Title: ELI student voices
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Title: ELI student voices
Series Title: ELI student voices
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: English Language Institute, University of Florida
Publisher: English Language Institute, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Summer 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089997
Volume ID: VID00014
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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ELI STUDENT VOICES


Summer, 2006


"The Firefly" in Different Points of View
Parichart Laksanawimol (st Place)
R/W42

Since I left Thailand, I have been faced with many
novel experiences such as new culture, strange people, English
speaking environment, and also various kinds of food that I am
not familiar with. In addition, I have gotten an incomparable
experience from my housemate's research. She is a Thai Ph.D.
student researching fireflies in Thailand. Under good support of
her scholarship, she can research fireflies with her collaborator
in the U.S. for 8 months. She has gone out every night before
sunset to see her fireflies at Newnan's Lake. Because they are
beautiful and mysterious insects, I had many questions about
fireflies and most of them were quite difficult to answer. Thus,
she took me to her study field to learn and answer the questions
by myself. I just knew there are almost 2,000 different species
of them over the world. With high diversity, the fireflies in
different areas of the world also have different species,
behavior, and habitats. I considered that there are a few
different points of view of fireflies here and in Thailand. That
probably can answer a question in your mind if you have one.
First of all, there are completely different species of
fireflies here and in Thailand. I believe that not many people
caught fireflies to look at their shape and color and tell the
differences of them, if they are not a scientist. In Thailand, we
have "synchronous fireflies" which congregate on a mangrove
tree and flash at the same frequency like a Christmas tree. They
make a beautiful night and have become to eco-tourism in
Thailand. In contrast, in the U.S.A., there is a "predatory
species" which the mated female can change flash pattern (as a
love language that make a male and a female meet together and
mate) to lure male of another species to be her food. She needs
a substance inside another species to make what she can survive
from. You will be surprised if you see the big female catch the
tiny male like a bird catches insects.
Secondly, Thai and American fireflies have different
flash patterns. In fact, the fireflies have specific flash pattern to
communicate with the females in the same species (ask for
mating), but Thai fireflies have more frequent flash. Thus,
catching a firefly is not hard because you can track where it is.
On the other hand, I cannot catch American ones easily because
they have a long period of inter-flash. A firefly professor
explained that most American fireflies are prey species. They
try to escape from tracking of the predator species. I was so
surprised to know that. It is not only the predator that has a
powerful technique to catch a prey, the prey also has one.
Everyone needs to survive under a frightful life.


Lastly, as my friend's research scope, there are
different effects of light pollution on firefly population here and
in Thailand. I think not many people are concerned that the
light will destroy fireflies. The stronger and brighter lights
disturb the flashing behavior or sexual communication of
fireflies, which then fail mating and are lost from that area. In
Thailand, the fluorescent bulb is the common use in many
houses, commercial buildings and also streetlights. It is the
main source of light pollution affecting the Thai firefly
population. On the other hand, the incandescent bulb is popular
bulb here. So, the fireflies get an effect from it.
In conclusion, there are many different characters and
behaviors between Thai and American fireflies that I have
learnt from my friend. However, nowadays they face the same
problem, decreasing in number and disappearing from many
areas. I was impressed when I watched lines of flashes at night
and touched the tiny beetle with small light in both Thailand
and the U.S.A. If a kid has a chance like me, how does he/she
feel? It will be good, if everyone helps to conserve "fireflies"
and they can survive for long and long.
Thank you for the incomparable experience from my
friend (Miss Anchana Thancharoen) and 3 firefly professors
from University of Florida (Dr. Marc Branham, Dr. Jame
Lloyd, and Dr. Steve Wing).

Saudi Arabian Society and Gender Role:
Past and Present
Ibrahim Al Khars (2nd Place)
RW 61

In Saudi Arabian society, the role of men and women
is complicated and misunderstood most of the time. There are
big differences between the Muslim and Western worlds in the
views of the role of men and women regarding cultural and
social responsibilities. The misunderstanding mainly presented
as that the Saudi person especially women, are lacking
education, knowledge, and rights. The Holy Qur'an has clearly
stated the roles and responsibilities of each party for more than
one thousand and four hundred years. From the early years in
Islam, men have recognized and respected the role of women.
When the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932, the
Saudi society started to have its own integrity and style. There
had been many different cultures and traditions in Saudi Arabia
but there have been common features between all of them: the
role of men and women.
Education is an important tool to improve culture,
society, and economic development. In the past, the education
system was not widely available. The teaching was taking place
in masjeds (mosques) and being limited to basic literacy and


ELI Student Voices 1


Volume 10, Issue 2








religion. Men had better chances for education compared to
women who received their basic education mainly through an
old woman teacher called Muta'wa. There were no colleges or
universities. Now, education in Saudi Arabia exceeds many
other countries. It is available free for both sexes and all
residents in all levels. The gender gap in education is reduced
with more women attending undergraduate and postgraduate
studies. This leads to an increase in women enrollment in
schools, women's participation in the labor force, and their
contributions to household and national income.
For example, from 1970 to 1999, the number of
graduating males from university annually increased from 795
to 21,229, while the number of graduate females increased from
13 to 21,721 for the same period- ending in that the total
number of graduates female slightly exceeded the number of
male graduates. The number of Saudi women graduating from
university has grown at an average rate 2.5 times that of male
graduates during the last decade (Cordesman, 2003).
Many years ago, men were working in agriculture and
women taking care of children. As women's educational
attainment has increased, more women have moved into the job
market. But women's participation in the labor force is still low.
The highest levels of female labor force participation are found
in education. In addition to education, the increase of Saudi
Arabia population with more children had being born put a lot
of pressure on labor and health issues.
In the past, there were no developed hospitals or
clinics. When man became sick, he was treated by an herbal
male expert, who used traditional treatment. At that time, there
were few women specialized as herbal therapists which led to
an increase in the mortality rate among women. Year after year,
the number of female specialized in health care has been
increased with more demand for health care and more
interaction between the two genders. Now the health care is free
with the highest standard, provided by Saudi men and women
who work in the same field, and extends to any visitor to the
Kingdom. However, an accurate estimate of female
participation in the Saudi labor market is difficult to obtain,
mainly due to the lack of appropriate technical methods that can
be applied to measure work performed by women. Despite the
lack of data on this part we can expect an increasing role in the
women workforce.
The development of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has
brought with it increasing opportunities for social change which
chapped by the role of men and women with more involvement
of women in many different fields.

References
Cordesman, Anthony H. (2003). Saudi Arabia Enters the
Twenty-First Century. Connecticut: Praeger.


In the Forest
Mosa Halal A. Alsehli (Honorable Mention)
RW 20

On a very gloomy day, I was walking into a dark and
scary forest. During that I heard the chirping of birds. Suddenly,
the rain started, the whole situation made me scared. So I
wanted to leave that place. For a moment, I was thinking how I
got there in the first time. I started to look for a way out.
Unfortunately, I found two ways. However, I was confused
about which way to follow. Then I decided to go right. At the
same time, I saw a river shining behind the trees. I was
overjoyed and ran towards it with great hope. There was a small
boat and no one was around. So I got in the boat and rowed it
towards the open water. While I was sailing, I saw a light far
away. I had a feeling that the light was from a nearby city. Then
I started to move faster. All of a sudden, I woke up and realized
that it was a dream!!!

Why We Go to University
Wagdi Mohammedali H Cattan
R/W30

Students think that they go to university to get a degree
and find a future career after that. The truth is that we cannot
argue against the accuracy of this statement. People, for the
most part, think a university helps one to formulate one's future
life. If we look at universities from this perspective, it would be
a mere place containing buildings, infrastructure and
superstructure. This perspective has probably helped to strip a
university of its academic identity or make it a mere future
hope.
A university, I think, is a place that should provide
education and not mere knowledge. Accordingly, we might
imagine that we go to university to learn how to change the
community in which we live or, in other words, how to us
academic knowledge to change the community, which objective
should guide university teachers depends who, in the first place,
should be educators. A stagnant community depends on
academic facts or information to assist itself, but such acts
contribute, consciously or unable to keep up with
developments. No doubt, if we want to be civilized and not
merely modernized, we should make a change of the social
structure, which means renewing the individual who should
renew the community.
We will not be able to make something new unless we
renew ourselves. Thus, renewal requires, in addition to
academic information and supporting facts, making a balance
between morality and science and becoming optimistic through
such a balance about making positive changes for the sake of
the community in which we live in particular and humanity in
general. Thus, we should invest our information morally for
changing the community and making our individual capacities
invaluable for the coming generations. With this policy and
strategy one could face life with great love rather than worry.


ELI Student Voices 2








As a matter of fact, love of life is necessary for adopting an
optimistic attitude that could drive one to make social change.

The Weather in Florida and in Benin
Christian Ahihou
RW 60

Last January, during my first days in Florida, one of
my surprises was that I didn't really have any surprise. In fact,
as a general truth, when moving from somewhere to another
place on our planet, we usually expect at least some impact of
the weather on us. Some specialists call this impact the effects
of the change of climates. But in my case, it didn't exactly work
like that, because the change of the weather I was reasonably
expecting didn't occur. Then I rapidly made the conclusion that
the weather in Florida is the same as the weather in Benin,
where I am from. However, if I were asked to talk again about
these two kinds of weather today, surely I may not say the same
thing anymore, because the time has already shown me that it
was just a quick conclusion I made. Indeed, the weather in
Florida and in Benin seems just to be alike, but in reality there
are many differences between them.
First of all, the similarities between the weather in
Florida and the weather in Benin stand on three features: both
of them are warm, nice, and rainy. So, the weather in these two
areas is alike. As it's warm in Florida, it's warm in Benin too.
For example, during the last spring when I came in Florida, I
was very disappointed by the cold supplies I brought with me.
If I were still in Benin I didn't need at all to fear about any
coldness. So, instead of the cold weather I was prepared to deal
with, the weather I saw in Florida was similarly as warm as the
weather in my country.
Moreover, the main impact of the warmth on these two
weathers is what increases the similarities between them again.
In Florida, as in Benin, when it's warm the weather is always
all nice. The warm times in Florida, for example, are the best
times people enjoy a lot to spend in open air. Likewise in
Benin, the most time people spend outside is when the weather
is warm.
Furthermore, the last similarity I notice between the
two weathers is that both of them are also rainy. In fact, in the
same way as the raining season alters the warm season in
Benin, it does too in Florida. So, in both Florida and Benin,
after the warmth always come the rains. All in all, the weathers
in Florida and in Benin are truly similar. Both of them are
warm, nice, and rainy.
However, my long stay in Florida reveals to me that in
spite of their obvious similarities, the weather in Florida and in
Benin holds some particularities though. Most importantly, the
weather in Florida is too capricious. It's very unpredictable and
may change very quickly from warm to hot or to cold and vice
versa. On the other hand, in Benin the weather is more stable.
So, whereas it's proper for Florida's weather to be frequently
changing, it's very rare to the different seasons in Benin to
interfere one in another.
Furthermore, there is a hurricane season in Florida.
But in Benin on the contrary, there is no hurricane season.


Surely, the raining season may be sometimes windy. However,
the wind is very exponentially less than what is called hurricane
in Florida.
Last but not the least, there is one more difference
between the weather in the two areas. Unlike the dry season in
Benin, despite the hurricane series and the almost daily
rainfalls, the summer in Florida is extremely hot. For example,
in contrast to the fact that there are some breezes during the dry
season in Benin, the Florida's legendary hot summer doesn't
hold any breeze even in the night. In short, the differences
between the weathers in Florida and in Benin are fundamentally
based on three facts: the capriciousness of Florida's weather,
the hurricane season, and the extreme hot summer encountered
only in Florida and nowhere else on earth.
To sum up, the comparison and contrast of the weather
in Florida and in Benin result on three similarities and three
differences between them. But this analysis is not exhaustive at
all. Some other deeper reflections on the topic may certainly
show up some other features of these weathers.

How to Preserve a Culture?
Christian Ahihou
R/W 60

When I traveled to the West, one of my first surprises
was the multiple questions people were asking me about my
native culture. For me, it should be me who would need to
know about their culture because I was the traveler. But it
wasn't like that. Very quickly I realized that as eager as I was to
know about their culture, they too were to know about mine.
Indeed, it's always what happens when different cultures cross
ways with each other. Each culture seeks to know more about
the other and then starts the long process of a new experience
for both of them. But, as every human project, the result of this
process may have a double side. While it can be a successful
experience, it can also unfortunately end in the disappearance of
one culture at the expense of the other though. Clearly, one
culture can disappear if its people have not paid the necessary
attention to the phenomenon. It's what leads to the conclusion
that the survival of every culture is always the result of a
struggle. So, to preserve their culture, every society has to battle
for this cause. However, even though this conclusion seems to
be obvious, we don't always realize all of its dimensions. In
fact, the struggle to preserve culture is harder and more
meticulous than what people think: it's always the
responsibility of an entire people, and never for only one or a
few selective individuals. And no culture may be preserved if
all of its generations band their efforts together.
Of paramount importance, culture preserving is a
matter for an entire society: no culture can be preserved by
neither only one individual nor a few selective individuals. In
fact, how can a culture survive if its people give it up? For
example, how can a language survive if no one speaks it as a
primary form of communication? What about the Latin
language, we may legitimately exclaim at this point! Sure, Latin
language is only written nowadays and not spoken. But
actually, is it right to keep considering Latin a current


ELI Student Voices 3








language? By analogy, must we keep considering ancient Greek
a current language too? Of course not! Both Latin and ancient
Greek are nowadays two dead languages. So, as a matter of
culture, Latin doesn't still exist because no one speaks it at all.
Consequently, the life of any culture stands on how it is
practiced.
To survive, every culture has to be upheld by its
people. Any culture that is abandoned by everybody has to die.
In short, every culture needs some people to keep it alive. But,
how does the number of people influence the persistence of a
culture? In other words, is a few groups of individuals, either in
association or not, or even a single individual sufficient? Given
that what we name culture is a manner or some manners shared
by a relatively large amount of people, there is no reason then to
call the way a single person behaves a culture. A culture by
definition must be a collective behavior. Likewise, a culture that
arrives in such a situation stops automatically to be a culture
and becomes only the behavior of one person or the behavior of
a group of persons. For example, if a country used to be in the
past a monarchy, and then changed to adopt a democratic
regime, it is obvious that the people of this country would
change their ancient monarchic culture into a democratic
culture. However, even if some individuals in this country still
keep behaving as if nothing happened, because of their
insignificant number, the ancient culture would still die. Thus to
survive, every culture needs the total agreement of everybody in
the society to which it belongs.
But what happens to a culture that is not kept by all of
the consecutive generations of a society? In this case, the
culture is not rejected by the majority of the people and still
kept by a reduced amount of individuals in the society. On the
contrary, it is one of the cases in which, for some reason, one or
many generations of the same society fail to follow the same
culture as their ancestors. In Africa, for example, due to
colonization, African people have lost a large part of their
culture. In fact, even after the colonization, most of the nascent
generations didn't want to return to their ancestors' culture to
which they preferred the European culture. But when some
people act like that, the only one effect of their act is to kill their
own culture. So, as a result of those African generations,
nowadays it is impossible for many African people to have a
traditional life, not because they don't want to, but because they
can't instead. Their own original culture has already died and
doesn't still exist. Therefore, the interruption of a culture by
some generations is a precursor sign of its death. It's always
impossible for people to remake a culture when one or many of
its generations fail to keep it. Similarly, to preserve a culture,
every society has to maintain it through all of its generations.
All in all, the time via the consecutive generations, contributes a
lot to culture preserving, too. Indeed, any culture which suffers
from being kept through all the ages of its people has only one
issue: the dead.
In conclusion, the process of culture preserving has no
guaranteed miracle. Instead, it's the matter of a hard strategic
struggle. First, it should be kept by the entire society. Second, to
survive, all culture has to be known by all the generations of its
people without interruption.


"How I Choose My Friends"
A Poem by an Unknown Author, Translated from
Portuguese
Adriano Leite
RW 300

I choose my friends not for the color of their skin or any other
archetype, but for the pupil of the eye.
It has to have a questioning shine and a disturbing shade.
I'm neither interested in those who are of good spirit nor those
that have bad habits.
I keep those that make me crazy and a saint.
Of them I don't want an answer, I want my opposite.
That they bring me doubts and anguishes, and tolerate the worst
in me.
For that, only being crazy.
I want the saints, so to they don't doubt of the differences
and ask forgiveness for the injustices.
I choose my friends for the washed soul and for the exposed
face.
I don't want only the shoulder and the lap, I also want his
largest happiness.
Friends that don't laugh together, don't know how to suffer
together.
My friends are all like this: Half silly, half serious.
I don't want predictable laughs, or merciful cries.
I want serious friends,
Of those that make of his reality a learning source,
But, they still fight so the fantasy doesn't disappear.
I don't want adult friends or boring ones.
I want them to be half child and half oldies!
Children, so that they don't forget the value of the wind in the
face; and oldies, so that they are never in a hurry.
I want friends to know who I am.
Because, though they seem crazy and saints, fools and serious,
children and oldies, I will never forget that "normality" is a
stupid and sterile illusion.

Fiction or Nonfiction
AhmedAlmgrashi
L/S 31

Reading is perhaps one the most important tasks
people do. If you want, you can improve your mind by making
reading a regular part of your life. Before you read any book,
you should decide what you want to read, fiction or nonfiction?
In my opinion, non-fictions are better than fictions for reading.
My preference for nonfiction is based on several reasons.
First of all, if you read nonfiction, you learn about real
events. For example, you can learn about education, law,
politics, history, and science, etc. All of these really happened.
The author does not make up all these books; he simply
describes the events.
Second, if you read nonfiction, your knowledge will
increase. Nonfiction plays an important role in rounding out the
knowledge of every educated person. Although fiction helps us


ELI Student Voices 4








to write and speak beautifully, if you want to develop your
thinking, you should read nonfiction. It is especially true for
students who go to school to learn knowledge.
Third, if you want to engage actively in the globalizing
world, you must read nonfiction, for example, history books,
geography books, even cookbooks. From them, you will know
different cultures.
Finally, some students may ask, "What about classics?
Surely, you can learn a lot from Homer, Shakespeare, Dickens
and Victor Hugo. Surely, they have helped to push humanity
forward." However, if we compare these classics to Newton,
Darwin, and Einstein, even those giants pale because in the
high-stakes contest of the science and technology, the top
priority for us is to expand our understanding of the universe. If
your aim is to upgrade your knowledge, I would recommend
you choosing Einstein and Newton. I am not saying that fiction
offers no information; but when reading fiction, I can never
forget that none of it really happened; that it is all made up by
the author.
Different from fiction, nonfiction is at least an attempt
to tell the truth. If your aim is to expand the realm of your
knowledge, and you want to make the best use of your time, try
to read nonfiction you will certainly have developed an
excellent learning habit. Nonfiction addresses problems in our
society, satisfies our curiosity, answers unfinished question, and
more importantly, it scaffolds our hopes to learn about
something real.

Building Vocabulary by Technique
Ali Alameer
RW 30

To learn a foreign language is a big challenge for
anybody in any case, whatever the defiance has from each of a
sides, but specifically to learn and remember, the word and
idioms to know and uses for advantage that is really a
vocabulary memorization are enemy to passing foreign
language than native language for learner, as a result the
vocabulary has most important from foreign language, it's
support for steps, assistant to basic and pick you up for a short
distance to study a second language.
As a beginner how much vocabulary do you need?
Although answers vary a lot, many studies and some experience
seem to indicate that if you know between 2,000 and 3,000
words in a particular language you can function under most
circumstances. Accordingly, any student who has mastered
2,500 most commonly used words in English should be able to
handle some university level academic text.
However, there is no shortcut to those 2,500 words in
language learning, the vocabulary could only be increased step
by step. Therefore, how to memorize those words? Is there any
technique that will help? The answer is "Yes." The first step is
to read the words within context to guess the meaning. If you
don't know the meaning, look it up in the dictionary, which, in
some cases, enables you to create your own principles of how to
apply the words into daily usage, and then, you can listen to
pronunciation attentively, which is an equally important method


you should do to remember the sound. In addition, the
dictionary also provides the correct spelling. At last, you need
to go over the new words many times. Later, you will be able to
use your vocabulary freely.
Sometimes, university level academic reading is not
the best way to develop vocabulary. For example, when
learning basic words, children books and comic books are great
places to start. And then your reading could move up to popular
novels, romance novels, whatever might interest you. These
kinds of books are especially a reasonable challenge for the
beginner to intermediate readers and will let you obtain loads of
new words.
Another method is to use flash cards. One can use
flash cards to memorize words whenever and wherever you
like. For example, if you're standing in line waiting for a movie
to start, or sitting in awaiting room, you can take out your cards
and memorize your vocabulary. You can also use a pocket
dictionary; the best thing about these dictionaries is that they
contain the most commonly used words in the language and all
kinds of tests you could use to practice your vocabulary.
As a conclusion, there are many techniques one could use to
build up his vocabulary. Choose the most appropriate one and
then you will be successful!

The Three Most Important Factors for Job
Selection
Jin Young Kang
R/W31

Most people get a job for a living. Many people want
to receive a high salary, while others consider about working
environment, transportation, size of the company and so on,
when they choose a job. It is a matter which demands our
serious consideration. We have to be careful when we decide on
our job.
First, one of the most important things is job
satisfaction. I think satisfaction is more important than anything
else. Everyone wants to lead a life worth living. In other words,
we want to enjoy our lives through the job which we have
chosen. People feel happier when they do what they want.
Those jobs will improve their ability. They won't be happy if
they what they don't want even though it gives them a lot of
money and good working environment.
Second, we should think about salary. The major
purpose of work is to maintain our living. So, it is very
important to us. Many people find companies which give us
higher salary and satisfy our desire for wealth. Thus, we can't
work at low wages even if we are satisfied in other minor fields.
Finally, working environment is very important. This
is necessary for increasing efficiency of work Good
environment gives us a good feeling and energy. So, we can
more easily focus on working. If people work in a poor
environment, they can't really concentrate.
In conclusion, we have to be cautious when looking
for a good job. If so, we can find a better one. In addition, we
can establish a life of higher quality.


ELI Student Voices 5









Ramadan
AwatefEidA Almallak
RW 30

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar.
Ramadan is a special month of the year for over one billion
Muslims throughout the world. Muslims totally abstain from
drink, food, smoking and marital sex. The last ten days of
Ramadan are a time of special spiritual power as everyone tries
to come closer to God through devotions and good deeds. The
night on which the first verses of the Qur'an were revealed to
the prophet, known as the Night of Power, is generally taken to
be the 27th night of the month. Muslims try to read as much of
the Qur'an as they can. Most people spend time in the mosque
in Ramadan.
Since Ramadan is a special time. Muslims in many
parts of the world prepare certain favorite food during this
month. Laylat alqadar is the anniversary of important dates in
Islam that occurred in the month of Ramadan.
The Islamic holiday of Eid Al-Fatr marks the end of
the fasting period of Ramadan and the beginning of the
following month.

Life After Death
Nasser Daifallah Alahmari
R/W50

All lives of creatures will be recreated again after
death. Some believe such a thing, others don't. However, stories
I know might guide those who disagree with the idea that there
is life after death.
One story that happened in my village is very
shocking. Once upon a time there was a pregnant woman. She
tripped from a small rock; consequently, she fell into a deep
coma. Everyone in my village thought that she had passed
away. After that, she was in the grave for two days. Then a man
walking by the cemetery heard a noise coming from the
graveyard. Around sunset, the man decided to open that tomb,
and he was surprised and shocked; he found the pregnant
woman alive and her baby in her lap. The women looked really
tired. Afterward the man took her to the village. In the village,
everyone was surprised to see her again. At the time she
recovered from that experience she started to tell her story of
the death journey. She said, "I saw a window open and my
mother was standing and smiling on the other side; she was
waving her hand and calling me to join her, then all the sudden
a young child was grabbing me back from that window saying
MOM! I want to live, and then I delivered my son. I gave him
the milk and I felt dead, and screamed so at least someone could
help, until this blessed man came and took me out." Both of
them, the mother and son, are living witnesses to this incident.
She is in her 90's now.
The connection among dead and living people does
exist. My closest friend's mother died back in 1995. At that
time, he told me at the funeral day, "Nasser! This is a half of
my life already done." I didn't understand it; consequently, I


asked him to clear that for me. He replied by saying, "I saw my
mother two days before she died, and she said that I would join
her after my second half." His mother was very sick, for that
reason her couldn't ask her before her death. In 1999, I came
back home to attend my elder sister's wedding. I took one
invitation card for my friend. I arrived to his house. Then, I
knocked on the door, and after awhile his elder brother opened
the door. Unfortunately, the minute he saw me he started to cry.
I didn't know exactly why he was crying, but I felt creepy. I
was not expecting something that could shock me; however, he
told me that his father had passed away two weeks ago. I felt
sorry and so for that I hid the invitation card under my jacket.
"On the third day my brother followed my father," the elder
brother said. At that moment, the invitation card slipped away
from my hands, and I sat down. I was remembering my friend's
words back in 1995, now I understand finally what the dream
was about. It took me so long to understand that his mother was
the first half, and the father was the second half. After those two
halves were done, then it was his turn to die.
Souls and spirits of those who died are still alive
somewhere in this huge universe. They might be located in
another dimension parallel to ours. However, the material
bodies do not live forever. Fortunately, it converts to dust. Only
our souls live an immortal life. When a person dies, his eyes go
up because they watch the spirit going up to some unknown
place. For instance, once I saw my grandfather in a dream. He
was telling me to give back land to his cousin's children and he
named the cousin with a specific name that no one knew.
Afterward, I told me mother and grandmother about that dream,
then my grandmother told me, "That name was only known by
the three of us: your grandfather, his cousin, and me." Now, if
there were no spirits of souls, how would I know about such
information!
In religion, God created us from tiny sperms and
ovum. To recreate us again wouldn't be much harder. For
instance, seeds are the source of living plants. Humans have the
same aspect. Each human has at the end of his/her spinal cord a
very small piece of bone; this bone never converts to dust or is
crushed under any circumstances. These seeds will be the
source of our bodies again in judgment day when God recreates
us. Believing in the life after death is a hopeful thought for our
minds. Islam explains that souls and spirits are held in time
after death. They have no meaning of time. The Qur'an
mentions that God will ask us at the judgment day and say,
"How many days you have been in hold?" The Qur'an says,
"They would say: Almighty God we spent probably a day or
two."
The spirit looks like a huge tree that has its branches
and fruits hanging. However, our souls are hanging in those
branches inside the fruits. When the fruit falls, our souls stick to
the tree. Consequently, the tree will produce other fruits, and
falling fruits will rot and convert to dust after a while. The
Great Spirit represents God and our souls are his gift to us.
Every one of us does believe that this life is not the end.
However, some know that for a fact, but others continue to deny
this knowledge. They will never know that fact until they see it
for real as humans have been like that for ages.


ELI Student Voices 6








The Other World--Afterlife
Hsueh-Chun Ho (Cindy)
R/W50

Everyone will experience birth, old age, sickness and
death which we call "life." Especially, people always feel
curious whether human being's life can still exist after they die.
Even though nobody realizes the truth of immortality, I still
believe that there is a vivid world in the afterlife. Moreover, in
Chinese legend, we believe that not only after death does the
soul exist in different ways' but it also transmigrates.
In the western world, the afterlife is seen as people
going to heaven, a perfect world without pain, sickness and full
of happiness. However, in Chinese culture, we think that after
death, everyone will be sent to hell. You will be judged
according to your behavior when you were alive and sent to
different parts of hell, which is divided into 18 layers. There are
different punishments in every layer. For example, if you waste
food in every meal, you will have food poured into your mouth
again and again, and will not be able to take a rest. However, if
you were a nice person, you don't need to worry too much
because the judge will have you drink a soup named mon-po
soup which can make you forget all the things you have ever
done, and you will get into the cycle of reincarnation.
In Tibet, in west China, they have their own special
religion-Lamaism. The leader of Lamaism is the Dali Lama
who has never truly died since 1391, the first Dalai Lama's era.
Because before a Dalai Lama dies, he shows his trusted
follower where he will reincarnate after he dies. At the same
time, the baby will be bor somewhere, and the followers will
start to look for the new inheritor according to some mysterious
images and conventions. They test to see how familiar the child
is with the possessions which belonged to the previous Dalai
Lama. After a series of testing, the monks bring the child back
to Lhasa, the capital of Tibet. People feel incredible about the
traditional mystery of finding new Dalai Lama in Tibet.
Nowadays, the current Dalai Lama, who received Nobel Peace
Prize in 1989, is the 14th one and was also found when he was a
two-year-old boy (now, he is a 71-year-old man).
In our tradition, we also believe our family members
who just passed away will come back on the 7th day after they
died-we call the date "head 7t." So, there are many real
stories which happened on the day. One of my friends lost his
favorite grandfather who doted on him and his brother very
much. On the head 7th day, both of the two brothers could feel
instinctively that it is true; someone walked inside their room
and helped them cover with the blanket when they fell asleep.
On one famous TV talk show, they invited well-known
people to share their personal experiences. My deep impression
was a famous host who dreamed about his uncle. In his dream,
his uncle said, "It's so crowed here, but my new neighbors are
very nice to me." After several days he dreamed again, and this
time his uncle said, "The neighbor who lives on the right wants
to borrow some money from me and bring our neighbors to
travel, so can you bur some money for me?" On the second
day, the host went to his uncle's headstone and burned the
paper money in front of his headstone. Suddenly, he found


many ancestor headstones to be added there and lined up
closely. To his great surprise, the right side neighbor is a van
driver.
To sum up, even though I haven't experienced any
unnatural spiritual power, I still prefer that after death people
can keep their behavior in the spiritual mode. The souls do the
same things as they do when they alive, have emotion to feel
love, anger, cold, convenience and discomfort... etc. Confucius
said, "We need to respect both ghost and god no matter if we
believe or not." I see the words as my motto, and remember
deeply to respect them. Some people like to gossip about the
souls in the afterlife or totally deny believing in their existence.
In my opinion, both attitudes without respect can cause bad
effects. On the other hand, sometimes, respect may get a
surprise reward!!

Plastic Surgery Among Korean Women
Sang-Soo Yoo (Hami)
R/W42

Today, plastic surgery operations have been one of the
trends among young women ranging from teenagers to women
in their thirties, around the world. Even Korea is no exception.
There are many kinds of the plastic surgeries such as face, skin,
reducing fat, and so forth. Although the plastic surgery is now
considered as an enhancement to beauty, actually, originally,
plastic surgery was done to repair the skin of accident victims.
In addition, the original patients were not influenced by harmful
side effects of plastic surgery during their life. However, these
days, the plastic surgery has been changed to focus on making
women's figures beautiful. According to announcements of the
mass media, the modem plastic surgery has two sides, which
are advantages and disadvantages to health and lifestyle. Even
though they have announced disadvantages more strongly than
advantages, young women seem obsessed with having plastic
surgery done. Why?
There are two reasons why plastic surgery has become
a trend. First, it is the influence of western culture. Western
women think that their standard of beauty is slenderness and a
sculptured face. In addition, beautiful women who have these
features can succeed more than those who do not. After the
1990s, Korean people's opinions have been changing. Second,
it is the influence of the mass media. Woman announcers of
newscasts and current events programs are more beautiful,
pretty, cute, and younger than male announcers. Also, actresses
in dramas or movies have perfect slender figures, clothes, and
faces. Because of these two influences, many people grow up
obsessed with beauty.
There is an important advantage of plastic surgery. It
involves mental health. For example, if one woman who is not
proud of her body has plastic surgery she may become more
satisfied with her figure and she may then get many chances at
success in life, such as wearing beautiful clothes, meeting
wonderful men, getting a good job at the famous company, and
so forth. As a result, the woman who has had plastic surgery
will be free from her many frustrations in the past and be able to
keep good mental health and have a good lifestyle.


ELI Student Voices 7








The other side of the plastic operation is harmful
effects. First, it is harmful to specific body parts. Those are the
eyes which have become unbalanced with each other, the nose
which has fallen because it had been raised so much, the breasts
which have become unbalanced because the doctor had not
checked their anatomical condition, etc. Second, sometimes, it
can kill the woman. For example, after one woman who was
twenty years old had gotten plastic surgery on her chin her face
bled inside. And then, she died because the blood blocked her
breathing. Finally, plastic surgery can involve toxicity. Those
three disadvantages will negatively affect health and lifestyle.
Although the original goals for plastic surgery are not
as common as the facelift, we can never blame women who
want to become more beautiful. People and the mass media
need to strive to change their obsession about women's beauty.
The government also has to apply policies, active campaigns,
and positive support. If we keep this attitude, we should be able
to recognize real beauty.

Beans and Rice are the Basic Foods in
Brazil
Eduardo Amaral Borges, lana Aime Ribeiro,
Adriana Rangel
R/W 100

The basic foods in our country are beans and rice.
They are very important because these grains are very
economical and nutritious. This dish is a basic food because of
some advantages. Beans and rice grow easily in many places of
Brazil. These grains are very strong against disease. The price
of these grains is cheap. Rich and poor people can buy beans
and rice any time. Beans and rice give us many of the principal
necessities of our bodies, but not totally. It is necessary that we
complement them with some vegetables and some meat too.
INSTRUCTIONS: Rice is very easy to cook. There
are many forms to cook rice, but for simple rice you need oil,
onion, garlic, salt and boiling water. First, you put a little oil in
the pan and when this oil is hot, you put in little pieces of onion
and garlic. Mix it for some seconds. Second, you put the rice in
the pan, mix, and add the boiling water. Third, put some salt
and wait for the rice to cook. Use a low heat.
To cook beans you need oil, onion, garlic, salt and a
pressure cooker. The process is the same as for rice. If you can
add some pieces of meat together with the beans, it will have a
special flavor.
Finally, you can eat this traditional Brazilian food with
some salad and some beef.

BOM APPETITE! !


Kabbsa
AlwaleedAlbazaie, Mohammed Alabbad,
Mohanad Aljouaithen
RW 100

We are writing about the famous and main food in our
country: Kabbsa.
All people in Saudi Arabia eat Kabbsa because it tastes
good and it is good for our health. Everybody in Saudi Arabia
likes Kabbsa: boys, girls, children, old men and old women.
Kabbsa started many years ago in our country. Kabbsa is easy
to cook so all people want to do that. These are the ingredients:
1- Chicken or Fish or Meat
2- Rice
3- Onions (chopped)
4- Tomatoes (chopped)
5- Green Pepper (chopped)
6- Garlic (cut)
7- Tomato sauce
8- Salt
9- Pepper
10- Oil
11- Water
Instructions:
Put some oil in the pot. Then, put in the onions, garlic,
salt and pepper. Next, stir it. After that, put in the green pepper,
some tomatoes and tomato sauce in the pot. Then, add the
chicken and water. Cook for 30 minutes. Then, take only the
chicken and put it in the oven. After that, add the rice to the
ingredients.

Ajiaco
Juliana Silva, Lina Maria Camacho
R/W100

Ajiaco is a famous Colombian soup and it is very
important for health. It is very nutritious because this soup has
protein, calcium and vitamins. Colombian people of different
cultures, ages, and religions all eat Ajiaco. They frequently eat
it in Colombian restaurants and Colombian homes. Colombian
people make Ajiaco in this way:
First, put a pot on the stove, and fry the chicken.
Second, put water, corn, onions, potatoes and cilantro into the
pot. Next, wait for the mix to boil for 45 minutes. Then, put
guascas (special leaves) into the soup. After ten minutes, turn
off the stove. Finally, serve the hot soup with bread, olives,
avocado, capers and cream.
Our conclusion is that the Ajiaco is a delicious and
nutritious Colombian soup.


ELI Student Voices 8








Ambition
Abdulrhman Fadel Aldahery (Raymon)
RW 30

Ambition is an important thing in one's life. Life
object pushes one to pursue it. And then you will know where
you are and what kind of person you want to be in the future.
You can adjust your objects along the way. If you take the
wrong way, you can correct this mistake. Ambition always
supports you for making more progress. It makes you be
creative and change wrong things in this world. Take us for
example, I left my country and my family, and came to America
to learn knowledge. Ambitions turn impossible to possible. You
can feel about your change by yourself. In this sense, you feel
the world needs you. For all these reasons, ambition is certainly
in your life and everyone can find it if he is looking for it!

Cause and Effects of Good Health
Faris Al Amrah
RW 30

I have got to say all biospheres for sure try to find the
best kind of food, but are the reasons to find the best kind of the
food alike between human beings and the other biospheres?
No, because we have the mind and we can think about our
health. The health in these days is the important thing that
because there are many illnesses and the professors in the
biggest hospitals and universities could not find the medications
until now, so some people are taking this issue seriously and
take care for their health conditions. They can arrive to good
health conditions by: choosing good food, play sport, and
finally visiting the family doctor every six months for check.
First, the food is one of crucial things that human body
needs. We need food with fewer calories. Because high calorie
foods are dangerous to human faculties such as heart, liver, and
kidney. Use olive oil instead of tradition counterparts while
cooking, because olives are good for the heart, low in
cholesterol. Another thing is that natural food like fruits and
vegetables are better than meats. We should stay away from fast
food as much as we can.
Second, sports are another factor that our body needs
to be healthy. First, sports are good because they benefit blood
circulation. And at the same time they help us to bur the
calories we receive from either fast foods or natural foods. In
addition, sports are very helpful to build muscles and shape.
Third, it is good to have family doctor is another
aspect in our life because doctors can detect small problems
before they are getting bigger. A doctor suggests us what we
should do in the future. Also, we will be confident about our
health. As in western world, most of the families have their own
doctors in these days.
To summarize this topic, choosing the food carefully,
doing exercise, sleeping well and having a doctor are very
important for life now. All these things are helpful and protect
the health from diseases. Also, we take good and natural foods
instead of fast foods. Remember, good health means good life.


Three Most Important Factors for
Choosing a Job
Sultan Mohammad G. Alshareef
RW 31

Finding a job in the best place is an ambition for
everyone who has a strong desire to be successful. The person
who is looking for a job has to answer some questions like:
"What do I want?" "What are the main factors that influence
my choice?" There are many factors that influence our
decisions for choosing a job.
Personally, one of the most important factors is the
salary. The salary is the main reason for some employees in
various fields leaving theirjobs. Some of them, especially
employees in countries in the Middle East, have big families
that sometimes include elderly people. Another reason why
salary is important is people like to improve their lives.
Therefore, the salary is the most important factor that affects the
decisions of choosing ajob over another.
In my opinion, the second most important factor in
choosing a job or quitting one is the working environment. A
good environment around you usually gives you energy to work
and motivation to do better and better. In the place that you may
work in, you should feel entirely comfortable when you find the
fitting environment. On the other hand, you may dislike the
work because of the bad environment and then you may quit
that job. In either case, the environment plays an important role.
There is another factor that makes you select a job. I
think the third important factor for selecting a job is your
abilities. What talent do you have? Can you utilize your abilities
in this place? What do you need to improve your abilities? How
can you apply your abilities? After answering these questions,
you will find the place that satisfies your needs. For that, the
abilities are another main factor that influences our decisions.
There are many factors controlling our decisions when
we select a job but quit another. Sometimes, we abandon some
factors when we find another need is met. In the end, it depends
on the seeker of the job what he or she wants.

How to Manage Stress and Maintain
Positive Attitudes at Work
Raeda Al Khars
RW 42

Teamwork stress is a positive weapon and a powerful
tool if we know how to deal with and how to control it. On the
other hand, it may lead to complicated results like job burnout,
negative relationships, poor productivity, depression, anxiety
and more health problems. According to recent studies and
research, good working relationships within a team lead to
higher productivity, a happier team, and a healthier life style. In
other words, good stress management and positive working
attitudes result in more effective healthy teams and
organizations that are more successful.


ELI Student Voices 9








There are many causes and effects for successful work.
One of them is the good health, especially the high spirit
attitudes within the team. Trying to be a healthy employee can
be achieved by managing stress at work and maintaining a
healthy lifestyle; for example, eating healthy food, doing
exercises, practicing relaxation techniques, getting good sleep,
and trying to pinpoint the difficulty of life and looking for
solutions. Many studies recommended dealing with ourjob
overloads and stress by enjoying our jobs and relaxing during
work. Moreover, we need to design and train our minds to use
the positive thinking techniques and healthy mind frames and
plans, which will lead to strong support for self-confidence and
to good trust for the others with strong feelings to its oats.
Another cause of good health and successful
organizations is trying to establish good relationships and
positive attitudes toward others at work. Some scientists define
the attitude as "a state of mind influenced by feeling, thoughts
and action taken." This definition can remind us of a simple
physical rule, which suggests, the attitude we send out is
usually the same attitude we get back. Trying to improve our
working relationships could be achieved by offering help to our
superiors, co-workers and customers especially in dealing with
difficult situations. In addition, trying to work with qualified,
healthy, and powerful people helps us to work positively and
leads to correct decision-making. Moreover, it helps to build a
strong defense system against poor health and job burnout. For
example, knowing ourjob responsibilities and the others
responsibilities helps the team member to enjoy their work
correctly and smoothly under pressure, which results in
effective teamwork and reduces the job failure. Therefore, the
effective worker should try usually to send positive attitudes to
the others at work.
Some employees cannot control their anger at the job.
Nevertheless, trying to control our anger at the job makes the
teamwork more effective, relaxed, and valuable. Moreover,
keeping up to date with the recent information and knowledge
resources about the products will color the organization with a
special touch. In addition, asking for help if we need it during
work will reflect positively in the higher team productivity.
In conclusion, updating our information and improving
positive attitudes with others gives us a chance to prove that the
team members are good, positive and reliable workers. In
addition, it is important to achieve smooth cooperation of any
organization. Therefore, we need to remember that the
teamwork production is much better than working alone. In
addition, we need to improve our positive working relationships
in order to achieve more effective output with happier and
relaxed lives.

Three Paragraphs
Jafar Al Hejji
RW 30

Good Teachers
Good teachers have special qualities. First of all, good
teachers are patient. They never rush their students. Good
teachers explain things without getting bored. They are


organized. They plan what happens in very class. Good teachers
are also encouraging. They help students understand the
subject. Finally, good teachers are fair. They treat all students in
the same way. These are some of the most important qualities
of good teachers.

My Room
My room is a comfortable place to study. On the left,
there is a big wooden desk. My computer sits on top of the
desk, while the printer is sitting under the desk. I keep paper
files in the drawers. On the right side of the room, there are two
beautiful bookcases .My father makes bookcases and other
wooden furniture. These bookcases are full of books, magazines
and computer software. There is also a telephone and fax
machine. All my office supplies. I like my room very much.

Staying Healthy
It is easy to stay healthy if you follow some simple
steps. First, think about food you eat. The best types of food are
fruits and vegetables. It is important to eat a lot of them every
day. Next, consider some exercises, like doctors recommend
that one hour of moderate exercise each day can keep you in
good shape. In addition, exercise is good for the body and the
mind. Finally, relaxation is very important. Take time to
appreciate the good things in life. You can follow these steps to
help yourself stay healthy.

Life's Way
Aya Nankumo
ELIAlumna (2006)

Why did we meet?
What's the meaning to meet you?
We could meet in this extensive world
I only know that I'm lucky

Became a friend
Became someone's special one

Sometimes life shows us suffering
Sometimes life gives us happiness
We learn life's way from love

Realize the meeting of people is life and a treasure
(...Thanks you guys)

Everlasting
Aya Nankumo
ELIAlumna (2006)

What's love?
What's human being?
What's life?

We look for an answer
There are no answers


ELI Student Voices 10








Nobody knows

That's why
Life goes on
It's a natural way
I knew somebody by love
I found a treasure in dailiness of my days

It's a piece of it
On the road
To the future


The Way to Longevity
Young Eun Ban (Bonnie)
R/W50

Have you ever thought about how old you would live
to be? Most people try to take care of their health in order to
live longer. Especially people who get information about
longevity through the media or many experiences put a large
amount of money in medicine or exercise machines. However,
according to a survey, longevity is all not gotten by any
medicine. It seems lifestyle is the most important factor for
keeping longer the life. It is important for long life to get
positive elements that can be found easily around us such as
healthy food and active social life.
Healthy food is a very necessary element for people
who want to live longer. Although many people know that fact,
it is not easy for people who have already been accustomed to
unhealthy food for a long time. It is obviously true that food can
be fatal to the health. Imagine how oils and harmful things pile
up in our body! But one person I know totally changed his
eating habits for his health. When I went to church, I met an
English teacher who worked in the church as a volunteer. He
looked over seventy years old and very healthy. But I knew the
fact that he already had an operation three times on his stomach
and I was surprised about it. From childhood, he had eaten too
much fast food like hamburgers and pizzas and even eaten three
orders of French fries a day. However, after having the
operations, he recognized the seriousness of unhealthy food and
changed to organic food, deli and fresh fruits that are needed for
his body. After that, he said his health changed a lot.
According to some studies, some food could prevent
serious disease. For instance, flatbread, a kind of traditional diet
of Sardinia, an Island off of Italy, may reduce the risk of heart
disease and a daily glass of red wine also could help due to a
component of wine that may prevent arterial clogging. In Korea
we have Kimchi, a traditional, healthy food. Kimchi is
fermented for a pretty long time and includes various
ingredients that are good for the health. According to the
survey, it can prevent severe SARS.
Longevity can be achieved by keeping active
personally or socially. For example, many people meet friends,
listen to their story and also talk together. Especially, in the case
of seniors, it is more important to keep the circle. Kamada
Nakazato, noticed in National Geographic, lives in Japan and is


102-year-old. She tried to keep the circle and her family also
joins her together for a cup of tea several times a week.
Some people meet to share a common interest and
hobby like church or exercise. Adventists observe the Sabbath
on Saturday, meeting socially with other church members and
spending a good time in holiness that helps get rid of stress.
Today most Adventists follow an ordered lifestyle like a
testimony for mixing health and religion. According to
researchers, Adventists increase their opportunity for a long life
by associating with people who strengthen their healthy
behaviors. Besides church, in volunteering, even though they
are senior, they could get work if they want. They could help
others learn their language like my teacher in the church and
talk with the other lonely seniors in homes. Through these
meetings, they could enjoy their rest life and find another life.
Do you still think people who live longer have special
secret or medicine? I think not. The control of food and lifestyle
must be helped to live longer. It is important to eat food that is
healthy and could prevent some disease. Furthermore, doing
exercise and keeping a social circle are necessary to reduce
depression in need to have positive elements as possible as for
longevity.

The Internet
Eissa Al Saleh
R/W20

The internet is an international net where everybody in
the world can get almost whatever he/she wants. It was
established by the Ministry of Defense in the United States in
1987. At the beginning, it was restricted to the Pentagon. Then
it spread to the whole world.
The internet has many advantages. People can get
different kinds of information such as cultural, scientific or
social information. The internet provides people with e-mail
service where they can keep in touch with each other. In
addition, people can buy something online such as at the
website" www.studentuniverse.com," which is a website where
students can buy their flight tickets, train tickets or make a
reservation at hotels.

Three Most Important Factors for
Choosing a Job
AhmedIbraheem Almgrashi
RW 31

Finding a job in the best place is an ambition for
everyone who has a strong desire to be successful. The person
who is looking for a job has to answer some questions like:
"What do I want?" "What are the main factors that influence
my choice?" There are many factors that influence our
decisions for choosing a job.
Personally, one of the most important factors is the
salary. The salary is the main reason for some employees in
various fields leaving theirjobs. Some of them, especially
employees in countries in the Middle East, have big families


ELI Student Voices 11








that sometimes include elderly people. Another reason why
salary is important is people like to improve their lives.
Therefore, the salary is the most important factor that affects the
decisions of choosing a job over another.
In my opinion, the second most important factor in
choosing a job or quitting one is the working environment. A
good environment around you usually gives you energy to work
and motivation to do better and better. In the place that you may
work in, you should feel entirely comfortable when you find the
fitting environment. On the other hand, you may dislike the
work because of the bad environment and then you may quit
that job. In either case, the environment plays an important role.
There is another factor that makes you select a job. I
think the third important factor for selecting a job is your
abilities. What talent do you have? Can you utilize your abilities
in this place? What do you need to improve your abilities? How
can you apply your abilities? After answering these questions,
you will find the place that satisfies your needs. For that, the
abilities are another main factor that influences our decisions.
There are many factors controlling our decisions when
we select ajob but quit another. Sometimes, we abandon some
factors when we find another need is met. In the end, it depends
on the seeker of the job what he or she wants.

Culture and Communication (A Journal
Entry for a Culture and Communication
Class at UF)
Siriporn KI ,ithikilih. Inig (Apple)
RW 400

This journal is about cultural influences on
interpersonal communication. In our textbook, culture is
defined as the language, values, beliefs, traditions, and customs
people share and learn (Ronald, Lawrence, and Russell, 2004).
Based on this definition, we perceive and define ourselves as a
member of cultures that we are involved in. Thus, cultures
reflect who we are and affect our behavior. Moreover, cultural
differences provide effects on communication among members
of two or more cultures.
We all have more than one culture: main culture and
subcultures. For me, I come from Thailand, but I consider
myself as Asian, not Thai, because my ancestors came from
China and my family respects Chinese belief and tradition. So, I
think Asian culture is more moderate and suitable to identify
me than either Thai or Chinese. I am also involved in many
subcultures; such as designer and Bangkok (my hometown)
cultures. However, only my Asian culture is mentioned in this
journal.
Because I perceive myself as a member of Asian
culture, I have been significantly influenced by it. Two main
instances of my cultural effects are presented. First, it makes me
know who I am and differentiate me from others. In other
words, my own culture takes a part to create my identity with
my language, beliefs, behavior, and traditions. Especially living
in the U.S., which contains people coming from a variety of
cultures, other persons most recognize me based on my Asian


look, behavior, and language (both spoken and written
languages). Second, most of my daily behaviors are affected by
Asian norms. For example, in my culture, rice is very important
for us. Basically, in a meal, each person has a dish of rice and
we share other dishes together. Moreover, we use chopsticks or
a spoon, instead of a fork that is used in American culture, to
ladle rice up. Nowadays, although I am in the U.S., in which
bread is more preferred than rice, I still have rice at almost
every meal and I use a spoon and chopsticks with my meals
also.
Moreover, leaving my hometown and living in the
U.S., I have faced many problems related to cultural
differences, especially communicative problems. During my
first semester at UF, I always felt confused and awkward, when
others asked me lho" 're you doing?", "what's going on?", or
"what's up?" I had no idea how I should respond, since I did
not know that those were greeting phrases, not questions.
Straight and consistent eye contacts during having conversation
also frightened me, because in Asian culture making eye
contact with an unfamiliar person can mean you are looking for
trouble with that one or you do not respect him/her. Moreover,
cultural differences affect my learning behavior in class as well.
In most Asian countries, teachers usually use a teacher focused
approach to regulate their classes, although this approach
discourages students to participate and give their opinions.
Thus, I do not know how I should participate or what I should
suggest in class in the U.S.
However, so far, I am handling these situations better,
since I have learnt more about other cultures and I try to adapt
myself to be familiar with them. The other important thing
which I do to improve my communication with others from
different cultures, is to ask them for a meaning of what they
said or what they expressed. This helps me a lot to comprehend
others more accurately and feel more comfortable to associate
with friends from different cultures.

References
Ronald, B. A., Lawrence, B. R., & Russell, F. P. (2i" '11).
Interplay: The process of interpersonal
communication, culture and communication.
New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Territoriality (A Summary of a Chapter in
a Textbook for an Interior Theory Class at
UF)
Siriporn Klithiiikilhi. < ng (Apple)
RW 400

Chapter 6 is about territoriality. It is quite difficult to
simplify a formal definition of territoriality. However, Gifford
offers his operating territoriality definition as "a pattern of
behavior and attitudes held by an individual or group that is
based on perceived, attempted, or actual control of a definable
physical space, object, or idea that may involve habitual
occupation, defense, personalization, and marking of it"
(Gifford, 2002, p. 150).


ELI Student Voices 12








Regarding this chapter, there are seven types of
territories based on the Altman System and the Lyman and
Scott System. These seven territories consist of primary
territories, secondary territories, public territories, objects,
ideas, interactional territories, and body territories (Gifford,
2002). In my opinion, the Altman System is easier to
understand and illustrate than the Lyman and Scott System.
Primary, secondary, and public territories are obviously
perceived by most people. Objects and ideas are more
complicated to consider as territories. For instance, my
bedroom is my primary territory. I usually feel safe and
comfortable when I am in this area. Because of a possessive
feeling, I do everything I would like to do in my bedroom, even
though it actually belongs to my parents. On the other hand, I
consider the apartment I live in is my secondary territory.
Although it is my private room, I cannot do everything as I
want due to the apartment rules and I know I will move to
another one soon. The area in the fence of the apartment is an
example of the public territory because it serves residents in this
community and control outsiders.
Territoriality generally relates to human behavior
whether we perceive it or not. According to the topic of
territoriality and human behavior, there are at least eight types
of human behavior dealing with territoriality including:
personalization, marking, aggression, dominance, winning,
helping, inaction, and control (Gifford, 2002, 160). After I read
this chapter, I tried to observe personalization and marking
behavior of students in the art and architectural library. I found
that students who occupy a four-seat table usually put their
belongings on the tables or the chairs next to them. They
considered the tables were their territories and tried to mark
them. On the other hand, students possessing carrels put their
items only inside their areas. From this observation, I think the
physical setting probably affects territoriality. Partitions around
a carrel act as the guideline for defining the territoriality. In
addition, I noticed one girl occupying the four-seat table. She
had sat there just a few minute, and then, there was a newcomer
asking her to move her items on the table. She moved them to
share space with the new one, but she left that table soon. I
think she felt like her territory was invaded, and she may be
uncomfortable to share her space with the other.
Due to the correlation between territory and human
behavior, territoriality should be considered in the
environmental design. Especially in the neighborhood design,
architects and designers can design the setting that reduces
aggression, increases control, and promotes a sense of order and
security by reflecting the territoriality. Based on the sense of
possession, most people always treat their belongings better
than public things. Thus, the neighborhood design that can
make residents in the area feel like they own this district is the
best solution to increase safety and control in the area.
Territoriality is one important impact on human
behavior and environmental design. Realizing territoriality can
facilitate designers to provide the better solutions for different
types of users in each space. The greater the realization of
users' behaviors, the better the design to satisfy them.


References
Gifford, R. (2002). Environmental Psychology: Principles and
Practice. 3rd edition. Canada: Library of Congress
Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.

Pharmacoeconomy: The Future of
Pharmacy Health Care Practice
Ibrahim Al Khars
RW 61

Introduction
Concerns about the rising of health care costs and the
availability of limited resources have created a health care
environment with a strong emphasis on cost containment. This
focus necessitates that health care goods and services,
especially pharmaceutical products and services, be justified for
cost and quality.
Although pharmaceutical products present about 20%
(21t" 4, USA) of the resources spent on health care, this
percentage is rapidly increasing as new and unique drugs and
products are approved. Thorough evaluation of pharmaceutical
services and products must not only incorporate safety and
efficacy, but also consider the economic impact of drugs on
patients and hospitals. 12

Pharmacoeconomy in Pharmacy Practice
Management
Pharmacoeconomics is a new part of pharmacy
practice management, which is basically defined as "the
description and analysis of the cost of drug therapy to
healthcare systems and society, as well as the science of placing
a value on drug therapy."3
The pharmacoeconomist can assist clinicians and
administrators in balancing cost with quality to determine
which products and services represent the highest quality per
dollar spent without compromising the quality of health care
delivered. Furthermore, pharmacoeconomic data can provide
support and assistance for effective decision making in many
health care practice setting like formulary management,
individual patient therapy, medication policy, and resource
allocation.'
In any business, deficiencies in quality affect costs.
When an action is inappropriate, resources are unnecessarily
consumed and costs are incurred. An activity may need to be
redone and corrective actions may need to be undertaken; in
addition, customer satisfaction may be diminished. However,
programs which are designed to improve quality will also
consume resources. If a well-designed quality-improvement
program is implemented, the total quality will improve, the
costs of deficiencies will be reduced and the program will
generate benefits.4'5

The Purpose of Pharmacoeconomics
Pharmacoeconomics are designed to assist decision-
makers in allocating scarce resources. When
pharmacoeconomics are used to assess quality indicators, they


ELI Student Voices 13








focus on economic impact (return on investment) or efficiency,
or both. Pharmacoeconomics ascertain whether the outcome or
objective is worth pursuing; that is, whether the benefits exceed
the cost.5
Pharmacoeconomics, on the other hand, attempt to
determine the least costly way to achieve a desired level of
performance. The Six-Sigma program is the best example of
achieving that target. In the Six-Sigma analysis of efficiency,
only the costs are expressed in monetary terms; the
consequence is expressed as the degree of success in attaining
the objective or desired outcome. By using
pharmacoeconomical analysis health care practitioners can
achieve the apex of quality with minimum expenditure.

Conclusion
In conclusion, pharmacoeconomy fills an important
gap and answers important questions about quality. It
facilitates collaborative activities between academia and
manufacturers, health care setting, professional organizations,
and others to promote advances in health care quality of life.
Phrmacoeconomy will be the future of health care practitioners
in any setting.

References
1. Braun, T.L. Introduction to pharmacoeconomics. The
Pharmacy Newsletter; KFSH & RC. 1997; 11(3):1-2.
2. Strunk, B.C. and Ginsburg, P.B.. Tracking Health Care
Costs: Trends Turn Downward In 2003. Health
Affairs: The Policy Journal of the Health Sphere. June
9, 2004: retrieved May 25, 2006 from
http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/full/hlthaff.
w4.354/DC1
3. Townsend, R.J. P r-,,il, i,. i ,,. drug research and
development. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1987;21:134-
136.
4. Todd, M.W., Angaran D.M, Larson L.N. Quality Assurance
in Pharmacy Practice; Current Concepts. 1992:62-66.
5. Center for Pharmacoeconomic Research. Home page.
Retrieved May 25, 2006 from
hup \ \ \ .uic.edu/pharmacy/ research/cpr/about.htm.

Beyond Death There Is Life
Chanida Chiewnawin (Bee)
R/W50

Even though we have no distinct evidence to convince
all people around the world to believe in the same way about
the afterlife, in my deep feeling I, myself, believe that beyond
death there is life. I get this feeling from faith and intuition
mixed together with other external resources such as religious
preaching and traditional legends. Every soul will be in a
sphere of life until reaching the state of Nirvana.
I never believed in the soul until I had directly
experienced attending a Buddhism meditation course for eight
days by accident in the beginning of this year; my thought was
changed. I had the most peace and calm of my mind on the
third day, and that was the most fabulous day. On that day,


when I was meditating, I felt my mouth was opening gradually
and my overlapping hands were lifting gently from my lap. I
tried to close my mouth at first. But it turned out that my
physical mouth still was closed. And my crossed hands still lay
on my lap. I felt that there was another entity like a soul
overlapping my physical body. I was really nervous and scared
at that time, but I couldn't get out of the meditation by
following the rule that we were taught. I could imagine how our
soul left the body when we were in deep meditation. With my
conscious mind, I realized that I was a soul who was using the
body to live in this world. Moreover, there could have been
other worlds at the same time for other kinds of soul. Selecting
the world to be born in was up to the amount of sin and merit a
soul had. Therefore, I believed that after death, the soul was
still alive.
Soon after that I read a book with the title "It Is a Pity
that the Death Never Read." This book is not only referring to
many words of the Lord of Buddha, but it also supports my
thoughts. One of them is that death is not the end of the soul. It
is just the end of physical and mental labor. Death is the
movement of the soul from this world to another by leaving a
dead body which decays gradually. At the moment of death, it
is the time for collecting all actions and weighing between good
and bad things that souls have done and deciding the places to
be born between upper and lower from the human level. All
souls still are in the Wheel of Rebirth and pay for the results of
their bad behaviors until they are completely clean.
The result of our actions in the past can affect us at
different times: in the present, in the next world, and worlds
after the next world. Even our appearances are also the result of
our past actions which might accumulate from last worlds or
this world. You may have been so stunned by the beauty of
someone that you could not take your eyes off of her. Beautiful
women are getting the result of good actions they have done.
Moreover, you may have wondered why vicious people in our
society haven't got the bad results of their actions and are rich
and have much power in our society. Don't forget that you
might have seen only the wrong things they have done in this
world, but not innumerable great meritorious deeds
accumulated from many past worlds.
After all souls have finished their compensation, the
Lord of Buddha said that it will be time to enter the state of
Nirvana for bodies and souls. To get out of the Wheel of
Rebirth is the final destination of all souls. Therefore, where we
go after death depends on our actions in every moment of
breath. Doing only good things is the only way to create
permanent safety for ourselves even in this life or the next
lives.

The Provisional Governments of Korea
Sang Soo Yoo
Grammar 41

During the late 19th Century, many western countries
such as France, England, and so forth and Japan demanded
economic relations from Korea. Japan got rid of the western
countries in Korean territory. Finally, Korea accepted Japan as


ELI Student Voices 14








its trading partner and Korea was controlled by Japan from
1906 to 1945. Generally, people call this the Colonial Period.
During the colonial period, three provisional governments of
Korea were established in Vladivostok on March 21, in
Shanghai on April 11, and in Seoul on April 21 in 1919.
The National Council of Korea in Vladivostok, which
was established first, integrated its activities with those of the
Shanghai division, which then passed a resolution calling for
integration with the Seoul provisional government. The first
cabinet meeting was convened in Shanghai on November 4,
1919, marking the start of the functioning of the provisional
government.
The provisional government in Shanghai was as a
representative of Korean people and as Korea's only
independence organization abroad. Despite its financial
difficulties and Japanese attempts to suppress it, the provisional
government in Shanghai led and coordinated Korean
independence movements and did its best to carry out its
international duties. It denounced totalitarian Japan and
provided close cooperation with the allied powers in the world
during World War II. For twenty seven years, until the
provisional government in Shanghai returned in Korea on
November 23, 1945, after Japan surrendered, it strove to
represent Korean people.
The provisional government in Seoul proclaimed
Korean independence, which intended to repeal Japan's
colonial system and withdraw Japan's occupation forces from
Korea. It urged Korean people to refuse paying taxes to the
Japan government, not to accept trials by Japan courts, and to
avoid employment at the colonial offices. A direct challenge
was posed by the provisional government in Seoul against the
Japan colonial system.
As a result, three provisional governments expedited
independence of Korea. Moreover, it provided foundational
laws, politics, economy, social system. To build the provisional
governments of Korea were one event of the most important
parts of Korea history.


Thanks from the Editor
Thank you for sharing your writing with everyone. I hope you
enjoy reading your fellow students' essays, paragraphs, and
poetry. Also thanks to Megan Forbes and the University of
Florida Bookstore for arranging the gift certificates, to Nora
Spencer for publicizing this issue of Student Voices, to the
Reading/Writing instructors for supporting their students in
their writing, and to Art Schneider, Megan Forbes, Tina
Komaniecka, and Jen Ramos for reading and evaluating the
entries.
Thanks everyone! Steve Flocks


English Language Institute
PO Box 117051
315 Norman Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611-7051, USA
Phone: (352) 392-3354
Fax: (352) 392-3744
Email: StudyEnglish@eli.ufl.edu
Webpage: www.eli.ufl.edu


ELI Student Voices 15




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