Title: ELI student voices
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Title: ELI student voices
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Creator: English Language Institute, University of Florida
Publisher: English Language Institute
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Summer 2009
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ELI STUDENT VOICES

Volume 13, Issue 2 Summer, 2009


What is Happiness? (1st Place)
Haejin Lee
RW 30

While there are many people searching for happiness,
only a few find true happiness. It is not for a lack of honestly
trying to find happiness but rather the attributes they assign to
happiness. Many people believe happiness can be found
through material or monetary wealth. Others believe it can be
found if they physically alter their appearance. I disagree. I
believe the key to happiness is through building and
maintaining a positive outlook and demeanor. In Korea, I
worked as a Therapist in a hospital and was often around people
who were unhappy. It may be surprising but I am referring to
the professionals with which I worked. They were often gloomy
and lost sight of the fact they had degrees, earned good wages,
and were admired by others. The constant complaining made
me realize that happiness was not found in the material world
but rather in the way you view and respond to the world around
you. For instance, Michael Jackson; famous, rich, adored, and
celebrated world- wide could not find happiness as was
witnessed by his constantly changing face and skin and
apparent drug-addiction. Before I understood this lesson, I too
was a gloomy soul. I would ponder questions like, "Why do I
fail so often?" and "What is my problem?" I remember thinking
how I felt miserable and wretched. One day, I took a chance
and changed my life after reading a book by a professor
recounting his battle with cancer. He was told that he had less
than 3 months to live and over a year later he had written the
book and was still fighting. This was a turning point in my life
and as I trained myself to be more positive. I found the world
around me improving. My relationship with my parents and
friends improved and my confidence increased. It is this lesson
which enables me to tackle any problem I encounter. I am
living proof that being determined to stay positive works. I want
to help people understand the power they have within
themselves is what matters, not what you buy at the local mall.

The Effects of Country of Origin Image on
Consumers' Intention (2nd Place)
Pei-Yu Wu (Betty)
RW 60

In today's Capitalistic world, manufactured products
tend not to take raw materials and assemble them in one
country, but rather, products ready for consumer use frequently
are divided by the labor of individual parts from different
countries. When shipping products from country to country,


those products are required to be marked with the country of
origin and the country of origin will be indicated in import or
export documents. In general, the definition of country of
origin image is identifying the products' image to customers by
the country where the shipped goods were produced, usually the
country of origin is same as the country of departure (How
Country of Origin, 2008). Nevertheless, a country's product
directly affects consumers' purchasing decision. In other
words, the buyers not only purchase the products because they
perform well or the price, but they also take into account the
country of origin. For example, French perfumes or electronic
products from Japan are famous based on the country of origin
(Maheswaran, 2006). For various reasons people feel
compelled to examine the country of origin on the casing of
products and will more frequently than not avoid purchasing
products assembled in certain countries. Therefore, country of
origin image has a direct correlation to the purchasers' decision.
With this in mind, it is important to further analyze how a
country's image affects consumers' purchasing.

Three effects of country of origin image
Information
Sometimes, once people heard news on the television
or read the newspaper about a particular product, people have a
first impression about that product. For example, in 2007, a
series of products which were produced in China got recalls and
import bans by many countries such as the United States
because a large number of products caused serious consumer
safety issues. In addition, a food safety incident happened in
2008: the Chinese milk scandal. According to a news report
this event caused some infants to die from kidney stones or
kidney damage. An estimated 300,000 victims suffered from
this incident (Branigan, 2008). According to these examples,
people got the information that products produced in China are
related with a bad impression, so information effects country of
origin image.
In How to Beat 'Made-in-China' Fear, Dexter Roberts
said, "'Made in China, those three words are shaping up to be a
market's worst nightmare" (2008). Because of Chinese
products' scandal seriously and damaged their country's image,
consumers around the world are thinking twice before buying
Chinese-made goods (Dexter, 2007). Low quality is the most
frequently associate with Chinese products. That information
draws an image which makes consumers fear products "Made
in China." Purchasers refuse to buy the products from China
because their awareness is that of Chinese products are inferior
or poor quality. Therefore, information is an important factor
influencing consumers' purchase intention. However, besides
information there are some other countries of origin images that
affect consumers' decision.


ELI Student Voices 1








Ethnocentrism
Most people think that the majority of United States'
consumers are ethnocentric. U.S. consumers have a bias of
purchasing local products and are more opposed to buying
products from other countries. Moreover, the effect of country
of origin image in ethnocentrism has become unclear because of
the rapid increase of multination companies, such as Coca-Cola,
Sony. However, consumers still see those products are
produced from the primary country of origin, for example,
Coca-Cola is from the United States, and Sony is from Japan
(Batra, Ramaswamy, Alden, Steenkamp & Ramachander,
2000).
In general, ethnocentric consumers usually avoid
buying imported products for protecting domestic job
opportunities or being patriotic. While consumers are choosing
products, a particular group of people would choose local
products. These purchasers who have "home product bias" for
some specific brands identified are recognized as ethnocentric
consumers. Batra, et al. hypothesizes the effects of consumer
ethnocentrism makes more positive attitudes for perceived local
brands (Batra, et al.). As a result, although it is difficult to
define some products' country origin like Coca-Cola, Sony and
so on, ethnocentrism is still a part in determinate affecting the
consumers' purchase.
Stereotyping
Not only does informational and ethnocentric influence
consumers' purchase intention based on country of origin, but
purchasers' stereotype of the country of origin also affects their
purchasing. Consumers tend to purchase products in which
they have a positive stereotype of the country of origin images,
for example, "The quality of American products, the reliability
of Japanese products, the workmanship of German products,"
those are the images and stereotypes of country of origin
(Papadopoulos & Heslop, 1992). Another example is the Swiss
watch. People believe Swiss made products embodies a
concept of quality, as seen with their watch industry. This
image includes the technical quality and the aesthetic
appearance of those watches which covers traditional
manufacturing and advanced technology (The Swiss Watch
Industry, 2005).
Examples are of negative stereotypes can lead to the
consumer rejecting the product. As Papadopoulos said in
Product-Country Images, "stereotyping is inherent to the
process of classification which people use as a means of coping
with the world around them" (Papadopoulos & Heslop, 1992).
For instance, people buy a product from Sony and think that it
is a Japanese product, even though that product was made in
Malaysia. Stereotyping in country of origin has a decisive
effect on consumers' purchasing when facing the same quality
or the same priced products.

Conclusion
With customers having a choice between buying
products of similar quality, price, and design, it is clear that
there is another factor that influences a consumer's purchase:
country of origin. Analyzing country of origin image effects
helps marketers investigate consumers' purchase intension. In
country of origin image, informational are directly relating with


buyers' awareness about the products which might change
consumers' intention. Also, some people purchase goods based
on a national superiority complex and those people deny buying
imported goods. In addition, stereotyping is another effect
which influences purchasing products. Finally, although there
are many ways on country of origin influences consumers'
purchase intension; it might confuse consumers' purchase
intentions and judgments (Li, Wyer, 1994). However, country
of origin image has a profound effect on a country's ability to
assimilate into the world market. While this can be a positive
determinate for one country, the opposite effect applies to other
countries. Therefore, although as a society of purchasing
consumers we tend to focus on country of origin images, one
should focus on an individual product, rather than stereotyping
a country as a whole.

References

Batra, R., Ramaswamy, V., Alden, D., Steenkamp, J., &
Ramachander, S. (2000, March). Effects of brand local
and nonlocal origin on consumer attitudes in developing
countries. Journal of consumer psychology, 9(2), 83-95.
Retrieved July 10, 2009, from Academic Search Premier
database.
Branigan, T. (2008,December 2). Chinese figures showfivefold
rise in babies sick from contaminated milk. [Online
article]. Retrieved June 30, 2009, from the guardian.co.uk
website:
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/02/china
How country of origin image can affect international business
success and further international expansion. (2008,May
31). [Online article for essay website]. Retrieved June
30, 2009, from the Oppaper.com:
http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Country-Origin-Image-
Can-Affect-Intemationa/151801
Li, W., & Wyer Jr., R. (1994, March). The role of country of
origin in product evaluations: informational and standard-
of-comparison effects. Journal of consumer psychology,
3(2), 187. Retrieved July 10, 2009, from Academic
Search Premier database.
Maheswaran, D., (December, 2006). Country of Origin Effects:
Consumer Perceptions ofJapan in South EastAsia.
Working paper series. Center for Japan- U.S. business
and economic studies. New York University.
Papadopoulos, N. G., & Heslop, L. (1993). Product-country
images: Impact and role in international ii,,I, i ,,i New
York: International business press.
Roberts, D. (2007, October 9). How to beat 'made-in-China'
fear. business week online, Retrieved July 10, 2009, from
Academic Search Premier database.
The Swiss watch industry: A general Overview. (2005,
September 8). [Online article]. Retrieved June 30, 2009,
from Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry Web:
http://www.fhs.ch/en/swissm.php


ELI Student Voices 2








My Favorite Memory with My Family
In Jeong Kim (Lilly)
Ansan R/W

We went to the soccer stadium to cheer for our team.
In 2002, the World Cup had begun for the whole world to
watch. The Korean soccer team earned a good score, so my
family was very excited and happy. After the game ended, we
went to a Japanese restaurant. We ate sushi, slices of raw fish,
and many side dishes. My family likes Japanese food. My
younger sister especially likes Japanese food very much. We
spent a good time there. I hope to go the Republic of South
Africa with my family for the next World Cup. What a nice
memory for me!

A Korea Holiday--New Year's
Soyoung Jeon (Alice)
Ansan R/W

In Korea on New Year's Day Holiday, we have serious
traffic jams. Although it is always a serious traffic jam that day,
people still went to their grandparents home. My family has met
at my grandparents for many years in a row. We cook together.
We make various foods. We visit our ancestor's graves with
cooked food. We wear the HanBok. The Hanbok is the
traditional Korea clothing. It is beautiful and colorful, and
everyone except the grandparents talks to their offspring, and
say "Bless You". The house is warm on New Year's Day
because we are together.

A Birthday Party at a Restaurant
Hesun Nam (Christina)
Ansan R/W

My family loves pork! So we go to a pork restaurant
when it is any family member's birthday. We like pork more
than birthday cake. We always think about pork as the best
food, and we think the best of the pork food is pork ribs. So we
always eat pork ribs. When we are eating pork, we are very
happy. We love pork ribs!

A Party with My Family: My
Grandmother's 70th Birthday
Yeseul Kim (Anna)
Ansan R/W

When I was 17, it was the day of my grandmother's
70h birthday. So my family met together with other family
members. We went to my grandmother's home. That day her
house was very crowded, but I had a very fun time. I gave a gift
to my grandmother. My grandmother was very happy. So, I was
happy too.


My Birthday Party
Hyunjin Lee (Sara)
Ansan RW

My birthday party was interesting with my friends in
my home in 2009. My friends came to my home. They were my
friends from high school and middle school. They are very
pleasant friends. So this party was a very, very, fun time. We
ate many different foods, for example chicken, cake, pizza, and
pie. I like my friends and I liked my birthday party!

New Year's Day
Hyunjeong Kim (Julia)
Ansan RW

Let's join together with our family! New Years is the
day for having a new viewpoint for next year. Also, all families
gather together and spend time with each other. We eat Dduk-
ggook and share greetings with each other for a happy New
Year. We play our traditional game called Yut-nole. The whole
families can all enjoy this game and it is the best day for many
families.

A Korean Celebration!
Kyungjoo Choi (Joo)
Ansan RW

Korea's most famous holiday is "Chusok". Chusok is
the day we give thanks for our ancestors. On Chusok, all the
related people gather in one relatives home, and we cook Korea
traditional food, especially Songpyeon. This food is kind of rice
cake. Also we talk with others, play games, and drink. That day
is a very happy and exciting so we are looking forward to
Chusok every year!

My Family Having New Year's Day
Celebration
Yunjeong Bak (Mary)
Ansan RW

I love New Year's Day! My family and many close
relatives always gather in one home. We eat DduckKuk (rice
dumpling soup) and other special foods. We play the Youkt
Game. It's a Korean traditional game. It is interesting. Also, I
am given pocket money by my parents. So New Year's Day is a
very happy day for me!


ELI Student Voices 3








Happy New Year's Day
Sa-rang Lee (Heather)
Ansan RW


When I was seven years old, I had a birthday party.
My mother made food for my birthday party. The kind of food
was pizza, pieces of pork, and spaghetti. That food tasted very
delicious. My father bought a doll for me. The doll was very
pretty. My younger brother was two years old that day. I will
never forget my birthday party when I was seven years old.

My Mother's Birthday Party
Mi Jang (Rose)
Ansan R/W

I wish my mother's birthday party was every day
because on that day we go to a restaurant with the whole family.
On that day, my mother feels very good. My older brother and I
eat delicious food like steak, chicken and salad. These are foods
we don't eat in ordinary times. So my bother and I are very
happy. So I am looking forward to my mother's birthday this
year.

New Year's Day
Haewon Kim (Bella)
Ansan R/W

I hope you have a happy New Year's Day. On New
Year's Day in Korea, every family meets for a celebration. We
always cook food and play Yut. Especially in the year 2000, my
family visited the East Sea to see a sunrise. It was very
beautiful. After the sunrise, we went to the sliced-raw-fish
restaurant. I ate shrimp, squid, and flatfish. The shrimp and
squid were very delicious, but the flatfish was bad. Next we
went to the Seo-Rak Mountain. I spent a nice time on that New
Year's Day.

It's Very Interesting on New Year's Day
Young Suk Oh (Rebecca)
RW 3

New Year's Day is just one day per year. Every New
Year's Day, we meet our relatives. We make many different
foods because when my family and my cousins are together,
there are a lot of people. But that is just the relatives on my
mother's side. We are about 50 peoples in total. On the other
hand, the relatives on my father's side total about 20 people.
Then we eat rice-cake soup. It means one is getting one year
older. It's our country's culture. So on New Year's Day, there is
a great celebration to meet with relatives in Korea.


New Year's Day is a blessed day in Korea. All my
relatives come to my house on New Year's Day. We make rice
dumpling soup, and everyone eats the rice dumpling soup. The
rice dumpling soup is a Korean traditional soup. My family
goes to a theater every year. New Year's Day is a happy day
because I meet all my relatives and spend time with my family.

Our Big Party Is On New Year's Day
Daheen Kim (Diane)
Ansan RW

New Year's Day is Korea's most important and
interesting celebration. On this day, all families in our country
come together, and we eat a lot of food, for example Dduckuk
and Mandu. There are also very delicious. I greet my
grandparents with a bow, and I receive some money from them.
All of these things that happened on New Year's Day make me
happy. I am looking forward to New Year's Day coming soon.

The ELI: Where Eternity Exists
Takashi Tsuchiya
R/W 60

From time immemorial, powers have sought for
eternal life even at the cost of their wealth. Unfortunately, such
attempts had not been very successful until the innovation of
technology took place. Having realized that a human body is
composed of several parts of organic materials and a few kinds
of inorganic metals, longing for eternity was reduced to a body
maintenance technique by means of those components. Not
relying on wonder-working medicines or spells, modem
technology has embodied the eternal life.
On average, a human body necessitates 65 g (grams) of
total fat, 20 g of saturated fatty acids, 300 mg (milligrams) of
cholesterol, 2400 mg of sodium, 3500 mg of potassium, 300 g
of total carbohydrate, 25 g of fiber, 50 g of protein, 5000 IU
(International Unit) of vitamin A, 60 mg of vitamin C, 1000 mg
of calcium, 18 mg of iron, 400 IU of vitamin D, 30 IU of
vitamin E, 80 gpg (micrograms) of vitamin K, 1.5 mg of thiamin,
1.7 mg of riboflavin, 20 mg of niacin, 2.0 mg of vitamin B6,
400 pLg of folate, 6.0 pLg of vitamin B12, 300 pLg of biotin, 10 mg
of pantothenic acid, 1000 mg of phosphorus, 150 pLg of iodine,
400 mg of magnesium, 15 mg of zinc, 70 pLg of selenium, 2.0
mg of copper, 2.0 mg of manganese, 120 pLg of chromium, 75
pLg of molybdenum and 3400 mg of chloride a day. With those
ingredients supplied regularly, human bodies are kept in their
optimal conditions.
To avoid single fault of nourishment, nutrients are
supplied continuously through the tubes connecting human
bodies and nutrition fountains, which are large enough to
nourish hundreds of human bodies simultaneously. To be saved


ELI Student Voices 4


My Birthday Party
Eunji Oh (Charlotte)
Ansan R/W








from any virus invasion, human bodies are preserved in an
antiseptic solution. Oxygen is provided through another tube
connected to human mouths and noses. Lying in a capsule
filled with the solution, bodies are spared accidental injuries.
Human bodies are prevented from collapsing from the inside by
being nourished without interruption, and kept from eroding
from outside by being soaked in the solution.
Just as is the physical safety, mental peace is vital for
eternal life. For human minds are the most stable when
sleeping, they are maintained under continuous sleep. Cables
link human brains and computers which transmit electronic
pulses to human brains, so humans can afford sound sleep with
a serene dream stimulated by the electronic pulse. While the
bodies lie in capsules, their minds are solemnly living lives in a
virtual world in peace.
Although staying in peace, human minds possess
potentials to arouse impetus to disturb the flawless utopia. The
bodies awaken are to be exterminated whereas the obedient
ones are protected from the infection of the subversive
thoughts. To shelter the paradise, humans must not impute any
magical powers which menace the creator. Don't dream in your
dreams and you will appreciate eternity.

Design Patterns
Anton Yudin
RW 60

Software design or architectural view of a future
software project is a very important step in the software
development process. This step is important because it creates
the main structure of a project and a background for future
steps. Mistakes made on this level lead to very severe problems
in the future. For example, an incorrect object model of a
system is something that is extremely difficult to fix in the later
stages of a project. Usually correction of such mistakes requires
a lot of changes in different parts of a system that are usually
unplanned and very expensive. Software designers have been
looking for new ways to avoid such mistakes and make the
designing process easier.
There are different approaches to simplify the
designing process. These approaches may be more or less
suitable for different projects. For example, small projects that
are written in procedural languages are more likely to be
designed using adequate designing techniques; whereas
complex projects that are usually done using object-oriented
languages require more sophisticated designing techniques. One
new trend that has been gaining popularity in designing
complex projects is to use Design Patterns. This is a new
technique that helps to find effective solutions for common
problems that software designers often experience. This paper
will give a brief history of the method, define what design
patterns are, show important characteristic of this method and
define the main advantages and disadvantages.
The history of the design pattern concept can be
tracked back to 1964 and "The Timeless Way of Building,"
written by Christopher Alexander, a successful architect. In this
book the author is trying to come up with the basic rules that


allow an architect to build practical and attractive buildings
(1965). This idea lately became the concept of design patterns.
The idea will be explained in details lately in this paper, but for
now according to Alexander design patterns can be seen as a
collection of reusable solutions to the common problems that
architects experience creating any kind of buildings. In "A
Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction," the authors
give detailed and practical examples of using the theory
addressing many common problems like shortage of materials
and the high cost of labor (Alexander, Ishikawa, Silverstain,
1977). This book and several experiments conducted by
Alexander have proven that design patterns are extremely
useful in architecture.
While the idea of patterns was first introduced in the
construction field, it has been adopted and successfully used in
many other engineering fields and especially in software design.
The first attempt to use the idea was done by Ward
Cunningham and Kent Beck, software developers and
researchers, who tried to create a small pattern language for
teaching students. The results of this work were presented in a
paper titled "Using Pattern Languages for Object-Oriented
Programs" (1987). In 1995, a group of four developers wrote
"Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented
Software", which contained the explanation of the theory and a
catalog of 23 ready to use design patterns for object-oriented
programming (Gamma, Helm, Johnson, Vlissides, 1995).
Today, developers have created hundreds of new patterns
applicable for different areas from graphic user interface to
server programming and mobile application developing, yet this
book and design patterns described in it are considered the basic
for the concept. The book became so popular that developers
started to use a nickname "Gang of Four" or "GOF" to address
the authors.
Having quite a long history, to give a definition and
clear explanation of what design patterns are is a difficult task
and different sources give different definitions, yet most of
them include a context, a recurring problem, and a solution. The
context includes a set of rules for the problem. The recurring
problem is a specific problem that the design pattern is trying to
solve. The solution is a specific way to solve the problem. For
example, Alexander defines a design pattern as "a three part
rule, which expresses a relation between a certain context, a
problem, and a solution" (1965, p. 23). Another definition can
be found in "Understanding and Using Patterns in Software
Development" that defines pattern as "the abstraction from a
concrete form which keeps recurring in specific non-arbitrary
contexts" (Riehlle, Zullighoven, 1995). These definitions truly
explain the main idea of a pattern, yet one may find it too
abstract and a specific example from the real world would be
helpful.
A simple yet clear example that can be used to explain
the idea may be the "enter the place" pattern. Everyday people
enter different places using different techniques. For example,
entering someone's own apartment, entering an elevator, or
entering the bus are three completely different tasks, and can be
viewed as different contexts. The problem in this case is to
complete the entering procedure. The solution is common for
all three contexts. First, a person needs to make sure that the


ELI Student Voices 5








door is open. If it is not open, the person needs to notify the
system that the door needs to be open. After the door is open,
the person needs to move into the place. At first look, this
example seems to be too primitive, but it shows the main idea
of a solution that can be applied in different contexts. For
example, the step to "notify the system that the door needs to be
open" is common for all cases, but it is implemented differently
for each context. In the case of the elevator, the person needs to
push the button. In the case of the apartment, the person needs
to use keys to open the door. In the case of the bus, the person
needs to make a sign. These different implementations actually
use the same principle of a "enter the place" pattern.
Summarizing this simple example, design pattern is a
solution for a common problem that can be used in different
situations.
Design patterns in software development use the same
principles. For example, the Singleton pattern, which is one of
the patterns described in "Design Patterns: Elements of
Reusable Object-Oriented Software", is a simple example of a
pattern that is used in many software systems (Gamma, Helm,
Johnson, Vlissides, 1995). The goal of this pattern is to ensure
that a class, which is the main concept in object-oriented
programming, has only one instance and provides an access
point that can be used from different modules, a group of
classes, and other classes. This pattern may be used in different
contexts to ensure that only one instance of a clock, a file
system, or a security manager exists in the system. To make
sure that there is only one instance of the class in the system,
the pattern delegates the function of instantiation of new
instances to the class itself. Typical implementation of this
pattern includes a public static method as a global access point,
a protected or private constructor, and a private static field that
holds the reference to the instance of the class. Because the
constructor is protected or private, it is impossible to create a
new instance of the class without invoking a public static
method of the class. This method uses private field in the class
to hold the reference and check whether the instance of the class
already exists. In multi-threaded applications this method
should be also synchronized to ensure that there is no
concurrent invocation of the code. This pattern is a good
example because it is obvious that it can be used in different
contexts and situations and is easy to explain without providing
source code or algorithm diagrams.
The definition of a specific pattern and explanation of
its idea is not the only part of a design pattern. According to the
"Gang of Four", a pattern should have four main elements. The
first element is the name of the pattern. The name of the pattern
is very important because it helps developers to communicate
with each other and allows them to describe a solution using
one or two words (Gamma, Helm, Johnson, Vlissides, 1995).
Another element is the problem itself. In the previous example
it is a need to have only one instance of a class. The next
element is the solution that solves the problem and can be
reused in other contexts. The last element is the consequences
that are the results of applying the solution and possible
negative effects. Other sources include other elements that
describe a pattern besides these four elements. For example,
Appleton in his article "Patterns and Software: Essential


Concepts and Terminology" uses additional elements like
"forces", ci \ipkl.s", "rationale", "related patterns" and "uses",
yet the main elements are still the same.
After defining the main characteristics of patterns, it is
important to summarize the main advantages of this method.
Sue Spielman in her article "J2EE Design Patterns" provides
the following examples. Design patterns help to "capture
engineering experience" (Spielman, 2002). In other words, a
catalog of design patterns can be viewed as a storage of
solutions that can be searched. Additionally design patterns help
engineers with different levels of knowledge to use common
solutions. It means that beginners can easily use design patterns
as the way of learning and experienced developers can use them
as a way to share their experience. Another advantage of design
patterns is that they save time because a designer can find an
existent solution in the catalog instead of reinventing it.
Not only do patterns have advantages, but they also
have several disadvantages that should be noticed. For example,
like any abstraction-based technique, this method can increase
complexity of the project if used incorrectly. Sometimes a
problem can be solved using a simple solution without applying
a pattern. Another disadvantage is that a design pattern by itself
is not a guarantee that the specific problem will be solved in the
most efficient way. For example, the singleton pattern in multi-
threaded applications can be a cause of a significant
performance decrease. The synchronized static method in this
case creates a block of code that can be executed by only one
thread at one moment. If the application frequently invokes the
singleton, there is possibility that most of the threads will be
waiting in the queue for one thread to return from the method.
These possible disadvantages are important and it is considered
a good practice to describe known trade-offs of a pattern in the
comment section of its description.
In conclusion, design patterns is an important
technique that helps to build more elegant and sophisticated
software projects. There are several disadvantages, yet paying
attention to these problems can help to avoid them. Overall this
method has proven to be helpful and some software giants like
Sun Microsystem and Microsoft maintain their own catalogs of
design patterns (Welcome). Some universities, for example, the
University of Maryland, Baltimore County, are offering special
courses that teach students about design patterns (CMSC44). It
might be predicted that because design patterns are based on the
object-oriented paradigm, learning them in parallel with the
object-oriented programming course would be helpful for the
students. Moreover, some object-oriented ideas can be
explained using design patterns.

References

Alexander, C. (1965). The Timeless Way ofBuilding. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstain, M. (1977). A Pattern
Language: Towns,Buildings, Construction. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Beck, K., Cunningham, W. (1987). Using Pattern Languages
for Object-Oriented Programs. [Online Article],


ELI Student Voices 6








Retrieved 2009, July 10, from the World
Wide Web: http://c2.com/doc/oopsla87.html
Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J. (1995). Design
Patterns: Elements ofReusable Object-Oriented
Software. Addison-Wesley Professional.
Riehlle, D., Zullighoven, H. (1995). Understanding and Using
Patterns in Software Development. Hamburg,
Germany: University of Hamburg.
Spielman, S. (2002, January 16). J2EE Design Patterns.
[Online Article], Retrieved 2009, July 10, from the
World Wide Web: http://onjava.com/
pub/a/onjava/2002/01/16/patters.html
Welcome to Core J2EE Patterns. (2002, January 16). Welcome
to Core J2EE Patterns. [Online Article], Retrieved
2009, July 10, from the World Wide Web:
http://java.sun.com/blueprints/corej2eepatters/
CMSC446 Introduction To Design Patterns. (2"" 14, January
11). CMSC446 Introduction To Design Patterns.
[Online Article], Retrieved 2009, July 10, from the
World Wide Web: http://userpages.umbc.edu/
-tarr/dp/spr04/cs446.html

John Lennon vs. Paul McCartney
Jiin Jung
RW 60

In the 1964 movie A Hard Day's Night, four young
men, dressed smartly with disheveled hair, are running and
gasping with impish smiles into an alley, and the screams of
girls running after them could puncture an eardrum. The four
young men seem to enjoy their lofty status amidst hearty cheers
from the groupies, not even thinking that they will change the
landscape of popular music. They are the members of a
marvelous group called The Beatles weaving the world into one
through their music; they had a great influence on future
generations: the name of The Beatles is recorded in the English
lexicon and they inspired human beings' advanced artistic
consciousness through the medium of rock music.
There is an inevitable question that most Beatles' fans
are asked while talking about The Beatles, "Which one do you
prefer between John Lennon and Paul McCartney?" In practice,
there have existed two separate groups of Beatles' fans around
the world: Lennon's fans and McCartney's. It suggests that they
walked different paths in their musical lives, which resulted in
excessive competition and bitter conflict between them later on;
they were incompatible with each other in artistic temperament
and songwriting styles. This paper will discuss how their fierce
rivalry began in The Beatles and has been continued during The
Beatles and after.

Lennon and McCartney's perilous living together in The
Beatles

The encounter between the two musical geniuses,
Lennon and McCartney, goes back to 1956 when they were
attracted by each other's musical talents, and McCartney joined
the band Lennon had formed called The Quarry Men, the


predecessor of The Beatles. Before McCartney's joining,
Lennon seemed to forecast that McCartney would become a
threatening rival in the band later on. In his book, Albert
Goldman quoted Lennon's as saying, "I half thought to myself,
'He's as good as me.' I'd been kingpin up to then. Now, I
thought, 'If I take him on, what will happen?' It went through
my head that I'd have to keep him in line if I let him join"
(1998, p. 68). That was the way the Lennon-McCartney
partnership began; that is, from the outset, their relationship was
in peril. As the calm before the storm, this partnership was still
peaceful and even strengthened by a strong tie because they
both lost their mothers at a young age. However, as time went
by, this tie didn't seem to matter to them any more.
As a price comes with success, by 1968, the group's
success had to pay for the antagonism between Lennon and
McCartney. As mentioned at the beginning, they were different
in musical abilities and styles although it was hidden by the
huge shadow of The Beatles' success; however, their supreme
confidence because of the group's success made their
differences come up to the surface (Paul McCartney, 2008). In
their different musical abilities, subtle tension was evinced.
Lennon seemed to have an inferiority complex to McCartney's
marvelous ability to produce fine tunes, such as "Yesterday,"
"Michelle," "Here There And Everywhere," "Penny Lane,"
"Eleanor Rigby," "Hey Jude," "Let It Be," and so on;
McCartney was also envious of Lennon's eccentric creativity,
especially his inherent talent for writing lyrics, displayed in
"Nowhere Man, Girl," "Strawberry Fields Forever," and "Julia"
(Miles, 1997). In terms of their songwriting styles, Lennon's
songs were normally pessimistic whereas McCartney's were
optimistic. An example of this can be seen especially in the
song "A Day In The Life," on the album "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely
Hearts Club Band," consisting of two separate songs, of which
both Lennon and McCartney wrote their portions independently
where Lennon's cheerless voice enters and ends with an
exhausted "oh boy," unlike McCartney's entering with a
cheerful voice (Paul McCartney, 2008). Once those differences
in the early days of The Beatles were a driving force of the
group's success, which can be proved by many musical
authorities calling the partnership "one of the best-known and
most successful musical and cultural collaborations of all time"
(Lennon/McCartney, 2009), but their differences turned to
conflict and hostility.
In the same year, 1968, the death of Brian Epstein, The
Beatles' manager, practically amounted to the end of The
Beatles when the situation that Lennon had predicted turned
into a reality; McCartney was trying to take the leadership in
the group (Blaney, 2007). Below describes a famous scene in
the Let It Be film where his bossiness was revealed.
Paul and George get into an argument after Paul tells
George how he should be playing guitar. George ends up
walking out of the session. Paul had a similar experience with
Ringo months earlier and Ringo walked out of the session as
well (Lennon, 2005).
After seeing the film, Lennon cynically remarks, "It
was set up by McCartney for McCartney" (Lennon, 2005).
Also, he was resentful towards McCartney in the last studio
sessions of The Beatles because he felt McCartney tried to


ELI Student Voices 7








undermine some of his songs like "Strawberry Fields" and
"Across the Universe" (Spitz, 2005). In its early stage, Lennon
was reluctant to accept McCartney in his band since he was
afraid that McCartney's talent for music might surpass his, but
Lennon made a decision about McCartney's joining for the
same reason; he believed McCartney's talent would contribute
to the band. However, it seemed to be hard for Lennon to take
responsibility for his decision.
In this unavoidable breaking down of their old
alliance, there were two women: Ono Yoko, Lennon's lover,
and Linda Eastman. Both Ono and Linda stopped by the studio,
where The Beatles worked together. Unlike Linda, however,
Ono constantly interrupted the "White Album" sessions as if
she had been one of The Beatles, which developed a sticky
tension in the studio. In his book, Bob Spitz quoted
McCartney's as saying, "Yoko's appearance in the studio
functioned as a declaration of war" (2005, p. 777).
In 1969, in the two couples' matrimonies, the antagonism
between them was continued. Only two days before, the press
had announced the surprising news of McCartney's marriage to
Linda, and the ceremony was performed with no other Beatle
present. Wild with frustration, Lennon called the office and
said, "I wanted to marry within the next half hour!" (Miles,
1988) His sudden anger over McCartney's matrimony seemed
to be a clear case of not wanting to be outdone, not an
inexplicable impulse. Eight days after McCartney's marriage,
Lennon and Ono got married without any notice just as
McCartney did. This shows that Lennon and McCartney entered
into rivalry even when they fell in love.
Public announcement of The Beatles-break up
As there is an expression that the collapse of a castle is for an
internal confusion, not an external invasion, it wouldn't be too
much to say that the beautiful castle of The Beatles, built by
their passion for rock music in their younger days, ended up
being destroyed hopelessly by bitter conflict between the two,
Lennon and McCartney.
When McCartney made the official announcement of
The Beatles breakup in 1970, the relationship of Lennon and
McCartney entered upon a completely hostile phase. With
regard to this break-up announcement, Lennon seemed to have
a good reason to get into rage by McCartney's abrupt attack on
him; in fact, Lennon unofficially said that The Beatles were
relics of ancient times, and it should be changed or broken up
by him as he had formed the band (Goldman, 1998). According
to Blaney, "He's even announced his intention to leave the band
at an Apple meeting but was persuaded to keep quiet by
manager Allen Klein, who was negotiating The Beatles'
contract i\ il EN II 2I i'', p.30). In the meantime, McCartney
held a sudden press interview when he announced that he would
leave The Beatles on account of personal and business matters,
and a musical difference (Miles, 1997).
After the breakup, while McCartney was winning great
success with the group Wings he had formed in 1971, Lennon's
stinging tongue toward McCartney in the press continued, and
McCartney reacted to it by releasing his second solo album
"Ram' when he included the picture of him pulling the ears of a
ram on the album cover; in general, it is assumed that the ram
referred to Lennon. However, in the book, Blaney quotes


McCartney,' "In one song, I wrote, 'Too many people preaching
practices,' ... I mean, that was a little dig at John and Yoko.
There wasn't anything else on 'Ram' about them" (2007. p. 45).
Regarding this, Lennon's response was to include a postcard of
him holding the ears of a pig in a parody of Ram's cover
photograph the song "How do you sleep?" on his "Imagine"
album 1971 (Miles, 1997). The lyric of this song is as follows.

You live with straights who tell you was king
Jump when your momma tell you anything
the only thing you done was yesterday
And since you're gone you're just another day
Ah, how do you sleep?
Ah, how do you sleep at night?
A pretty face may last a year or two
But pretty soon they'll see what you can do
The sound you make is muzak* to my ears

(muzak*: background music transmitted by wire or radio)

"Yesterday" and "Another Day" in the lyric refer song
titles written by McCartney, and the lyric "a pretty face may
last a year or two" went right to the point. In his article, Booth
states McCartney's hidden fear toward his music:
McCartney's unspoken fear is that he will be remembered only
as a pop singer who made pretty records. The Master of Ear
Candy, shallow and self-indulgent if catchy and commercial --
and, of course, never as good as his now dead collaborator,
Lennon. (1992)

Reevaluation of Lennon/McCartney after the death of
Lennon

There would be no doubt that the aesthetics of death
contributed to the fact that Lennon has become a synonym for
The Beatles to many people. The sudden death of Lennon in
1980 attracted public attention, which made the world pop fans
reevaluate his music, and he came to receive a sort of
posthumous fame.
As a matter of fact, during The Beatles and after,
Lennon didn't keep up with McCartney in terms of their official
records. A majority of the songs epitomizing The Beatles, such
as "Yesterday," "Hey Jude," "Obladi-Oblada," and "Let It Be"
were McCartney's composition, and in their solo careers,
McCartney had nine number one singles and seven number one
albums while Lennon left no more than two number one singles
(Artist, 2007). Even such a famous song Lennon's "Imagine"
wasn't ranked first on the chart. Apart from their music,
McCartney also got the lead in general popularity because of
his 'cute' looks and good manner.
Nevertheless, time seemed to be unfair to McCartney;
Lennon died, and McCartney's past glories became faint; in
fact, McCartney's greatly successful solo pieces, such as "My
Love," "Band On The Run," "With A Little Luck," are hardly
remembered now; in contrast, Lennon's "Imagine" has become
an immortal pop song, and his songs "Love," "Oh My Love,"
and "Woman" are still loved. Recently, Lennon and McCartney


ELI Student Voices 8








were each ranked fourth and 13th respectively in "Mojo greatest
100 singers all the time" (Mojo, 2009).
To conclude, many people will think it is a great pity
that The Beatles was disbanded, and they might be willing to
charge the disbanding to the rivalry between Lennon and
McCartney. It is somewhat true in that from the beginning of
the rivalry to the end, there was no room for compromise to
save The Beatles; they pursued only their own interests in
music and lives while the fierce rivalry was continuing.
However, it should be remembered that the rivalry between
Lennon and McCartney, two of the most prominent songwriters
in modem time, was integral to the success of The Beatles,
which can be seen in their excellent piece of music in those
days. Also, it might be wasted efforts to choose the favorite one
between them in order to tear down the one to laud the other; in
the past, the two musical geniuses, Lennon and McCartney
were great for being together in The Beatles, and as for the
present, they would be great for being out of The Beatles. As
McCartney said, perhaps we should just "Let It Be."

References

Artist biography-McCartney (2007). [Online article]. Retrieved
June 22, 2009, from the World Wide Web:
Imp \ \ \ .billboard.com/bbcom/bio/index.jsp?pid=5
162
Booth, C. (1992, Jun 8). Paul at fifty. [Online article]. Retrieved
June 20, 2009, from the World Wide Web:
hlp \ \\ \\ .time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,9
75715,00.html
Blaney, J. (2007). Lennon and McCartney: Together alone: a
critical discography of their solo work. London:
Jawbone Press.
Goldman, A. H. (1988). The lives of John Lennon. New York:
W. Morrow.
Lennon/McCartney (2009, July 13). [Online article]. Retrieved
July 14, 2009, from the World Wide Web:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lennon/McCartney
Miles, B. (1997). Paul McCartney: Many years from now. New
York: H. Holt.
Mojo 100 greatest singers of all time (2009, May 04). [Online
article]. Retrieved June 22, 2009, from the World
Wide Web:
lhp \ \\ \\ .rocklistmusic.co.uk/mojo_p2.htm#singles
Paul McCartney vs. John Lennon: Two very different song
writers. (2008, April 2). [Online article]. Retrieved
June 23, 2009, from the World Wide Web:
http://musicouch.com/genres/rock/paul-mccartney-
vs-john-lennon-two-very-different-song-writers/
Spitz, B. (2005). The Beatles. New York: Little, Brown and
company.


How to Tempt Someone
Seung Jin (David)
R/W2

Sit down near a target and watch the target for a long
time quietly. Then when you look at each other, you should do
a wink.
God bless you.

The River of Moldau in Prague
Jiin Jung
RW 60

"Have you ever been to Prague in the Czech
Republic?" "If you haven't, you should go there because Prague
is the most beautiful city in Europe." This is what I heard from
an old lady I met in the subway in Frankfurt, Germany, while
traveling in Eastern Europe, which made me give a smile of
satisfaction since my next destination was Prague. It also
reminded me of a music critic in Korea depicting Prague as the
most beautiful city in the world, which looks like a piece of
landscape wherever we see in Prague.
That I first encountered Prague was when I read an
article about "Prague Spring," referring to a democratic
movement of Czechoslovakia in 1968. Later on, with reading
well-known novels of Czech's greatest writers, such as The
Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera and The
Trial and The Castle by Franz KaJka, I personally gave a
definition of Prague; Prague is a city full of resistance and love
of arts. By the time I almost forgot about Prague, I happened to
listen to a symphonic poem named Vltava, after the longest
river of Veltava in Czech Republic (better known as "The
Moldau" from the German), composed by Bedrich Smetana,
one of the great composers of Czech's history, and I fell in love
with The Moldau.
Such a passion for The Moldau led me to be in Prague,
where there is the river of Moldau, and as I'd heard, Prague was
a really beautiful city: the ancient Prague castle, showing a
delicate feature, Karluv Bridge, holdong out for a 500-years-old
history, thirty statues lined on either side of the bridge, and the
river of Moldau, flowing camly below the castle. Of these
beautiful cultural properties, however, I'd say a real beauty of
Prague is that it has its own aroma and subtle perfume produced
while the nation had been enduring a long time of glory and
shame, which never will be able to be felt in modernity and
refinement.
The Moldau, which made me full of admiration in
Smetana's symponic poem, probably would contribute to such a
real beauty; it has been a symbol of Czech's tirless resistance
and their emotional prop to sustain their native country under
the dominion of Austria. As Alexander Dubcek, leading
"Prague Spring," there were many people who bore up under an
adversity and oppression, and one of them was Bedrich
Smetana, the composer of The Moldau, considered the nation's
anthem that Smetana dedicated his father land. On the basis of
Bohemian nature, legend, and history, he composed six


ELI Student Voices 9








symphonic poems, named "My fatherland," among which The
Moldau is the second poem. Every year, a festival to
commemorate "Prague Spring" takes place when it opens with
this music, which reflects what the Moldau symbolizes,
unyielding resistance.
The unyielding resistance I felt in the symphonic
poem, The Moldau, was the reason why I was fascinated with
the music. In the piece, I imagined Moldau to be a great river,
flowing in a large stream through a long time when I could feel
this nation's history from time immemorial and an indomitable
spirit. The introduction of The Moldau starts with a description
of a swirling small stream intermittently, and the most famous
lyric tune follows it. In this flowing and elegant melody,
paradoxically, there were a dauntless spirit, dignity no one dares
access, and potential power of the nation.
Before visiting Prague, I expected the huge river of
Moldau as it is described the symphonic poem; however, the
Moldau I saw there was rather small and calm, so it seemed to
be a bit awkward to name it a huge stream, national sprit, and
swirling patriotism. Then was it merely because of his heart
burning with patriotism? Perhaps, Smetana would have wanted
to describe a great national spirit flowing at the bottom of
Bohemian's heart by his music and the river of Moldau.
Yet, their national-self respect, a symbol of the
Moldau, seemed to fade while the capitalistic economy
advanced on the nation after the collapse of East European bloc
has been making Czech happier materially than before. With
seeing people touting travelers in front of a station square, I
sighed out my regrets thinking that this historic city would go
through lots of hardships in the future.
The Moldau doesn't flow in a large stream, at least,
outwardly. However, as Smetana did, I could feel their national
self-respect running majestically at the bottom of the Moldau.
Although they have a long way to go now, I believe that
someday this nation will ride the wave of a great prosperity
again by the power of the majestic culture and their inner
strength, not economic power and military strength.
While waiting for the train at the station to go to the
next destination in my journey, I heard one of tourists saying,
"The national income of this country is low, and Prague is also
nothing," and I had to feel "the Unbearable Lightness of
Being."


A Humpback Painter Son, Sang-ki
Jiin Jung
RW 60

A person experiencing the bitterness of life at an
earlier age! His life was as miserable as he couldn't bear.
Nevertheless, it was shame for him to have to face such a
wretched world; though he spat at the abominable and absurd
world, he was always depressed in that he couldn't break or
transcend from it.
A humpback painter Son, Sang-ki is called Henri de
Toulouse Lautrec of Korea. He counted a sole thing he'd had
was a heavy inferiority complex: projecting sterna, the back like


an Arabian camel, and below 5 feet in height. Although he
refused that his deformity spread to a mental defect, not being
able to hide was self-pity and an inferiority complex,
segmenting and being proliferated tirelessly as a fatal virus is
spread. Only in an act of painting, he seemed to be able to
console himself and express his identity, and the end of his
sense of inferiority might have come to him at the moment his
life ended.
One of his works Construction City Isolation reveals
the inside of an ugly city: a landscape describing a dreary city,
where human beings disappeared. A sharp metal from a barbed
wire fence erected around the city suggests violence of a cruel
reality and exclusion from others.

No access.

However, a hope might begin to bloom as a lotus
flower in the mud. A path winds along a village, a church, and a
hill molding 'Y,' and the path will reach the sky; then the
picture might be a conception of the shallow and shabby world
where he looks for a gleam of hope!
Although his divine punishment, a humpback, made a
mockery of his defeat and despair, it could never crush his
artistic passion; the rigor of life and physical misfortune
threatened his life and art, but he denied being a victim of the
adverse fate. However, how difficult would it be to transcend a
physical inferiority complex and limitation with only an
unyielding spirit? He was never free out of the burden of his
deformity; he said that the very thought of his deformity made
him suffocate.
Drawing was the only method to escape from the
choking and to realize his scratched dream. In the darkness, he
picked the inner words in severe pain and repeated drawing
with hard and stern training. He concentrated his efforts on
depicting poor neighbor's uneasiness and neglect as his life
itself was. The picture of people's severely twisted faces and
women's nude picture with blank faces were also to express the
neglected people in the world. His pictures always had being
sharp and subtle seeing through him. A lonely soul, Son, San-gi,
who did battle with the world paradoxically comparing himself
to an unwithered flower!


ELI Student Voices 10









































Thanks from the Editor
Thank you for sharing your writing with everyone. I hope you
enjoy reading your fellow students' essays, paragraphs, and
poetry. Also thanks to Megan Forbes and the University of
Florida Bookstore for arranging the gift certificates, to Todd
Allen for publicizing this issue of Student Voices, to the
Reading/Writing instructors for supporting their students in
their writing, and to Debbie Kellerman, Valentina Komaniecka,
Melina Jimenez, Fiona Lama, Patricia Moon, and Todd Allen
for reading and evaluating the entries.
Thanks everyone! Steve Flocks




*f T I UNIVERSITY of
UF FLORIDA

English Language Institute
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Phone: (352) 392-3354
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