ELI STUDENT VOICES
Volume 14, Issue 3 Fall, 2010
Defending the Chaco
In 1992, a couple of months before dying at the age of
77, proud of his happy and prosperous life, my grandfather
called me to his house to tell me a story about the "Chaco War"
between Paraguay and Bolivia. The war between these two
Latin-American countries started in 1932, after warlike
incidents at the border, supported, one more time by foreign
interests of an empire, the British Empire. The British Empire
was interested in the oil of the Chaco region and was invested
in Bolivia. The government of Bolivia, encouraged by the
British, claimed the Chaco region as part of Bolivian territory.
My grandfather told me that in 1932 he was seventeen
years old. He had just finished high school weeks before when
he was walking in the streets with his older brothers. His older
brothers were going to the central plaza of Asuncion, the capital
city of Paraguay, to claim to the government a strong answer to
the military incidents at the border. Thousands of young people
were meeting in this place when, after some hours of
deliberation, the congress decided to declare the war against
Bolivia. The people in the street celebrated this fact, but
mothers started to cry immediately because they knew what the
cost of patriotism is.
"I, as the other brave and young men of my generation,
was excited about the adventure of war. All my friends and
brothers were happy and ready to fight against the enemy to
defend the national territory", said my grandfather.
Running like a horse, my grandfather and his brothers
went directly to the military quarter to sign and prepare to the
next trip to the front line. They put their names on a piece of
paper, and took a rifle, food, boots and a backpack, but they
didn't know in this moment that they were putting their names
in history too. This generation understood what is honor about,
and what the duty was.
"Are you afraid of going to the war?" I said.
I ic' i'" said my grandfather, "I only felt an
incredible feeling of love for my country, my family, my
culture, and I only wanted to go in that moment".
After receiving his stuff to go to the front line without
any military training, my grandfather went to his house to
announce the news to his parents.
"A cool air spread all over my house that day; my
older brothers and me signed the paper to go to the war. My
other brothers were in medical school, and I was a seventeen-
year old boy", said my grandfather. "My mother changed her
face, maybe forever, and my father, resisting his tears said that
he was very proud of his sons".
The Chaco region is a very wild region of Paraguay. It
is a semiarid territory full of snakes, lizards and dangerous
insects. Almost a hundred years ago it was an inhospitable area
without towns, roads, and the most important thing, without
water. Being amateur troops with basic or no military training,
soldiers made many mistakes at the front line. They died
because the lack of orientation, knowledge about medicines and
cure for deceases, and they died because they committed
strategic mistakes that showed their position to the enemy.
My grandfather fights during the first two years of the
conflict at the front line. "Every night during war, your thoughts
travel in your mind, thinking about the end of the war, the
victory of the troops, and the reunion with your family after
war. War is a paradox, you are fighting and many people died,
but you are thinking all the time in the love of your people,
death and love, it is big contradiction" said my grandfather.
"How do you survive?" I said.
"I survive because other people died. Everybody
defends a position and their platoon, and many soldiers died in
front of me or because they sacrifice themselves to obtain a
victory. I have marks of the war in my skin, but I have the face
of every friend who died in the war in my mind, and they have
all my respect forever, for their sacrifice" said my grandfather.
"Young people don't understand these things", I said.
"I know, but today, you and I, and many generations
have to pay tribute to these brave men. Without their courage,
the history would have been written in a very different way",
exclaimed with a voice full of emotion.
"It is absolutely true grandpa...", I said in a timid and
My grandfather survived the war because, as he said,
others died, but also because he knew a lot of medical solutions
and medicine. With the other brothers studying to be doctors he
understood how to help people who are dying, how to stop
people bleeding, how to relieve the suffering, and also how to
cut arms or legs when a recovery is impossible. He learned all
these things in his house, but he put them in practice in the
worst scenario, the war.
"That is the reason I called you, to show you what the
legacy of my generation was, why I love my life, my family,
and my friends, why I love my country and the people of this
country, because I offer my life for that I believe, and I believe
in Paraguay", he said.
"You and your generation have the duty to fight for the
future of this country. This is the mission of young people
know. Make me proud, make your family proud, and put your
name in the history too", he said.
"I promise you", I said, and the conversation ended
with a strong handshake.
ELIStudent Voias 1
After three years of war, with the Bolivian army weak
and back to the original border, the peace treaty was signed.
The price of this conflict was paid with life and suffering. More
than seventy thousand Bolivians and thirty thousand
Paraguayan were dead. The countries were marked with fire
forever and their brave generations too. Paraguay won in the
paper but finally ceded part of the territory to Bolivia. The
British Empire found oil and gas in this area, and their banks
charged interest for the loans. As always, some rich people got
more money, and a lot of innocent people lost everything. This
is the result of the war.
My grandfather died this year, with all the family close
to his bed. I prefer to remember my grandfather as he was, a
strong man, proud, patriotic, happy, making jokes all the time,
enjoying his life and every minute that he spent with his family
because every minute counted and I always remember him.
Obstructions in the Reunification of the
Two Koreas 2nd Place
In this paper, I try to identify and explain how certain factors
are obstructing the reunification of North and South Korea. This
paper refers to eight published articles that touch on diverse
negative factors which affect the Korean reunification. There
are many factors to consider, such as political interests,
conflicting views of the North and the South toward the
reunification, and the long-term seizure of power of the Kim
family. Since both nations have such different views toward
reunification, practical progress has not been made, even
though there have been many reunification meetings.
Additionally, various interests of both nation's greatest leaders
are involved in the reunification. These leaders all have
different views about what the terms of the Korean reunification
should be, yet they all agree on and hope for a reunification that
will be both peaceful and gradual. Both nation's rulers and top
politicians cannot help but to think how the reunification would
influence their own country. Furthermore, considering the
hostile nature of the Kim regime in regards to South Korea,
freedom of North Koreans or any change in the North Korean
system cannot be expected. The points that I mention above are
the main factors that exist as obstructions in the reunification of
North and South Korea, and I focus on those obstructions in this
Korea is the only divided country in the world. This
nation has been divided for 60 years since they made
negotiations to ceasefire in 1950. Due to the fact that both
Korean nations have different ideologies, North Korea has had
many problems. For example, the North has had a continuous
shortage of food and many financial problems under the rule of
Kim's family, the leaders of the North Korean regime. On the
other hand, South Korea has been achieving a rapid economic
development under its democratic principles. These economical
and social differences make it more difficult for the Korean
nations to reach an agreement for the reunification because, in
many ways, huge gaps have been created in language, culture,
and so on. Also, the Kim's family regime has held on to their
power over North Korea by increasing the size of its military
and by making nuclear weapons. In addition, North Korea also
provoked South Korea several times, which made the tension
between the two Koreas even worse. These days, since the
sinking of Cheon-an, a South Korean naval ship that is
suspected to be hit by a North Korean torpedo, the relationship
between the two Koreas has been more frozen than before.
Thus, it is very hard for the two Koreas to commit to, or even
make a practical agreement, for the reunification since there are
many obstructions that the two Koreas are facing and have to
One of the obstructions is that various national and
political interests are entangled in the reunification of the two
Koreas. Dr. Youngho Kim (2i 1'1') shows that some great
nations, such as the US, China, Russia, and Japan, play
important roles in the relationship between the two Koreas.
Interests of powerful rulers, national interests, and political
agendas slow down the reunification of the two Koreas. Kim
(2I 1 1) found that both the nation's most influential leaders want
the North and the South to reunify gradually by peaceful and
democratic ways. They do not want a scenario where North
Korea unexpectedly collapses and they do not want the two
Koreas to rapidly reunify. This finding shows that the various
interests of these great leaders lean toward the reunification of
the two Koreas. The U.S. is supporting a gradual reunification
of the two Koreas, especially because of economic reasons. A
rapid reunification or unexpected collapse of North Korea will
have an influence on many economical achievements that South
Korea and the US have made in the both countries. The case of
Korea cannot be applied to the German unification since South
Korea's economical situation is not as strong as that of West
Germany, which is corroborated by the IMF financial crisis at
1997 in South Korea (Kim 2003). Besides, historically, the US
and South Korea are close allies and they cooperate with each
other for economical benefits. Due to those reasons, the US will
provide financial assistance for the reunified Korea. The US is
well conscious of their financial role in the reconstruction
process of a reunified Korea and, if this process is not gradual,
the US expects that their financial burden will be more costly.
The US does not want to take a huge financial burden caused by
a rapid reunification or unexpected collapse of North Korea.
Also the US does not want the balance of power in East Asia to
be disrupted. If the balance of power in East Asia is lost, one the
more powerful nations in this region would gain even more
power. This would threaten the position of the US as the most
powerful nation and checks the power of the US in the
international community. For those reasons, the US promotes a
gradual reunification of the two Koreas by a peaceful way.
China has significant roles to play in the process of
reunification. Nowadays, China government does not want to
create tension in the international environment since China is
striving for economic development. China is North Korea's
closest ally, and North Korea heavily relies on China in terms of
food and oil now. A rapid reunification or unexpected collapse
of North Korea will disrupt economic development of China
and will be more of a burden to China since China would assist
by giving huge financial aid to the reunified Korea. It would
obstruct and slow down the economic development of China. In
addition, there would be enormous flow into China of political
refugees who do not want to live in the reunified Korea, which
will cause financial problems for China since China would have
to feed them. Due to those reasons, China would also want a
gradual reunification of the two Koreas.
Similarly, Japan government wants a scenario of a
gradual reunification even though they are reactive and careful
about the reunification of Korea. Japan government does not
want to take many refugees who oppose to the reunification
from North Korea into Japan caused by an unexpected collapse
of North Korea. Also, Japan government is supporting a gradual
reunification of Korea because of the fact that Japan does not
want to take the financial burden to assist the reunified Korea.
Japan government would be very adaptive toward the
reunification of Korea by observing the interests of the other
Finally, Russia's influence on North Korea has
decreased since the Soviet Union had diplomatic relations with
South Korea. Nowadays, even though Russia tries to regain its
influence on North Korea by re-establishing relations with
North Korea, Russia could not afford to deal with the problems
of the surrounding nations because of its own economic
problems. Russia wants security and peace of the two Koreas.
According to the interests of the great powers, the four great
powers all prefer a gradual reunification by peaceful means and
democratic ways. They do not want to shift the balance of
power in East Asia. Therefore, the interests of the four great
powers slow down the reunification of Korea and make it more
One of the obstructive factors in the reunification of
Korea is that communism of North Korea has made the
peaceful reunification more difficult under the rule of the Kim
regime. Byman and Lind (2010) found that the Kim regime has
relied on three major tools to hold onto their power over North
First of all, the dictatorial regime of Kim's family
blocks the formation or development of a challenging group.
All government organizations are formed by government
policies in North Korea. Besides, they prohibit people from
building any independent organizations that might revolt
against Kim's family. The ultimate goal of this policy is so that
Kim's family can maintain power over North Korea.
Second, any ideas and all information is controlled by
the Kim regime in North Korea. According to the Byman and
Lind (2010), the Kim regime brainwashes all North Koreans to
make them blindly follow Kim's family and the Kim regime.
North Korean schools teach the people about how to worship
Kim. All North Koreans should memorize significant speeches
of Kim Il-Sung who was the founder and the first president of
North Korea. Additionally, almost North Koreans cannot get
access to foreign culture, media, internet and so on. They are
not allowed to go abroad and interact with foreigners. In this
environment, it is almost impossible for North Koreans to even
think of a revolution. They have no choice but to follow Kim's
Furthermore, it was found that the Kim regime uses
force to detect anyone who is against Kim's regime (Byman and
Lind 2010). Kim's family is observing North Koreans under
constant military surveillance. Due to the fact that punishment
is cruel for anyone who is anti-Kim's regime, most North
Koreans are very cautious and modest in their speeches. Many
resistance groups have been sent to political prison camps
where conditions are really abysmal. Political prisoners are
suffering from starvation and extreme work. In addition, the
family members of resistance groups are also punished. By the
three main policies that I mentioned above, the Kim regime has
been maintained for about 60 years. Under the rule of the
authoritarian regime, there is no doubt that it is extremely hard
to make an anti-regime group or an organization for a
revolution. As long as the long-term seizure of power of Kim's
family continues, the reunification of Korea would not be easy.
Due to the fact that the two Koreas have contradicting
views towards the reunification, practical and significant
progress has not been made. In spite of the South Korea's
Sunshine Policy, which would help reduce tension between the
two Koreas, North Korea has made unreasonable demands on
South Korea that had nothing to do with the reunification, such
as demanding 500,000 kilowatts of power for North Korea.
Meanwhile, South Korea was focusing on making a practical
agreement for the reunification at several ministerial-level talks
(Gillian Goh, 2004). North Korea has not seemed to cooperate
with South Korea except for the time when there were shortages
of food and financial problems. Situations where North Korea
makes unreasonable demands such as the one mentioned above
are a much more frequent occurrence in the relationship
between the two Koreas. Basically, these different views of the
two Koreas towards the reunification have made it difficult to
find a middle ground. The main conflicting views of the two
Koreas towards the reunification are as follows:
What form a reunified Korea should take
The reunification policy that South Korea has held is
to aim for a unitary state with one central government. On the
other hand, North Korea aims for a federation of nations which
has two different ideologies and governments. North Korea's
plan for a federation would be a reunification in name only
because it would not change the way each of the nations is
governed. A federation which keeps both conflicting ideologies
in place would hinder the assimilation process between citizens
of South and North Korea by keeping them divided (Soohyun
Difference of preconditions
South Korea has no precondition in the process of the
reunification. On the other hand, North Korea has been
demanding several preconditions, which mainly focus on
denying South Korea's system, such as the demand for the
abolition of the National Security Law which aims for security
of the nation and freedom, survival of the citizens by regulating
anti-state activities and the demand that South Korea not allow
outside states like the USA to participate in the reunification
process. The major reason why North Korea denies South
Korea's system such as the National Security Law is to make it
easier to instigate South Koreans for organizing anti-state
groups (Choi, 2009).
Difference of political philosophy and institutional structures
South Korea would like the reunified Korea to be a
democracy that focuses on individual rights. On the other hand,
North Korea would like to extend its communist system into
South Korea. One example of a major disagreement over
institutional structures is how government officials will be put
into office. South Korea has been insisting on democratic
elections that are mandated by a new constitution. In contrast,
North Korea does not want to hold elections. Instead, they
would prefer to have a joint meeting between leaders of the two
Koreas to determine who will hold which positions in the
reunified government (Choi, 2009).
M Differences between South and North Korean citizen
participation in the reunification process and the vision for the
future of Korea
South Korea would like to let all citizens from both
nations have full involvement in the decisions being made as
reunification progresses. However, North Korea would prefer to
exclude all citizens in favor of government officials having full
decisive power. South Korea has a vision of a reunified Korea
that is an advanced democratic nation that guarantees freedom,
welfare, and human dignity. However, North Korea does not
have any long-term vision for the future of the reunified Korea
North Korea demands South Korea to give them food
and money because they are having many troubles
economically and food-wise. In contrast, North Korea shows a
very passive attitude about holding a joint meeting for the
reunification. It would be hard to make practical progress unless
the two Koreas start to see things in the same way and North
Korea becomes more active towards the reunification.
The reunification is not only the problem of the Two
Koreas. Many interests of great powers are entangled in the
reunification process. Great powers are observing what is
happening on the Korean Peninsula because they know that the
reunification of Korea will affect their economic situations and
an international environment. Additionally, the communist
system of North Korea makes the reunification more difficult.
Kim regime is still hostile to South Korea and does not seem to
be active over the reunification. Further, it is extremely hard to
expect Kim regime to be collapsed by anti-Kim regime since all
citizens of North Korea are thoroughly monitored by militaries
and are brainwashed to follow Kim regime. Also different
reunification policies of the Two Koreas make them hard to
find a middle ground. Due to the fact that the Two Koreas have
totally conflicting views towards the reunification, it would take
long time to narrow their difference. There are several
obstructions like those mentioned above between the Two
Koreas for the reunification. To be the reunified Korea, the Two
Koreas both need to put a lot of effort and take one step back. If
they agree to differ and try to narrow it, the Two Koreas would
accomplish the peaceful reunification.
Bleiker. R (2001). Identity and security in Korea. The Pacific
Review, 14(1), 121-148.
Byman. D, Lind. J (2010). Pyongyang's Survival Strategy
Tools of Authoritarian Control in North Korea.
International Security, 35(1), 44-74.
Chae, H, Kim, S (2008). Conservatives and Progressives in
South Korea. Washington Quarterly,
Choi. S (2009). A Comparative Study on the Unification Policy
of South-North Korea
(Nambukhan Tongiljungchak Bygue Yeongu).
(Unpublished master thesis). Daejin University,
Pocheon, S. Korea.
Gillian. G (2004). International pressure and North Korea's
Current Options: Will Inter-Korean
Relations Improve? Asian Journal of Political Science,
Kim. Y (I 11 i'). The great powers in peaceful Korean
reunification. International Journal on
World Peace, 20(3), 3-15.
Scott. S (2000). Negotiating on the Edge: Patterns in North
Korea's Diplomatic Style. WorldAffairs, 163(1), 3-15.
Scott. S (2007). South Korea's Squeeze Play. Australian
Journal of International Affairs, 61(4),
How Do Biology and Culture Influence
Lara Sanz Sanz
During the history, men and women have had clear and
differentiate roles in the society. We don't have homogeneous
skills to make the same things. This reality is due to two
important items: biological and cultural influences. All began
with biological facts, because in general men are stronger than
women, and for this reason men had to hunt because this
activity required more strength, and then this turn into a habit or
custom, therefore gender roles have been influenced by biologic
and cultural aspects. The point to discuss here is how these
biological and cultural influences affect the roles between men
and women. The restriction of biology and culture influence of
the gender roles has two negative effects: the restriction to find
a job, and the obligations at home. This is because that
influence creates disadvantages for one or another gender.
Firstly, one of the effects of biology and culture
influence in gender roles is the restrictions that both genders
have when they try to find a job, in most of the cases here the
restrictions are for biology aspects, and this is because some
jobs require that the employees have enough strength to do it
like in jobs in relation with the construction. But women are in
a bigger disadvantage because they are limited by biological
facts, and they cannot do anything to solve it. But it is also true
that men are more affected for cultural or social restrictions.
Many people believe that in others cases, the difficulty is for
cultural roles. For example, there are some jobs during the
history that the women have done, such as working as
secretaries or nurses, and when man tries to work in those kinds
of jobs, the society thinks that this man is 'weird'. For all these
reasons, the worst affected are the women, because in the case
of the men, they can work in all kinds of jobs although the
people think that they are weird, but in the case of the women,
they don't have options, simply they cannot work in whatever
On the other hand, there are obligations that men and
women have at home. This is clearly a cultural topic, because
the tasks at home don't require an extreme strength. But during
the history the women have had to do all the housework that a
house require like cleaning, washing, doing the laundry,
cooking, or ironing, and the men had to do more the physical
jobs. It is common to think that women have to do all these
tasks because this has been the custom during long time.
Another obligation that women have had, it is that women had
to take care the children because 'women are more qualify to do
it'; this is another aspect in which women have been more
damaged. But isn't it true that men are in the same way parents
that women? Men have the same responsibility with their
children that the women. Both are in the same way parents, and
the men are qualified too, but for them it is easier to say that
women have special skills to take care them, are more sensible,
etc., but the reason it is that is easier to sit down in front of the
television or do others things, because kids are a huge
responsibility and require to spend time with them, sometimes
they are more apathy with this issue. All these cares also can be
done by men and they should do it, and more in these days,
which both genders have jobs out. It is true that nowadays more
and more men are beginning to collaborate at home but this
have to continue changing. Although sometimes, in this topic
men have less opportunities than women, for example, when a
couple broke their marriage, normally the custody of the kids is
for the women, and in this case both are parents in the same
way, why don't fathers have the same rights in this case? We
can see with this example that men have disadvantage too in the
For me, it is normal that in some aspects men and
women have different roles, because we are different people,
with different abilities, and qualities. But in the topics that both
genders are the same and both can do it, the situation should be
change because it is too unfair for the other gender, and both
should have the same rights and obligations, like for example in
the roles that both genders have at home.
The Wine of Valdepefias
Natalia Fuentes Gomez
I was born in a little town in Spain. Most of people in
Spain know where my town is because it is very famous for
wine. Valdepenas is in the province of Ciudad Real, Castilla-La
Mancha. Castilla-La Mancha is between the Community of
Madrid and Andalucia, two hundreds kilometers from Madrid,
the capital of Spain. Valdepenas is devoted primarily to wine
In Valdepenas, there are many wineries where the wine
is made. First, the owners of the vineyards, where the grapes are
grown, hire people to pick the grapes. After harvesting, the
grapes are taken to the wineries. There, the owner of the winery
pays sum of money for each kilogram of grapes. Then, the
grapes are crushed and peeled to make juice. When the juice is
made, it is necessary to let it stand to form the alcohol. Depends
on the flavor that you want, you have to mix different kinds of
grapes and add certain ingredients, such as tannins, minerals,
and sugar. An important thing that makes a wine good is the
place where the juice of grapes is kept and the concentration of
the juice. The number of years that the wine is in the barrel
designates the level of the wine such as "youth" or "reserved".
Wine making is a difficult job and takes a long time to
make it. Moreover, not all places are appropriate for planting
grapes because it requires a particular soil and a specific
climate. I advise you to visit my town and try their delicious
Alcoholism is a very serious problem that faces the
society and it can lead to a lot of problems. A lot of alcoholics
face a difficult time in their lives and families. We can get rid of
this problem by following some steps.
Alcoholism can get people in a lot of problems. People
can get fired because of being alcoholic. Being alcoholic can
lead to a divorce or a fight in the family. It also can lead the
children to drink because they learn from their parents'.
Alcoholism can lead people to get violent in the street, work
and home. People can cause a lot of accidents because people
will be driving while they are drunk or thinking of drinking.
Alcoholics are facing a lot of problems with their money
because they are spending too much money on alcohol which is
To solve this problem and get rid of it, we have to
follow some steps. The government should reduce or ban
alcohol from the country. The bartender has a responsibility to
report someone if he suspect someone is alcoholic. The ideal
way to solve this problem is to educate all people about the
consequences of alcoholism. People should take drug and
alcoholic test before taking drivers license.
In conclusion, it's possible to solve the crisis of
alcoholism. To solve this problem the government and the
people should work together to end this crisis. If we neglect this
serious problem we are going to face a lot of problems that we
didn't even think about.
Beyond English at the ELI
British Council said "Better English more
opportunities." I agree with this quote because English can
extend my ability in many ways such as getting information in
English. Not only speaking English but also speaking any other
languages except their first language can give us benefits.
However, English became a worldwide language nowadays;
that is the reason why a lot of foreigners want and try to learn
English. In addition, a lot of foreigners are heading to Australia,
Canada, the UK, the US or the other countries which use
English even though they need to give up something in their
own countries. I came to the US because of the same reason;
also, I had given up my graduation for learning English.
Before I decided to come here for over one year, I had
been really anxious for almost one year because I had to give up
as much as the period I decided to stay in the US. Anyway, I
came here; I'm leaving few weeks later. I can't believe it passed
almost sixteen months; time is flying fast. Actually, I'm
counting the days I have before I leave for Korea and preparing
to go home. I know I'm really excited, and I've been waiting
this moment since I got homesick. Some of the ELI students are
on a difficult time right now because of homesick, and I
understand you guys. Some of the ELI students are frustrated
right now because of their English. Thus, I want to let you
know another point at the ELI which you've already gotten
regardless of the period how long you've been staying here.
I know it is very transparent and boring words, but
it's obviously true. You've gotten an important experience at
the ELI. I don't know exactly what kinds of experience you've
gotten, and it depends on your feeling. In my case, I've had
such a serious time to think about myself for sixteen months. I
could have time just only for me for sixteen months, and I could
have chance to look at myself objectively. Because of that time,
I could draw my route before I leave. The important
experiences could make your life different from before. Nobody
knows how the experiences affect your life and thought;
moreover, anyone doesn't know how long the experiences can
affect your life and thought. Everything is up to you, but you
can figure out your change at some moments.
Our first goal was learning English as I know and you
know; however, I believe it's impossible to get the perfect
English within a short time at the ELI. Some students have
gotten disappointed and will be disappointed because of your
English even though you have stayed here for a long time and
been higher level classes at the ELI than average people. I want
to tell you the important thing that the level at the ELI is
nothing of your life. Learning something from the classes is
much more important than which level you are in. I want you to
deal with your amazing experiences as valuable things at the
ELI. Also, I hope you won't be frustrated anymore with your
English. You are a pioneer of your life, and you have already
overcome the frustration a little bit unconsciously. I'm proud of
you and myself.
School Uniform and Hairstyle Regulation
In the early morning, students who wear the same
school uniforms and have similar hairstyles are censored by
teachers. Some of the students get a corporal punishment
because they violate school regulations. This is the common
morning scenery in Korean schools. There is a controversy
about school uniform and hairstyle regulation in schools. Some
people say that school uniform and hairstyle regulation are
advantageous while the others say that it's not necessary and
unjust. Although some people say that student should wear a
school uniform and follow a hairstyle regulation, I think that
school uniform and hairstyle regulation are wrong for several
Advocates of a school uniform and a hairstyle
regulation think that it's easier to control when students wear
same school uniforms and have similar hairstyles. However,
advocates' idea of controlling students is unacceptable.
Students go to the school for learning but not for being
controlled. Schools teach and instruct their students. Students
are not soldiers, and a school is not a military. School uniform
and hairstyle regulation are a vestige from military regimes and
the era under the rule of Japanese imperialism in Korean
modern history. We should eliminate the vestige and treat
Also, advocates of a school uniform and a hairstyle
regulation claim that a student should dress like a student. I
disagree with this idea because a school uniform is not the only
way to show character as a student. For example, one wears a
school uniform and follows the regulation, but he or she doesn't
care to study at all. On the other hand, the other doesn't wear a
school uniform, but he or she studies hard. Who is better as a
student? I think that being like a student is different from
looking like a student through a mandatory appearance.
Moreover, I believe that being as a free man is more important
than showing a student look.
In addition, advocates of a school uniform and a
hairstyle regulation say that wearing a school uniform and
following hairstyle regulation reduce disharmony among the
wealthy and the poor because it costs less than wearing personal
clothes and having a unique hairstyle. However, it's not true
because the gap between the rich and the poor is already
revealed by their bags, shoes, and even school uniforms'
brands. A school uniform is expensive, and students might need
another one if their bodies grow. It's a big burden for the poor
family. Besides school uniforms, students still need clothes for
after school and the weekend.
Above all, everyone has freedom for their bodies and
freedom to express themselves. Students are not an exception
from these rights. They should be able to choose their clothes
and hairstyle by their tastes and individualities. Far from having
these freedoms, some schools even engage in excessive and
thoughtless behavior such as hitting students, shaving boys'
hair, or cutting a girls' hair under the guise of maintaining high
standards of discipline. It just makes more unnecessary corporal
punishments and brutal treatment.
Next, students also have a right of self-determination
of personal information and a right to be guaranteed anonymity.
Not only a school uniform but also a name tag on it reveals a
student's identity. Whether a student wants or not, one's
personal information is exposed to unspecified individuals. It's
an abuse of human rights, and it's dangerous because it might
be abused by a criminal.
Lastly, school uniforms and hairstyle regulation force
to be same with others. It develops uniformity while killing
students' creativity. We should reject conformity and value
diversity. Students are forced to have a community spirit by
having the same look, and they learn a vertical organization
culture between seniors and juniors by revealing their colored
name tags. Also, students learn a fixed idea of gender by
forcing to wear a pants and a skirt. It's not their choice; it
already fixed by their gender. I believe that these subconscious
differentiations by age or gender should be sublated in the
public education field.
In conclusion, wearing a school uniform and
following hairstyle regulation is not right for these reasons:
freedom of body and express, right of self-determination of
personal information and guaranteed of anonymity, and break
the brainwashing. For these reasons, I think that school uniform
and hairstyle regulation should be abolished completely.
Differences and Similarities Between
Scientists and Artists
There are two kinds of people who are both admired
by the mass, but hardly sit together. They both play
irreplaceable roles in human society, but rarely show their
respects for each other. They are scientists and artists. In our
sub-conscious, there is a stereotype that they are totally
different people. However, we can't ignore that similarities do
exist between them and make them more like real humans and
not machines. Both the differences and similarities define who
Differences between scientists and artists are easy to
find. First of all, they focus on totally different areas. Scientists
are dedicated to explaining the natural world by scientific
theories to boost human society. Artists, however, concentrate
on finding and expressing the beauty of our world and the
essences of human nature.
Secondly, it's important for scientists to be logical and
rational when they are doing research because science must rely
on truth and can be proven. However, artists don't need to
follow any rules when they are doing a work. They can create
figures entirely from imagination or reality. They can finish a
work very personally, and they don't have to worry about how
people feel. Take Vincent Van Gogh as an example: his work
Starry Night, which is the expression of his own internal world,
did not gain deserved appreciation for its uniqueness at the
beginning, but it turned out to be a masterpiece finally.
Thirdly, scientists have to explain how they complete
their achievements and how they will benefit human society.
Otherwise, people will question their results and their efforts
will go in vain. On the contrary, as an artist, sometimes it's
better to keep silent when he completes an achievement. There
are critics and audiences who will have their own opinion about
the work and figure out what's the inherent meaning of the
Nevertheless, despite the obvious distinguishing
factors, we have to be aware of the existence of similarities
between scientists and artists.
Firstly, both scientists and artists are required to have a
high level of creativity for success. The spirit of innovation is
the key quality for those who already made or will make big
accomplishments. If Isaac Newton had lacked creativity, there
would have been no Laws of Motion, which enhanced the base
of Classical Mechanics and boosted modern physics. If Franz
Joseph Haydn had lacked creativity, he would have been
incapable of defining the layout of symphony.
Secondly, being patient is equally important for both
scientists and artists. Before an outstanding success has been
achieved, scientists and artists should be patient enough to stay
in the laboratory or studio for a long time. Especially for some
unprecedented realms of science or art, scientists and artists
should not only be patient, but also be determined. A great
number of scientists treat the Nobel Prize as their lifetime goal.
But before they really get the prize, they have to be patient and
have faultless beliefs about what they are researching; so do
Thirdly, achievements of both scientists and artists
benefit human society. On the one hand, the development of
technology enriches our material world and improves our
culture. On the other hand, the development of social cultures
enriches our spiritual world and, also, exerts influence on
technology. For instance, the script of the famous movie
Avatar by James Cameron had been written 14 years ago, but at
that time he couldn't make it real because the technology
requirement of this movie was far beyond that era. But the
director didn't just wait for the technology. Like he said, he
would push the technology to make it happen. He and his team
developed a lot new movie technology and eventually brought
the movie onto the screen.
In summary, scientists and artists have both
differences, including focusing on different area, being logical
or ideal, explaining the work or not, and similarities, which are
creative mind required, being patient and determined, benefiting
human society. The stereotype that scientists and artists are
entirely different kinds of people should be broken.
Culture and Gender Roles
"Male or female, man or woman" is the universal
argument that will never finish. The majority of organisms are
created biologically as male and female for specific reasons.
They generate more and more; therefore they save their species.
Human beings are the most developed creatures on the earth, so
they can think, talk, and communicate with each other through
different creative methods. In the case of human beings, are
created as male and female for other necessary roles beside
conservation of the species. Each community has specific
criteria to deal with men and women. The majority of societies
have strict limitations against women; however, many societies
today give some rights and freedom for women. Cultures and
traditions in many societies give men and women their roles;
however, men and women can challenge their cultures and take
new and different roles.
First, societies specify the roles of men and women
according to their cultures and traditions. So men in many
societies are given the important roles outside home with high
volume of freedom, while the roles of women are limited inside
the home. Many people believe that women should stay at
home because they are created to have babies and take care of
them. In some cases the husband prevents his wife working
outside the home as a result of this idea. However, women show
that they have the ability to do more roles than those outside
home in different fields such as education, medicine, and so on.
Moreover, many cultures give husbands absolute rights to
control their wives' roles. Many people believe that men work
and take care of their families, so they have the right to control
their wives' roles and decide what they can do and what they
can't do. But if this is so, what about women in our societies
today who work to help their families to live, and what about
men who are staying home while their wives are working. Do
they have the right to control their wives' roles? Also, in many
societies today as a result of living difficulties, many wives
have to work beside their husbands to increase their incomes.
In addition, cultures control men and women's roles
based on many traditional and religious misconceptions.
Women as well as men are created with the same mental
abilities, and the differences are related back to the people
themselves, but not to their genders. However isn't it true that
many communities consider women whether they are not smart
or have less mental abilities than men? So many societies don't
listen to and disregard opinions of women. But if this is true
what about women who are successful in their positions. For
example, the female scientists who were awarded Nobel prize
in physics, chemistry, medicine, and economic sciences.
Moreover, cultures give men difficult and important missions
while women are given easy missions and jobs. It is often
thought that women have weak body builds; so they can't work
in some jobs such as construction or industry, and they are
usually hired in specific occupations such as teaching and
secretary. But the fact is women today work professionally at
any job; for example, women have become presidents in some
countries. Also, the great improvement of equipment and
devices makes jobs much easier and don't need much effort.
Finally, gender roles differ from one society to another
depending on culture or traditions of that society. The roles of
women in some cultures are limited inside the home, but men
have many roles outside home which are limited by the rules of
the community. Also, many societies believe in many
misconceptions about women such as, women have weak and
small body builds so they can't do some jobs, and women are
less intelligent than men. Men are praised in many cultures
while women undergo a lot of pressures; however, men and
women should share their life, and they are created to complete
each other, not to control each other. What about you, do you
agree with me that gender roles are controlled by culture?
Urban and Rural Living
People live in different parts of the word and lead
different types of lives. Their lifestyles vary from one region to
another. Among different places where people can inhabit,
urban and rural areas are the most common. Some people think
it is more comfortable to live in an urban area; on the other
hand, others believe living in a rural area is more pleasant.
However urban and rural living can be similar or different
considering some criteria: responsibility, activity, habitat, and
service. In my opinion, I believe their differences are more
impressive than their similarities.
In the rural area people live generally in family, and
parents work hard to take care of their children. They have to
provide foods, clothes, housing, and money to the family. In the
same way, parents in the urban area also have to work hard for
the family. They are responsible to provide all to their children.
Parents in both rural and urban areas are also responsible to
educate their children. Some educations are given at home, and
children have to go to school to procure intellectual education.
However, in three distinct ways, the urban living and
the rural living are almost opposites. First of all, their activity is
very different. In the rural area, agriculture is often the principal
economic activity. Agricultural products are used to feed the
family and to earn some money. On the other hand, there are
different economic activities in urban areas like industry,
commerce and professional activity. Urban and rural areas also
have different social activities. In urban living we can meet at
various locations: clubs, museums, movies etc. In contrast, the
rural area often has traditional social activity. Second, the
habitat in rural and urban areas is very different. In urban area
the houses are built near each other. They could be very tall like
some apartments where several families live together.
Sometimes, they are located near other buildings like shopping
centers and hospitals. On the other hand, houses in rural areas
are isolated. You can meet a vast area of gardens between two
houses. Despite the isolation of houses in the rural area,
everyone knows everyone. Finally, the relationship between the
qualities of service is quite different in the two areas. In the
urban area people have more opportunity. They have access to
electricity, the internet, and public transportation. However,
people in the rural area don't receive enough service. Most of
them don't have electricity and sometimes access to the health
can be very difficult. In addition, the problem of infrastructure
could be very serious.
In conclusion, the two kinds of living have some
similarities, but I believe their differences are more remarkable.
However, both contain some advantages and some
inconveniences. Regardless, the familial responsibility, the
types of activity, the habitat and the service available make of
them two great places where people can live and develop a real
sense of community.
How to Buy a House: Comparing Two
Very Expensive Houses
Buying a house is one of the most important decisions
in our life. Not only is this decision very expensive, but also a
house is not just a thing to us. We have to make our house a
home because our house is our nest where we live with family
and friends together. To make a good home, when we buy a
house, we should consider a lot of things such as purpose, price,
location, style, size and property. If you think that your first
criterion is the most expensive house, there are two houses. The
house in Corona del Mar, Calif. and the house in New York
City, N.Y. have similar price, while they have different location
First, they are two of the most expensive houses in
America. The house in California is $75,000,000. Similarly,
the house in New York is $70,000,000 because they are
beautiful, extraordinary and massive houses, and they have
good location, nice view and many convenient facilities as well.
Those surroundings make those houses very expensive.
However, they are located in different regions. The
first one is in Corona del Mar, California. It is just 45 miles
south of Los Angeles, Portobello. In addition, it is by the sea
sites on three oceanfront lots facing Catalina Island. On the
other hand, the second one is in New York City, New York. It
is in the Upper East Side of Manhattan and also near Central
Finally, they have different style and facilities. The
house in California is a 22,000-square-foot residence with a lot
of facilities. For instance, it includes media room, movie
theater with stage and powder rooms, a mini-diner with
soda/milkshake bar, a bowling alley, garaging for 16 cars, a
three-story seascape grotto with two saltwater swimming pools,
two spas, a tunnel water slide, a waterfall and a barbecue area.
In contrast, the house in New York is a chateau-style triplex
penthouse, which is on the top of the Pierre Hotel. It also
includes 16 spacious rooms, five fireplaces, oak flooring, a
living room that was formerly the hotel's ballroom and four
In conclusion, even though those two houses are
similar in price, which is very expensive, they are different in
location, style and facilities. The house in California is a well
equipped residence nearby a seaside, but the house in New
York is a fabulous penthouse in central city. Like this, you can
make a careful decision about your house by comparing and
contrasting their characteristics.
As usual, I wake up at 7pm and check the date. It's
November 17th, 2060. Next I washed my face and toasted some
slices of toast with rich flavor coffee. There are thousands of
food capsules at the store, but I don't like that. Although bread
has less nutrition, I like chewing food and smelling food.
Grabbing the mug cup, I sit on the sofa and touch the
see-through screen. Tap-tap. According to the article, China's
population has increased and now it's tripled, compared to 50
years ago. I imagined that, but it's amazing. China has a
considerable amount of plants and labor force. Actually, China
is threatening the U.S economy.
The water conflict has been a problem over the whole
world. Frequent floods and drying up rivers are the problems.
Because of the shortage of water for drinking, a conflict
between countries is getting worse. I've been paying for a bottle
of water $10 since ten years ago. All people know that the price
of water is nonsense, but there's no way to drink water except
to buy it for that price.
While the natural things have been damaged and
disappeared, the technologies have developed surprisingly and
remarkably. It's been possible for people to get to the other
countries in 6 hours. For example, it takes just 4 hours from the
U. S to Korea. Also, a tunnel was made in the bottom of the sea
between Korea, Japan and China. My grandkids went to see
Japan last week. I still can't believe how it takes just 15 minutes
Another part of development is robot technology.
Cleaner robot is old fashioned and "Avata", which had been
movie, is real. It's called Hu-bot (human-robot). I'll see the Hu-
bot Olympics this weekend with my husband. I can't wait to see
Discrimination Against Anti-Chavistas in
What would you think if you realize that in Venezuela
thousands of people are threatened simply because they do not
have the same ideology or way of thinking as the Venezuelan
government? Nowadays, some Venezuelans and people around
the world think that Venezuela has a dictatorial, populist and
revolutionary president. These people are discriminated against
by the government. Others believe that Venezuela is governed
by a president who is just, equitable and focuses on mitigating
inequalities. However, there is considerable discrimination
against people who do not have the same ideology as the
president. These people cannot get jobs at the public
administration, are oppressed to prevent them from expressing
their opinions or ideas, and they are treated as traitors of the
The first form of discrimination is that in which anti-
chavistas cannot work at the governmental institutions or
offices. It really started when some people signed up in
opposition to Chavez for the purpose of revoking his power, but
the result was catastrophic, chaotic, and sad for these people.
They could not get enough signatures to convene a presidential
referendum, but the worst thing, Chavez obtained the list which
included their name, national identification number, fingerprints
and other information that was necessary to identify the people
who were against him. This list was called "Lista Tasc6n". As a
consequence, these people are not able to get a job at the Public
Administration, their companies cannot bid on a contract at the
government, and unfortunately, they sometimes cannot obtain
health, educational, and housing services or financial aid.
The second element to consider is that Venezuelans do
not have freedom of speech. Since Chavez has been in power
(1998 present), a lot of negative things have happened to
people who want to express opinions that in opposition to the
government. These people are frightened of being imprisoned
or having to find a way to seek asylum in other countries. Thus,
several people in Venezuela are afraid of expressing their
beliefs or ideologies on television, radio, or any media because
they fear being threatened or punished. For example, there was
a channel called "Radio Caracas Television" (RCTV) that was
closed by an order from the president because hey showed the
point of view of the opposition.
The last consequence is people who do not follow
Chavez's ideology are treated as traitors of the homeland. In
many countries around the world, people have the opportunity
and liberty to protest on the street. However, in Venezuela they
are not allowed to do this because the government does not give
the authorization, resources or provide security for a march
against Chavez. For example, when they try to do it, people
who support Chavez start insulting or attacking the opposition
that only want peace and express their ideas. At these protests
against Chavez, many people have been attacked verbally and
physically. As a result, people injured and murdered.
As we have seen, Venezuela is going through a very
complicated political situation. Anti-chavistas are not able to
work at the public administration, publicly express their ideas in
opposition to the president, and they are considered as people
who do not belong to Venezuela. Do you think that you could
live in a country where some of the citizens do not have the
same rights and obligations as other citizens?
First, they are similar regarding their location. Both
Coteaux and Port-a-Piment are seaside villages. They are both
exposed to the ocean storms in the south and protected by hills
against the violent winds in the hurricane periods in the north.
They offer only one way to access Les Cayes, the main city of
the south department. They have the natural beauty with
beaches, rivers and a wooded landscape.
Second, their economies are mainly based on the same
business: fishing and agriculture. Fishermen use small ships and
hooks to catch fish and generally do their activities by night.
They sell their products to restaurant owners from Les Cayes.
Some citizens own freezers to conserve fish for local
consumption but for sure their population consumes mainly
fish which is freshly caught .In agriculture, they grow bananas,
which is the main production of the zone not only in quantity
but also economically; maize, sorghum are also grown for the
local consumption. Bananas are sold to be sent to Port-au-
Prince and Les Cayes.
Finally, they are two small cities. They are both
unpopulated and small regarding their area and the volume of
their social and economic activities .They have about the same
space and about 20,000 people each, even though nowadays,
Coteaux is growing because people of the countryside are
immigrating extending his area.
However, Coteaux is more modem than Port-a-Piment.
One gas station and some malls have been opened in Coteaux
while Port-a-Piment is still attached to the traditional business.
The houses in Coteaux are new and mainly made up of cement
and are asymmetrical, curvy and rounded whereas the houses of
Port-a-piment are made up of woods mainly and are classical
Also, they are different regarding the way they work
and also the work force that is used. Generally, in Port-a-Piment
people pay other people from the countryside to work in
agricultural fields et cetera. But in Coteaux, people generally do
their duties by themselves or in association.
In conclusion, although the construction in each
village, Coteaux and Port-a-Piment, and the way that people
work are different, they are mainly similar for their economic
activities, their location and their development level. Even
though they are two small villages without all the structures
generally founded in the big cities, I have thought that it is more
interesting to live there enjoying the hot friendship of people
and the green life.
Coteaux and Port-a-Piment: Two Villages The Role of the Entrepreneur in the
of Southern Haiti Economy
Joseph Beneche Cesar Pena
RW 42 RW 60
The people of these neighboring villages are always
competing. In Haiti, they like to compare their development's
level and each one wants to express his superiority. Coteaux
and Port-a-Piment are two neighbor villages in the southwest of
Haiti. Even though the sons of those cities can think differently
I've been observing more similarities than differences between
Many economists focus their attention in the
entrepreneurs and the process of innovation. They want to
understand how entrepreneurs can help the economic growth.
Behind entrepreneurs exists a system that support them. In
industrial countries entrepreneurs have institutions, agencies,
companies and people organized in a system prepared for
ELIStdent Voiaes 10
develop new ventures. These conditions are different in less
Although there are some differences between industrial and less
developed countries, entrepreneurs have the similar
characteristics. They are people who work with passion and
commitment to succeed, to achieve their goals, to build a new
business, a new product or a new service for the customers.
Entrepreneurs have the power to transform their sectors. They
can also contribute to the economy because they organize their
new ventures hiring well educated people, analyzing strategies
and estimating risks. In this process, the economy receives the
benefits of the constant activity of entrepreneurs.
The role of the entrepreneur in the economy
The importance of people who are independent, who
work with their own ideas, who want to build or establish new
venture, new businesses and new products is crucial for the
economy today. According to the Small Business
Administration, Office of Advocacy, based in the US Bureau of
the Census, today the number of small firms represent 99.7
percent of all employer firms, employ half of all private sector
employees, have generated 60 to 80 percent of net new jobs
annually over the last decade, and create more than 50 percent
of nonfarm private gross domestic product (GDP).
For many decades, economists and governments have
been analyzing and discussing about economic growth and its
causes. They have been explaining the economic growth as a
result of investments of capital and labor mainly, in a
production model. In 1934, the economist Joseph Schumpeter
introduced the term "creative destruction" describing the
process in which a person tries to develop new ideas and
transform them in business. If this idea succeeds as a business
and it has the power to innovate, eliminates competitors, and
gets similar products obsolete, there is a creation of wealth, but
a destruction of the previous business and products. The trade-
off between them probably is negative in the short run because
the new concept destroys jobs, technologies and companies, but
is positive in the long run because the customer obtains a better
product, the sector adopts a new technology that needs more
investment and education, and managers have to design new
business models to increase sales. Thus, in the long run, these
processes are the catalysts for change, resulting in a new or
improved business sector that is more competitive,
sophisticated and strong.
According to Schumpeter (1934), entrepreneurs, have
the power to transform the economic scenery and to increase
the economic growth. From Schumpeter to now, many
economists and governments have been trying to understand
how public policies can support entrepreneurs in a systematic
way, because if they achieve, the positive impact could be
received in the economy of the country. So, entrepreneurs are
very important today because they propel the economy by
taking risks, thinking about new businesses, consolidating their
ideas in business plans, raising funds in order to build the
project, and managing the new company created. To answer the
main question and understand the role of the entrepreneurs, it is
important to define some concepts that take part of the
entrepreneur's world. For example, the difference between
entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, creativity and
innovation, new ventures, business plans, business angels and
Concepts about entrepreneurship
The first definitions of entrepreneur have been made
by economists as Cantillon (1725), Jean Baptiste Say (1803),
and Schumpeter (1934). Entrepreneur derives from French
language and it means "to undertake". Today, according to
Kuratko & Hodgetts (2004):
"The entrepreneur is one who undertakes to
organize, manage, and assume the risks of a
business. It is an innovator or developer who
recognizes and seizes opportunities; converts
those opportunities into workable/marketable
ideas; adds value through time, effort, money,
or skills; assumes the risks of the competitive
marketplace to implement these ideas; and
realize the rewards from these efforts". (p. 28)
Intrapreneurship is a new concept that is defined as the
entrepreneurial thinking inside corporations. Thus, the business
literature mentions the term corporate entrepreneurship as a
synonym of intrapreneurship. Intrapreneurs work inside the
structure of the companies in the same way that entrepreneurs
work outside them, with similar commitment.
Entrepreneurs develop their ideas and present them in
a document that summarizes the principal aspects of the new
business. This document is called "Business Plan". A strong
Business Plan includes sections such as business idea
description, marketing research and plan, operations,
management, financial forecast, critical risks, strategies, and a
schedule of implementation. This plan has to be detailed and
with realistic forecast and goals because it is going to be
analyzed by experts and investors.
An entrepreneur is a person who is looking for a new
concept, business, product or service for customers, so the
concept of innovation is the key in entrepreneurship. Cited by
Kuratko & Hodgetts (2004), according to Drucker (1985)
innovation is defined as a "specific function of
entrepreneurship... It is means by which the entrepreneur either
creates new wealth-producing resources or endows existing
resources with enhanced potential for creating wealth" (p. 138).
Also, the entrepreneurs have the ability to "convert
opportunities into marketable ideas" (Howell & Higgings, 1990,
p. 138). The concept of innovation is related to another
important concept for entrepreneurs: creativity. In a business
context, creativity is "the generation of ideas that result in the
improved efficiency or effectiveness of a system" (Matherly &
Goldsmith, 1988, p. 138).
Entrepreneurs can obtain money for theirs project
going to the venture capital market. This market has companies
with experienced professionals to offer capital for start-ups and
expands new ventures. However, these companies give money
to new ventures being part of the business. That means that if
the business succeeds, they take part of the earning. During the
process of being co-owners, venture capitalists take part of the
decisions about the business; specially, they take control of the
financial issues in the new venture. Business angels work in a
similar way, but usually they are people not companies, they are
very well informed investors that understand a lot about new
venture creation and provide money for the new venture.
Another important tool for entrepreneurs is the
incubator. According to Aemoudt (2004), "business incubators
nurture young firms, helping them to survive, and grow during
the start-up period when they are most vulnerable" (p. 127).
Hence, entrepreneurs can confront the challenge of trying to
survive during the first years of the new venture.
Entrepreneurs are the main actors in a system which
produces innovative products, services and businesses models.
Industrial countries have some advantages in this area because
they have business angels and venture finance companies that
support entrepreneurs with interesting ideas. Also, industrial
countries have developed framework in this field with adequate
property rights, incubators and support from the governments
and universities (Naude, 2009). In addition, these countries
show an important increase in investment in entrepreneurship
and new ventures (Schade & Siegel, 2008). However, start-up
rates are different from one country to another and also in
different regions of the same country (Gries & Naude, 2009).
Less developed countries have a different reality called
market failure (Naude, 2009). They have incomplete systems
for entrepreneurs, less capital for new ventures, and incubators
with less experience. However, it is important to understand in
general terms how entrepreneurs can achieve their goals in a
systematic way. This system integrates entrepreneurs, existing
companies, customers, government, and private investing
companies, but entrepreneurs are the principal motor in the
process of creation. The process consists in:
First, entrepreneurs look for an innovative idea about
new products or new features for existing products. They
research and learn about the topic, about the behavior and
preferences of the customers in order to consolidate this
information in a business plan.
Second, entrepreneurs analyze the market and
competitors because they know that the competition is intense
in terms of products and existing companies have large teams of
people working to establish a competitive advantage. When
they understand the market, entrepreneurs add this information
in the businesses plan.
Third, entrepreneurs have to think about how the new
company is going to support the new product. They work on
organizing the structure for the company, and the production
and operations processes. Also, entrepreneurs write the results
of this analysis in a special section of the business plan.
Fourth, entrepreneurs have to calculate the costs and
benefits about the new business. The financial part of the
business plan has to mention different scenarios how much
money the project needs and what are the main areas to invest.
It is crucial a very detailed estimation about costs, and strong
forecasts about sales because investors have to understand the
risks and the numbers of the business.
Finally, entrepreneurs are ready to "sell their ideas".
They have to present the businesses plan to business angels and
venture capitalists in order to obtain money for develop their
ideas. If they accomplish this goal half of the work is done.
After the process of creation, entrepreneurs have to
continue with the other half of the work. They have to
implement their ideas according to the business plan. Mainly in
industrial countries entrepreneurs have incubators that provide
technical assistance. The first two or three years of the business
are critical because the new company confronts competitors and
has to convince customers to buy the new products. If the new
company starts to work well, an alternative for entrepreneurs is
going to the financial markets to capitalize their companies with
money from the public selling stocks or options.
Technology field is a good example of the process for
new ventures and entrepreneurs, green businesses is the future,
but they are in every field of the economy. Bill Gates from
Microsoft Co., Steve Jobs from Apple Co., Michael Dell from
Dell Co., and recently Mark Zuckerberg from Facebook and
others from Silicon Valley, California are entrepreneurs
because they star up their successful companies. All these
people have in common their passion and their commitment to
achieve their ventures.
Characteristics of entrepreneurs
Generally, entrepreneurs are considered people who
start-up a business. According this definition, the owners of
small businesses are considered entrepreneurs, but
entrepreneurs are more than people who start-up a business
once. Entrepreneurs is a way of life, is a permanent attitude that
propel a person to learn, to research, to understand different
topics, to compromise completely in the project, and to take
risks. And this attitude is doing it for entrepreneurs all their life.
According to Kuratko & Hodgetts (2004), some
characteristics associated with entrepreneurs are, among others:
"total commitment, determination, and perseverance; drive to
achieve and grow; opportunity and goal orientation; persistent
problem solving; calculated risk taking and risk seeking" (p.
114). However, entrepreneurs have a down side. Entrepreneurs
sometimes take much more financial risks than an average
person in order to follow their own idea. Also, some
entrepreneurs are so convinced about the future success of their
ideas that they end up abandoning their careers. In addition to
this, they usually invest all their free time in the new idea or
business, putting their psychic, social and family stability at
risk. The pressure to achieve their goals can sometimes cause a
lot of stress in entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurs affect the economy
Entrepreneurs change their own sectors and affect the
economy context. Dias & McDermott (2005) define that:
Entrepreneurs are instrumental for
structural transformation. They create
and organize new firms and hire workers
with a minimum level of human capital.
Entrepreneurs encourage workers to
invest in their own education in order to
move into the modem production sector.
Better institutions lead to less income
diversion, which creates a greater supply
ELIStdent Voiaes 12
of entrepreneurs, a larger demand for
human capital, and faster structural
transformation. (p. 299)
In this context, entrepreneurs organize the factors of
production (labor, capital, technology) to achieve their goals.
They manage this equation to accomplish a crucial point in the
economy: the creation of value. Entrepreneurs work to innovate
and manage risks of the new ventures. They demand more and
more educated people and contribute to the economy with new
and better products. So, an economy supported by strong
institutions, as industrial countries, can receive the benefits
from these very active companies Dias & McDermott (2005).
The "creative destruction" concept proposed by
Schumpeter almost a century ago is tangible and more evident
now because technology is growing faster and faster. The cycle
of life of products is shorter than years ago and some gadgets
can be obsolete in a couple of years. However, the innovation
process and entrepreneurship cause sometimes a different
effect. A lot new products are designed for complement existent
products. Also, many new products and technologies can
coexist together without competence or destruction of rivals.
Cell phones have different technologies for different type of
customers. There are cell phones like smart-phones, I-phones,
cell phones with basic functions, and cell phones that use
internet for sending the voice. This process in entrepreneurship
is called "nondestructive creation" because the rivals
(technologies, companies, products) survive after the
introduction of an innovation and of course can produce
economic growth (Hubbard, R. G., 2008).
Entrepreneurs have a crucial role in modern economy.
In industrial economies they are supported by organized system
of investors and incubators that provides capital and technical
advices. In addition, they have strong institutions that protect
intellectual property rights and educate people. These
conditions facilitate that many entrepreneurs can try to success
achieving their goals. In less developed countries the conditions
are different and entrepreneurs do not have the same support.
The role of entrepreneurs is critical because they organize the
economic factors in order to build a project, a new business or a
product that innovates the sector. The innovation process can
lead to a "destructive creation" eliminating rivals products or
companies, but also improving products. Additionally, the
innovation process can lead to a "nondestructive creation" in
which rivals products and companies complement each others.
In both cases entrepreneurs lead the process.
Aernoudt, R. (2004). Incubators: Tool for Entrepreneurship?
Small Business Economics 23: p. 127-135.
Dias, Joilson & McDermott, John (2005). Institutions,
education, and development: the role of entrepreneurs.
Journal ofDevelopment Economics 80 (2006) p. 299-
Gries, T. & Naude, W. (2009). Entrepreneurship and regional
economic growth: towards a general theory of start-
ups. Innovation -The European Journal of Social
Science Research Vol.22, No.3, September 2009, p.
Hubbard, R. G. (2008). Nondestructive creation:
Entrepreneurship and management research in the
study of growth. Journal of Policy Modeling 30,
Kuratko, D. & Hodgetts, R. (2004). Entrepreneurship.
Cincinnati, OH: Thompson Learning South-Western.
Naude, W. (2009). Entrepreneurship, developing countries, and
development economics: new approaches and insights.
Small Business Economics (2010) 34: p. 1-12.
Schade, C. & Siegel, D. (2008). International issues in
entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics (2008)
31: p. 1-3.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2010). Federal Procurement Data
System. Current Population Survey; U.S. Department
of Commerce, International Trade Administration.
limp i. i' .smallbusinessnotes.com/aboutsb/sbfacts/sb
The Person Who Has Influenced Me the
All human beings have different behaviors and
personalities. Each person in the world has his own way of
living. This is determined by our own characteristics of each
one of us related to our personality, and for people in our
environment that influence in our lives such as, family,
neighbors, teachers, and friends. When I have to talk about who
has made a difference in my life it is very difficult to do. I thank
God that I have had many very important people in my life.
However, if I have to choose one of them I would like to select
and describe my twin brother, Ricardo. He has a lot of
characteristics, which have influenced me as such sportsman,
decision maker, and happy person.
He has been my shadow my whole life. He has been a
big soul, because he runs next to me all of the time. He has been
with me my whole life since we were in our mom's womb. He
loves to play and watch soccer. He has shown me why it is very
important to play any sport, because it helps to have a healthy
and pleasurable life. When he is on the field, he is like a
roadrunner because he runs fast, goes wherever he wants and
always kicks to the goal. He shows how not to be afraid of the
opponents and to have clear goals.
Another reason, he is amazing when he has to make
his own decisions. He thinks about the negative and positive
consequences in detail before saying or doing something. He is
like a computer because he processes information before
coming up with a carefully calculated decision. It makes me be
sure, because he has shown me what the principal steps are
when I need to make any decision. I called him "the thinker".
The last way he has influenced me is that he has shown
me happiness. He is always happy, glad, and crazy. He often
says that you only live once, and we have to enjoy every
ELIStdent Voias 13
second. He is a clown, because he makes everyone laugh.
Moreover, he has been a constant companion in my life and has
always supported me, and he has always believed in me and
that gives me strength to achieve my goals.
In conclusion, I could say that Ricardo has been an
angel who has the most influence in my life because he has
taught me about sports, decision-making and happiness. He
believes in me and has always been behind me in everything
that I have done. I do not have one specific example because he
has been a constant companion in my life and has always
supported me. Without his encouragement I would feel lost. As
result, he has taught me that life is so interesting because there
is no one like us anywhere in the world and each one of us has
strengths and weaknesses. In other words, in spite of being
identical twins, we are very different and he has shown me that
everyone is unique in the world.
Marliz Arteaga Gomez Garcia
Global warming is the process by which the
temperature of the earth's atmosphere increases. The causes are
divided into two categories: natural causes and anthropogenic
(man-made) causes. However, both of them have many
negative effects on the earth's atmosphere and biosphere.
Among the negative effects are: a change in the global sea
level, drastic changes in climate patterns and widespread
extinction of flora and fauna. Therefore, this increase in
temperature will likely trigger a series of events which can
cause a lot of destruction on the planet. In brief, understanding
the causes and effects of global warming can give us an idea of
the bleak future awaiting the next generation if we don't do
anything to stop these changes.
The Decline of Haitian Agricultural
Sector: Government's Misconduct
Both the Green Revolution in the mid 20th century and
the Fair Trade market have had big impacts on developed
countries in term of food security and wealth creation. To be
successful by using appropriate technology to enter the free
trade market, a country needs a strong political leadership from
its governors. A nation like Haiti used to be self sufficient in
producing food. However, the Haitian governments of the last
three decades have failed to help the farmers to be competitive
on the global market. This marginalization of the Haitian
farmers has led to the degradation of the agriculture in that
The neglect of the government causes disinterest and
disinvestment in agriculture. Indeed, the Haitian politicians
have not invested enough in building infrastructure that could
allow those poor farmers to easily move their production to the
urban areas where they can expect a better price for their
unrewarded work. This situation leads to a disinterest in
farming from the producers. Meanwhile, in the middle of
agricultural season, a lot of lands are empty and covered by
pasture. In addition, in some areas, the arduously produced
crops are wastefully sold on the local market or sometimes
getting spoiled and thrown away. Can you imagine places
plagued by famine, people have to get rid of foods becoming
worthless that they could trade and get an income to satisfy
their needs? Is not the responsibility of the government,
specially the Agricultural Ministry to provide assistance to local
farmers? I think the answer is yes because this is the main
responsibility of this government's entity to create program to
increase the national production.
Moreover, the lack of assistantship to the Haitian
farmers has contributed to overpopulation. Indeed, many Haiti's
rural areas are deprived of most of the basic services; name it
school, hospital, electricity, theater, familial planning etc.,
which means there's not much social activities to be involved
in. Therefore, people spend most of their time at home and this
is a situation that stimulates people to have many children. In
some places the average is 8 to 10 children per household. How
can this influence negatively the agriculture? In fact, more
people mean more pressure on the lands, causing more cuttings
(deforestation), which leads to degradation, reducing the land
Haitian farmers are tired of being ignored. It is
unacceptable to leave poor farmers on their own, unable to
compete in the global market. A small farmer in a country in
development, alone, will not be capable of making the transition
toward the new technologies, and the most possible outcome is
the decline of the agricultural sector. If poverty has to be
reduced in Haiti, the government can no longer overlook the
peasants who are, as in many countries, the pillars of the
My Home Country Then and Now
Pascale Saint Martin
It has always been said that someone who forgets his
past is without a story. Most of us often think that human beings
must look toward the future. That's essential, but the past
represents a challenge so important. Everything can change in
an area: physical view, style of life, custom, but we have to
remember the past for enhancing the future. In my home
country, the past has nothing in common with the present. In
my opinion, they have more differences than similarities
especially in the number of people, the crime rate and green
management of spaces.
The first undeniable difference in the past and now
resides in the population. Fifty years ago, my home country had
about 900,000 inhabitants, but now the number of people is
about 8,000,000. This creates many problems and increases
differences in several other ways. With a small number of
people, my home country was friendly. The government
practiced urbanism; everything was tidy, places and routes was
designed to be convenient to walking, houses was near the
ELIStdent Voias 14
business and school, and traffic was under control; in contrast,
now, what a mess! Life is inconvenient and more difficult. For
example, many cities are crowded and people begin to forget or
destroy the sense of community. Furthermore, cars and buses
make traffic horrible, and are bad for the environment.
Second, the crime rate is another big difference. Haiti
was very quiet; the life was safe in the past. However, now the
rate of crime is increasing. For example, people are hungry and
are unemployed. As a result of the increasing of the Haitian
population, we see a strengthening of the poverty. Our
agriculture isn't able to feed the country. Every day, the media
reports kidnapping and murder. In addition, people are afraid.
They are stressed now. There are a few similarities, of course,
people are never without fear. Fifty years ago, there were
thieves and murderer, but now the rate has increased.
The biggest difference between the past and the
present is the nature. My country was a little place with a
beautiful and beaming nature. The environment was purely
healthy. Everywhere, people listen to the birds' songs, and
trees' murmur. However, over the year, the environment
becomes a desert. Not only are people cutting down trees,
destroying forests, but also earthquakes and hurricanes are
destroying the environment. Moreover, this sad story continues
because the government cannot or is not interested to manage
parks and other natural spaces.
In conclusion, the past and the present in my home
country are very different; many changes are obvious. This
small country has become very crowded. The population lives
with fear because there are both violence and natural disaster.
With the population, the rate of crime is increasing. The
environment in the past and now are very dissimilar. The
present is more dangerous and inconvenient than the past.
Nevertheless, we have to remember the past to build the future.
Living in a Small Town
According to Laluu Parsad, "The nice part about living
in a small town is that when you do not know what you are
doing, someone else does" (Thinkexit.com). Human beings
need to live in community, because each person has a role in
society for the benefit of all. Accordingly, there are hundreds of
cities around the world, but not all have the same size. It would
be very interesting to describe the principal advantages and
disadvantages of living in a small town such as, things to do for
entertainment, public services, and number of people.
The first characteristic is things to do for
entertainment. People around the world have the necessity of
enjoying their lives with families and friends, doing
recreational, intellectual, and sports activities. People who live
in small towns are able to spend time outdoor with nature such
as, camping, hiking, climbing, among other things. However,
people who live a small town are not able to have a lot of
options to spend their free time. For example, there are several
theaters, movies, amphitheaters, country clubs, museums, malls.
In other words, someone who lives in a small city has contact
with the nature, but they are not able to enjoy cultural events.
Next, the second element is public services. When
people have the opportunity of living in small cities, they enjoy
more detailed, personalized, and economical services. In
contrast, in large cities these services are more diversified and
offered as latest technology. Moreover, the public services in
small cities neither are crowded nor have the best quality. They
do not have the best excellence and technology such as, water,
power, cable, etc.
The last characteristic is the number of people.
Populations have been growing rapidly and disorganized. There
are several large and small cities in all of the countries. People
life in large cities have chance of meeting people everywhere
and learning about different styles of life, cultures, languages,
fashion; but the principal problems are: noise, crowd, stress,
and contamination. On the other hand, small cities offer more
healthy and peaceful life, because they do not have a stressful
life, and in spite of not been able to make many friends, people
have more time to share their experiences, feelings, and
anecdotes with each other.
In conclusion, there are different kinds of cities in
terms of styles and size. This essay shows the advantages and
disadvantages of living in small cities in regard to activities to
have fun time, services offered, and the amount of people that
live in each city. The good thing is that depending on our
lifestyle and what we are looking, each kind of city presents
elements to have a way of live. So, which kind of city do you
prefer to live and spend time during your whole life?
Pedernales and Anse-A-Pitre
Arthur J. Bonicet
What makes the difference between two cities that are
located at the same geographical place? Most often, the
differences between several places naturally similar come from
their management. Anse-A-Pitre and Pedernales are two cities
located one in Haiti and the other in the Dominican Republic,
but they border each other. Both have some similarities, they
are located close to the sea and flat, but I think they have more
differences than their similarities.
Both Pedernales and Anse-A-Pitre have the same size,
the same population and the same climate. Both Anse-A-Pitre
or Pedernales measure 25 acres. They have the same
population. Each one has roughly twenty thousand people
(20,000). The two cities also share the same climate. Both
Anse-A-Pitre and Pedernales have an average temperature of 75
degrees Fahrenheit in fall, 70 in winter, and 90 degrees in
summer. The rainy season is the same for them.
However, in four different ways, Pedernales and Anse-
A-pitre are almost opposites. First, in Pedernales all the streets
are asphalted, whereas only the main street is asphalted in
Anse-A-Pitre. Anse-A-Pitre has ten private elementary schools,
one public elementary school and one public high school.
Pedernales, in contrast, does not have any private school; all the
schools are public. In addition, Pedernales has two community
ELIStdent Voias 15
colleges. Anse-A-Pitre has one health center that works with a
few technicians (doctors and nurses) and provides a few
services to the patients. Pedemales, in contrast, has an up to
date hospital where work different technicians twenty-four
hours a day, and the hospital provides all styles of medical care
to the patients. Finally, Pedernales receives regularly 15 hours
of electricity every day. Anse-A-Pitre, in contrast, receives only
In conclusion, these two cities have some similarities
relative to their localization, but they are very different
according to their development. In addition to their
geographical characteristics those count for their similarities.
On the other hand, the type of government is another factor that
can make the difference between two points that are on the
Obesity in the United States
The United States is one of the most powerful, richest,
and most advanced countries in the world. So, is it reasonable to
think that because of these characteristics this country should be
a healthy country too? The unfortunate truth is that this country
has a high rate of Obesity; in other words, there are a lot of
people who are overweight and have awful health. The
principal origins of this sad situation includes: American people
generally like to eat at fast food restaurants, do not exercise, and
eat food from the grocery store that has a lot of hormones and
The first problem is American people generally like to
eat at fast food restaurants. It is a reality that all human beings
need to eat food every day because it has nutrients, minerals,
and vitamins that are necessary to survive. In the United States,
people live focused on their jobs all the time; therefore, they
have created several restaurants nationwide in other to people
can get their food easier and faster. The problem is, this kind of
food is not healthy, because it has a very high percentage of fat
and lack of proteins and minerals, for example, they often eat
hamburgers, hot dogs, pizza and sodas.
The second characteristic is American people
frequently do not exercise, because their time is only for
working, doing errands, spending time with their families and
friends, and sleeping. As a result, when they have a little time,
they use it to take a rest and not for doing exercise. It does not
allow Americans to have healthy bodies, because when people
do not work out, they cannot lose weight and calories. In other
words, they are not able to have an active and healthy body.
The last reason is much of the food from the grocery
store has a lot of hormones and preservatives. The United States
is an industrialized country, for this reason, it produces tons of
canned, processed, precooked, and packaged foods. This kind
of food needs chemicals to prolong their freshness, quality, and
durability. Consequently, these elements are not natural and
their body cannot process them adequately.
In conclusion, many American people have problems
with their weight. It is mainly from eating junk food, not doing
exercise, and eating food with preservatives. This means that
many people in the United States do not pay attention to their
eating habits, what kind of foods they eat, and their activities;
therefore, they become obese. To sum up, it is a big problem for
them because they do not have a good quality of life and they
are considered obese, unhealthy and lazy.
For Video Gamers: The Playstation3
Website versus the Xbox360 Website
Keun hyong Kim
When I was a high school student, one of my dreams
was to have a console game. Although the price of such games
was expensive for students, many of them had console games in
their houses. Back then, the price of these games was about
$400. I really wanted to buy a console game but I did not have
enough money to buy it then. Today, however, I am considering
buying a console game because I have some money to do so. I
believe that playing games actually has positive effects on
people by reducing stress. So, for my dreams and health, I
decided to buy a console game and find information about
products through websites on the Internet. I first looked at
products such as 'Nintendo', 'TI..T .ii ,11V' and 'xbox360'.
However, I decided against 'Nintendo' because it does not
support DVD players. I then narrowed my choice to
'T'i. i.11ii i ii' and 'xbox360' in order to compare the two
websites for these games. The 'Ti... Ni.ii \\V' website is
http://us.playstation.com/ps3/ and the 'Xbox360' website is
http://www.xbox.com/en-US/. After comparing both websites, I
found that the 'Playstation3' website was better because of its
product images, software/ hardware information and
To begin with, the product images on both websites
played a significant role in my choosing the
'Playstation3'website over the 'Xbox360' website. Beautiful
product images attract a lot of customers. The 'Playstation3'
website has many three-dimensional images and high quality
photos. It gives people a lot of information about its real images
and it really made me more interested in the products. By
comparison, the 'Xbox360' website does not have good images
to attract customers. Its images look like old ones and they are
of low quality. Moreover, it does not have three-dimensional
images. Thus, people cannot see the products detail. This shows
how important product images are.
In addition, the software and hardware information on
the two websites was clearly superior on the 'Playstation3'
website because customers' first priority is information about
software and hardware. The 'Playstation3' website has
organized information regarding these items and provided
additional information about 'Blu-ray' and real 3D games.
Moreover, it was possible to find games that I might want to
buy by typing some letters into the search bar and most of the
games were divided by genre. It really made things convenient
for me. By contrast, the 'Xbox360' website does not have these
functions. Although games are divided by genre, I could not
find the game that I really wanted to buy. All in all, I found the
ELIStrdent Voias 16
'Playstation3' website better in the area of hardware and
Finally, the 'Playstation3' website is better organized
than the 'Xbox360' website. The 'Playstation3' website is
divided by 'console model'. Thus, 'SONY', the maker of
'Playstation', has many different console models such as
Playstation', 'Playstation2', 'Playstation3' and 'PSP'. It is
possible to choose the console model when first arriving at the
'Playstation3' website and thus it leads website visitors
immediately to whatever they might like to see. Moreover, the
colors on the 'Playstation3' website are better than the
'Xbox360' website. The main color of the 'Playstation3'
website is black and the 'Xbox360' website main color is gray.
However, the 'Xbox360' website's color is not of high quality.
This make the 'Xbox360' website look cheap.
In conclusion, I thought that the 'Playstation3' website
was better than the 'Xbox360' website for several reasons as
mentioned above. The product images, software/ hardware
information and well-organized contents all contributed to my
choice of the best website for console games. For anyone who
is looking for a console game website, I firmly believe that the
'Playstation3' website is the best.
Steel Magnolias is a movie about Southern women
who live their life sharing experiences and bits of their great
The women are the main characters. This is the world
though their eyes. In contrast, the men are only part of their
lives and they don't have too much presence in the movie.
The relationships between the women and the men are
interesting. Most of the time, it looks like they live separate
lives, but when their ways cross, the women change their
behavior. That is clearly in the relationship between Annelle
and Sammy, and between Ousier and Owen.
At first, Annelle was a shy and insecure girl. She
doubts her ability in the work. At the end, she had matured and
she is secure and determined in her conversation with Sammy.
Also, she is able to answer Ousier in a sarcastic way.
Second, Ousier changes her mood though her
relationship with Owen, a sweet and weaker man who is
capable of sweetening Ousier. They have a weird relationship,
but the result is obvious at the end of the movie.
Another thing in this movie is the way of feels the
emotions. The women share every big event, good or bad, but
the men live the bad things isolated, alone.
This movie reflects the different behavior about
women and men, and how their interactions change them.
Why is Miley Cyrus So Popular?
Miley Cyrus is an American actress and singer. Why is
she so popular? First, she is young and talented. However, there
are many young and talented girls, so why Miley Cyrus? There
can be two answers. She is better than other talented girls or
maybe she is just lucky. Of course, there is hard work behind
that popularity, especially work on the television series Hannah
Montana, which was what first made Miley Cyrus popular.
Finally, there is one main reason, why Miley Cyrus is so
popular. Media and marketing companies know what young
girls around the world want and give it to them. The result is
that Miley Cyrus is popular because companies want to sell
their promotional products. If Miley Cyrus didn't exist, then
some other girl would be on top of the popularity scale.
The revenge is an attribute in almost of the people.
However, it varies from one person to another depending on his
circumstances that maybe makes the revenge grow and become
strong inside him or makes him peaceful and friendly. One of
these circumstances is when the relative is killed by an
offender's hand is known and every evidence points to him; he
is guilty inevitably. Then after a period of time-numbers of
years--he becomes free and enjoys the rest of his life. There the
feeling of revenge grow and irritates. Therefore, I support the
death penalty and I see it the best way to deter the offender,
extinguish the revenge fire, and guarantee to spread safety and
security inside the country.
One of the benefits that the government finds when
they apply the death penalty is to deter the offender. When the
offender knows the punishment of this crime is death, he will
think more than a thousand times before he does what he wants
to do. Therefore, the offender doesn't corrupt the country,
especially the big crime like murder, or distributing drugs.
While the government deters the offender, they
extinguish the revenge fire inside the chest of the dead person's
relatives. However, if the government doesn't agree with this
kind of penalty maybe they allow the country to become a
forest. Everyone wants revenge against everyone. Then the
corruption spreads more.
As a result of deter criminal, the country becomes
more peaceful. The citizens are happy. Thus they can travel
among the country and go out at night without any fear.
Finally, I believe that the self is expensive. In addition,
murder is a violation. In conclusion, all of the religions agree
with and support that who kills the self without the right then he
is killed as a penalty for his crime. I believe that what god
choose for the people is for their best interest.
ELIStdent Voias 17
My Dream House
I dreamed when I was a child to live inside a huge
house made of cotton candy. A delicious cotton candy hanging
in the sky like a pink cloud. With my mobile house I can go
anywhere I want. It has a fuel station which uses sugar to
generate the essential energy to move. Inside the house
everything is made of cotton candy. It tastes so sweet. It smells
like a rich creamy strawberry. Inside the house it is not too cold
to freeze the sugar, and not too hot so the sugar become sticky.
Some furniture is made of marshmallows, and some made of
Lollipops. My bed is made of Jello with marshmallow as
pillows. The only problem with my delicious house is when the
rain comes. It will dissolve my sugary house. I should think of a
solution to protect my sweetest house forever.
The Causes of Car Accidents
Which causes do you think are the most frequent
reasons foraccidents? The research said that in these days they
found a lot of car accidents. We can see that one of the causes
that is most famous is talking or texting on the phone. They
don't know how distracted they are, and they cannot see that a
message can provoke an accident or kill someone. Another
cause of accidents is alcohol or drugs. The people are not too
mature to know that they shouldn't drive when they are
drinking but they are still doing that. A good plan for this
problem is if you are going to drink or smoke, then ask
someone who is not doing those things like you are, and ask if
she doesn't mind driving you then everybody will be good and
safe. Finally, a third reason for accidents is the speeding and
passing other cars while speeding. It is really important that you
know and follow all the rules that you have to follow when you
are driving a car. The people driving must obey the traffic rules
and respect the signals on the highway. In conclusion, we have
to take care and be careful of everything that I have told you
about in order to not cause so many accidents.
Is It Safe to Use the Car?
Abdulaziz A najar
There is some risk when using a car. Nowadays almost
everybody has to use the car, so we have to know the risk for
using it, and how we can reduce the risk when using it. We have
to know what the main reasons for accidents. First. following
the rules is the best way to avoid accidents. Moreover,
following the rules gives you a clear vision of how to use the
car on the street. Second, do not go to work late. If you do so,
you will be under stress all the way to work, and it may cause
an accident because you feel like you are in a race. Finally,
check the car every week. By checking your car regularly, you
will avoid many things that effect the car on the way while you
are driving. In conclusion, to avoid the risks when using the car
follow the rules, do not go late to work, and check your car for
The Effects of Addiction to Video Games
Are you addicted to video games? Many people around
the world have this addiction, but they don't think about the
effects. The first effect of this addiction is that the people don't
leave out their rooms or house, and just spend their time in
front of the TV. The next effect is that some of these people
commit crimes like stealing or killing other people because they
think that the real life is the game. The third and least
important effect is they forget their family and friends, and stay
inside only playing those video games, They at the same time
make other friends online with the same interests of playing
video games. In conclusion, if you want a normal life don't
have this addiction because all addictions have negative effects
in your life and with the addiction to video games you are going
to lose your family, friends and your health.
Sun Kyu Kim
Video or computer games seem like dangerous drugs!
Addiction to these games causes not a few bad effects on
people. First of all, students who are addicted to games don't try
to study at all. They are only interested in their Avatar, which is
the hero of the games. For this reason, these days, the test
scores of students are decreasing. Another bad effect of video or
computer games is an unhappy family. The more children care
about games, the more the harmony of the family is declining.
There is no conversation between parents and their offspring.
Finally, the last bad effect of these addictive games is the
increase in crime. What is the meaning of this? Actually, there
are so many violent and disgusting stuffs in several games, and
people who play games are always exposed to these dangerous
things. Because of this, people who are addicted themselves to
games are able to commit crimes in the real world. In
conclusion, addiction to video or computer games can cause
dangerous effects, so we have to help addicts in trouble for our
Effects of Addiction to Video or Computer
Marie Zulema Lehm Ardaya
Have you thought about the effects upon your child of
becoming addicted to video or computer games? Addiction to
ELIStdent Voias 18
video or computer games has effects not only in the short, but
also in the long term. Between the first, and when people
become addicted as youths, losing time playing has an impact
on their studies at school. Also, another effect is on the
socialization process of the young, because playing all the time
makes them less communicative. Both circumstances described
above have impact in the long term when younger people
become older. Less communicative skills produce instability in
the family, and can cause increased divorces. Also, addiction to
video and computer games is the cause of the increase of
absences at work. Those addicted to video or computer games
are more frequently fired from their jobs, with negative
consequences on personnel and family lives. In conclusion,
addiction to video or computer games has consequences that
affect not only individuals but also families lives, and the
society as a whole.
The Causes of Car Accidents
Car accidents happen everywhere, and do you know
that one of the major reasons for deaths worldwide is from car
accidents? Indeed, drunk drivers are the main cause of accidents
in the world; therefore, there are many campaigns suggesting
that you should not drive when you are drinking alcohol.
Another cause of car accidents is the use of cell phones when
you are driving, because talking and texting take away
concentration. Finally, high speed and recklessness of some
drivers are others causes for car accidents. For example, many
drivers do not respect traffic laws, and they are dangerous to
other drivers. In conclusion, there are many causes that produce
car accidents, but all are preventable. People should drive
carefully every time since lives are always involved.
Causes That Effect Car Accidents
Have you ever had a car accident? If you haven't, you
are lucky. Car accidents can happen anywhere at any time, so
be careful. One reason that effects car accidents is alcohol. If
you are in a party, and you are drunk, you mustn't drive. You
wouldn't be in a good status to do it. The next cause is that
some people don't pay attention to the traffic signs. If you are in
a hurry or listening to music, you don't pay attention to those
signs that are very important to prevent accidents. The last, and
the most common reason is cell phones. These days a lot of
people, they can be teenagers or adults, use their cell phones
when they are driving. They are talking on the phone or texting.
This is a very big distraction to the drivers. Finally, all these
causes have the effect of causing car accidents, so you must be
aware and be careful when you are driving.
The Cause of Car Accidents
Do you know why each day more car accidents occur?
If you want to learn more about this topic; I advise that you read
this paragraph. Now, I'm going to tell you some causes of car
accidents. The first is people drinking because they're going
partying, and then they drive to their home. Another cause is the
tired people, because they leave from their work and fall asleep
while driving. Finally, the young people, because they doesn't
have experience driving. In conclusion, I can say that we can
avoid car accidents by being more careful while driving.
The Causes of Car Accidents
Have you already seen some car accidents? Do you
know why these accidents happen?
There are a lot of causes of car accidents, and during modern
times car accidents are more frequent and cause more deaths.
The most popular causes of car accidents are the consuming of
alcohol or others addicting substances. Indeed, drinking or
using drugs can makes the driver lose control of his car and
cause really terrible accidents is the non-respecting of the
driving rules. If a driver doesn't follow the rules, he can make
mistakes, such as speeding, having collisions or making people
be in danger. Finally, drivers have to take care if they are doing
something else when they are driving. When people drive
sometimes, they do some other things like talking on the phone,
smoking cigarettes, or eating and that can be very dangerous
because the driver can lose his attention to the road. All in all,
there are many causes of car accidents and all drivers have to
pay attention, follow the rules, and focus on the road when they
Be Careful on the Road
Do you know that you can die or kill someone in a car
accident? There are many reasons that can cause car accidents.
The first cause is when a person is under the influence of
alcohol and starts to drive. Obviously that person isn't in
condition to do it. Another reason for car accidents, and one of
the most common in the recent years, is driving and using the
cellphone at the same time. The driver can lose his attention to
the road. Finally, also when the person is driving, they are usual
talking with the others passengers, and occasionally turn their
head to see the person who is talking. For example, to look at
the copilot can produce, the driver turns his head and is not
seeing the road. In conclusion, we must be responsible and pay
attention when we are driving to avoid car accidents and
prevent these dangerous effects.
ELIStdent Voias 19
Causes of Car Accidents
Have you ever had a car accident? Many people have a
lot of car accidents, and they don't realize how dangerous it can
be. One of the most common causes of car accidents is
cellphones. This is because when people are driving they care
so much about their cellphones, and they are always texting or
talking on the phone and that just distracts them. Another cause
of car accidents is alcohol. Sometimes when people go out they
drink a lot even though they are driving, and they get out of
their minds. Another cause is being sleepy. When people don't
sleep well or don't rest, they get tired and that makes them sleep
while they are driving drive. In conclusion, although many
people have a lot of car accidents, there are some that really
think about this problem and try to do something about it.
(Editor's note: Students were asked to write their own death
notices. These are funny.)
Lara Sanz, has passed away so young, but nobody
except her family knew her real age. She died while she
practiced bungee jumping. But she didn't die while she was
jumping, she died before, the cause of her death was
nervousness. She is the first person that died this way. With her
death she entered the Guinness World Record Book. This was
the most important thing that she did in her life. Now all the
bridges will have a picture with her face.
Petros Avril bought the farm Friday, Oct. 2, 2008,
having lived 78 wasted years. Petros was a member of a very
wealthy family. He was the only heir of the huge property that
Avril's family owned. He was maybe the only person in this
word who could have squandered all this money. He finally
succeeded to waste everything at the age of 41. Congratulation
Petros! He lived the rest of his miserable life in a hut doing
nothing to earn his life back. He never created a family or cared
about children. He absolutely deserved his loneliness. However
he had a very good friend that followed him all his life...
wine! They were inseparable! They had a great relationship!
Every night they used to talk a lot in that hut. On this point I
think that we have to thank Petros for his offerings to our
society by doing nothing in his unimportant life. Thank you
Petros, we all feel pleased!
Mr. Jack Carlsson passed away in a car accident last
Monday. Mr. Jack was a funny guy and he was well loved by
his family. I hope that he is in peace now and I am pretty sure
that he would like to send a message to all the girls that were
linked to him in any way and that message would be: "I love
you all girls ;)". He never got married because he had a
philosophy that many girls are of course better than one. It is
sad that he only was in this world for 35 years but he enjoyed
those years as much as he could. He was always telling jokes
and taking care of his family. We will never forget you Jackie!
And be sure to find some girls up there! Well I guess that it is
time to say good-bye. With love, your brother, Brad.
Dear brothers, Gabriel Alemany finally bit the dust
last Saturday. The most hated person in the whole world, the
new Hitler, keeled over in his house after stepping on a banana
peel, slipping and hitting his head against the ground. Now we
can celebrate that the biggest killer ever is already gone, and he
paid for the millions of lives he took away. Even though he just
bought the farm he is going to spend 32 years in jail because
that is what he deserves. He is also going to be tortured in the
same way he used to torture the other people. They are going to
film the torture and televise it for us, so we can watch the action
from our houses, and be able to enjoy his pain. In other words,
you have plenty of reasons to be happy for a whole year.
Nasil Heo, beloved by her father and mother and
siblings was born on January 13th, 1968 in Pusan, Korea. She
passed away peacefully, October 6th, 2010. She was the
luckiest person in the world. Her miracle story started as soon
as she was born. When she was born, she almost died because
her mother passed out during her birth.
2 years later, she grew up to be an active baby. One
day, she got an electric shock because she grabbed an iron-
chopstick and poked it in a wall socket. Her mother who saw
that scene hit her baby by using a broom in order to save her.
However, unlike what you'd expect, she got smarter as she
From the electric shock, she grew up to be a genius.
She had an IQ of 150 and she entered Harvard. When she was
28 years old, she became the youngest electrical engineering
To celebrate her 10th anniversary with her husband,
they traveled to china and they saw the Great Wall of China.
When she was the highest point, she lost her balance. She rolled
down 10,000 stairs. Nevertheless, when she finally stopped
rolling, she had no physical wounds, she was just dead.
Andrea Rey passed away on September 23rd, 2010.
Andrea was a girl of seventeen girl who loved to play the piano,
but she didn't play it well. It was an awful sound. Every time
she played it, all the people who were around her would leave
her alone even the pets. She loved to sing too, but everyone
hated that terrible sound. Nobody wanted to listen to her. Even
though, Andrea was a terrible musician, she thought she was
great. She had her birthday party on September 21st, and she
was so happy. After a great day, she fell asleep. The next day
she didn't wake up. Her mom thought she was so tired, so she
let her sleep. Then next day her mom called the doctor because
she was worried about Andrea. The doctor said Andrea was
dead, for she had fallen asleep and slept so well that she died.
He said, "Death is the best way to rest."
Sun Kyu Kim kicked the bucket on January 14, 2100,
and it is the same date on which he was born. The reason why
ELIStdent Voiaes 20
he died was food. He loved to eat anything that was very sweet,
sugary, and fragrant. On January 13, He fell over, from the jelly
stuck in his throat. There were so many foodstuffs in his house,
that no one could enter his room. Because of this, people who
wanted to pray for his death were not able to go inside. They
stood in the yard, and Kim lay alone in his room, surrounded
only by foods which were praying for him.
(Editor's note: In the next paragraphs, students practice using
prepositions and preposition combinations.)
English in My Life
When I arrived in Gainesville, I was very quiet.
Because my English was not good, I did not want to discuss
anything with anyone. I was afraid of making mistakes. I was
not happy about my situation. When I was thinking about my
situation, I realized that the best way to improve my English
was to concentrate on my ELI classes. Since that time I have
become crazy about English. Now I spend all of my time in
practicing English activities like: listening to English music,
reading stories in English, talking to English native speakers. I
learned a lot of language skills in my English classes. In my
listening and speaking class, I learn how to ask someone about
something, apologize to someone for something, and disagree
politely with someone about something. In my grammar class,
I learn how to use preposition combinations correctly. My
writing class helps me to perfectly use commas, semicolons and
periods in my sentences. All of my classes help me with my
preparation for the TOEFL and GRE tests. In conclusion, my
situation today is very different from when I arrived here.
University of Florida
University of Florida is one of the most interesting
universities in the United States. First, UF has one of the
largest campuses in this country and also enrolls about fifty
thousand students from many countries in the world. The
students and staff are very friendly with everyone, and a
student can talk to them about college. Also, if you are curious
about their culture, and you want to know about it, you should
ask your teachers or UF students about it. On the other hand,
UF has many sports, but football is the most important; I don't
agree with this because I am interested in tennis or soccer.
However, the students are crazy about football. This situation
is similar to other American universities. Finally, UF is not
only famous for its good academic programs of study, but also
for its great athletic competition.
I am going to speak about my work in Spain. My job
consists of_helping people. I am a Social Worker. I have to
hear about the people's lives. People talk to me about their
problems, and together we look for ways to solve them. For a
long time, I worked with battered women. They wanted to
escape from their husbands because they beat the women. This
job is very difficult because women often depend
psychologically on their husbands. For women, it is very
difficult to get to them because the men do not want their
women leave them. Social Workers always have to tell women
about the difficulties about how to get out of this situation, and
we always hope for their recovery. For me, it is very important
to separate my work life from my personal life because I am
used to listening to very bad things about people's lives.
However, social work among abused women is important and
My Conversation Partner
I have an energetic conversation partner. Her name is
April. She already graduated from UF with a Master's degree.
Now she is a Ph.D. student at UF. She's very hardworking in
her major, but she also belongs to the Karate club. I think this is
too much hard, which is bad former. However, she said, "I'm
curious about many things. They are good for me." I've
listened to the same thing in Japan. One of my Japanese friends
is similar to her. I wonder about both April and my friend.
When I talked with them, I could get a mental energy. I like
April and look forward to our meetings.
Thanks from the Editor
Thank you for sharing your writing with everyone. I hope you enjoy
reading your fellow students' writing. Also thanks to Megan Forbes
and the University of Florida Bookstore for arranging the gift
certificates, to Todd Allen for publicizing this issue of Student Voices,
to the Reading/Writing instructors for supporting their students in their
writing, and to Todd Allen, Melina Jimenez, Valentina Komaniecka,
Debbie McDonald, Tom Ratican, and Robert Roberg for reading and
evaluating the entries.
Thanks everyone! Steve Flocks
* UNIVERSITY of
English Language Institute
PO Box 117051
315 Norman Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-7051, USA
Phone: (352) 392-3354
Fax: (352) 392-3744
ELIStudent Voias 21