...................60
US Congress. House Commitee on Ways and
Means ....................59
US Department of Cmmerce ................ 60
USAID ................................50
USAID/Guatmala ........................41
USAID/Hooduas ...................... 24, 41
USAE ID/amaia ..........................41
USAID/Memco ...........................41
Valencia, Laa ........................... 65
Valenzuela, Artro ........................24
Vaemwuea, J. Samuel ...................... 24
Van Braun,J........................... 68
van der Gaag, Jacques ..................... 47
Varas Gonzals, Jorge Enrique .............. 74
VeM~e, T. ............................. 13
Velez Valareo, Sergio ..................... 74
VernzuC a ......................... 6,28,65
Vera, Sidney ........................... 17,24
Verspoor, Adrian ...................... 31,32
Verwayen, Henri ..........................50
Vic er, Moema .......................... 24
Von Elm, Babara ........................42
Votaw, Carmen Delgado .................... 41
Wal Richard ............................ 44
Ward, Kathryn B. ......................... 66
Ware, H. .............................. 50







W ring, lMarlyn ....................... 28,41
Warea, EayB. ............. .. ........ 18
Wassatn Robert ...................... 41
Wassc-Fram, Maria-Barbara ...............28
Wea,Coma ne ......................... 28,63
Wanberm r, Ma Beth ..................... 32
Wess, k at S. .......................... 44
W ss Robert ..........................24
WMie, Kar ..... ........... .......... 41
Whitd, Micaad B...................... 70
W it ad, Laurene ...................... 22
W i e, Peter DI .......................... 55
Wbyit, N4h n K ......................... 28
W M ....... ....... ..... ... ....... 16
W ki oa. PF. ................. ........ 76
WI, W. Marvn ..........................60
Wimas, AJL ......................... 41
WEia s, Atln M. ........................ 76
WiagmHar .......................... 24
WRams, Pana J......................... 13
Wiam~ caJobo ......................... 55
FWosm. m ............................68
p. ,der. Cann. ...................... 24,40
Wanocr, Caty ...........................24
W mar, ............................ .... 70
WotBarbara L ................. 29,32,33,37
WolwitDe, Carcs ........................ 71
WomacdiJ. ............................ 57
Wm4d Mkda ..........................24
Wood, CarisL .......................... 44
WVodCymia ........................... 24
Wood, ay Miar ........................ 28
W odta, Maur ........................33
World Bank .......... 6, 8, 13, 41, 46,48, 50, 55
World Rsocetsad I e ................... 13
Worl Vadtc Fund ....................... 13
W tt, Ala ............................ 13
YaaadaTadasi .........................37
Ya n L ................................3
C.ay ..................... 26,28,51, 62
.K .......................... 71,74
s, Nada H......................... 42
YacXSenB, Sagy W. .............. .. 24,25,41
Za ..................... ................ 22
Z[cr, Karua ...........................76
Zcm2an, Davd ......................... 3
Zinamr N, T. ......................... 16
ZraStcpbwn ...........................60
cok, Dieter K. ...................... 38




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