Title: ELI student voices
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Title: ELI student voices
Series Title: ELI student voices
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: English Language Institute, University of Florida
Publisher: English Language Institute, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Fall 2008
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Volume ID: VID00020
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ELI STUDENT VOICES


Volume 12, Issue 3


Fall, 2008


Getting Along With Your Partner
Satoru Kake (st Place)
RW 60

"I can't live any more in such a village where men
don't hunt." A woman who grew up in the uncivilized upper
reaches of the Amazon got married to an American man by a
matter of chance. She moved to New York, lived there with him
and had a child but after all, she left her husband and child in
New York and went back to her hometown in the Amazon. This
is what she said when she left. Now she is in the village where
men are hunting and she is living womanly and happily. When I
saw this documentary film on TV, I was impressed and
wondered about sex and the gap between the sexes. God alone
knows why and we will never know why there are men and
women on earth. We are the living witnesses to prove the truce
that they have survived severe nature while raising their
children again and again over a million years. In order to
survive and develop through evolution, humans have been
struggling and must have realized the differences between men
and women biologically and psychologically. The people who
notice the differences have tried to make good use of them to
accommodate depending on the circumstances and those
differences are still remaining today with no changes. Since
campaigns for equal rights for women have become active
nowadays and women have gone into several societies, it seems
that the differences have been disappearing on the surface.
However, it is impossible to conceal physical and mental
essences of them and we can't create women from men and
men from women perfectly. Grasping their difference
completely has been a big homework for a long time and we
still can't finish it. It is a long way from perfect but some
differences between men and women appear when we see their
daily life. It is obvious to see the different values between males
and females by instinct in their house, their work and their
leisure.
You can observe a big difference in their sense of
values when you examine at home their domestic chores, their
finances and their conversation. Since a long time ago, maybe
from the primitive age, humans divided their roles of
housework. Men thought that they were expected to protect
their families from fierce animals and enemies because they had
physical strength. From the beginning, they were supposed to
go to the dangerous outside world and hunt game such as
boars and mammoths at the risk of their lives. In this way, their
abilities to move around large areas have made progress. This
fact is supported by a scientific discovery which showed "males
navigate better in an unfamiliar environment" ("Men, women
find," 2004, p. 6A). Today, men are supposed to do heavy work


such as mowing the lawn, repairing the roof, washing the car,
painting rooms and throwing out the garbage in most of the
families in the world. On the other hand, women thought that
they were not expected to do what men were expected. They
were expected to manage inside and around their house. For the
first time when women were appointed to the post of taking
care of children, growing vegetables and gathering fruits and
nuts, they have developed their abilities to keep watch and
move around the limited sphere of their houses quickly and
smoothly. Because they were often pregnant or taking care of
small children, they could not accompany men on the hunt, or
wander far from home. Now, women are supposed to do light
work like cooking, knitting, needlework, washing dishes and
laundry.
At home, you can also realize the differences of
household finance between males and females. It is often said
that men are idealistic and women are realistic as for their
money in general. As mentioned above, it might be natural that
men tend to be outside the houses and to look outwardly
because they always think about hunting big animals in order to
provide for their families. Women, on the other hand, tend to be
inside of the houses and to keep watch inwardly because they
are required to maintain their family-lives by noticing their
family-member's changes of feelings and behaviors such as
depression and illness. For these reasons, it is natural for men to
be idealistic and for women to be practical when they manage
their personal finances. According to a Yankelovich survey,
"More women than men describe themselves as bargain hunters
while more men than women describe themselves, in terms of
money style, as risk takers." The results of this survey show that
women try to spend their money practically, while men are
likely to invest and get more fortune ("Financial Practicality,"
2001, 2).
Consider risk in the situation of hunting. Cave men
sometimes had to take a risk and get close enough to drive their
spear into mammoths. Cave women, on the other hand, couldn't
risk injury because then they couldn't carry on care for their
children. Actually, while most modern people think that the
primitive hunting was more important than the gathering,
anthropologists think the opposite could be true. Hunting is
"iffy." Maybe you will kill an animal; maybe you won't. But,
probably, women could always find some fruits, nuts and seeds.
That was the "safe investment" that saved the family during
periods of no luck hunting.
Here is my experience. A few years ago, I went to the
casino to gamble with my wife. At the roulette section, we bet
only on the color red or black at first. As we were playing, we
both could make some money. While my wife was playing Red
or Black, I began to play Straight Up because I had enough
money that I earned and felt I could get rich quick. After all, she


ELI Student Voices 1








won and got more money and I lost all the money that I had.
Though men try to make money in the stock market or by
gambling because they are dreaming of a fortune at one swoop,
women try to live within their income steadily. In other words,
men seek all or none while women seek sense of stability.
Another recent survey reported in Live Science
announced that "among 43 percent of couples the women make
more of the decisions in the domestic realm than men do" and
"forty-five percent of women said they are in charge of home
finances" ("At Home, Women Rule," 2008, 9). This research
also reflects the different ideas of household finance between
males and females. One of the reasons why women should face
up to the cold, hard facts of the situation is that because "they
live longer, they earn less pay and often receive no pension"
("Financial Practicality," 2001, 3). It is necessary for women
who are considered to live longer lives and to have low social
status compared to men to plan how they can manage family
lives on a realistic basis.
The various views of their conversation at home are
also major factors when you examine the difference between
male and female. Men go home from work with fatigue every
day and seek ease at home. It is important for men to talk about
theirjobs to make their partners understand how hard they work
all the day in order to nurse their pride and to recover from
fatigue, while women are busy with housework and taking care
of children all the day. It is important for women to talk about
daily happenings such as children or their common hobbies to
feel close to their partners by sharing the feelings.
Not only when men and women are at their home,
but also you can see their different sense of values at their
places of work. It has not been a long time since women were
on a par with men in business. You may be surprised how many
women are working in several types of job today when you
compare to fifty years ago. As stated before, each sex has
defined their roles that helped to survive severe environment
since ancient times. Men hunted animals while women gathered
food near their home and took care of their children. Passing
through these important tasks, from the point of the theory of
evolution, their brains have advanced to enable them to perform
their different jobs. Men developed their brains to use essential
navigation skills as hunters. It reflects "the fact that there are
many more male mathematicians, airplane pilots, bush guides,
mechanical engineers, architects and race car drivers than
female ones" (Renato, 2000, 3). Men are considered to be
superior to women when it comes to "estimate time, judge
speed of things, carry out mental mathematical calculations,
orient in space and visualize objects in three dimensions"
(Renato, 2000, 3). On the other hand, women developed their
brains to have smooth communication skills through child care.
This is one of the reasons why there are more female telephone
operators and receptionists than male. Women are considered to
excel at verbal and social skills and empathy, in other words,
human relations. These differences between male and female
originate in "the brain region in the cortex called inferior-
parietal lobule (IPL) which is significantly larger in men than in
women" (Frederikse, 1999, pp. 896-901). Moreover, the left
side IPL is larger in men than the right side, stated JHU
researchers. "The left IPL is involved with perception of time


and speed, and the ability of mentally rotating 3-D figures." The
right IPL is related to "the memory involved in understanding
and manipulating relationships and the ability to sense
relationships between body parts" (Renato, 2000, 14). The
difference of the brain structure between sexes lies also in the
hippocampus. According to the study, "Both sexes use the right
hippocampus in negotiating the maze. But only men used the
left hippocampus." It suggests males navigate better in an
unfamiliar environment ("Men, Women Find," 2004, p. 6A).
These scientific discoveries enable us to understand the
different types of job between men and women.
I have often heard complaint about women from my
friends who are working for several companies with some
woman-staffs. They are always complaining about women's
lack of ability and flexibility as members of society. Fifty years
might not be enough for women to acclimate to a male-
dominated society. Men basically do not defy their boss. Even
though their boss gives wrong orders to them, they try to take
orders for the time being or to pretend to do that. Women tend
to express their different opinions without considering if they
think their opinions are right no matter how high their boss'
position is. They don't try to accept unwilling orders. In Japan,
men are definitely going to be in trouble if they disobey their
boss' orders; on the other hand, women might be forgiven their
misbehavior and be accepted their opinion in general even if
they refuse to carry out orders. The noteworthy difference
between men and women is the way that they do after their boss
issues orders which lead obviously to awkward result. Men
don't object to the decision made by their boss; however, they
don't follow the unwise instruction from their boss. They try to
finish off their work by the way of their own and to accomplish
them properly. Their boss doesn't complain about their work as
long as they bear fruit. In contrast, women try to do as they are
told by their boss even if they know that it is going to cause
some trouble because their boss orders so. Naturally enough,
they are in big trouble and might be attacked by their boss.
Women get angry because they think that they just follow their
boss' order. They tend to take it so seriously that they don't
know how to get things done flexibly as business women.
Following the different values between male and
female in their house and work, you can also see the big
difference in their leisure hours. A matter of taste makes
considerable contrast between the sexes when concrete
examples are given. Imagine that you are having dinner with
your girlfriend or wife at a restaurant. You often see that men
decide the menu more quickly than women; however, women
are slow in making their decision. Generally, women tend to
like to read their moods and enjoy imaging several tastes of
foods when they try to order them at the restaurant. Therefore,
even though their partners have already decided their menu,
women have difficulty in choosing them because many foods
catch their eyes. Men decide already what they are going to eat
before checking the menu in their mind and order without being
irresolute, but, in contrast, women would often change their
mind by the atmosphere and their moods even if they already
chose. Men always have clear senses of purpose and have
tendency to attain their decided objects while women are
capable of adapting to changing circumstances.


ELI Student Voices 2








A second example is when a couple takes a trip all by
themselves. Men have previously arranged their plans and are
going to carry out as scheduled. However, women are thinking
that they want to drop by some spots when they find them
interesting and exciting without considering partners' plans.
This gap of the way of thinking between them often brings fight
to them. Most men try to achieve their goals according to their
schedules; therefore, they get irritated when they find difficulty
in carrying out their previous plans. On the other hand, because
women grasp the things on the spot, changing plans are all in
the day's work. As I mentioned in the example of restaurant,
women have accommodation to change their decision anytime
they need whether it is a good idea or not. As for their trip, they
try to devote their energy to consider how they can enjoy and be
excited. However, men hate to be twisted by women's willful
ways and they want to carry out as they planned.
People often go shopping in their leisure time and
there, you can also notice the difference between male and
female. How many men can say that they really like to go
shopping with their girlfriends or wives from the bottom of
their heart? Most men have experiences to have fight with their
partners during shopping. "Men like shopping provided they're
going out to buy a Porsche or a computer-a toy for a boy, but
when actually forced to do domestic shopping, that's when they
become very stressed out and fed up" (Stacy, 2002, p. 5A). Men
in general show deep attachment when they face with their
favorite fields or the things they are interested in. There are
more men who are nerds or collectors such as watch, camera,
video game, golf, motorcycle and car. Basically, men are good
at seeking one thing professionally. This is one of their
characteristics that they are able to devote every minute to their
interesting fields even with cutting down on sleeping hours.
However, when it comes to uninteresting field such as grocery
and domestic shopping, their stresses and strains are beyond
women's imagination. According to the survey which recorded
how much stress men and women feel while they are shopping,
"Every man in the survey registered considerable increases in
blood pressure and heart rates while only 25 percent of women
registered a significant change" (Stacy, 2002, p. 5A). Then,
why do women feel less stress than men even it is not their
interesting shopping? As mentioned above, women are
supposed to be at home all the day while their husbands are out
for work. They feel senses of alienation from society and
anxiousness for not receiving social estimation which their
partners get by working. Therefore, in their leisure, their
feelings of freedom lead to reduced tolerance for frustration. It
is natural for them to feel everything to be fresh when they are
out and go shopping even if it doesn't interest them.
Here is a final example of the difference between
sexes in leisure time which often happens to couples when they
have dates. While they are walking in a town, he meets a female
friend by chance. His girlfriend watches the pair of them talking
happily and feels upset because of jealousy. When he and his
girlfriend began to walk again after parting from his female
friend, he notices something wrong with his girlfriend. He asks
her, "What's wrong?" And she says "Nothing." He asks again
"Are you in a bad mood?" He thinks, "I did something bad to
you?" But she answers madly "I said, nothing!" She thinks,


"You know why I am angry." He really has no idea why she is
upset. After a few hours, she says "I didn't say it to you, but I
was really angry with you at that time." He is surprised and asks
her, "What are you talking about?" He is really confused when
and what she is talking about. She says, "You were talking with
that girl with a slack-jawed smile all over your face at that
time." She thinks that he is dissembling. He says "At that time?
Are you talking about the my friend?" He feels honestly he was
talking with the girl normally without any other meanings. Such
a story which occurred to couples is often heard in daily life.
From woman's angle, she complains about man's dissembling
or pretending. However, man's hearts are buried with a lot of
"?" at that time and even if a happy look actually came over his
face, he doesn't notice it himself. As mentioned at the home
difference, women are good at keeping watch inwardly and
paying close attention to changes of others' feelings and tend to
take things emotionally. While men tend to catch the fact that
happens as it does and don't take notice of the changes of their
or partners' emotions.
In conclusion, considering the circumstances such as
home, work and leisure mentioned above, we can realize
several differences between men and women. There is a
fundamental difference between them and to understand it is to
understand creatures from outer space. According to the
Creation of Genesis, humans in reality are selfish creatures and
put the blame for the failure on others. However, God doesn't
desert them but always help them. Through Genesis, it is more
important to notice that man can't live alone and man are
allowed to live by someone than to know how the universe was
created by God. Because humans can't survive by themselves,
they need help. Men and women were created in order that they
always need helpers each other. It is natural that men are
different from women to make up for women's weak points,
and vice versa. The matter of great importance for men and
women is to considerate for partners' feelings and to aid each
other based on their differences. At home, if a husband has
difficulty in repairing the roof because of his fear of heights, his
wife shouldn't oblige him to do for all that it is his role of
domestic chores as a physical-strong-man but she can repair it
instead of him or ask a repairman. If a boyfriend is dreaming of
making money at one swoop on the stock market or gambling at
the risk of all his money, his girlfriend should wake him up to
reality and let him know practically. When a man and a woman
are working together in a company and he notices her
mathematical problem, he can make up for her lack of ability to
calculate. When he has difficulty in striking a bargain for
business, he should ask a woman to reach agreement with
counting on her social communication skills. A business woman
tends to have trouble with her boss because of her strong sense
of justice. She should not be tied to superficial problem but
have priority to consider how she can carry out her tasks
smoothly and how everyone can work comfortably without
making a person unhappy. A man should not blame her for such
inflexibility but try to understand her characteristics and work
together. As mentioned above, generally, men are considered to
be short tempered and they like to plan ahead. If a woman can't
decide her menu quickly at a restaurant, she should choose
same menu as her boyfriend's and should not make him wait.


ELI Student Voices 3








When a couple takes a trip, a woman needs to understand man's
characteristics and follow her boyfriend's schedule. Men often
become obstinate when their opinions are rejected but they will
back down easily when their partners concede. In shopping,
men and women also should know about feelings brought by
different stresses. Men exhausted by everyday work want to see
and buy their favorite things, while women tired out by
housework at home all the day want to see around anywhere to
refresh their daily lives. When a woman finds her boyfriend's
happy face because of his female friend and get upset, she
should explain to him when, where, who and who, what he does
and how she feels exactly. A man needs to understand what and
how she feels at that time. Although there is no limitation when
it is showed the differences between men and women, it is
possible to dispel partners' misunderstanding and get to know
each other more and more by communicating closely.
Unnecessary fights are getting decreased when men and women
try to understand their partners and they will be able to enjoy
their differences. It is necessary to considerate each other in
order to get better partnership.

References

At Home, Women Rule. (2008, Sep 25). Live Science.
Retrieved from
lup )\ \\ \\ .livescience.com/culture/0809025-women-
rule.html.
Financial Practicality vs. Risk: The Battle of the Sexes
Continues. (2001, Apr 3). Retrieved from
Iup )\ \\ \\ .sfhelp.org/02/gender.htm.
Frederikese, M.E.,Lu, A., Aylward, E., Barta, P., Pearlson, G
(1999). Sex Differences in the Inferior Parietal Lobule.
Cerebral Cortex vol 9 (8) p896-901.
Men, women find their ways differently. (2"1 '14, Oct 31). The
Gainesville Sun, p. 6A.
Renate M.E. (2000) Are There Differences Between the Brains
of Males and Females? Retrieved from
http//www.cerebromente.org.br/nl l/mente/eisntein/cer
ebro-homEns.html.
Stacy, M. (2002, Jan 16). Shopping Too Tough for Men. The
Gainesville Sun, p. 5A.


One Day
Yifei Yin
R/W50


(2nd Place)


In the morning
Facing the mountain of predecessors' achievements
Which seems could not be crossed
Grope for the direction in the perplexity
Impetuously, anxiously and impatiently

At noon
Strive for the goals ceaselessly
Clothes are soaked by sweat
And looks appear languished
The distance between dream and reality is struggle


At twilight
Inhabit the hilltop forgetting the coming road
Tasting the gain and loss all the way
The tattered clothes are swinging in the wind

In the breath of the setting sun
Thank the loyalty to the ideal but not to the trend in the
beginning
Thank the hard work in loneliness but not the venture in the
middle
When finally standing at the top of the world in the end
I know I was just a grass of the mountain even higher
And the only thing left is to turn into dust
For the much higher mountain and other grasses

Capital Punishment
Hyemin \l.i
R/W50

Recently, the movie "Maundy Thursday," which is
about a condemned criminal was released. By releasing this
film, the argument about capital punishment is protruded again.
Capital punishment is the maximum penalty which deprives a
person of life. Execution by death penalty destroys human
dignity by depriving human life. Because of this, the movement
about the abolition of capital punishment is continued for a long
time. Also, with the progress of this movement, some nations
have abolished the punishment every year. I agree with this
point of view. I think the death penalty should be abolished.
Human life is invaluable. There is nothing equivalent
to human life. The life is the origin of human dignity. It is
proper that human dignity should be protected by the law, but
the nation infringes a national's right of human dignity by
executing by death penalty. It is no exaggeration to say that the
nation commits anymore.
Also there is a possibility of misjudgment, because of
imperfection of a man. A judge is nothing but a human, so he
might make a mistake in judgment. The capital punishment is
deprived of one's life. So, once if it is executed it can't be
restored by any method. In U.S.A from 1973 to 2001, 98
condemned criminals are set free from prison because the
criminals have their innocence established. Guiltless people
should not be sacrificed by misjudgment anymore.
People who insist on maintenance of capital
punishment say that the death penalty can control a crime. So,
they think, if death penalty is abolished, heinous criminal rates
will be raised. But according to research in 1988, 1996. the UN
announced that their attempts to prove that the capital
punishment is more failed. Therefore, capital punishment is not
the fundamental countermeasure for preventing of crime scene.
Also, in Canada, the criminal rates decreased by 59% after the
abolition of capital punishment. So, the insistence that the
abolishment of death penalty boots criminal rates is improper.
Because of these important reasons the capital
punishment should be abolished. And instead of capital
punishment, other alternative idea should be prepared. The


ELI Student Voices 4








supporter of abolition of death penalty suggests a life sentence.
A life sentence does not infringe on the rights of criminal, and
can enlighten a criminal by providing chance for introspection.
Although the criminal committed an atrocious dereliction, their
human dignity as human beings should be respected in society.
In order to establish such society, the capital punishment should
be abolished as soon as possible.

My Friend
Taejin Lee (Jinny)
RW 10

My friend's name is Yunjung-Ji and she looks very
heavy. She has a round big face. She sees with small eyes.
Also, she has a fat neck. She wears only black shirts and pants.
She always has a T-shirt loose around her neck. Although she
looks fat, Yunjung-Ji is very lovely.
Yunjung-Ji is a very nice person. Many people call
Yunjung-Ji by a nickname. The nickname is "Cute Pig" and
people say this to her because she is heavy. This nickname can
hurt people, but when people call my friend this name, she
doesn't get angry. She is a happy person. When everybody is
fed up, "Cute Pig" always smiles because she has a kind mind.
I think about that, and I feel safe when she is around. Her
friends love her.

The Process of Winemaking
Jiye Lim
Grammar for Writing

There are many kinds of alcohol in the world, but only
one is described as "The Tears of God". Even though wine is
mainly made of grapes, the taste of wine varies because the
winemakers decide the style and personality of wine by using
their unique skills. Each winemaker has his/her own production
style and technique to make a bottle of wine, but everyone
follows the 5 basic guidelines: harvest, crusher, fermentation,
clarification, and aging / bottling.
The first step is the harvest. The time of harvesting is
different depending on each region. Usually, the harvest time
starts early August and lasts into November. Farmers harvest
good quality grapes during early morning and move them to the
winery. However, they still remain some of grapes for making
ice wine. They are harvested after freezing by nature.
Next the grapes are transferred to the stemmer and
crusher. In this step, the stems of the grapes are removed, and
the grapes are crushed. However, some of the grapes just go to
be crushed skipping the removal of the stems. Crushing the
grapes without removing the stems is also one way to make
wine.
After wine makers crush the grapes, the grape juice
goes to ferment. The juice is put into the fermentation vats in
which alcoholic fermentation takes place. At this moment,
alcohol, sugar, CO2, and some other stuff such as fruits and
herbs are mixed into the grape juice. During the fermentation,
winemakers should be careful to keep wine at the fixed


temperature because fermenting starts above 15 and stops
above 300.
When the fermentation is finished, winemakers start to
clarify the wine. At the same time, they filter it to catch large
solids. These solids are harmless for people, but remains make
the quality of wine fall because wine becomes muddle. They
remove the remains of grapes using the whites of eggs or
gelatins. After filtering, the clarified wine is racked into a
different vessel.
The aging and bottling of wine is the final step to make
the wine. After clarifying, the winemakers choose when they
will move wine to a bottle and which type of bottle the wine
will be put in. There are several things such as basic bottle,
stainless steel tank, oval, barrique, or small barrel. Depending
on the type of bottle, the taste and length of wine change a bit.
For example, if wine is good for drinking at early, winemakers
put the wine in the stainless steel tank. On the other hand, if
wine needs some time to be ripe, they keep it in the oak vessel.
Winemakers decide the way of keeping wine following their
purpose, namely, period of keeping or the character of wine.
No matter what kind of wine is being made, grapes
must pass through these steps to become wine. Even though the
style of wine is made from differences in each step by
winemakers, they do not ignore these steps when making wine.
Harvesting, crushing, fermentation, clarification, and aging /
bottling are the basic process of wine making.

My Korean Husband
Hee Kyoung Seo (Casey)
R/W10

Let me introduce my husband. His physical
characteristics reveal an average, middle-aged Korean man. He
has black curly hair and brown eyes and lovely hands. He likes
to wear pink shirts and cotton pants and brown shoes. Also,
everyday he wears his wedding ring. He is a very handsome
man to me.
His personality is energetic and hardworking. When he
was in Korea, he had to work a lot in his company from
9:00AM to 12:00 midnight. Also, he never stopped studying in
his field. Although he worked from Monday to Friday, he woke
up early for golfing on Saturday in the morning. He likes many
sports such as table tennis, tennis, soccer and golf. I respect his
energy.

Obesity is a World Issue
Yujin Lee
R/W41

Most countries are different in economy, politics, food,
and people's characteristics but this problem is the same in
every county. That is the global obesity epidemic. Every year,
the rate of obesity is rapidly accelerating. There are no
exceptions. How many people experience pain because of
obesity? There are three factors to consider such as the effects
of obesity, what happen to children who are obese and how to


ELI Student Voices 5








protect our body from the obesity.
First, how many people are obese? To follow the
research from the World Health Organization internationally
more than 1 billion overweight adults live in the world and at
least 300 million of them are obese. Moreover, obesity-related
causes, risk of hypertension, heart disease, diabetes and some
cancers cause people who are obese to die each year. For
instance, 71 percent of American males are overweight and
among them 31 percent are obese. On the other hand, 62
percent of American females are overweight and among them
33 percent are obese. One method to indicate overweight or
obesity is to use the body mass index or BMI, by calculating
your height and weight. For example, someone who is 5.4 foot
and 145 pounds is overweight because their BMI in over 25.
That mass index is according to the National Institutes of
Health in America.
Nowadays, most children face obesity. If someone
were heavy during childhood, s/he could die as much as five to
ten years early. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
report that 25 percent of children ages 2 to 20 years are, or are
at risk of becoming overweight or obese at twice the rate of just
a decade ago. The Middle East, Southeast Asia, Mexico, Chile,
Brazil, and Egypt increase of obesity in children has been the
greatest. In China, one in five children will be overweight by
2010. They are being bombarded to eat all the wrong foods like
people in the West. The Europe Union researches their
children's obesity condition. In the case of boys, the highest
rate of obesity is in Spain with 41.4 % obese and the most girls
are in Italy, 38.8%.
Third, we might be changing our behavior to protect of
obesity. The main reason for obesity is too much food and too
little exercise. We need to choose low-fat food, and learn food's
forms the five major food groups. Moreover, we should eat
sensible portions, and use fats, oils, sweet and salt sparingly.
Low activity levels as little as 100 extra calories a day translates
into 10 pounds in year. Dr. Brian McCrindle, a childhood
obesity expert at a pediatric hospital in Toronto recommends
people change their behavior.
To sum it all up, a great deal of people experience pain
about obesity such as risk of hypertension, heart disease,
diabetes and some cancers. The problem has spread to the
whole world. A lot of research proves that obesity causes severe
diseases. We have to know how to use the major five food
groups and eat responsibly. However the most important thing
is we have to change our behavior.

My Brother
Min-Gu Kim
R/W10

I have a younger brother. His name is Hyun-Woo Kim
and he is 19 years old. He is a university freshman and studies
engineering. He has small eyes and black, short hair. His face
is a little bit small. He is short and heavy. He also has small
hands. He has many different kinds of clothes with many colors
(black, white, purple.) He almost always wears a T-shirt and
blue jeans. Hyun-woo also wears coats. He's very different


from me. My neighbors and friends tell me, "Your brother and
you are very different."
My brother is healthy and active He is not lazy He
likes basketball and he now plays basketball on the school team.
Hyun-Woo does push-ups everyday, so he has good muscles.
His health is good. He always has a diet. He says "I need to be
careful for my health." Actually, he always has vegetables for
his health. I respect my brother because he isn't lazy and he
keeps his health. Although we are different, I really love my
brother.

Economic Crises Around the World
Manuela Salcedo
RW 3

Throughout history, different countries have suffered
economic crisis, a few deeper than others. The behavior of the
economy is completely cyclical, which means that each of the
events that happens repeats itself constantly. Nevertheless,
though the behavior is cyclical, it does not reveal a trend that
will help to prevent the catastrophic economic depression that
the world has suffered.
Economic crisis means financial crisis and its lead
actor will always be the financial system of a country which
includes the banking system and the monetary system as well.
Usually an economic crisis occurs when you do not have
adequate controls on credit and foreign exchange markets,
which mainly reflects how the central bank and local banks
manage market share and level of credits granted.
One of the deepest economic crises was the Mexican
Crisis which occurred in 1994 and was called "The Tequila
Effect." This emerged because of the lack of international
reserves and wrong decisions taken by the president of the time.
The Argentine crisis called "El Corralito" was another
economic crisis. The main strategy was to prohibit people from
withdrawing money they had in their own bank accounts. This
resulted in paralysis in the credit and trading system and
suffocated the economy.
Finally, the most influential crisis has been the crisis in
the United States which we are experiencing now. This started
when people became unable to make their credit payments.
This resulted in bankruptcy of major banks and deep
devaluation of the housing market.
In conclusion, economic crises, in general, are caused
by not having sufficient controls to protect the economy. We
can see that some are deeper and longer than others, and
although the economic cycles are completely similar, they are
impossible to predict.

Around Florida
Yunjae Nh/i
R/W50

Before I came here, I had had a plan to travel around
the U.S. to places like New York, Boston, Los Angeles,
Orlando, Miami, and other places. Isn't it fantastic just hearing


ELI Student Voices 6








these names?! After spring semester, I went to Orlando, Miami,
and Key West by myself. Now don't you worry about my
network of friends that I would need to help me in this project. I
have many friends, but they had other plans at that time. I'm
serious.
First of all, I rented a car because it is hard to get
around where I want to go if I take a bus. If you're under 25
years-old, you have to pay extra fees, $27 per day. When I
arrived in Orlando at outlet stores at almost noon, I went a
shopping during 6 hours. It is very cheap compared with Oaks
mall. I booked a hotel at Kissimmee, it takes 15 minutes to
drive there, but it is much cheaper than Orlando. The next day, I
went to Universal Studio and Islands of Adventure. I entered at
9am, it is normally opening time, and left out of there at 7pm
because it closes at 7pm. Of course, I walked around by myself.
Sometimes I felt loneliness when I ate lunch and dinner because
at a near by table, one family was eating dinner together. Eating
along is the saddest behavior and taking a picture by myself
made me crazy, so I have many pictures without myself.
On the third day in my trip, I drove for 8 hours, from
Orlando to Key West. When I started to drive, it was very good
because it was first time to me drive on a US highway.
However, as the time passed I exhausted myself driving. But I
want to recommend this road to Key West. It is so beautiful,
especially the 7 mile bridge is a romantic bridge like in a song.
It took long time but it did not disappoint me. A breeze from the
sea, the antique buildings, and everybody looked comfortable. I
visited the home of Hemingway, the famous novelist.
I spent whole day on the sea on my second day in Key
West. If you like water sports, I recommend to you enjoy this
program. You can enjoy parasailing, jet ski, snorkeling, and
lunch on the ship only $125. In my case, it was the first time
had been snorkeling so I drank a little sea water. Many people
said that Key West is the best place to enjoy the sunset. I saw it
at Mallory Square. Wow, it was amazing. I had never seen that
beautiful sunset.
After I saw that, I went to Miami right away. I don't
know why I felt like that, but my first impression of Miami was
it was a scary city. I enjoyed Miami Beach and SeaWorld. If I
were younger than I am now, I would have felt much pleasure.
But it was really good.
When I was returning to Gainesville, I had a small
problem. When I passed the tollgate, I didn't have cash, but I
had to pay only cash. I was embarrassed because at that time
my English ability was worse than now. Anyway, I finally was
back in Gainesville safely. I learned many things from this trip
because I had enough time to think by myself. But if I have a
chance taking a trip by myself, I won't go because I already
experienced it. That's the end of my story.

My Experiences of Halloween
Abdullah Alghamdi
RW 31

Since I came to the US, I have tried to learn more
about American culture. Last week, there was one of the
important events in the American culture, which was a


Halloween celebration, and I tried to experience it with my
friends. Because I knew that the costume was important for
Halloween, I looked for a costume to wear. After a while I
found one; it was a scary costume, so I wore a black robe with a
head cover and I painted my face with colors to look like a
skull. Then I went to the ELI Halloween party; everyone was
wearing a costume, and some of the costumes were scary, some
were crazy, and some were funny. Besides that, scary music
was playing. After the party, I went downtown with my friends.
Most of the people there were wearing costumes and doing
crazy and funny things. After that I went to my friend's house
with others and we cooked a dinner but it was not good so we
ordered pizza. At last, we sat down together and tried to scare
each other by telling scary stories. At the end, I knew there
were a lot of traditional things to do on Halloween, but this was
my first experience, and I enjoyed Halloween.

Happy Halloween
Ockshin Kim
R/W31

Have you ever heard about the holiday that adults and
their children are also able to enjoy together? Halloween is a
happy holiday and falls on the evening of October 31. There are
so many Halloween activities such as trick-or-treat, costume
parties, ghost tours, Halloween foods, and symbols such as
apples, candies, and jack-o'-lanterns. At the Halloween party,
attendees usually wear Halloween costumes, which are
symbolized by magical witches, one-eyed pirates, scary
vampires, wicked ghosts, and so on, for they are supposed to set
free from hell on that evening of Halloween. When it comes to
Halloween, most housewives prepare sweet, appetizing candies
to give to the neighborhood children. These mischievous
children visit neighborhood houses with jack-o'-lanterns that
are typically carved pumpkins, and say trick-or treat. As stated
above, all parents and children enjoy Halloween. This holiday is
mostly observed in the USA and Western Europe. However,
nowadays in other countries, young people and children have
Halloween parties as well; although Halloween is not a
traditional holiday. In brief, Halloween is a happy holiday for
grown-ups and children all around world.

My Halloween
Marie Josee Naho
R/W31

How did you spend your Halloween this year? This
year, I celebrated Halloween with my African friends. We had a
great African party in my friend's apartment. When you entered
in the apartment and looked to your left, you could see "Happy
Halloween" drawn on the wall with fairy lights. At the right, on
a small table, we put the drinks, snacks, and Halloween candies.
At the top, we hung cute and engaging jack o' lantern with
candles inside. The candles had a good smell. And then, in the
center, we moved the seats, the sofa, and the TV to have space
for people who wanted to dance. Everybody dressed up in


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different costumes such as a baby, a monster, a nurse, or a
doctor costume. We ate rice with chicken, and fried pork. We
danced to American music like RNB. We also danced
Reggaetone and Zouk, which is Haitian music. It was really
cool; I had a lot of fun!!!

Halloween's Party
Veronica Perez
RW 31

Have you ever been in United States when the people
celebrate Halloween? Every year in America, the people
celebrate the scary night called Halloween. This year I went to a
great party in downtown, Gainesville. On the way to the club
you could see the people wear costumes, and you could hear the
children's voices beginning for treats. The party was at The
Studio, a popular club. From the entrance, you could see a large
hall with evil decorations. On the right side were circular tables
with comfortable chairs, and you could take candies out of a
bag to try the sweet or sour taste of candies. On the left side,
was a long bar with a lot of ghosts and orange or black glasses.
In the back of the dancing area, was decorated with bats, jack o
lanterns and skeletons. There were a lot of people and you
could hear sounds or voices to scare people. To conclude, the
party was really good, everything was decorated with
Halloween things, and everyone had on nice and funny
costumes.

My First Halloween
Hye Moon Kim
RW 31

Have you ever heard about a Halloween party in the
U.S.A? Let me introduce my experience. On Oct. 30th, I
attended the ELI Halloween party, and I had not known what
Halloween was until I attended the party that day. Before I
attended that party, and the day before the party, I bought a
Screaming costume, and my friend bought a red Dracula
costume. As soon as we entered Megan's house, we saw a lot of
scary costumes, sexy costumes, and small black witches, and
we heard horror songs playing loudly in the living room. When
I touched someone's costume, it felt bumpy, and I could smell
perfume. On the left side of the living room, I could find a TV,
so I watched a horror program. Next to living room, there were
lots of salty snacks, sweet chocolate, and sodas on the table. All
the while, the doorbell was ringing. At the back of the kitchen, I
found a large backyard, and there were many very cute
pumpkins that had a sweet smell. I took many pictures and
talked to the ELI students. I left there at approximately 11 pm in
order to do my assignments, so I missed the rest of the party. It
was very good for me.


Halloween in the United States
Yahya Aseri
R/W31

Did you heard about Halloween in the United States?
Halloween in the United States is an exciting traditional
celebration. It is on the evening of October 31. In the beginning
of it, the people believed that the dead returned and become
dangerous to the living. In these times, it is a lot of fun. In this
party, people dressed up in some clothes to appear as ghosts and
skeletons. You can see small black witches, pumpkins, and dark
houses. Also, you can hear children's voices begging for teats,
screams of people in the party, and scary music. During this
party, you can smell sweet pumpkin, gelatin, and you can taste
the sweet sugary candy, the taste of chocolate of cake, spicy
chili a sour lemon. In addition, you can touch the pulpy, squishy
insides of pumpkins, touch the cake, and different kinds of
clothes. In conclusion, Halloween in the United States is very
interesting and exciting holiday.

My First Halloween
Valentina Eyzaguirre
R/W31

This year was my first Halloween. Now I will tell you
about all the wonderful things that I did. I went to New York
with my husband to our friend's house. That day we dressed up;
he was a cow with a white suit that had black spots and I wore a
leopard girdle with a leopard dress and black gloves. Then we
went to a parade to see a costume show. It was wonderful!!! All
the people were wearing costumes. The children had bags with
a lot of candies, and were saying "treat or trick". The city
smelled like a sweet pumpkin. Finally, we went to a Halloween
party. We danced, drank cokes, ate pumpkin cookies, and took
a lot of pictures. Never in my life will I forget that incredible
experience.

Amazing Halloween
Siriporn Chaichana
RW 31

Why don't some Christians have Halloween parties?
Halloween, an international holiday, is celebrated on the
evening of Oct 31, and it is often celebrated in the morning and
afternoon as well. First, about the timing, everyone dresses up
in costumes such as ghosts, skeletons, witches and devils. I
dressed up as a witch and found several similar costumes in a
horror and dark party at Megan's house last night. Second, in
the front of the house, the symbolic pumpkins being carved into
jack-o-lanterns which are lit by a romantic candle inside were
all lined up. Also, they have generally sweet pumpkin smells.
Moreover, on the left side of the living room, where there are
black cats, bats, and web spiders for traditional horror in a scary
atmosphere. Third, the activities include the variety of costumes
are the kids trick ad treat by knocking on the doors, and they


ELI Student Voices 8








will be given sweet candies or sweet chocolates, and they also
sing song, see the horror movies, eat food, and take pictures.
Therefore, there are wonderful costumes, horror symbols, and
fun activities on Halloween. It is very interesting to celebrate
Halloween in the US.

Halloween Costumes
Jessica Jimenez
RW 31

Here in the USA, I saw a variety of costumes for
Halloween. All the people buy their costumes before the day
with strong color like orange and black. The people chose
costumes of warlock with a big hat and of course the broom.
Three days ago, I saw one family's daughter with the costume
of a warlock, her mother was dressed up like a cat with
yellows and black colors, and her father like a ghost with a big
white dress, and his face white and blank eyes. It was very
interesting to see the different kinds of costumes that the people
use to enjoy this day.

Preparing a Halloween Party
Mercy Perdomo
RW 31

In the United States, you can have the best party for
Halloween. There are many traditions for Halloween, so I am
very expectant because I am going to have my first Halloween
party at my house tonight. Yesterday, my sister and I went
shopping for several scary ornaments, candies, a delicious
pumpkin pie, and costumes of evil characters such as scary
vampires and ugly monsters. This morning, my sister got up
very early, and she started to decorate the house. First, she
began with the yard; she put black and orange lights on the
trees, and on the grass she put a lot ofjack-o-lanters. At the
entrance door, there is a vampire, when the people ring the
doorbell, this will made a horrific sound. The scenery in the
living room looks like a haunted house and has the sweet smell
of apples. There are many ghosts, cold skeletons, and hairy
black cats around the living room. In conclusion, I hope that my
first Halloween party will be full of both real and traditionally
scary Halloween experiences

My First Halloween in the U.S.
Jin-Woo Jang
RW 31

For your English you have to study at the desk, but I
guess you might not like it. If you came to the Halloween party,
you could practice your English at the same time you could
enjoy your free time. Yesterday, I experienced a Halloween
party at Megan's house. It's my first time to attend an ELI
activity. I had never experienced a Halloween celebration
before. That's why I didn't prepare by wearing a costume.
There were many students who were wearing grotesque and


ridiculous costumes, so I was really surprised because I didn't
know many students would wear their own style of costumes.
They were ready to enjoy the party, but I wasn't. I just saw their
strange costumes and heard people's laughter. Behind the house
in the back yard, there were many pumpkins being carved into
jack-o-lanterns, which smelled sweetly. The windows and each
door were decorated with sticky spider webs, black scary bats,
and crimson bloodstains. On the table, there were many sweet
sugary tasting candies. Inside the house, there were various
kinds of monsters, such as devils, angels, murderer, witches,
skeletons, and ghosts. They took a lot of pictures of each other.
They looked so happy and funny. It was so exciting and
interesting to me. I think American peoples are very active in
their celebration. In conclusion, experiencing a Halloween party
will be a good memory for me. For next Halloween party, I will
prepare my costume and keep it as a surprise.

Halloween Party
Dhari Al-Jasmi
R/W31

The fun, first Halloween party I went to was on Thursday
at the ELI party. I went last Thursday to a Halloween party at
the LAs' houses. It was an awesome party. Everybody was
there and wearing different costumes. Some of them were scary,
others were funny, and some were nice costumes. When I went
to the food corer, there wasn't any food left, because there
were a lot of people eating and the party was crowded. In
conclusion, I liked the party and it was really a fun party to
attend.

Halloween
HsuWei Huang (Lawrence)
RW 31

Why does Halloween have so much attraction for
people? Halloween is one of the important and traditional
holidays in America. On the road, you could see everywhere
that people had decorated their apartments or houses for this
specific and special holiday at this time. For example, they also
used evil decorations or spider webs to embellish their house.
You would be feeling this celebrative atmosphere during
Halloween. In the meantime, you frequently heard children's
voices saying, "Trick or Treat." Everyone knows that the most
permanent symbol of Halloween is carving jack-o-lanterns. You
could see many places that put some cute and engaging carved
pumpkins inside and outside. At this time, people sometimes
come together for unique costume parties and dress in scary or
symbolic costumes. Everyone enjoys it and releases their
pressures from their job or school. All in all, Halloween is one
of the most popular holidays in America.


ELI Student Voices 9









What Life Is
Yu-ChengLin (Jimmy)
R/W32

Life is like a bird.
You can fly and sing wherever you want.
Life is like a dog.
When you are happy, just swing your tail.
Life is like a cat.
You always can find the way to enjoy yourself.
Life is like a horse.
Remember to encourage yourself, because there is a long way
to go.
Life is like a lion.
You need cooperation to survive.
Life is like a giraffe.
You have to look far, and go for your future.
Life is like a monkey.
Scratch your friends' back actively, if they need it.
Life is like a beaver.
Work hard, and then you can build your family.
Life is like a gator.
When you are ready, just open your mouth.

No matter what animal you are, in the wild world, you must be
strong!

The Little Prince
Hyunduk Cho
R/W50

Actually, I already read this book several years ago. At
that time, it was not that meaningful to me. I was a middle
school student, when I first read the book. Since I could not find
that many meanings from this story, I just thought of the story
in the context of the world, the real life I lived. So I could not
help but think that the world in the story was the strangest
world and the story was so strange that I could not help but
come up with so much curiosity. But, now I have become an
adult and my reading as an adult is pretty different.
Through the second reading, I realized so many things.
My second reading gave me another view. I could think about
the world and human being again. Also, now I know for sure
that this book is so wonderful. Especially, the author's fantastic
and metaphorical expressions are very impressive. Also in
terms of contents, the stories in seven asteroids are really
interesting. Through the first asteroid's king, the author shows
us the image of an arrogant adult. The second planet's story
shows the image of a vain adult, and the drunkard in the third
planet is the image of an adult in nihilism. Also the fourth
asteroid's story criticizes our materialism, and through the fifth
and sixth asteroid's stories he implies wrong images of the
recent adults. Finally, through the Earth story, the seventh
planet, he wanted to talk about interaction of people. These
seven planet stories give me so many instructions; moreover, I
really want to admire the author's metaphorical expressions.


Even though the author's writing style is simple, the
instructions have very deeply meaning. That's why The Little
Prince is a book for adults, too.
Many other people think as I do. "Every time I read
Little Prince, by the end I fell into depression. There is a bold
message "WE LIVE WRONG LIVES". I want to be a child but
childhood is gone forever and we adults have to spend most of
our lives trying to survive. "(an unknown man, age33, from
New York city, United States, 2005). I strongly agree with this
review. I am living to survive; moreover, I am destroying many
things to survive. "For me, it contains lessons that most of the
people are forgetting in this days. The story tells us to think
maturely and the best lesson is that the most essential thing can't
be seen by our naked eye, it is the heart. I love the book very,
have a copy of it in English, but when it visit the bookstore, I
saw a Pilipino version of it so it immediately got a copy. I just
want to know who really is the little prince. And whether the
sheep had eaten the rose or not!!! Can you please answer my
questions all of you who loved the little prince !"(Levi, age 18,
from Philippines, 2005). "I believe The Little Prince transcends
the innocence of children to becoming an almost ethereal being.
The Little Princes acquires more insight into human
nature in his considerably short stay in our planet than most
humans could ever hope for in a lifetime. He encounters, greed,
humility, love, loss and even friendship, yet he never loses his
quench for knowledge nor his devotion to his home and all it
has. It is only with the heart that we see rightly; what is
essential is invisible to the eye. It is all you will ever need to
know"(Michelle, age 33, from Australia, 2006). The above two
reviews support my discussion. Although I read the book which
was published in English and I had a little bit of difficulty, this
second reading was so impressive to me. It reminded me to
realize my life in this world and I promise to myself that I
should try to live my life like the little prince. Sometimes, my
situation makes me an immoral and impure man; because, I
want survive in this world as a wealthy and honorary man. But
I realized that it is not important at all. The really important
thing is that I should find my own way. Maybe the world is
getting heartless. But I want to maintain my pure mind like the
little prince's beautiful mind. I think the author was so lonely
while he was flying. Thus I hope that my life also flies and my
flying life is pure and valuable even though I won't get a lot of
money.
Finally, this book was written during the World War
II. So I think Antoine de Saint Exupery was motivated by the
circumstances. Since the greediness and selfishness made the
WWII, the author wanted to appeal the wrong image of
mankind to our future generations and us. That is, the book
contains the author's desire. Like his desire, we ourselves
should do self-examination.

My Turkish Brother
Hande Erol
RW 10

My brother is a teenager who is 15 years old. His name
is Kemal Ula$. He has big hazel eyes. His hair is blonde and


ELI Student Voices 10








straight. His skin is very white, like milk. His face is big, but he
has a small nose. He is tall and a little fat. His eyes aren't
healthy and he wears glasses. He always wears comfortable,
dark color clothes and shoes. His style is "rock", so he likes
rock style t-shirts. Kemal is a typical Turkish teenager.
My brother's character is social and successful. He is
enthusiastic about music, basketball and nature. He plays
several musical instruments and he plays guitar and harmonica
at the same time. He writes songs so he is capable about music.
Maybe, he will be musician in future. He is good at basketball
and he plays basketball on the school team since he started the
primary school. My brother likes nature, also. He goes camping
every summer with his friends. I think my brother seems sweet
and nice. His character sounds good. He is a lot of fun and he is
a good, young man.

Shopping at Stores vs Online
Young-Dae Lee
R/W30

Before the Internet spread out, we bought products in
stores only. But, recently we have a lot of ways to buy things,
because shopping is influenced by the Internet. Online is a good
example. Shopping online and stores each have characteristics.
So, I will talk about each of characteristics in this essay.
First of all, shopping online and in stores have several
similarities. One of the similarities is processing. If you want to
buy something, you need to think about the procedure. First,
you must consider if it is a necessary. Then you compare prices.
Next, you can buy the product after you decide to buy it. All of
these procedures are necessary for honest consumption.
Another similarity is they can refund the product. When you
think you don't need the product or the product is not what you
thought, you can return it.
On the other hand, shopping online and in stores have
some differences. The biggest difference is way of the
shopping. To buy, you online use a computer in a house, but
shopping in stores you need to go to stores. So, the benefit of
each are a little different. Online shopping can save times since
you don't waste time walking around. Also, shopping in stores
can check a product immediately. Another difference is
negotiation. Shopping in some stores, you can negotiate with
the owner. In contrast, online shopping, you can't do that. It is
good for you if you want to save money.
For the conclusion, online shopping and shopping in
stores have some similarities and differences. Sometimes online
shopping is better than another, but sometimes it is opposite,
because each benefit is different. So, we can't choose which
one is more correct than another way. Additionally, they are
trying to change their disadvantages, so each method is more
attractive than before.


My Saudi Brother
Mohammad Alharthi
R/W10

My brother's name is Ali. My brother is a young Saudi
man who is 32 years old. He has a round face and curly black
hair. He has black eyes and a big nose. He has a beard and a
mustache. He likes to wear red shirts and cotton pants and black
shoes. Usually, Ali wears jeans and T-shirt. It is like his formal
outfit outside home. His style is traditional. Finally, my brother
is very neat. Ali seems like an average Saudi man.
Ali is a mechanical engineer. He loves his work. He
has a workshop for car repair and he is a teacher in college.
He is a very ambitious person. Ali is creative in his job
and optimistic. He is usually enthusiastic and he is organized in
his life .Now my brother is a big businessman in my city. For
that reason, he is not an average Saudi man, but he is my role
model.

My Favorite City
Omar AlAjlani
R/W10

My hometown, Damascus, is my favorite city in the
world. It's very important for several different reasons. There
are many people who travel there every year. There are many
mosques and churches. Also, Damascus has old restaurants and
beautiful places. It has many hotels. It's very beautiful. Also,
Damascus has beautiful mountains. Damascus, in the morning,
is very busy and there is a lot of action. These are my reasons
why I love Damascus. You need to come to Damascus.

Beautiful Incheon
Ahra Ko
R/W10

My hometown, Incheon is very lovely. Incheon has a
harbor. It is very useful. Incheon has nice scenery. Incheon is a
bathing resort. It is very nice! It is very clean and pretty. Also,
Incheon has a historic war memorial. It is very solemn and
calm. I miss my lovely hometown.

My Chaotic Hometown
Ji Hun Joung
R/W10
My hometown, Seoul, South Korea, is very chaotic.
Korea is very small. The land size is similar to Florida, but the
Korean population is four billion. What is more, the capital city
of Seoul has a population of two billion. So, the land is small,
but there are many people. There is so much traffic, too, in
Seoul. Finally, Seoul is very confusing and complicated with a
lot of cars every day and they are everywhere. I love Seoul
because it is my chaotic and busy hometown.


ELI Student Voices 11








My Lovely Hometown
Hee Kyoung Seo (Casey)
R/W10


In Saudi Arabia, there are two ways to immigrate legally
or illegally. Legal immigrants get visas to come to Saudi Arabia
to study in university or work, because Saudi Arabia has a good
economy, and is safer than other countries. Some immigrants
open new restaurants to serve the foreign in Saudi Arabia. The
people in Saudi Arabia like to try a new people. Illegal
emigrants come from neighboring countries to make money
very fast in illegal ways, so they don't have any qualifications.
They work almost per hour for people. They walk around two-
three days to get in Saudi Arabia in the desert. When they come
they bring with them new stuff like new food and different
kinds of music.
Saudi Arabian people like listening to new music. The
immigrants when they come they bring with them music. For
example, immigrants from Egypt bring with them different
kinds of Egyptian music, so you would see them all the time
listening to their music even though they are in Saudi Arabia.
Sometimes, people ask them about the song that they are
listening to. In fact, we like their songs. Sometimes we ask
them Can you give me the name of this singer of this song.
Sometimes, when you go to foreign restaurant you will feel you
are not in Saudi Arabia because they use their music to be
different from the others.
Most of the immigrants like to open a business in
Saudi Arabia. For example, a lot of Lebanese people open a
restaurant or coffee shop. They bring the Hookah. So now a lot
of Saudi people smoke Hookah, more than before. Some
emigrated in other countries in Saudi Arabia all so effects. They
enjoy having the immigrations in their place. However, most of
the owners of these foreign businesses have enough money to
live their life in Saudi Arabia. Other ways, if someone from a
foreign country wants to have a license to open a restaurant,
they have to register the restaurant with Saudi people.
There are too many different ways to speak Arabic.
Immigrants speak Arabic but sometimes we don't recognize
what they say or we don't understand the whole meaning.
Because they speak a little different and different accent
sometime they speak words that we know it but they have
another meaning. Sometimes they speak fast, so we don't know
what they are talking about. Their voices are different from one
country to another. I think Saudi Arabian people have a hard
time understanding immigrants when they came to our country
first time.
I think it's better for Saudi emigrants to come to Saudi
Arabia, because they get along in fast way. Finally, the
governments of Saudi Arabia try the best to serve the
immigrants and to make them feel like in their countries.


I always have a smile on my face whenever I think of
my hometown. This is Seoul. There are many things in that
city, such as my lovely family, friends, and my dear memories.
I grew up there. I met my good friends and my lovely husband
there. In Seoul, he and I fell in love and got married. Finally,
my precious son was born in Seoul. There is my own house for
me, my son and my husband, also. I have experienced, and
accomplished many things in Seoul. So, I love my hometown.

My Systematic Hometown
Suhee Yun
R/W10

My hometown, Ansan, South Korea is a planned city.
There are many buildings arranged in specific ways according
to their function. Nursing homes are in parks. Sick people in the
nursing homes get help from the parks. They exercise at the
parks until they are healthy. Many shopping centers are near
each other. People walk around them easily. Also, Ansan has
many beautiful parks for the whole community, so it is called
"The Green City". All of this was planned before Ansan was
made. Maybe Ansan is an unnatural city. However, Ansan is a
very regular and systematic city for its citizens.

Musical Inspiration
KhaledAbualula
Grammar for Writing

Music is a beautiful thing that can help us sometimes
to forget or feel and sometimes to remember. Depending on the

music and on what feeling the person gets from it, for example:
when I listen to classical music or slow music I remember some
sad things and feel love. I don't know how to explain it but I
feel that I need someone beside me. I feel that some parts of me
are missing that I need to be complete or better to say to be
fulfilled. I think that music reveals some true hidden feelings
that exist inside the person.

My Life in the U.S.
Sunhee Eo
RW 30
I came to the US with my husband three months ago.
When I first arrived in the U.S., I felt like a fish out of water.
The culture, language, and environment were so different. So, I
was confused. Now, I am not so bad. I will control my
emotions, that I will acclimate myself to a new environment.
Now, I am interested in cooking. Before I got married, my
greatest interest was fashion because I had worked as a fashion
designer in Korea. I am not working now. I liked shopping and
I abhorred that I was behind the fashion. After my marriage, my
interest changed. Now, I don't ponder the latest fashion, but I


ELI Student Voices 12


Immigration
Mohammed Kidrawi
RW 30








ponder a menu every day. However, I don't know many
cooking recipes. Thus, I usually use cooking recipes I find on
the internet. When my husband eats with gusto, I am happy. To
me cooking is very interesting.


Bus
Yifei Yin
R/W50


When I was born
I got on a bus
Passengers are my family
It heads to harmony
For harmony brings prosperity

Later I grew up
I changed a bus
Passengers are my brethrens
It is toward solidarity
For solidarity brings full flourish

Now I am on another bus
Passengers are from all the world
With different colors and different languages
Scattered by the fear of God thousands of years ago
Gather together by the awakening will
To build another Babel in our hearts
Which could not be wear and tear

Notting Hill
Deoksang Jo
RW 30

My favorite movie is Notting Hill. I like some
romance. I saw this movie when I was a high school student.
Notting Hill is a kind of romantic movie. It is about love
between two people. This movie's actor is Hugh Grant and the
heroine is Julia Roberts. In the movie, Anna Scott (Julia
Roberts) is such a lovely woman. She is a world famous actress,
and she has a lot of money. But William Thacker (Hugh Grant)
is just the owner of a small travel bookstore in Notting Hill and
just an ordinary man. I like the ending scene. Before the ending
scene, Anna went to William's bookstore to meet him, and she
said, "William I need you. If you want, I will stay here" but he
rejected her proposal. After that, he talks with his friends and
family. They give him some advice so he realized his mistake.
At the same time, Anna has a last press conference at a hotel
before she leaves the UK. William must meet her so his friends
help him. They ride a car and go to the hotel quickly to find her.
Finally, William arrives at a press conference room in the hotel,
and sees her. He asks Anna, "If a man who is English man
realized his mistake late, and he begs you to forgive him and
proposes to you again. Can you accept his proposal?" Anna
answered, "Yes." And then, all of the reporters take pictures of
Anna and William and another reporter asks her, "How long
will you stay here in the UK?" so she said "Indefinitely." I


really like this part and this word. When I saw this scene, I was
so impressed by this scene and this scene's music. The music's
lyric is very romantic. I remember a little part 'she may be the
face I can't forget.' I think this movie is totally beautiful.

Making a Good Presentation
Chao-Rui Chen
R/W49
It's common to see someone doing a presentation in
public. As an example, in schools, the teachers ask students to
make presentations. We can also see someone making
presentations on the street. It is a type of learning activity. The
goal is not to test the students' knowledge about the major that
they are studying in, but to show how well you can speak in
public. To learn how this activity does students observe
presenters speaking in front of audiences and doing a good job.
The question is how to be as good as those observed speakers?
There are several useful steps to make a good presentation
before giving information to listeners.
First of all, we need to think hard to come up with
good ideas by confirming what our topic is, who our audience
is, what background information they already know, and then
decide what we need to do some research from the Internet,
libraries and even surveys.
Second, we have to write an outline and think about
what is our introduction, how we can hook our audience, what
the body is, and what we should let audiences know. If time is
limited, we just have to give two or three main ideas to present
to the audience.
At last, we should practice several times before doing
the presentation. This is an important part. We need to try to
speak clearly, confidently, loudly, slowly and without reading
our notes. Sometimes we can speak to a mirror or ask friends
and families to listen and then try to look at everyone from time
to time. If possible, we can use some body language to show the
meaning that you want to communicate to the audience. We
might even use some tools, like a data graph, PowerPoint, or the
blackboard.
When giving a presentation for the first time, ask
yourself, "What should I do?" At that time everyone will be
nervous and feel awful. Then tried to follow these steps above,
little by little, everyone can become better at making
presentations.

Weird Japanese St. Valentine's Day
Yuri Nakajima
R/W50

":We wish your merry Christmas. We wish your
merry Christmas. We wish your merry Christmas and a Happy
New Year.:" I'm so excited because one of the biggest events,
Christmas, is coming soon! Even in Japan, most people don't
care about religion, but we do something special on Christmas
Day; for example, we hang out with a boyfriend or a girlfriend,
and give presents to each other. I can say that the Christmas
Day in Japan is like St. Valentine's Day, which is supposed to


ELI Student Voices 13








be for a couple to make sure how much they love each other.
However, do you know that our St. Valentine's Day in Japan is
little bit different from other countries? In Japan, it is the day
girls give boys some chocolate, which means that she likes him.
It is a typical way to tell the favorite person on your mind that
you like him or her. Therefore, most of the guys in Japan get
nervous because of their expectation that someone might give
them chocolate; additionally, some girls prepare special
chocolate for just this day with much stress. Like this, St.
Valentine's Day has been recognized as the special day for boys
and girls in Japan. Nevertheless, I feel that St. Valentine's Day
is getting weird and less romantic these days
First, we have other chocolate for guys who are not
special at all, it's called "obligation chocolate". We buy cheap
chocolate like this for less than 5 dollars, and give it to some
friends or coworkers. Why we do like that is it is kind of a
custom today, especially if you are in a company. We should
give it to them, because, otherwise, a boss or senior might think
that you don't like them; we don't want them to feel sad
because they don't any chocolate. As I mentioned before, guys
are forced to care about whether they are popular or not, and
how many chocolates they get. Therefore, obligation chocolate
is not such a big deal, but still a good thing for guys; and we
expect that they give us better things from them later because
some proud guys think giving something good item back to
girls can make him popular, so some girls use this system for
make benefit for themselves. These are the likely main reasons
which are only unimportant for us, but also it has kind of
become an annoying custom for girls and boys. It makes St.
Valentine day less romantic in today's world.
Then, in recent days, girls started giving handmade
sweets such as chocolate cookies, chocolate cake, or chocolate
muffins to each other; it's called "friends' chocolate". Actually,
I have this experience when I was in college even though I
personally don't like this kind of nonsense events because it's
supposed to be a day I give it to a guy I like and not girls. For
the reason, when my friend announced to me that she was going
to make some cookies for me and she also requested of me to
make her something as well. Now, it is common between
younger generations such as high school students although there
is nothing to relate to the original St. Valentine's Day style.
Thus, the Japanese St. Valentine's Day is going in a
different way then it is supposed to be celebrated; though, I can
also say that it is natural to change customs from time to time.
Still, I think that Japanese St. Valentine's Day is a really sweet
day, and as much as I can say that this is my favorite day within
whole year because my memory of that day is always so special
that I want to keep it. Also, I want other people to feel like I
have felt about this holiday. Of course I want you to feel it too.
Why don't you have a St. Valentine Day the Japanese way
someday?


Teamwork Vs. Individual Work
Franck Yeboue
R/W 60

GRE Topic: "People work more productively in teams than
individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates
people much more than individual competition does."

According to the dictionary, the definition of work is
an exertion or an effort directed to produce or accomplish
something; also it can be considered as a kind of labor or toil. In
fact, the word work takes all its sense in the practice. For
example, one person instead of a group of people makes the
manuals laborers in a field of cotton. The result is clear. The
one-person worker will take many more hours than the group to
work in his field. The teamwork with this conception has been
used throughout time until now, and in plenty of domains. But
this collaboration between workers is now considered a big
issue. The reasons are numerous. But despite these criticisms,
teamwork has many advantages and it will stay valuable
whatever the place where people will use it.
Teamwork is a method. In this method people can
interact with others and generate a huge number of ideas. You
can also brainstorm, and produce a variety of ideas. However,
this method, compared to the individual work, requires a great
level of participation. Each member has to do something for the
group. There are no barriers between members of a team or a
group, which makes each participant in a team similar to the
others. This conception is applied in many companies and
organizations with the intention of improving the effectiveness
of workers. Also, the teamwork activity can "contribute to the
overall success of he organization" (Heathfield, 2, 2008), by
helping companies to reach their objectives each year.
Another point is that in teamwork there is no
conception of individualism. You have to be social related.
Even if you work alone, with your own method and technical
skills, the result will be assimilated in one and your principal
objective will be collective. Teamwork associates a great
number of different tasks to create one result. This is not the
case in an individual work, where the results are based only on
your own and exclusive production. Also, people in a team need
to have some special background before they belong to a group.
These characteristics are: listening, discussing, questioning,
persuading, respecting, helping, sharing, participating and
communicating ("Teamwork Skill," 2008, 4).
Some people don't believe in the efficiency of
teamwork for the simple reason that people are all different.
This differentiation in thoughts, opinions, and judgment can
result in a lack of cooperation, and a worst management in the
crew. Also, another argument, more objective than the first,
says that the teamwork takes more time. In fact in any group
team, such as sports teams (Basketball team, Soccer team,
American football team...) especially, people have to elaborate
rules (define each person occupation) and regulate the
procedures (what do each person is suppose to do). All these
actions take more time and make difficult the working of a
group.


ELI Student Voices 14








In conclusion, the use of teamwork in a company will
not cease to decrease, according to my point of view. Working
with other persons is important and very helpful instead of
working alone. Even if there is a good advantage of working
alone, and getting flexibility in our time, I think we can't
compare it to the success of our company (or group). But this is
another issue that we'll discuss later.

References
Heathfield. 2. 2008. Retrieved from
http://humanresources.about.com/od/involvementteam
s/a/twelve tip team.htm
"Teamwork Skill." 2008. 4. Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teamwork

Breaking Bad News for Patients
Ahmed Al-Jumaili
RW 60

Introduction.
Imagine if a doctor says directly to the patient who has
cancer, "You have a cancer!" What do you think the patient's
reaction will be? How this patient will feel after hearing this
bad news? In other words, is telling the truth directly the only
way that we can use to tell the patients about their illnesses?
Although having a serious disease similar to cancer or not,
telling the truth directly to the patient who has a serious illness,
is not always the correct thing. Amiel (2006) stated that in spite
of the attention that doctors make in telling patients about their
illnesses, "receiving a medical diagnosis may be
overwhelming," and they were avoided telling the truth in a
cruel way. (p. 13). However, despite the badness of bad news
and the reaction of patients towards it, doctors are required to
tell the patients about their illnesses in order to take care off and
treat them. In fact, telling the patients the fact of their serious
illnesses is emotionally complicated for patients and physicians
at the same time. Therefore, doctors in England (Seale, 1991)
and France (Rudnick et al., 2000, p. 157) avoid telling patients
about their non-curable diseases. Some people said that doctors
should not delay to tell bad news, others prefer to wait until
choosing the appropriate time and circumstances to deliver bad
news. Some people recommend presenting the patient's family,
whereas others argue that it is the patient's choice to have the
people who he needs them (Schofield et al., 2003, p. 48). Thus,
people are not in agreement about the way, the environment,
and the time of breaking bad news for serious illnesses patients.
At the same time, people are different in delivering or receiving
bad news. So, in this research, we are going to describe bad
news that patients would not like to hear and its effects on the
patients, how doctors break bad news and their feeling while
doing this task, patients' reactions towards bad news, and the
effect of doctors' gender upon breaking bad news.

Which news is bad?
People are not agreeing about the degree of badness in
news to be considered bad news; however, they are completely
agreed that bad news is the information that tells people about a


serious disease or case related to their health or lives. In fact,
although some patients already have serious diseases, telling
them the fact of their illnesses is considered bad news. Some
people consider any information which tells them they are sick
is bad news while others consider only telling them they have
serious illnesses like cancer and AIDS is bad news. Buckman
(1984, p. 1597) defined bad news in medicine as any
information which is the cause of negative and drastic altering
in patients' view of their outlooks. This definition focuses on the
existing effects of the bad news upon patients after receiving
this news. On the other hand, bad news is any information that
breaks down people emotionally, behaviorally and cognitively
for some time after receiving this news (Ptacek & Eberhardt,
1996 (as cited in Fallowfield, L., & Jenkins, V. (2'" '4)). In this
case, the author emphasizes the reactions of patients towards
bad news. These reactions are very important because they may
affect the next steps of the patients' treatment. Thus, doctors
may break bad news differently according to their definition of
this news.

How do doctors break bad news?
Based on many studies, Amiel et al. (2006) found it is
difficult for physicians to experience breaking bad news to
patients. Because physicians don't have good expertise and
reluctance to deal with the patients' reactions, they always avoid
delivering bad news. On the other hand, Butow et al. (1997, p.
858) stated that the physicians' estimates of the amount and type
of the information that is required by patients are not good nor
the effectiveness of imparting information. Seale (1991, p. 944)
found that 70% of doctors and nurses felt that it is easy to deal
with their own emotional reactions or feeling to death and dying
while 26% felt it is difficult. Thus, doctors are responsible
about the awareness of the messages they may give out (Butow
et al., 1997, p. 862). In spite of the importance of creating good
environment to deliver bad news, fewer physicians concentrated
on the environmental support, which is involved in giving bad
news to patients. For example, 34% of the physicians didn't
wear white coats, 35% of them turned off their communication
devices like cell phone, and 38% of them supported the patient
by having his family presented when they disclose bad news
(Farber et al., 2002, p. 916). So it's important for physicians to
support their patients to face bad news and reduce its effects on
them.

The effects of bad news!
Some patients accept their situations patiently and they
try to calm down themselves and their families and convince
them that what had happened to them is their chance in this life.
They continue taking a treatment and follow their doctor's
instructions. In this case, the bad news will not affect them very
badly. Other patients crumble when they know about their
illness. Then they act negatively. They feel very sad and may
not try to find and take the recommended treatments. In this
case, patients' reaction will affect them; and their situations may
get worse. So, doctors should be careful about breaking bad
news to this type of patients in order to keep them at least at the
same situation and preventing them from getting worse.
"Research has shown that if bad news is communicated badly, it


ELI Student Voices 15








can cause confusion, long lasting distress, and resentment; if it
is done well, it can assist understanding, acceptance, and
adjustment" (Fallowfield & Jenkins, 2004). In addition to the
direct effects of bad news upon patients, doctors and nurses
trust that patients will be psychosocially influenced by the way
in which bad news is broken (Schofield et al., 2003, p. 48).
Therefore, physicians always try to prepare patients to receive
bad news in order to reduce the side effects of this news on the
patients. Most patients feel anxiety and stressed when they hear
bad news. Schofield et al. (2003, p. 48) stated that preparing
patients for diagnosis experiences, presenting family with them
while they were listening to bad news, and knowing much
information about their diagnosis results in reducing their
anxiety.

How do doctors feel when they break bad news?
Even though some doctors have good experience in
dealing with patients, especially when they disclose bad news,
others feel anxiety and fear when they are needed to tell bad
news. This feeling makes it difficult to start conversation and
increases their responsibilities about the disease. Buckman
(1984, p. 1597) mentioned the following aspects of fear that
doctors feel when they give bad news:
1. "Fear of being blamed": some patients could not be
able to face the fact of their illnesses, especially when it refers
to dangerous diseases, and start to blame doctors about the
information they gave or the bad situation they are in.
Therefore, doctors avoid giving bad news in order to prevent
themselves from being blamed.
2. "Fear of the unknown and untaught": for many
doctors it is okay to do or practice what they were taught or
known; however, they will feel more awkward in situations
when they don't have any information about or training before
(like talking to dying patients) so doctors try to avoid these
cases.
3. "Fear of unleashing a reaction": not all patients have
good and controlled reactions to bad news so it is difficult to
guess the reaction of patients for bad news. Some patients
maybe start to cry and make noise. These actions may bemuse
treating the following patients at the same place. Thus doctors
don't like to break bad news to avoid an unleashing reaction.
4. "Fear of expression emotion": although doctors are
taught to behave tranquilly in their work to hold back any panic
that may be felt and any anger or antagonism that they may feel
towards any individual patients, they may express these
reactions towards patients.
5. "Fear of not knowing all the answers": based on
their experience when they were students, it's hard for some
doctors to be confident to say, "I don't know" because it was
expected to earn failure. Thus, physicians who expect
themselves don't have answers for the patients' questions,
especially when breaking bad news, may fear breaking bad
news.
6. "Personal fear of illness and death": doctors as
human don't like to be sick, at the same time, they don't like to
die. Also it is difficult for many doctors to manage their own
emotions, sadness, and feeling failure when they disclose bad
news (Fallowfield & Jenkins, 2004). Finally, in spite of any


type of fear that physicians may feel, they are required to expect
and understand the patients' reactions towards bad news so they
can reduce the bad news effects on the patients.

Patients' reactions towards bad news and their preferences!
People react differently towards bad news according to
their personality, age, religion, education, etc. In general,
people do not like to hear any bad news, especially when it is
about their health. In fact, patients as human have groups of
feelings, senses, thoughts and reactions. They sense the
surrounding environment and feel happy, uncomfortable or
maybe sad based on these different circumstances, and may
react positively or negatively towards this news. Some patients
would like to hear about their illnesses, while others don't like.
About 90% of the patients would like to be informed about their
diseases (Valck, 2001, p. 399). In addition, patients who cope
difficultly with their anxiety and worry requested to be told
about their diagnosis alone without their family (Rudnick et al.,
2000, p. 158). Buckman (1984, p. 1599) said, "He doesn't
believe every gloomy detail and possible horror must be spelt
out." In addition, he found that half of the patients in two
studies wanted to be shielded and not to be told their diagnoses
exactly. Patients are different in their preferences about how
much information they would like to know about their illnesses.
Butow et al. (1997) found about 85% of patients prefer to know
a lot of information about their diseases, while 15% wanted
minimal details (p. 859). In addition, he found that more details
about their illnesses were significantly required by female than
male (p. 861). In addition to the emphasis of the current medical
ethics on the right of cancer patients to be told completely about
their cases and participating in their treatments' decision
making, most sick people preferred the doctor to make the
decisions (Butow et al., 1997, p. 857). Patients' preferences
differ based on their confidence with their doctors. For
example, patients who think that doctors will make the right
decision, they don't prefer to hide the information of their
illnesses. Furthermore, patients who believe that their illnesses
and its process are influenced by God prefer fewer details and
facts of their illnesses. On the other hand, patients are different
in preferring different information related to their illnesses.
Butow et al. (1997, p. 859) stated that 97% of patients were
looking for more advice about what is happening to their
cancer, 88% would like to know about the future of their
illnesses, and 91% sought more information about their
illnesses. Patients who had been told everything in clear ways
were highly satisfied (Schofield et al., 2003, p. 51). Thus,
patients' reactions and their preferences should be understood
by doctors in order to help them choosing the suitable way to
disclose bad news.

Different genders break bad news differently.
In addition to their life's experience, doctors were
always taught in their undergraduate studies how to break bad
news. So we expect them as males or females to break bad news
in a similar way. However, female and male doctors break bad
news differently. Tipper et al. (2003) said, "Female doctors
break bad news to patients better than their male counterparts
do." They found that female doctors use better-quality abilities


ELI Student Voices 16








to communicate with patients in comparison with male doctors
and they prefer to make "empathy-building statements" when
they talk to their patients. So women, based on their experience
as mothers dealing with babies and young children, have high
quality experience to deal with people who need help or suffer
from something. This experience is reflected in their
communication with patients. In contrast, men who always do
hard and serious work like participating in battles or fighting to
defend their country may become hard-hearted which causes
them to communicate harder than women in breaking bad news.
Farber et al. (2002) found that female physicians were
better than males in providing emotional materials to sustain
patients and their relatives and in spending time (31 + 11
minutes) when they were giving bad news as compared to
males (26 11 minutes). In addition, men always point directly
towards the problems and try to give clear solution while
women discuss the problems to show and establish the intimacy
and empathy to strengthen relationship. (p. 916)
In other words, a male doctor may say, "I looked at
your X-ray report and I found that you have cancer," whereas a
female doctor always tries to calm down the patient and tells
him about his illness indirectly. Thus, communication styles
which are used by females and males can be described as "relate
vs. debate', 'rapport vs. report', or 'cooperative vs. competitive'."
(Gender Differences in Communication 2). Furthermore, Valck
(2001) stated, "Female students appear more humane-oriented
(p. 398), and "More patient-centered and more psychosocially
oriented than male students" (p. 407). Finally, Farber et al.
(2002, p. 916) recommended doing more work in order to
decide whether female doctors are genetically more developed
or if their previous experiences have helped them more paying
special attention to patients' emotional desires. These studies
and others may help improving the communication styles
between doctors and their patients, especially in breaking bad
news, and creating a suitable environment to break bad news.

The suitable environment to break bad news!
Even though bad news is bad, unfavorable, and the
patients don't like to hear it, doctors can reduce the shock of bad
news and its effects on the patients by creating a suitable
environment to tell this news. They can improve the
environment of breaking bad news by understanding the
patient's thoughts, reactions, and behaviors; and by practicing
some actions or emotions to support the patients when they give
this news. Hann stated that doctors should create the right
environment and choose the suitable time for delivering bad
news. She emphasized that the doctors must give a specific and
enough time to deliver this news and not allow other things to
interrupt them while they are doing this task. For example,
turning off their communication devices sitting beside or in
front of the patient, not behind a table, asking the patient how
much he knows about his illness, when he had this pain, and
what doctors told him about his disease. By gathering this
information, the doctors could understand the patient's abilities
and his reactions to hear bad news. In addition, Hann said that
doctors should ask the patient if he would like the doctor to
share the information of his illness with other people like his
son or his wife or he wouldn't. In this case, some patients prefer


to share their illnesses' information with their family. In a
cross-cultural study, for example, Ali et al. (1993) noted that in
Egypt the family who nurtures the patient, takes care of him,
and participates in decision-making, which is related to the
patient's treatment. In addition, having people present with the
patient, especially whom the patient himself prefers, while he
was listening to bad news was very linked to higher satisfaction
as compared to being alone with a doctor (Schofield et al.,
2003, p. 51). So doctors are required to have people present
who are needed by the patient while breaking bad news. In
contrast, other cultures like American culture where the
independence is presented, a doctor can generate other
approaches to tell bad news (Butow et al., 1997, p. 862).
Furthermore, doctors who engaged in private practice provided
more environmental items to support the patients than others
who didn't engage in private practice (Farber et al., 2002, p.
916). Thus physicians, according to their experience and
knowledge and the information that they collected about the
patient and his abilities are required to create and improve a
suitable environment to disclosure bad news.

The conclusion.
Because of the direct or indirect effects of bad news on
both patients and physicians, doctors are working and
investigating continuously to get the best way and environment
to disclose bad news in order to reduce its effects on the
patients. However, it is still difficult and hard for patients to
receive bad news. At the same time, it is very fear for doctors to
deliver this news. So, breaking bad news to seriously ill patients
is a complicated medical issue because it is related to patients as
receiver, doctors as deliver, patients' relatives or family as
supporter, and communication styles as environmental factor.
Thus, people are needed to do the best in order to overcome this
problem.
References

Ali, N. S., Khalil, H. Z., & Yousef, W. (1993). A comparison of
American and Egyptian cancer patients' attitudes and
unmet needs. Cancer Nursing 16(3):193-203.
Amiel, G. E., Ungar, L., Alperin, M., Baharier, Z., Cohen, R., &
Reis, S. (2006). Ability of primary care physician's to
break bad news: A performance based assessment of
an educational intervention. Patient Education and
Counseling 60:10-15.
Buckman, R. (1984). Breaking bad news: Why is it still so
difficult? British Medical Journalvol. 288:1797-1599.
Butow, P. N., Maclean, M., Dunn, S. M., Tattersall, M. H. N. &
Boyer, M. J. (1997). The dynamics of change: Cancer
patients' preferences for information, involvement and
support. Annals of Oncology 8: 857-863.
Fallowfield, L. & Jenkins, V. (2'1" 4). Communicating sad, bad,
and difficult news in medicine. The lancet volume
363(9405): 312-319.
Farber, J. N, Urban, S. Y., Collier, V. U., Weiner, J., Polite, R.
G., Davis, E. B., & et al. (2002). The good news about
giving bad news to patients. J. ofJen Int. Medvol. 17:
914-922.


ELI Student Voices 17








Gender Differences in Communication. "Retrieved from"
http://www.geocities.com/Wellesley/2052/genddiff.ht
ml
Hann, E. How best to deliver bad news to patients and family.
"Retrieved from"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ItC68Pdnpk4
Parker, P. A., Baile, W. F., Moor, C., Lenzi, R., Kudelka, A. P.,
& Cohen, L. (2001). Breaking bad news about cancer:
Patients' preferences for communication. Journal of
Clinical Oncology, vol. 19, No 7: pp 2049-2056.
Rudnick, A., Ezra, Y., & Melamed, E. (2000). Breaking bad
news and personality assessment. Patient Education
and Counseling 41: 157 -160.
Schofield, P. E., Butow, P. N., Thompson, J. F., Tattersall, M.
H. N., Beeney, L. J., & Dunn, S. M. (2003).
Psychological responses of patients receiving a
diagnosis of cancer. Annals of Oncology 14: 48-56.
Seale, C. (1991). Communication and awareness about death: A
study of a random sample of dying people. Sm. Sci.
Med. vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 943-952.
Tannen, D. You Just Don't Understand. "Retrieved from"
http://homestar.org/bryannan/tannen.html
Tipper, L., Bonas, S., Fisher, J., & Barnett, M. (2003). Female
doctors break bad news best. The 6th annual
conference of the British Psychological Society's
Division of Health Psychology held at Strtiird h.irie
University. "Retrieved from"
http://www.bps.org.uk/media-centre/press-
releases/releases$/division-of-health-
psychology/female-doctors-break-bad-news-best$.cfm
Valck, C. D., Bensing, J., & Bruynooghe, R. (2001). Medical
students' attitude towards breaking bad news: An
empirical test of the world health organization model.
Psycho-oncology 10: 398-409.

Gender Differences in Communication
Raeda AlKhars
R/W 60

I like the Japanese proverb which says, "Cold rice
and cold tea are bearable; cold looks and cold words are not."
This means that we can tolerate cold food and drinks but we
can't tolerate banal and cold nonverbal communication, and we
dislike receiving boring and emotionless verbal expressions
from the others. Some times, people sabotage their warm
emotions and fervent events by being cold and by providing
disinterested communication with the other gender while
communicating. According to Cary in her article, "Finding Real
Love," "Human beings crave intimacy, to love and be loved.
Why then do people feel isolated in their intimate
relationships?' While it is not difficult for us to have good food,
it is not easy for most of us to create and sustain intimacy with
the other (Barbor, 2001, p. 58).
A lot of educators, scholars and communication
experts are advocating the importance of learning and
perceiving the differences between males and females in
different areas in order to improve our point of views about


each other which lead to positive communication. Therefore,
both genders ought to keep in their minds that these differences
of communication styles will last for their whole lives. In other
words, they need to recognize these differences and try to
produce balanced communication processes that have harmony,
empathy and cooperation. Also, continuous supporting,
endorsing and listening for ideas the sender is trying to transmit
may contribute a lot to communicate contents with outstanding
empathy with the others.
First of all, body language usage varies between men
and women. For example, women are more spontaneous,
natural and candid than men of the non-verbal signals such as
moving the hands while communicating. In addition, women try
to be more attractive, warm and friendly during the
communication process by smiling a lot, trying to offer social
solutions and showing more empathy and enthusiasm while
communicating with the others. On the other hand, men tend to
be brief and formal in their facial and body movements. For
instance, men usually attempt not to make their emotions so
obvious to the other people. Most of the time, they tend to have
short and quick smiles on their faces when the communication
situation needs a smile. Furthermore, men feel comfortable in
establishing eye contact while communicating with the others
whereas women don't prefer to use the eye contact during the
non-verbal communication process.
Second, in selecting the comfort zone, in formal
meetings and informal situations men and women will sit
differently according to the communicational contexts and the
gender that they are communicating with. ("Bridging the
Communication Gap," 2003, 11). For instance, men try to look
formal and organized in their body movements while they are at
work in order to show more self-assurance, remarkable
knowledge and cognition. But, they prefer to move freely and
have spontaneous movements with the other gender in a picnic.
Women, however, add a lot of emotions to their body
movements and faces during the communication process inside
and outside theirjobs. In locating the place of seating around
the meeting table, the women favor to take seats in restricted
fixed areas which will help them to stay tacit, less active in the
argumentative discussions during the official meetings.
However, men's fervid positions are freely unfolded around the
meeting tables which give them more freedom to look proud,
control the conversations, talk and argue more during the
meeting. Also, they have differences in the sitting arrangement
and selecting the favorite chairs. "That females had greater
feeling at ease in rows of tablet-arm chairs and in clusters,
while males felt more at ease in u-shaped and rows of tables
with individual chairs" ("Gender Differences," 2007, 1).
"Women talk almost three times as much as men, with
the average woman chalking up 200,000 words in a day -13,000
more than the average man" (Macrae, 2006,p 1).Most of the
research papers have proved that women are more talkative and
verbose while communicating with the others but, there is a
new documented percentage that men speak more up to 80
percent compared with women. Moreover, a lot of educators
and scholars are advocating the importance of the natural style
for the female students to be active, fervent and talkative.
"Students with poor English language skills tend to clam up in


ELI Student Voices 18








company. The challenge before teachers is to make them talk"
(Indiresan, 2002, 1). For these educators, being silent is a
learning obstacle for the female student's academic
achievements. For example, male chauvinists will describe
them as naive and diffident when they evaluate their work
outputs or academic achievements.
Unfortunately, some female students or workers who
have wide knowledge and efficient experience may be
described as tongue-tied in formal meetings or public
interactions. "Women students do well in studies. Often, they
take away all top positions. Yet, they fare badly injob
interviews. Apparently, women talk a lot among themselves,
but when men are present, they become shy and do not
communicate effectively" (Indiresan, 2002, 1). For educators,
these shyness and communicating disabilities should be fixed
and improved by training, encouraging extra practice for
reading and performing speech in public. "Those are the girls,
who constitute a large majority, that need special training in
communication skills. Without such special support, they will
not be able to compete in this male dominated world where
negative gender stereotypes, bias and discrimination prevail."
(Indiresan, 2002, 4).
According to Usheroff at the Metro Toronto
Conversation Center, there is an essential need for perceiving
the differences between females and males in verbal and non
verbal communication in order to achieve an effective and
successful communication process that reduces the gap between
the two genders and presents them as cooperative and
productive workers in the medical or hospitals fields. Moreover,
Usheroff preaches the importance of targeting well developed
connections and relations by concentrating on how to send the
message effectively with a candid content in order to give the
receiver a positive impression about the sender that doesn't
concentrate on how she/he appears. (Usheroff, 2003, p 1).
According to, "Bridging the Communication Gap"
(Usheroff, 2003, pi) in hospitals the males prefer to bear high
positions relating to management while females may have
stressful emotions in performing these tasks. While females
usually tend to use long sentences in their conversations with
specific details due to their empathy in order to build warm
connections with the others, males tend to be objective, brief
and direct their conversations. Furthermore, Usheroff
emphasizes the importance of understanding the variety of the
meaning and use of the body language between the two
genders. For example, understanding the head nod signal can
reduce the gap of misunderstanding and bolster the
communication by agreeing for men and continuing the
conversation for women. "Women rend to nod their heads a lot
when they are listening. It looks like they are agreeing .....
what they are saying is that they are listening. On the other
hand, when men nod their heads they are just telling the speaker
to get on with it" (Usheroff, 2003, p. 1).
Moreover, males feel zealous in gainsaying the
advanced tasks and they master the ability to express their
disagreements in stoic negative ways, while the females can not
express their disagreements in the challenged tasks. They only
precipitate the quickness and loud-mouthed way of
communicating which may reflect the lack of appropriateness


of being effective communicators. Also, the males prefer the
positions that satisfy their veneration needs where they become
pioneers and leaders with precise decision making. But, females
treat the others with a lot of empathy and they are very selective
in their comments and jokes with the others. Women try to
establish rapport most of the time and they don't take the risk of
destroying their relations by making fun of their partners. So,
both genders should concentrate on how to be effective
communicators who are capable of transmitting the messages
veraciously and effectively which will help a lot in bridging the
communication gap between them.
To conclude, I agree with those educators that being
effective active communicators by using a lot of body language
naturally in performing effective speech for female students and
workers are rights rather than privileges. Every silent female
student or worker should act and receive training to be a
successful communicator in order to achieve equity injob
opportunities with males and with vocal students or workers.
Finally all males and females should concentrate on how to be
effective communicators who are capable of transmitting the
messages veraciously and effectively which will help a lot in
providing successful communication, education and work
performances.

References

Barbor, C. (2001, January-February). Finding Real Love.
Psychology Today.
Bridging the Communications Gap. The Globe and Mail.
Retrieved from
http://www.usheroff.com/news/article7.html.
Differences Between Men and Women in Conversation.
Retrieved from
http//mentalhelp.net/psyhelp/chap9/chap9o.htm.
Fortinberry, A. You're Not Listening! Retrieved from
http://www.upliftporogram.com/article_intuit4.html.
Men and Women in Conversation- Finding a Way to Bridge the
Gap. Retrieved from
http://www.healthandage.com/Home?gm=20&gid2=1
28&path=null&x=49&y=9.
What about gender patterns in formal group meeting? Retrieved
from http://pages.townson.edu/itrow/wmcomm.htm.
William, D. (2006, Nov2). Assessment for Learning: Why,
What and How? The Orbit, Vol. 36, p. 2-5.

Communication Differences Between Male
and Female
Adoonka Kwankaew (Ball)
RW 60

Introduction

Have you ever understood why your girlfriend always
says that "you never listen to me" or "you never understood
what I feel?" What should you say when your girlfriend asks
what you think about her dress? What if I say there are
differences in communication between men and women that if


ELI Student Voices 19








we, both men and women, can understand, we can reach the
agreement every time in conversation.
As you know, human beings have existed for several
thousand years and they have developed and built their
societies. They have passed their knowledge by generation to
generation. One of the tools that help them, making societies
and transferring their ideas, is an ability to communicate,
languages.
However, the bigger societies are getting, the more
complex communication is also becoming. Languages change
from the easy tool to help them communicate to the obstacles to
frustrate them in communication instead. One of the hindrances
is the differences between men and women, both physical and
psychological even though the differences are the things that
attract each sex to the other to help human beings exist and
develop societies. Both groups cannot understand each other
even though they communicate in the same language because
they have different views of the same situation; sometimes they
even create conflicts between both of them.
In my point of view, these conflicts happen to all of us,
no matter who you are. According to the Christopher (2008),
whenever you talk to someone of the opposite sex, a whole new
dynamic takes place. Sometimes, it seems as if we are trying to
communicate with someone from another planet.
In contrast, if anyone can obtain the ability to
communicate well, he or she is more likely to be more
successful in everything he or she does. According to the
author, communication is the single most important skill set that
an individual can possess. People who have excellent
interpersonal skills tend to have better relationships, better
marriages and are more successful in their careers (Christopher,
2008).
Therefore, if we know the differences that cause the
conflicts between men and women, we can decrease the
frustration in communication between men and women and
attain good communication skills to make our lives even better.
In my opinion and a man's view, I came up with the three
differences in communication that stimulate troubles between
men and women.

We speak differently:

First, one of the major communication differences
between males and females is the purpose of conversation.
They operate their conversation in two different social worlds.
In communication, men are more likely to speak whatever they
want to say and it really means what they actually say; men
give the main idea of conversation to the others directly. For
example, men are starving and want to go eat some good food
at any restaurant; then, they will say it unambiguously.
However, women tend to use different ways of language to state
what they really mean, speaking implicitly. For instance, in the
restaurant that has a meeting between men and women, one girl
asks her friend to go to the restroom with her. In this case, men
might think that the girl might really want to go to the restroom
and be too shy to go alone; however, the girl actually wants to
put more make-up on her face and asks for her friend to go with
her and check the make-ups with her.


Moreover, in reality, women likely speak more than
men do in the same period of time. Macrae (2006) said women
talk almost three times as much as men, with the average
woman chalking up 20,000 words in a day 13,000 more than
the average man. In addition, they also use both sides of brain
while they are talking. It seems like women can handle two
conversations at once though that does not necessarily mean
they are better listeners (Tanner, 2000). However, men use only
one side of a brain when they speak and listen; as a result, the
problem happens at this point. It means when women have a
conversation with men, they send two messages to men but men
can receive only one message.
Furthermore, the purpose of conversation can be
expressed by body language; women likely use their body
language more often than men do. According to the author,
women send approximately five times more body language
messages and gestures than men in the same time period
(Rodrigues, 2005). Body language can carry the same or
different message from verbal language does. And, the
difference in meaning causes a lot of trouble to men because
they cannot understand what women want and women also
always say that men never understand them. Men usually use
their body language that means exactly the same as verbal
language does. For example, when men get angry during
conversation, they might hit on a table or express anger on their
faces. On the other hand, body language that women express
usually has different literal meaning from verbal language does.
For instance, a man is drinking in a bar and looking for a girl he
wants to pick up. Then, he makes eye contact with one girl, and
watches her for a few seconds after that she looks away. If she
does something that implies that she has become nervous like
playing with her hair or adjusting her clothing, it means she is
interested in or attracted to you ("Body Language 101").

We think differently:

Another difference in communication between males
and females is the thinking process. Males are more likely to
think about everything logically, and females tend to use
emotion when they think. It happens this way because males
and females have biological differences; therefore, before they
speak, their brains proceed differently in the same conversation.
These differences are shown in many studies; for example,
Gerlach (2008) stated men have more testosterone than women
do; it means men prefer analyzing whereas women prefer
intuiting. Furthermore, the study of Eden ("Left Brain Right
Brain") also showed that men usually proceed their way of
thinking with a left brain while women usually do with a right
brain.
Moreover, there is another theory that can explain the
different ways of thinking between males and females,
"Intimacy and Independence," Tannen (1990). Men are usually
in the position of independence, establishing status and telling
others what to do (Tannen, 1990). However, women stay in the
different position, intimacy. Women's process of thinking
usually deals with complicate networks of friendship, lessens
differences, discusses to one another, and prevents the
appearance of superiority among friends (Tannen, 1990) For


EL[ Student Voices 20








example, a man wanted to go out with his friend whom he had
not met since graduating from high school. He decided to invite
his friend to stay for the weekend and did not tell his wife that
he asked his friend to be a houseguest and would go out
together. She was upset because she just came back from out of
town business and could not stay with her husband. But what
she got mad at him the most for was that he had made the plans
on his own and did not discuss with her first (Tannen, 1990).
Another interesting theory that describes the
differences of thinking process between men and women is
empathizing and systemizing (Cohen, 2003). Cohen said
empathy predominates in the female's brain, and understanding
and building system influences the male's brain. That means
women, on the one hand, put other people's thoughts and
emotions into their way of thinking, and respond to them with
the proper action; therefore, they can know how people feel and
how to treat them well. On the other hand, men likely analyze a
situation and explore the system that works; as a result, they can
intuitively figure out how things work. This example shows the
differences between males and females, explained by E-S
theory. On some psychological tests, boys are better at reading
a map and can give correctly details about direction just by
looking at the map. In contrast, girls prefer to play with dolls
(Cohen, 2003).

We sense differently:

Next, the other difference between men and women is
that sensitivity is differently expressed by men and women.
They both react to the same situation in different ways and also
usually show sensitivity in the different condition. There is an
article that shows sensitivity between males and females based
on psychological and biological basis; on the one hand, men
have more testosterone hormone that leads to aggressive
behavior; on the other hand, women have more estrogen and
progesterone hormone that directly affects strong emotion
(Conner, 2000). That makes men more focus on solid
relationship that comes from sharing activities such as sports,
and competition whereas women tend to create solid
relationship through communicating and sharing experiences
together.
From the psychological and biological differences,
Men and women sense and react to the same situation in
different ways. For whatever reasons, men usually do not
express their depression such as crying or feeling sad and try to
keep it in their mind and that makes physicians do theirjob
harder to diagnose depression in men and always mislead to the
original causes. In spite of showing their regretful feelings, men
usually express their sadness in physical symptoms and sexual
dysfunction; in addition, their depression might also show up in
anger, substance abuse, inability to function at work, and sleep
pattern change. Moreover, most males are reluctant to remedy
their sadness and even deny that they don't have depression
disease; as a result, ending up with committing suicide or
developing heart disease has been a lot more done by men than
by women (Shaw, 2002).
Men usually show their depression in mania; on the
contrary, women are more sensitive to what they experience


and show their feelings in crying or telling a sad story to other
people. There are many reasons that make women feel
depressed, inside and outside the body, such as the hormone
changes of menstruation and stress from the office, family.
Moreover, the symptoms that affect women are different from
those that affect men. For example, women have depression that
affects their menstruation, self-esteem, weight gain or loss,
sleeping period, and anxiety. Furthermore, they also perceive
depressing situations differently. For instance, men receive
depression and that affects them. They will not notice it until
they have sexual dysfunctional problem; however, women
accept regretful feelings and the effects happen to them as well
but they will detect because they cannot handle jobs at work or
home properly like they used to. As a result, the cause which
women explicitly express their regretful feelings is shown in
statistics that women are twice more diagnosed to be depressed
than men (Shaw, 2002).

Conclusion:

The differences in communication between men and
women are caused by both psychological and biological factors.
Moreover, there are the three big differences in communication
style between men and women. First, men and women
communicate in different ways to express their purpose of
conversation. Women speak implicitly, use a lot of words in
conversation, and send a lot of body language messages to
whom they are talking; on the other hand, men do the opposite
things. Next, women's processes to come up with thoughts are
different from those of men. Men likely use their left brain to
proceed their thoughts; men are logically thinking whereas
women tend to use their right brain in their thinking process;
women are emotionally thinking. Then, both men and women
show their sensitivity in different ways. Men respond to
depression by mania while women react to it by crying or
sharing experiences with other people.
Therefore, the key to compromise the
misunderstanding in communication between both sexes is to
accept in partners' different conversation style and to rethink
how the message we send could be interpreted. Moreover, both
partners have to try to choose the statements that might sound
more neutral and tolerable to the other and to learn how to
translate the other's messages and how to explain them to the
other as well (Stanton, 2001).

References

Body Language 101. Retrieved from
http://www.becomeaplayer.com/bodylanguage.htm
Cohen, S. (2003). They Just Can't Help It. Retrieved Apr 17,
2003, from
http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2003/apr/17/rese
arch.highereducation
Conner, M. (2000). Understand The Differences Between Men
And Women. Retrieved from
http://www.oregoncounseling.org/ArticlesPapers/Docu
ments/DifferencesMenWomen.htm


ELI Student Voices 21








Christopher, B (2008). Why Are Women So Strange And Men
So Weird? Business Credit Retrieved Jan 21, 2008,
fioin hlp \ \ \ .tellinitlikeitis.net/2008/01/why-are-
women-so-strange-and-men-so-weird.html
Eden, D. Left Brain Right Brain. Retrieved from
http://www.viewzone.com/bicam.html
Garlech, P. (2008). Typical Female / Male Differences In
Priorities. Retrieved Oct 01, 2008 from
hup \ \\ \\ .sfhelp.org/02/gender.htm
Macrae, F. (2006). Women Talk Three Times As Much As
Men, Says Study. Daily Mail, femail section.

Rodrigues, L (2005). Women Frequently Send Body Language
Messages to Men. Retrieved from
Imp w "\ .learbodylanguage.org/flirting_1.html
Shaw, G. (2002). Men Get Angry, Not Sad. Retrieved Oct 20,
2005 from http://relationships.blog-
city.com/mengetangry not sad.htm
Shaw, G. (2002). Women Face Twice the Risk as Men.
Retrieved Oct 20, 2005 from http://relationships.blog-
city.com/women face twice the risk as men.htm
Stanton, A. (2001). Men and Women in Conversation: Finding
a Way to Bridge the Gap. Retrieved Sep 12, 2001 from
hup n\ .healthandage.com/Home?gm=20&gid2=1
284&fa= &path=null&x=49&y=9
Tannen, D. (1990). Intimacy And Independence. You Just
Don't Understand.
Tanner, L (2000). Men Listen With Half of Brain. The
Gainesville Sun, p. 4A.

Attending the English Language Institute!
Ahmed Al-Jumaili
RW 60

Learning English is very important for international
students, especially when they are going to study in an English-
speaking country. Students can learn English by attending an
English language institute (ELI) or by buying teaching
materials like software and books and talking with people in
public places. Attending an ELI is an argumentation issue
because some students believe that attending an ELI will teach
them fresh and practical language while others think that it
wastes their time and money. At the same time they can teach
themselves English quickly and efficiently by staying home and
reading English books, listening to TV, CDs and talking to
people in public. I think that international students who need to
learn English should be enrolled in an ELI to get perfect
English, time management skills, and feedback and negotiation
answers.
Students who attend the ELI will get fresh and original
language directly from native and formal speakers. This source
of information and formal style of teaching will help students to
sense the language and deal with it actively more than receiving
information about it from machines. In addition, most of the
teachers in the ELI are professionals and have good experience
in teaching English to international students so they teach the
most important things of the language which are required for


students to be successful. They can check the students' progress
and decide which discipline of language a student has problems
with then focus on this issue to help students to overcome it.
In addition to learning English directly from the
teachers, students will learn good time management by
attending the ELI. For example, each ELI has a schedule to
arrange the class times every day Monday through Friday from
early morning to late afternoon. This schedule is always based
on teachers' and experts' experiences in teaching for a long
time. By following this schedule at least one or two semesters,
students will learn how to manage their time and use it
efficiently. This experience helps them to study more and more
in a short time. As a result, the time that students spend in the
ELI to improve their English will be shorter than the time they
spend at home to reach the same level of English.
Another reason for attending the ELI is the ability to
negotiate and argue about the correct answer for the students'
questions. In other words, the students who attend the ELI can
discuss their questions and answers with the teachers until they
get correct answers and acceptable explanations. On the other
hand, students who use computers to learn English may say it is
easy to get the correct answer and good explanation for their
questions faster and directly. However, the computers can give
the correct answers and explanation for common questions
only. They can't answer any question or give any explanation if
they are not set up with it before. Therefore, attending the ELI
will give the students a chance to ask, discuss, and find an
appropriate answer for their questions.
Controversially, other students don't agree to go to the
ELI because they think that practicing with CDs, watching TV,
reading English books, and talking to people in public are
enough to improve their English. In this case, most of the
software or hardware which are bought by the students may or
may not give them the correct sounds of the language and
cannot feel the students' difficulties or issues. Furthermore, they
always repeat the same thing that students can use in a specific
situation only; for example, they teach the student how to order
the words in a sentence like subject, verb, and object. However,
they don't teach them the words that they use to write a
sentence.
In conclusion, I recommend that international students
attend English language institutes when they are going to learn
English. Staff in these institutes has good experience in
teaching English for a long time, which will help the students to
improve their English directly, perfectly, and fast. However, if
students for some reasons can't attend the ELI, they can
improve their English by reading English books, watching TV,
or practicing with a computer. But, this way of learning should
be recommended by a professional teacher in order to get the
right way to learn English.

The Hope of Our Future
Aaron Kim
RW 60

As the U.S. presidential election comes up, some
candidates suggest economic plans that can ameliorate the


ELI Student Voices 22








downturn of economies that are facing financial problems, lack
of job opportunities, and energy problems. In contrast to later
one, the two former are temporary obstacles that can be solved
by cosmetic solutions or interventions of government; however,
energy problems that always have influenced and linked with
politics, annual life cost, and economies not only for one nation,
but also worldwide for several decades to come. Do those
candidates make breakthrough possible? Until now, the answer
can be "No." One of the candidates, Barack Obama, said that he
will concentrate on ecologically friendly renewable energy such
as solar, wind, and so on. Those sorts of energy sources can not
be appropriate solutions of this economic recession; however,
as you become a proponent on nuclear energy, we can bolster
our lives including economies.
The absolutely significant reason that can lead us to
success is the efficiency of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is
the most economically and geologically efficient energy source
in the world. According to data researched by the IAEA in
2007, International Atomic Energy Agency, the cost of energy
product of the nuclear energy is approximately four cents per
every kWh; whereas, the cost of the solar energy is seventy one
cents, and wind energy needs to cost ten cents. The solar energy
source which is in the spotlight in mass communication,
especially in the U.S, is almost two times as expensive as the
nuclear energy source. Is that all? No. When we consider more
in-depth knowledge about capacity and required area of each
energy sources, our answer becomes more obvious. The
electricity capacity of one nuclear power plant is one million
kW while the solar energy and wind energy can produce just
three hundred kW and one thousand kW in each power plant
respectively. In addition, the area required to construct a nuclear
power plant is less than 0.2 square kilometers; the solar energy
and the wind energy need to ensure 67 square kilometers and
248 square kilometers. Thousandfold efficiency follows us as
nuclear power plants flourish.
The supplementary positive effects of flourishing of
nuclear power are the following: multi and vast usage of
nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion technology. Nuclear energy
can be applied to local heat, nuclear power generated container
ships, submarines, and airplanes in the future. Even nowadays,
we use the radiation technologies that come from nuclear
industry in the medical fields such as treatment for cancer, x-ray
photography, and radiation tracking technology all around the
world. Basing on nuclear power energy, scientists have
researched nuclear fusion technology for several years. Have
you heard about artificial sun? If nuclear fusion technology
becomes true, our future will be illuminated without any
anxieties because fusion technology can lead us to several
thousand times efficient energy sources; also, we are using
plasma, what it called the fourth state of material, a mixture of
ionized gases, in many industrial fields, for example, PDP,
plasma display panel, is an epoch-making discovery in modern
industry. If you think these additional advantages of nuclear
energy technology deserve to be treated as important things,
your thoughts should confluence into a tide of nuclear power
generations.
As you know, condemnations can appear in every
controversial topic, and most people who disapprove of nuclear


energy insist that nuclear power plants are extremely dangerous
and wastes of nuclear power are very harmful to human.
Usually they exemplify the Chernobyl disaster. It can't be
denied that it jeopardized an entire city of the Soviet Union;
however, it can't become appropriate reason that nuclear energy
should be avoided.
According to Wikipedia, one of the world's most
famous on-line encyclopedias, Chernobyl jeopardy can be
explained by two reasons. The first possible reason is that two
operators ignored the regulations. To be more specific, when
operators get rid of control rods from generator, they are
required to follow some process. However, one of them skipped
that process and another operator misunderstood the situation,
taking an inappropriate solution for that accident. If there was
strict training and knowledge for operating, it is obvious that
they could have prevented them from the facing tragic case. The
second reason is that the Soviet Union used the own type of
nuclear generators that have different material for the
controlling system. Generally, the controlling system consists of
cooling water; in contrast to common nuclear system, the
Chernobyl generator preferred graphite rods for controlling
system. The graphite controller makes a generator's coefficient
positive which is supposed to be negative in common sense;
consequently, as nuclear generators are heated, those system
add more heat to the generators; while usual generators dwindle
their heat for stability of the nuclear generator. Unfortunately,
without a distortion of facts, two reasons of this tragedy can't
ensure the persuasive power for people who protest nuclear
energy.
Because of radiation of nuclear wastes, even if those
explanations are suggested, there might be still some
dissensions. To conclude first, the nuclear waste problem also
has not enough supports for objections. The following are four
kinds of radiations induced by generating of nuclear power
plants: alpha, beta, gamma, and x-ray. The alpha and beta rays
can be blocked by aluminum, very easy to be seen everywhere,
and x-ray can't penetrate the lead, one of the heaviest metals in
the world. What about the gamma rays? The gamma ray, well
known as the most dangerous radiation, which can even damage
human's organ severely, also can't pass through the concrete
wall; therefore, when nuclear wastes are processed, they are
covered by concrete, enclosed by drum cans and isolated in the
underground repositories. Even though you touch the processed
nuclear wastes, the quantity of radiation from nuclear waste is
less than the amount that you get when you are exposed to
radiation comes from space and electronic depots. The scientific
research already has shown that when we measure by using
mSv degree, the amount of radiation from nuclear waste is
0.0lmSv, and the radiation from space, treatment for cancer,
and foods are 1.35mSv, 1000mSv, and 0.35mSv respectively.
To be candid, in your usual life, you are absorbing several times
more radiation than nuclear wastes from your surroundings.
Becoming audacious, I advocate the nuclear energy as
hope of our future. I believe the explanations mentioned above
have convinced you to the benefits of nuclear power. But it
doesn't mean that I exclude every other energy source and
means other energy source can't replace the nuclear energy
now. Though nuclear power can't give a way to others now,


ELI Student Voices 23








researching other energy should be accompanied
complementally to make them more economically efficient, and
as we research, we can expect other benefits that come with
other power sources like that we found in the radiation
technology and nuclear fusion technology. But now, it is
obvious that only nuclear energy can bring a lot of benefits and
become a breakthrough to finish this economic aberration turn
into prosperity. There is the saying that when you change the
spelling from the "g" of "change" to "c", it becomes "chance."
It is time to take turnabout toward change, and we can expect
the bright future by hoping nuclear energy.

The Brain Differences
Franck Yeboue
RW 60

In the bible, the first citation about the woman starts
with the book of Genesis 2: 18-25, which says "And the Lord
God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then
he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh at that place.
And the Lord God fashioned into a woman the rib, which He
had taken from the man, and brought her to the man. And the
man said, 'this is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh;
She shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of
Man.'" You can notice by reading those verses how complex a
woman is, a complexity which started with its creation since the
beginning of all things. Unfortunately, this complexity spread
itself throughout time, taking a significant place in the
relationships between women and men, and making them very
tough. One of the most famous debates between these two sexes
is the brain difference. This topic is important because it can
help us to understand and prevent different issues concerning
male and female sex. Three important ideas are: First the female
memory (compared to the male), second the male reaction to
female beauty and finally the different communication style
used by both sexes.
Generally, and according to our different beliefs and
customs, women have a better memory than men, especially for
strong emotional events. How is this possible? In fact, due to
many research studies, scientists are now able to explain this
phenomenon. The result of a study, called "Women have better
memory for emotional events," and describing that "the wiring
of emotional experience and the coding of that experience into
memory is much more tightly integrated in women than in
men" (Recer, 2003, p. 5) contributes to a large explanation of
this idea. In reality, women's brains are more genetically
prepared to keep more emotional information and react
immediately than men's brain. When women are exposed to
important emotional stimuli, for example a picture of a dirty
toilet, a gravestone or a dead body, scientists reported that the
stimuli "makes a strong link between cognitive behavior and a
brain structure that gets activated" (Recer, 2003, p. 8). In
addition some studies show that women's brains are different,
in the conception, than men's brain. "One of the most
interesting differences between men and women is estimating
time, judging speed of things, carrying out mental mathematical
calculations, orienting in space and visualizing objects in three


dimensions" (Sabbatini, 1997, p. 2). This previous affirmation
is printed in a book called Are There Differences between the
Brains of Males and Females? and it shows us the various
differences between the two sexes. All these ideas prove how
complex the women are.
Not only women, but also men own some special
characteristics. Some authors have said that men react to beauty
and food the same. How can we explain that? "The beautiful
women were found to activate the same 'reward circuits' as
food and cocaine do," stated author Hans Breiter and appearing
in a recent study ("Men React to Beauty, Food Same," p. 8A).
Indeed, this reaction is in touch with the men's brain. Beauty
creates a primal circuit, the same as food, and this circuit causes
a conditional response in the male behavior. Another point of
view is that the part of the brain responsible for emotional
control the amygdala shows significantly higher levels of
activation in males viewing sexual visual stimuli than females
viewing the same images" (George A., 2004, p. 1).
For this reason, male and female brains react
differently to a sexual stimulus. On the other hand, why doesn't
beauty have the same reaction in the women's brain? This is a
mystery. But as a result, we can deduce that men and women
are different in the brainwork.
In addition to ours two previous ideas, we noticed in
the same way that there is a difference in the communication
style between the two sexes. Do Men and Women have the
same communication style? There are many stereotypes about
this issue. For example, men are supposed to speak less, to be
violent, autonomous, goal oriented and objective. In the
contrary, women have to be dependent, submissive,
cooperative, and subjective. Deborah Tannen, quoted by Laura
Bryannan ("You Just Don't Understand," 1990, p. 3), observed
in her study that, for males, conversation is the way you
negotiate your status in the group and keep people from pushing
you around; you use talk to preserve your independence.
Females, on the other hand, use conversation to negotiate
closeness and intimacy; talk is the essence of intimacy, so being
best friends means sitting and talking. For boys, activities,
doing things together, are central. Just sitting and talking is not
an essential part of friendship. They're friends with the boys
they do things with.
As many authors said, those differences create many
conflicts in both sex's relationships. But they are just
stereotypes. In a couple of people, the communication can have
many variables. It depends on the education, the desire, the
culture and the person involved.
In conclusion, humankind is a very difficult species to
understand. For now many centuries, a great number of
scientists, philosophers and readers have been interested in the
difference between men and women. As a result of this interest,
many speculations, many organizations and many rules have
been fashioned to make equal men and women. But, in our
point of view there is a difference. "We" are not equal! The
understanding of this difference can be helpful not only to
resolve, in the next decades, simple problems, but also to help
or prevent diseases such as depression or mental problems. It's
very important for human, to understand ourselves. This era
might be a new age in the Humankind's evolution.


ELI Student Voices 24









References

Atkinson, G. (March 18th, 2004). Male and Female Brains
React Differently to Sexy Stimuli.
Retrieved from
ulip \ %\ \ .altpenis.com/penis_ncI s 2'i1 1'411218044801
data trunc_sys.shtml
Breiter, H. (November 10th, 2002). Men react to beauty, food
same. The Gainesville Sun, p. 8A.
Recer, P. (2003). Women have better memory for emotional
events. Retrieved from
http://search.gainesville.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID
=/20020723/NEWS/207230320&SearchID=73276245
780588&template=printart
Sabbatini, R.M.E. (1997). Are There Differences between the
Brains of Males and Females? p. 2. Retrieved from
hIp \ \ \ .cerebromente.org.br/nl 1/mente/eisntein/ce
rebro-homens.html
Tannen, D. (1990). You Just Don't Understand.
Retrieved by Laura Bryannan from
http://homestar.org/bryannan/tannen.html

Multitasking
Mutaz Atallah
RW 60

Did you know that computers processors are similar to
people's brains? Nowadays, computers processors can execute
many processes or programs simultaneously. Multitasking is the
skill of dividing people's attention on many things at the same
time. For example, you sit in front of your computer to do some
writing while you are checking your email, listening to the
radio, chatting with your online friends, or talking on the phone.
This seems very interesting and exciting; however, you are
going to lose your focus. Although you won't be fully dedicated
to one of these tasks because your attention is divided in too
many directions, some people are very good in multitasking and
they've the ability to control their attention. This skill has a
development curve over the years, and the development of this
skill is connected to the development of a specific part in the
brain called the Frontal Cortex. The Frontal Cortex has an
exponential development curve that increase gradually until it
reach its peak then it start to decline.
Toddlers and preschoolers can focus on only one thing
at a time. If they were distracted and lost their focus, they
couldn't think about the same thing when they got back to it.
For example, if the child was talking to someone then we let
him watch TV, he/she wouldn't remember what they were
talking about when finished watching TV. This is because the
Frontal Cortex of children at this age is still not developed,
which means they can't multitask. Moreover, they are not
thinking about anything else such as house hold tasks.
By school age, the Frontal Cortex has started to
develop, and the multitasking skill turns up. Therefore, children
can perform another task or can think about something else
without forgetting the first one. By this age, children can do


simple multitasking such as doing their homework or playing
with their toys while watching TV.
The peak age of multitasking is in our 20's and 30's
because the frontal cortex is fully developed by that age.
Moreover, the brain at this age has an adult's ability to oversee
several tasks. This age is considered the best age for fighter
pilots because they have very good speed and accuracy while
performing several difficult actions.
When people get older, the multitasking skill starts to
decline. This doesn't mean that the Frontal Cortex will be
demolished or destroyed. This happens because people's brains
have a lot of distractions at older age, and some parts of the
brain slow down. These distractions affect the speed and the
accuracy while doing several difficult actions therefore they
find it hard to multitask.
The frontal cortex which is responsible for
multitasking skill has a development curve over the years. This
curve starts from school age, reaches its peak in adulthood, and
declines as people get older. In addition, research studies have
proven that women are better than men in multitasking;
however, scientists were not able to find a scientific explanation
for that. The only proven reason for that hypothesis is that
women experience more pressure that makes them better than
men.

Teacher Assessment vs. Self-Assessment
for the Students' Learning Progress
Raeda AlKhars
RW 60

"Assessment for learning is a practice whereby
teachers use evidence about students' achievements to adapt
instruction to better meet learning needs" (Wiliam, 2006, p. 2).
This is an argument by Wiliam and there are educators who
agree with him and advocate and pay great attention to the
importance of assessment for learning by the teacher who has a
lot of training and erudite background which are the most
important educational tools to evaluate the students' learning
progress. According to Wiliam, "The teacher quality is the
single most important variable in students' progress" (Wiliam,
2006, p. 2). For example, these educators believe that the
enthusiastic teacher has great educational back ground and has
teaching degrees in linguistic that help him/her in mastering
different teaching methods and teaching approaches that he/she
may use in the class assessment in order to achieve effective
learning outputs for the students.
Another argument for these educators, who support the
teacher's assessment in learning, is the teacher's teaching
experience and daily roaming in class looking for students who
need help and providing them the exact feedback that is
appropriate for their learning stage, which plays a significant
role in the students' learning progress. Moreover, the teacher's
eminent experience with various categories of students will help
him/her a lot in strategizing very fervent teaching strategies that
meet the students' needs. This is because, the teacher knows
precisely what stages of learning and what learning errors and
obstacles the students may face while they are learning.


ELI Student Voices 25








Therefore, the teacher's important role comes in creating a
climatic environment for learning for the students that fits their
learning needs with a touch of rapport and connections with the
student. According to some educators, "Being able to make a
direct link between a student's results on a set of assessments
depends on their stage of development" (Carmel, Hill, and
Fullan, 2006, p.l).
Moreover, the educators on the Critical Learning
Instructional Paths (CLIPS) are emphasizing the distinctive role
of establishing and finding a straight and clear connection
between the pupils' learning performance and results on a
context of teacher's assessment. Therefore, the educators and
researchers on (CLIPS) are speaking in favor of the significant
role for modeling the assessment for learning and employ it in a
passionate teaching ambient learning environment that fit the
pupils' stage of development in the learning process(Katz,
2006, p. 2).
Opponents of teacher's assessment in class claim that
the teachers' help in class won't work alone to target effective
learning progress for the students. They believe that the
students will be independent if they follow the self-assessment
learning method where they will be free of the spoon feeding
learning strategy and the teacher's directions.
However, the students may face a lot of anxiety and
stress in the self-assessment learning strategy. The students will
be confused and disoriented in this learning strategy because
they will miss the teacher's observation and the feedback.
Therefore, the teacher's assessment will help the students to be
more focused and it will help them to save a lot of time and
effort that could be invested in learning something new.
Another argument for the self assessment learning
strategy is that the students will be more creative and
productive if they discover their errors and difficulties by
themselves. But, the students in some stages of learning are still
naive and lack the experience and the educational background
that the teacher has. According to some scholars, assessment by
teachers in the learning process helps in "clarifying and sharing
learning intentions and success criteria with learners" (Wiliam,
2006, p. 4).
On many educational issues and controversies in the
learning strategies on both sides of the arguments we can find a
concession where a mix of teacher's assessment and self-
assessment would be a successful combination that helps the
students' learning progress. For example, some scholars have
found that "as a result of reflection on both our success and
failures, we have been able to identify five elements that
increase the successful implementation of assessment for
learning: accountability, support, choice flexibility and
gradualism" (Wiliam, 2006, p. 5).
To conclude, I believe that the teacher's assessment
with his/her educational background, help, experience and
warm feedback are the most important factors that contribute to
provide successful outputs in the students' learning progress.
Sometimes, the students can't see the forest for the trees. But,
with the teacher's support, rapport, and directions they will
know how to master a global view which enables them to see
the trees for the forest.


References

Carmel, C. Hill, P., and Fullan, M. (2006, Nov2). Assessment
for Learning, Critical Learning Instructional Path:
Assessment for Learning in Action. The Orbit, Vol.
36, p. 14.
Laveault, D. (2006, Nov. 2). Assessment for Learning Putting:
The Right Accent on Learning: The Role of
Regulation in Formative Assessment. The Orbit, Vol.
36, p. 7-9.
William, D. (2006, Nov. 2). Assessment for Learning: Why,
What and How? The Orbit, Vol. 36, p. 2-5.

Tipping at Restaurants
Mutaz Atallah
RW 60

Tipping at restaurants has become very customary in
the US and it's expected from all customers. In addition, a lot of
Americans who are looking for part time jobs prefer to work in
restaurants because the owners are very flexible with working
hours and they can make a lot of money from tipping. Some of
the customers don't want to tip or don't know how much they
should tip, and this angers the servers because they expect that
the customer is going to leave them a good amount of money as
a tip. This is a hot button issue for internationals who came to
the US for the first time because in some countries there is a
service charge or gratuity charge instead of tipping.
Servers at restaurants are responsible for clearing all
the plates off the tables, clean the mess left behind, spills, the
floors, bring the drinks and food, and bring you things if you
ask for them. In addition, they are serving several tables or
sometimes a whole section of the restaurant. Therefore, a lot of
people think that we should tip the servers because they have a
lot of things to do, and they are paid very low wages for what
they are doing. These tips make their wages reasonable for
living compared with the other workers' wages.
In fact, servers at restaurants are not the only workers
that have a lot of things to do during their working hours, and
are paid low wages compared to their work. There are a lot of
laborers that are responsible for many things, working in a
dangerous working environment, exposed to harmful disease
such as cancer, and are earning low income. For example,
cleaners, painters, builders, mechanics, and coal miners. By
tipping servers at restaurants, we are encouraging the
restaurants' owners to lower the wages as much as possible to
increase their profit. For example, some owners pay between
$1.50 to $2.50 per hour, and this is very low for the work that
servers are doing. Restaurants' owners should increase the
wages of the servers, so they can live with it without asking for
tips.
When people are looking for a job, most of them prefer
a job where they don't need to deal with customers. This is
because customers are not all the same, and some of them are
very picky or in a bad mood and need special treatment.
Moreover, some customers shout at the workers and say bad
words to them if they don't do what they want. This is true and


ELI Student Voices 26








expected in any customer service job and not only at
restaurants. Therefore, people believe that by tipping the servers
they are encouraging them to do their job in a better quality, and
offer them some appreciation.
It's really true that when customers are making an
order at restaurants some of them are picky, or moody.
However, this type of customers is a minority, and there are a
lot of customers that appreciate their servers and they are very
nice with them. If we use tipping to encourage servers to do
theirjobs in a better quality, there are other ways to do that
without tipping. For example, restaurants' owners can offer the
good servers a monthly salary increase, or offer them
incentives. Another way to do that is the employee of the month
and end-of-the-year competition, and this employee should get
a special bonus. These encouragements that come from the
owner are much better than tipping to increase the service
quality. Moreover, it'll encourage all servers to do theirjob in a
better quality, and this will be beneficial for the restaurant.
In conclusion, tipping is not the only way to make
servers' wages reasonable for living, and increase the service
quality. Restaurants' owners should reevaluate the servers'
salaries and equalize them with the amount of work that they
do. This will be beneficial for the owner before the server
because the restaurant will be crowded and make more money
if it has a very good food, service, and happy servers. If the
owners insist not to reevaluate the servers' wages, or use the
service charge instead of tipping, the tipping should be
standardized because if the customer didn't pay a good amount
of money as tipping, then the server would say bad words to the
customer or they get bad service on their next visit.

Single Parent Adoption
Eiad Dahnim
RW 60

As couples want to have a child or more in their home,
singles may want it too. Several statistics show that many
women who delay their thinking of marriage and concentrate on
work get old without being marred. Some others like to have a
child or more and they don't have any other choice but
adoption. The desire to raise and to share life as a family is a
demand that is felt by a huge number of people and it is not
exclusive to married people or couples. Statistics shows that the
outlook of a single parent has become more acceptable than
before. Approximately 5 percent of the adoptions of children
are by single men and women. These statistics are very
important because they show the demand among single parents
for adoption. However, this raises many conflicts. Personally,
allowing the adoption by a single parent is a disaster for the
community if it's left without a high controlling organization.
Many states in the United Sates no longer deny the
adoption to a person based on sexual orientation because states'
agencies and courts now seek what is best for the child.
Therefore, it is very important to know the sex orientation of
the one who is going to adopt because parents have a huge
impact on their children. In other words, if the parent is gay or
lesbian, it's more likely for the child to be influenced by his or


her parent. The government needs to prevent singles from
adopting children unless if their case shows that they can
provide a healthy home.
There are many people with different orientations
other than sexual! A terrorist or prostitution manager might
adopt those children to take advantage of them in the future. In
this case, we will face a huge problem in the future that will
counteract on the society. The availability of the other parent is
very important because it works as a monitoring for
misbehaving and abusing those children. It's their right to live
and grow in a healthy life rather than living with problems that
might severely affect their future.
Foster Children don't have the choice to decide wither
they will live with a married couple or not. They have nothing
but the foster care communities that hold them. It's better for
those children to live with a single parent than living in the
foster care communities. There should be a role model that they
could refer to when they grow up. Foster care communities
might develop those children with some defects that a single
parent might be a better choice to heal them.
Moreover, statistics shows that the number of foster
children is increasing every year. The adoption agencies should
listen carefully to those who want to adopt parentless children
or orphans. If those agencies are too restrictive in allowing
single parents to adopt, then it will eliminate all the possible
opportunities for those children to survive.
To conclude this, it's highly demanding for foster
children to be adopted; however, it's also very important to
know more about the ones who are going to adopt. Leaving
children without a serious monitoring will eventually increase
the number of child abuse and then will return to the society
with huge defects in the future.

References

Single Parents. Retrieved from
http://library.adoption.com/single-parent-
adoption/single-parent-adoption/article/21/1.html
Single Parent Adoption. Retrieved from
http://statistics.adoption.com/information/adoption-
statistics-single-parents.html
Gay Adoption Debate and Poll. Retrieved from
http://www.youdebate.com/DEBATES/gay_adoption.
HTM

Differences between Males and Females:
Spouse Selection and Home Life
Germain Mavah
RW 60

Since the beginning of human history, one of the most
perfect unions has been husband-wife. This union has for
principal components male and female as spouses who live in
the same home. To be a spouse is human nature. The first thing
to make this happen is to select your spouse according to some
important qualities. By living in the same home, male and
female have to mix many ingredients' minds and/or behaviors


ELI Student Voices 27








that come from different sources. So, what can happen by
coming together in behaviors? Certainly, this amalgamation
cannot work well as perfectly as the couple wishes. Because of
the nature and nurture influences, the couple can challenge
many differences in this home life in several ways.
Prior to that union, male and female have differences
in dreams about what are the best qualities that the perfect
spouse can have. Even though in the home life, both mind's
males and females don't have homogeny. Many studies have
been conducted on the purpose of figuring out the gap between
male and female in the spouse selection or in the home life such
as communication, finance, and chores.
In humans, the perfect union involves a happy and
stable relationship. Therefore, spouse selection is one of the
primary steps that is sometimes hazardous, because in human
relations there are many factors or shortcomings that can
influence gender traits. In the couple you can hear people say,
"If I had known." This disappointing situation means gender's
choice is always based on some criteria. The study conducted
by Brown on the spouse selection preferences of male and
female Korean college students and the ideal affection suggests
that men are more idealistic than women and that women and
men differ in their partners' selection criteria (Brown, 1994,
1). In the same way, recently, a study about the preferences for
the ideal personality characteristics of their mates shows that
women expressed a greater preference than men for a wide
array of socially desirable personality traits (Botwin et al.,
2006, W 1).
On the other hand, according to an informal survey
conducted in Reading and Writing class at the English
Language Institute on September 16, 2008, men are looking for
attractive and intelligent girls while their buddy girls prefer to
find an emotional sharing and a man who has a good job. By
these results, we can infer that males are more emotional that
females and they like appearance traits. Researchers said,
"Feminine beauty affects man's brain at a very primal level"
("Men React", 2002, p. 8A). In contrast, women have more
reminiscence for affecting dealings (Recer, 2002, 1, 23).
Maybe she needs someone who has abilities to share these
emotions with her? However, thinking about a good job can
imply that women believe in support for a sustainable future. As
we can observe, our quick survey results in class follow the
scientific study trends. According to Barnes (Yale University),
and Buss (University of Michigan), who examined preferences
in partners' choice within the broader context of the human
sociable system, men more than women preferred mates who
were physically attractive. "Women more than men preferred
mates who showed good earning potential and who were
college educated" (Barnes & Buss, 1986, p. 11).
In the home life, once the choice of spouse is done, we
have to challenge other areas such as communication. The
conversation within the couple can take place in different ways
and can involve disparities between male and female during
their common lifetime. Andra (2001, 14-16), a social worker
at the University of Massachusetts, wrote about the role that the
conversation can play between male and female in the couple.
This paper was a review by many researchers who work on this
topic. So far, no one understands with precision why male and


female in the couple communicate in different ways. No one
knows what tomorrow can bring; we have to keep this in our
mind in the way to overcome any difference surrounding the
couple during our trip. This difference is the new couple's first
problem. Despite the communication ways that exist, male and
female have to understand by mitigating problems. To know the
male or female's incentives in advance is an important factor,
which can allow partners to avoid some manners that can reach
conflicts at home. Good communication between male and
female can make a difference around the world because it is a
kind of bridge for the couple. "The key to avoiding
misinterpretations is for couples to realize that one's partner
most likely has a different conversational style than one's own,
and to think about how a message could be heard differently
than was intended" (Andra, 2001, 21-23).
For instance, the communication around decision-
making is an important step that male and female have to
control. Genetically, environmentally, male and female are
different, and so their manners of thinking have to be different,
but living in a partnership means to build a bridge between
these two kinds of thoughts. A male is a partner of
independence while a female is a partner of intimacy. In the
study conducted by Tannen (1991), a female gets upset when a
male makes a decision without informing her in advance. In
contrast, male seems to ask for permission by consulting his
wife in advance. However, confidence and/or freedom in
communication are sometimes useful but the most important
thing is to know just middle of their side's effects. "To survive
in the world, we have to act in concert with others, but to
survive as ourselves, rather than simply as cogs in a wheel, we
have to act alone" (Tannen, 1991). At last, disparities that exist
in decision-making within couples are influenced by internal
and external factors which are surrounded our survival ("At
Home", 2008, 12).
Besides decision-making, there is love in the
communication as a home life component. Where is love in the
home life? Should divorce exist if love exists? As a component
in home life, love is a feeling of deep attachment. Home life can
be divided by three steps, the beginning, the middle and the
end. These steps refer to age of spouses. Around these three
steps, many differences can take place. According to a survey,
"Men become more careful about love after they turn 60"
("Men Value", 2003, 1, 2). This survey said, "Around this
age, men become more interested in intimacy". Another survey
said, "Otherwise at the beginning of marriage, men show they
love more by sex, but when they are old, they begin to believe
that there are other ways of love" ("Men Value", 2003, 8).
Finally, over 65 years old, the couple builds a more perfect
union and minimizes all bad things they have met in the past.
Moreover, in the home life, another area that requires
differences is finance. This area can be compared to a spinal
column of the couple that can involve difference between males
and females in the management styles. The difference in
finance between male and female can exist around investment
and house spending. In spring 2008, during discussion day
Reading and Writing class 41, we debated about the principle
causes of divorce; money problem was one of the most
important problems. Yet, one day I asked an informal question


ELI Student Voices 28








to my Education Student Exchange Experience (ESSE)
partners, "What is the principle cause of divorce?" They said,
"Money problems". Regarding the gap in investment between
male and females, Wachovia, Securities Financial Network
( It" 4, 1) said, "According to the studies, women in general
don't like the risk regarding lost money". For this reason, they
put their savings into more conservative savings in the banks
while men face the risk of hazardous investments. In the
research based on couple-households and on the implications
for individuals of different systems of money management, Pahl
(1995, 1) found, "Male-managed systems were associated with
higher income levels and with male privilege in terms of
decision-making and personal spending money."
Also, in the management styles of finance, there is
another task which is house's spending in which there are some
differences between males and females. In general, men are
interested to pay for equipment regarding living room and
dining room while women are interested to pay those regarding
kitchen and embellishment of living and dining rooms. As
explained above, likely at home men and women's preferences
in shopping task are not the same. Men are stressed out when
they face noisy stores choosing a gift, and standing in check out
lines (Stacy, 2002, p.5A). So, in a home who can buy furniture
or food? Males like to go shopping merely to buy computers or
toys.
In addition, in home life, there are some differences
between male and female regarding chores such as cooking,
house cleaning and taking care of the children. A study
conducted by Monica Biemat (University of Florida), and
Camille Wortman (State University of New York at
Stonybrook) about work and home life showed that, "Overall
some men's implications in chores, women were more self
critical than men about their performances in home roles,
women's roles performance was rated more highly by husbands
than themselves" (Biernat & Wortman, 1991,1). A study
conducted on husbands' involvement in female gender-typed
household chores shows that the females assume more these
tasks than males (Starrels, 1994, 1). In the household tasks, an
informal survey done in our Reading and Writing class showed
that males were more attracted to the tasks such as home
maintenance, cleaning garage, repairing car, washing car,
changing lights, while females are attracted to cooking, laundry,
washing dish, cleaning inside house, and sweeping. In other
words, women work more for internal house tasks.
Overall, in traditional society, the differences between
males and females are deeply felt. At that time, for example,
indigenous people were called hunters/gathers; otherwise
people who lived by hunting and gathering, so, males were
hunters and females were gathers. From that time to now, with
the social evolution many things have changed. In that time
these differences were very apparent. Females' tasks were
inside the house while males' tasks were outside house.
Nowadays, this old labor division remains in some cultures
despite the social evolution of human beings. In certain
cultures, a man gets upset when it is necessary to help his wife
while woman gets upset when man comes regularly in the
kitchen. So, who is right? With the society which is in the
repetitive evolution, things have to change, but the change


doesn't have to create new conflicts. Differences in human
beings life have to mitigate according to each culture.
As we stated above, the differences in gender tasks are
also subject to many stereotypes. According to the study
conducted by Panter-Brick (2002, 1) on sexual division of
labor, the evolution of human beings has encountered many
stereotypes. So, for example, for hunters/gathers tasks, the male
focused his attention on hunting and the female on gathering
because it was their parents' goals. This question takes place in
anthropology thinking around many researchers and is caused
by environmental and imitation shortcomings.
Because this gender difference is evidenced across
diverse studies, the exciting question is why they exist? Again,
from the selection of perfect spouse to the home life,
differences take place between male and females.
Communication as an expression of contact has its differences
between these two entities. This gap between men and women
in conversation has existed, exists and will exist because it is
the lifestyle of human beings. But, finding a way to build a
connection created by communication is the perfect gift that
males and females can put in their union (Andra, 2003 &
Tannen, 1994). If we know that something exists, likely the best
way to alleviate conflict is to avoid this thing. In sum, the
concept of gender has its disparities which come from genetic
and environmental aspects. At home life, there are also
difference within finance and chores' tasks. In our survival, the
most useful things what we do to make our loving partnership is
to struggle for a just middle that cannot hurt each partner. In a
word, we have to take care of the balance in the way that two
partners have to deal with this without hurting each of them. In
one word, it is natural to feel some difference between male and
female but we have to bridge these differences and to move
behind them and this allows us to keep our union more perfect
as we can.

References

Andra, S. 2003. Men and Women in Conversation: Finding a
Way to Bridge the Gap, from
www.healthandage.org/home/gid2 = 1284
Barnes, M. & D.M. Buss. 1986. Preferences in Human Mate
Selection, Journal ofPersonality and Social
Psychology, 50(3), pp. 559-570.
Biemat, M. & B. Wortman. Sharing of Home Responsibilities
Between Professionally Employed Women and Their
Husbands. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 1991, 60(6), pp. 844-860, from
www.psych.ku.edu/psych_people/facultyMonicaBie
rat.pdf
Botwin, M. D., Buss David. M., &
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/joural/11916790
2/abstract clTodd K. Shackelford. 2006.
Personality and Mate Preferences: Five Factors in
Mate Selection and Marital Satisfaction, Journal of
Personality, 65(1). pp.107 136, from
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/joural/
119167902/abstract


ELI Student Voices 29








Brown, R. A., 1994. Romantic Love and the Spouse Selection
Criteria of Male and Female Korean College Students,
The Journal of Social Psychology, 134(2), pp. 183-
189, from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8201816
LiveScience, September 25, 2006. At Home, Women Rule,
fioin Ilip \ \ .livescience.com/
culture/0809025-women-rule.html
Men Love More in Later Life. (2003, January 22). The
Gainesville Sun, from http://sunone.com/
apps/pbcs.dll.artikkel?SearchlD=7315244621418
3&Avis=GSD...
Men React to Beauty, Food Same. (2002, November 10). The
Gainesville Sun, p. 8A.
Pahl, J. 1995. His Money, Her Money: Recent Research on
Financial Organization in Marriage, from
hup i\ \ .sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleUR
L& udi=B6V8H-3Y5FPV4-
B&_user-10&_rdoc= &_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=
d&view=c& acct=C000050221&
version=l& urlVersion=0& userid=10&md5=
a6c8bb2c8baf9584elc fd02450aff37
Panter-Brick, C. 2002. Sexual Division of Labor: Energetic and
Evolutionary Scenarios. American Journal of Human
Biology. 14(5), pp. 627-640, from
lp ~ \\\\\\ .interscience.
wiley.com/joumal/98016119/abstract?CRETRY=1&S
RETRY=0
Shopping Too Tough for Men. (2002 January 16). The
Gainesville Sun, p. 5A.
Starrels E. M., 1994. Husbands' Involvement in Female Gender-
Typed Household Chores. Volume 31, Numbers 7-8 /
October, 1994, from
hup \ \ \ .springerlink.com/content/
t0451u61v5nn0067/
Recer, P. July 23, 2002. Women Have Better Memory for
Emotional Events. AP Science Writer.
Tannen, D. 1990. Intimacy and Independence, excerpt from
You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in
Conversation, from
http://browseinside.harpercollins.com/
index.aspx?isbnl3=9780060959623
Wachovia. 2004. Investment Basics for Women, from
h]tp l \\ .wachovia.com/personal/page/
printer/0,,505_513_1092_1102_1274,00.html

Learning English
Mutaz Atallah
RW 60

Speaking the English language is considered to be
essential nowadays because it's a communication tool, and it is
considered the worldwide language. Some people like to learn
English just to be able to do something in their spare time,
such as watch movies or TV. However, other people have
more important reasons for learning English such as studying
overseas, working in a multinational company, travel, etc. The


only thing that is common between the two types of people is
the difficulty they experience while learning the English
language. There are several aspects of learning English that
challenges non-native speakers. Memorizing the spelling,
learning vocabulary and synonyms, and understanding the
grammar rules are considered the major challenges of learning
English for non-native speakers.
Spelling words correctly is very challenging even
when you start to learn your own language. Scientists have
proven that children memorize the difficult or challenging
things faster than adults. Because of that, spelling is taught in
schools from the early grades. This is the first challenge that
non-native speakers face when learning the English language
because most of them learn it when they are adults. They'll
write the words wrong or misspell them many times until they
memorize it. For example, the word "believe" sometimes its
spelled "beleive" because there is another word "receive" that
confuses the writer, and this is also a common error for native
speakers. The only solution to avoid or overcome this issue is
to write as much as possible.
In order to learn how to speak and write in English,
non-native speakers need to learn vocabulary and synonyms.
Learning vocabulary will help them to speak and write in
English. However, sometimes they choose a word that doesn't
fit the sentence, or express the correct meaning. This is
because the English language has several words that share the
same meaning, but they are used in different situations. For
example, the word "relieve" has a lot of synonyms that can't
be used in the same sentence such as ease, alleviate, allay,
reduce, mitigate, help, lesson, etc. This is called the synonyms
of a word in English, and they are essential to speak and write
fluently in English. Some languages don't have synonyms,
and this makes it challenging for non-native speakers. There
are many solutions for this issue such as memorizing the word
and its synonyms, understanding the definition and usage of
each synonym, reading a lot of passages, etc.
Learning the grammar rules is considered the most
challenging for non-native speakers. This is because they have
to understand how to use and when to use each tense, and the
differences between them. For example, the difference
between present perfect and present progressive, the
difference between past perfect and past simple, how to use
the simple present to express future tens, etc. In addition, some
languages have a different grammar structure or order.
Understanding the English language grammar rules and
practicing them is very important for non-native speakers.
They spend a lot of effort learning grammar rules and
structure; however, sometimes they get confused or find it
difficult to follow the parallel structure. In addition, they have
to differentiate between the formal and informal English. For
example, using "going to" in the future tense is formal;
however, using "gonna" is informal in written English.
Although learning English is challenging for non-
native speakers, they spend a lot of effort learning it properly
regardless of the purposes that make them learn the language.
They memorize vocabulary and synonyms, write, read, speak
as much as they can in order to overcome these issues. In
addition, the difficulty level of these issues varies between the


ELI Student Voices 30








students because of the differences between their home
language and English, and the proficiency of English language
institutes in their home countries. The only solution to avoid
these issues and any other issues is to practice English as
much as possible with native speakers.

What Are the Effects of Poor Funding on
the Students' Educational Achievements?
Raeda AlKhars
RW 60

The most important aspect of the civilized societies is
the educational foundation. In order to achieve an equal and fair
educational process, some educators have asked very critical
question like, "Would schools be better if they had more
money?"("Poor School Funding, Child Poverty, and
Mathematics Achievement,"1999, 2) or I could ask, "What are
the effects of poor funding on the students' educational
achievements?" Poor funding in schools can negatively affect
the students' educational achievements and their self-esteem.
Therefore, some researchers have suggested two solutions.
There are some differences in the funding system in
the United States between the poor and the wealthy areas
depending on the taxes. Thus, public schools in poor areas will
not receive equal funding to buy things and teaching aids that
help in improving the educational outputs. Moreover, some
researchers and scholars have proven the validity of the
significant relationships between students' tests grades, records
and the smaller classes' size and the schools' locations. In 1995,
for example, the state with the best level of public school
funding was New Jersey, with an average rate of $8,118 per
student (adjusted for differences in cost of living), whereas the
state with the worst record was Arkansas with a rate of $3,599
("Quality Counts..." as cited in Payne & Biddle, 1999).
However, this does not mean that every recipient or student of
wealthy educational funds in a very nice and supported school
is a great achiever. In other words, some schools which have
very low funds are surviving and have very good students.
Those students still have the hope to enjoy and attend exciting
classes with equal educational supplies and doing their best
with what they have.
Although most scholars and educators are
emphasizing the importance of qualified teachers on the
learning and educational process, learners who are bor or live
in poor areas or states still don't benefit from the advantages of
qualified teachers. In other words, very qualified teachers with
long years of teaching experience are doing their great jobs and
presenting numerous interesting classes in wealthy schools. On
the other hand, poor schools have a very limited number of
qualified teachers and are loosing them gradually. So, why do
some highly qualified teachers remain and not migrate to low
poverty schools? (Machtinger, 2007).
Some scholars have suggested very useful advice in
order to reduce the negative effects of low funding on the
students' educational achievements. For instance, some scholars
consider poor school funding and poverty as indicators for
diversity. The teachers should be educated about how to deal


with learners who grow up with diverse backgrounds. So, the
teachers should master some teaching methods that help in
reducing the diversity pressure on the learners and booster their
self-esteem. Some researchers such as Payane defined poverty
as "the extent to which an individual does without resources'
(Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity
Discourse,"2005, 5).
Once, in a very poor school, a happy child with empty
tissue boxes was assigned to move to another school. He asked
his wonderful teacher to write to his new teacher to save the
empty tissue boxes for him so he can build blocks (Cuthrell,
Ledford, Stapleton, 2007). His very educated and well trained
teacher did it because she mastered the teaching methods that
support the students' with diversity backgrounds and motivate
them.
The other solution for unfair distributions of school
supplies and poor funding could be achieved by changing the
federal laws in the United States. According to, given Baird, the
national emphasis on student performance coupled with the
persistence of uneven student outcomes, the time is right to
rethink how federal dollars can best promote the goal of school
funding equity (Baird, 2008). Our concern however is the
purpose of education. I believe that it should instill in the mind
a library of ideas, beliefs and attitudes. When we need to ponder
a problem or discuss any topic, we then have a mind full of
resources. As we furnish a house with chairs, beds, and modern
conveniences, so we furnish the mind with ideas. There are
many examples of people who fulfilled their life's ambitions
and attained great status without education, but let it be
remembered that these were exceptional people who succeeded
in spite of this lack, and not because of it.
Achieving equal and fair education is beneficial for our
students in order to be more self-confident in their social lives.
With it, our students can stand on their own two feet and not
take a back seat to anyone. They can argue a case reasonably
but firmly, and feel confident in any situation. Education also
helps us develop a working relationship with authority.
Changing the federal and educational laws will create
successful educational process that should break down the
barriers created by diversity.
Overall, I think trying to achieve productive learning
by providing equal supplies to the public schools in the United
States and changing the federal educational laws will make
every student motivated and satisfied. In the 21st century,
education is a right rather than a privilege. Therefore, equity in
education must be targeted as one of the greatest achievements
for the successful educational process anywhere no matter what
type of school or where the school is located.

References

Baird, K. E., (2008). Federal Direct Expenditures and School
Funding Disparities, 1900-2000. Journal of Education
Finance, 33 (3) 297-310.
Cuthrell, K.C., Ledford, C., & Stapleton, J. (2007). Empty
Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity
Discourse. Childhood Education, 83 (5), 273-277.


ELI Student Voices 31








Cuthrell, K.C. Ledford, C. Stapleton, J. Peel, B., Anna, L., et al.
(2007). Children of Poverty: Challenges of Teaching.
Paper presented at the annual i,. .., of the
American Association of Colleges for Teacher
Education, Hilton New York, New York, NY, Feb 22,
2007.
Machtinger, H. (2007). What Do We Know About High
Poverty Schools? Summary of the High Poverty
Schools Conference at UNC-Chapel Hill. The High
School Journal, 90 (3) 1-8F.
Payne, K. & Biddle, B. (1999). Poor School Funding, Child
Poverty, and Mathematics Achievement. Educational
Researcher, 28 (6), 4-13.

Tipping in Restaurants
Germain Mavah
RW 60

Nowadays, tipping has become a controversial custom.
At the foundation of a concept, tipping is a way to show your
gratitude to servers as a result of good service that you had
received. So far, it seems to be volunteer action what someone
should do without external pressure. I agree with this custom
because after receiving some services from someone it is
extremely gratifying to thank him. However, this custom has
become controversial because today many people agree while
others disagree for many reasons. Yet, in practice this concept
is so confused between the perception of tipping for the servers,
employers or customers. It's extremely confusing, and it varies
not only from country to country, city to city as well, but from
person to person. Below are some arguments, counterarguments
and refutations to show how controversial the custom is.
First of all, tipping is good because it is an
encouragement of a good service. By being generous you leave
some remaining in the memory of a server, and expect to
receive good service on the next visit. For example, if you go to
the same restaurant every month, you probably want to keep the
server happy by tipping well, usually 15 to 20 percent. In a
word, it is a way of ensuring continued good service. However,
some argues that you shouldn't have to give money to show
thanks or gratitude, if not, it is a kind of corruption because the
justice is to get what you deserve but not anything else. Also,
they argue that about all of those other services we receive in
our life. Do we know how much we should really tip them? Are
we tipping for all these services? So far, I don't think that this
argument is valid because it is a false analogy with other
services. We have to thank people by doing some material
gestures.
Second, tipping is a kind of incentive for the server
because we know the server works hard and isn't paid well.
However, some argue that it is the government's responsibility.
The government has to protect people about their minimum
wage. If not, it is a kind of discrimination by paying people
with an informal wage. According to the rights, people are
equal in right and they must not be paid under minimum wage.
For example, if a server is paid $ 2.54/hour and she can earn $
150/day it is not good because this shows that the employer and


server are both a kind of dishonest people because a employer is
doing business and he has to treat people as well as possible.
Also, a server doesn't have to expect tipping because it is not a
deal with a employer when they apply for working. Again, this
is a false analogy because even though the formal economy
exists, informal economy is also a kind of branch of
development.
Third, tipping is a way of making us to feel better
about being served good because people have to show their
compassion with others. However, others argue that it is a kind
of arrogance because all people don't have the same economic
level. They believe that tipping can be a kind of discrimination
because some people will have good service and others will not.
Overall, we have to be humanist because today, all people are
preaching for love, but where is the love? I think, tipping can be
a proof of love if we don't exaggerate. If not, why can we not
practice what we preach? In fact, exaggeration takes place for
example, when you buy an item for $ 10 and if you give a bill
of $20, you leave the change under pretext of tipping. In this
case you can hear someone says keep the change! Those kinds
of people exist in some areas but this behavior can be an
appearance of arrogance or the use of money what come from
suspicious sources (bad money).
Despite all these arguments stated above, it will be
significantly important to standardize tipping without
exaggeration. Yet, people don't have to think about additional
taxes but it is only a kind of gratifying and a way to show how
we share compassion with people who gain low income because
even though the improvement of minimum wage, we will
always have difference levels of minimum wage. Among
server, manager and customer, things have to be clear and each
of these people has his responsibility beyond the tipping
custom. For the servers, whatever the kind of pressure they
receive from the manager, tipping cannot be the result of this
pressure. Tipping is a voluntary action from the customer and it
will be hazardous to expect on a volunteer action. For the
managers, they have to be right about the minimum wage and
all of aspects which are linked with how they treat their
employees. Servers still probably won't get benefits and they
will still have to work some long shifts without a break, but
they might as well be paid for this work. That's not the
customer's problem. For customers, to thank someone is very
useful and it is also good for someone to help someone, but
without exaggeration. By this action, we show how much we
love other people. It is also a good manner of living.
Finally, even though tipping has become a
controversial custom, people have to be comprehensive. No one
has to expect bad behavior under tipping. As we said, tipping is
a kind of positive reception that customer gives to server, and to
the manager too. But for the customer it is a kind of sharing our
love with other people. Thus, to mitigate some
misunderstanding, tipping has to be standardized. This is a way
to reduce controversial emotion on this custom.


ELI Student Voices 32








Thanks from the Editor
Thank you for sharing your writing with everyone. I hope you
enjoy reading your fellow students' essays, paragraphs, and
poetry. Also thanks to Megan Forbes and the University of
Florida Bookstore for arranging the gift certificates, to Todd
Allen for publicizing this issue of Student Voices, to the
Reading/Writing instructors for supporting their students in
their writing, and to Noreen Baker, Jen Ramos, Tina
Komaniecka, Debbie Kellerman, Lee Ballard, Richard Mankin,
Todd Allen, and David Hankins for reading and evaluating the
entries.
Thanks everyone! Steve Flocks



W | UNIVERSITY f
UF I FLORIDA

English Language Institute
PO Box 117051
315 Norman Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-7051, USA
Phone: (352) 392-3354
Fax: (352) 392-3744
Email: StudyEnglish@eli.ufl.edu
Webpage: www.eli.ufl.edu


ELI Student Voices 33




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