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Title: ELI student voices
Series Title: ELI student voices
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Language: English
Creator: English Language Institute, University of Florida
Publisher: English Language Institute, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Spring 2006
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Volume ID: VID00013
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ELI STUDENT VOICES


Spring, 2006


Traditional Food of Korean Holidays
HyeRan Moon (Lynn) (1t Place)
R/W51

Every nation has its special holidays to celebrate or
appreciate something. Holidays have been a great pleasure of
life for a long time because holidays give us a lot of things such
as fun, relaxation, and so on. One of the biggest reasons that
people look forward to holidays is the traditional food of
holidays. Nowadays, it is not easy for modern people to eat the
traditional food in their life, so holidays have become one of the
days that we can eat the traditional food. There is a lot to eat on
Korean holidays. Korea has several main holidays, and each
holiday has its representative traditional food that includes the
history, culture and life.
First of all, Seol, which is the lunar New Year's Day,
is the most important Korean holiday, and Ttokkuk is the
representative food of Seol. Ttokkuk is a kind of rice cake soup
and includes a lot of ingredients such as beef, egg, and
dumplings. Nowadays, we eat Ttokkuk any day of the year but
in the past it was only on New Year's Day. Actually, eating
Ttokkuk means you are getting one year older. Koreans do not
count their ages on the basis of their birthdays but on the basis
of New Year's Day. When you have a dish of Ttokkuk you are
one year older.
Secondly, Chu-Suk is a kind of Korean version of
Thanksgiving. Chu-Suk is August 15t of the lunar calendar,
and now Chu-Suk is recognized as the two big holidays with
Seol in Korea. There are a lot of traditional foods, but the most
popular food is Song-Pyon. Song-Pyon is a certain type of rice
cake called "Doughk," and is basically made from the rice
powder. There is the option of adding color, and also there are
many special types of stuffing in Song-Pyon which is beans,
sugar, and honey. On the morning of Chu-Suk, people prepare a
memorial service table which consists of new harvest
vegetables, fruits, and Song-Pyon for their ancestors.
Finally, Jongwol-Deaborum is the first full moon day
of the year. Koreans celebrate the day especially for driving
away misfortune and evil, and there are various representative
foods. People eat peanuts, walnuts, chestnuts etc. on arising
early in the morning, and also they must eat as many nuts as the
number of years they have lived. In the old days, there were
many people suffering from facial skin disease with
malnutrition because they did not have abundant food. The
people believed that evil made these diseases, and they could
protect them from the disease by eating this kind of foods that
have hard rind because the evil spirits and demons become
scared and run away at the sound of the loud cracking noises.


In conclusion, there are some main Korean holidays,
which are Seol, Chu-Suk, Jongwol-Deaborum, and each
representative food reflects Korean tradition. Holidays
generally show the historic culture and life of the nation.
Especially, the traditional foods of holidays have a peculiar
color of the nation that is totally different from others countries.
However, this kind of traditional food and custom is getting
rarer or more simple these days. In my opinion, we can respect
the sprit of the traditional holiday by keeping the custom and
also traditional food of the holiday.

Citations
http://www.ktnet.co.kr/enghome/culture/customs.html#l

High Springs as a Tourist Destination in
North Central Florida (2nd Place)
Mario Klemmer
R/W51

If you ask people from all over the world about
attractive destinations in the United States, what do you think is
the most common answer? I bet you will hear Hollywood,
Beverly Hills, New York, Miami or Las Vegas. These cities are
nice and interesting for travelers, but do these cities show the
typical America? Maybe just a handful of people know about
the beautiful and fantastic natural side of the United States. This
is especially true of Florida, which is famous for the home of
Mickey Mouse, the good weather, the unique atmosphere at
South Beach, and maybe for some sports attractions like the
tennis tournament in Key Biscayne. But, Florida has much more
than these attractions especially for people who enjoy nature.
In the last few years, the Florida Travel Organizations have
tried to push ecotourism to the foreground and make places
more attractive for travelers (Meyer, Personal interview,
03/31/2006). I want to show travelers the other side of Florida,
the areas around North Central Florida, places for naturalists.
Specifically, I would like to talk about High Springs and some
of the opportunities or activities for naturalists, some of the
family activities, and some of the places divers can enjoy.
First of all, I want to introduce High Springs. It was
voted the "friendliest small town" in Florida a few years ago
(web page: Welcome to High Springs, Fl). High Springs and the
other springs in North Central Florida are about one and a half
hour north of Orlando and almost half an hour car drive from
Gainesville. The small town High Springs has approximately
3,600 inhabitants, including the surrounding areas the
population rises to about 9,000 inhabitants (from web page:
Welcome to High Springs, Fl), which makes this area so placid.


ELI Student Voices 1


Volume 10, Issue 1








As the consequence of the low population, the area has kept its
fantastic nature and charm.
In the 17th century, before tourism discovered this area,
it flourished with the tribe of Indians called Pateo-Indians and a
large Spanish mission. In the late 19th century High Springs was
well known as an important railroad center and for its
phosphate mining. Now that the phosphate resources are almost
gone, and trucks replaced the railroads, so tourism has become
a very important business to High Springs (from web page:
Welcome to High Springs, Fl). The small downtown offers a lot
of antique shops, and some restaurants as well as some nice
places for travelers to stay. Furthermore there are six to eight
parks located around High Springs, which offer many
recreational opportunities.
This area is especially interesting for naturalists and
families. Naturalists can see a whole different side of Florida
when they walk or where they paddle in a canoe on one of the
small rivers thru this fascinating environment. The unique flora
and animals gives the travelers an untouched and peaceful
impression. For example, tourists can see turtles, birds, and with
luck manatees, who bear their calves in the beginning of the
year in the springs. The local government has prepared
wonderful paths where naturalists and nature can come
together. Particularly I recommend a trip with the kayak or
canoe on one of the clear tributaries from the Suwannee River.
Especially during the week, without all the weekend travelers,
visitors have the opportunity to enjoy the nature almost to
themselves in totally seclusion.
Families also have the possibility to spend an
unforgettable time with their children in this area. The parks
offer an enormous number of activities. Tubing, a very fun
activity, especially for children and adults, is just one
opportunity to enjoy nature. Depending which of the six to
eight parks you choose, a tubing tour can take up to three hours.
Alternatively travelers can enjoy the day by swimming,
bicycling, snorkeling, taking boat tours, doing sports activities
like tennis or basketball, or just enjoying the wonderful nature
by a nice BBQ. There is the possibility to rent all the
accessories needed, for a low fee, in the parks or in a lot of
stores right outside the parks. If you do not want to drive to the
park every day you have the choice to rent small cottages or
tents in the park. The prices vary from park to park, so I would
recommend you call the park for information or inform yourself
on the webpage of the park where you want to stay. Ginnie
Springs Park is very well known in this part of Florida and is
one of the biggest offering many opportunities for families for
an exciting stay.
Furthermore, the area around High Springs has
become a very popular and interesting destination for scuba
divers; especially for cave divers. The springs boast the clearest
diving water to be found in the world (DeLoach, p.84), which
offers the divers a variety of large deepwater basins. A few
springs should be briefly mentioned: Ichetucknee Springs, Blue
Hole Spring, Devil's Eye Spring, Blue Springs-Santa Fe River
and last but not least the famous Ginnie Spring. In these
springs, which have all levels of difficulties, every diver, from
amateur to professional, will find the right location for her or
his level of experiences with cave diving, and he/she is able to


enjoy the unbelievable underwater world. It is a pleasure for the
surrounding diving stores, where divers can rent tanks, diving
accessories or book courses, to inform divers about important
details like water deepness or level of difficulty. Also, a lot of
web pages and diving guidebooks have useful information for
interested people. I am not sure if the risk makes cave diving so
interesting or just the diving experience itself but I bet that
divers who visit this area and dive through these wonderful
underwater caves will have eventful days.
In conclusion High Springs is a very attractive tourist
destination in North Central Florida, which appeals especially
to naturalists, families and cave divers. For each of these groups
the area offers many opportunities to enjoy wonderful and
relaxed days and to see Florida from less known natural side.

Works Cited

Contact Ginnie Springs Outdoors. 31 March 2006

.DeLoach, Ned. Diving Guide to Underwater Florida.
Jackonsville: New World Publications, 2000.
Meyer, Louisa. Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport
Management, University of Florida. Personal
Interview, 31 March 2006
Welcome to High Springs, Florida. 31 March 2006
.

Freedom in America

This is a group essay written by the students of
RW 30.

Introduction: (Chak Chan R/W 30 teacher)
In our class, we wrote about our first impressions of
America. We discussed the differences between our cultures
and the American culture, the changes in our personal lifestyles
and what we like the most about America. Almost everybody
agreed that America is a free country and that the Americans
enjoy a lot more freedom than the people in many other
countries do. Some of us went further to define what freedom
is, some tried to identify the kind of freedom we are able to see
in America, and many more tried to evaluate "American
freedom." They had very different and contrasting thoughts
about the issue. The following is their voice:

Everyone here in the United States of America has
freedom for everything. They can choose a new president for
every four years. They can wear anything without any problem.
For example, the Saudi girls studying here can cover their heads
with a veil without getting teased by other people. Everyone can
believe in whatever he/she wants. Also, everyone has the
freedom of speech. He/she can say anything without getting in
trouble. Ibrahim Habadi

Although I have been living in America for only three
months, I can say for sure that the first thing that attracted my
attention was the amount of freedom that the Americans enjoy.


ELI Student Voices 2








I still remember, for example, my first day in JFK International
Airport. I saw women and men wearing the kind of clothes that
the people in Niger cannot wear. "This symbolizes freedom,"
said a girl who came from Niger with me. Personally, I was also
surprised about the Americans' freedom of speech and political
assembly. I say so because I came from Africa where
governments have strict control over political gatherings. You
can find in many African countries the same presidents for
twenty or thirty years and the people can do nothing about it.
Ismael Yacouba

In my opinion, freedom is good for people, and people
have a strong desire for freedom. America is a free country
where I can do a lot of things that I can't do in my own country,
Taiwan. For example, when I am in my class, I can go to the
restroom by telling the teacher that I need to go, instead of
really asking for permission to answer to nature's call. The kind
of freedom the Americans have is wonderful. It makes you feel
like a real person, not a prisoner injail. Wei-Hao Tseng

To me, freedom means equal access to opportunity. I
think America is a country where all people can fulfill their own
goals. The opportunities are of all and for all, meaning if I work
hard I can get all the things I want within my reach. In this
country, I can be poor, or rich, all depending on myself.
Ramon Padilla

Do I think the Americans use their freedom in a good
way? I think so. If you go down to the street, you will see
evidence. They can do whatever they want without bothering
other people. They can choose to live a poor or rich life, in fast
or slow paces, and with or without love. Also, they can decide
their relations with their families, friends, the society, and even
the government. I think everybody in this country knows how to
use his/her freedom very well. They know the true meaning of
freedom. Omar Kutbi

I think the American people try to get more freedom
than what they have already had. The American constitution
guarantees many kinds of freedom. In my opinion, the
American constitution is the best one in the world. However,
the freedom that the Americans enjoy right now still cannot
satisfy them. MohammedAlWaheeb

I think the kind of freedom in America is very good,
even though some people may abuse the freedom they have,
especially teenagers. The government has a good system to take
control and let the people know the real meaning of freedom.
Amar Sharawi

Talking about freedom, I think the Americans are
lucky to have so much. I also think that maybe with that much
freedom, they are heading to trouble, especially for young
people. Many of them use obscene languages, and some even
do disgusting actions on TV. People under the age of 18 watch
TV shows that they are not supposed to be watching. Freedom
does no good when people do not respect themselves.
Aysegul Ayaslan


I don't think some Americans use their freedom in
good ways. The true meaning of freedom is that you can do
whatever you want to do by following the rules and staying
within the laws. I think some Americans do not respect the rules
and that is not a good use of freedom. Just yesterday when I
was in my class, a housing inspector entered my room for
inspection without my presence. It was my room and they
needed to ask for my permission to enter it. This is such a brutal
violation to my privacy. Omar Farias


Everyone has the right to enjoy freedom and make
decisions about his/her own life. America is considered one of
the freest countries in the world. It allows freedom for almost
everything: religion, lifestyle, education, etc. Because America
has a lot of freedom, there may be side effects too. One of the
examples for this is the behavior of some teenagers. Just
because they are free, they are also careless about the choices
they make, such as drunk driving and casual sex. Men and
women, boys and girls can live together before getting married.
As a result, marriage has become a joke. Amani Habadi

I think most Americans use their freedom in a good
way. Although they can do almost anything they want, most of
them still remember to have respect to other people. How well a
person uses his/her freedom depends on how he/she interprets
the meaning of freedom. For those who miss the true meaning
of freedom, we can see some real problems around them, such
as excessive drinking and violence. AmalAl-Abbad

How do I think about "American Freedom"? Do the
Americans use their freedom in a good way? In fact, this is a
confusing question. I think freedom of any kind in anywhere
can both be positive and negative. It is positive if you use it to
make contribution to your country and the people around you.
In this sense, it doesn't matter if the kind of freedom is
American or not. To be honest, I don't think I understand what
"American Freedom" really is. All Al-Deshan

I think this is a really important question. In my
opinion, Americans do enjoy a lot of freedom, but many of
them do not make the best use of their freedom for their best
interests, given that they absolutely can. Many of them live just
for today and do not think about tomorrow. I have a lot of
friends in the United States. They work hard and earn money in
this month and spend it all in the next month. All they want is to
enjoy the moment. They don't care about plans for the future.
Mehdi Eshaghayan

I think that the Americans use their freedom very well
because they understand the notions of personal freedom and
independence, which are the foundation of democracy.
However, freedom itself is not complete. Freedom must come
with responsibility. The two are like a pair of wings. Flying is
impossible if one wing is missing. I think that the Americans
know how to fulfill the responsibility that comes with freedom.
After all, America is one of the leading democratic countries in
the world. Sang-Soo Yoo


ELI Student Voices 3








The only consensus in our debate is that freedom is
essential to our life, and that freedom must be used in a sensible
way. When talking about freedom and America, the class split
roughly into two groups, with one group holding positive
impressions and the other negative. In the process of writing
this essay, the two groups argued and challenged each other,
while sometimes agreed on the same conclusions and helped
clarify arguments. In addition to the debate, we enjoyed reading
each other's paragraphs with a strong desire for enlightenment.
By arguing back and forth, enlightenment we did have. Some
issues became clearer, while some answers to certain questions
brought only more questions. It has been a valuable learning
process in which we learned about the concept of freedom,
American culture, and how to express ourselves in writing. Our
readers may find the arguments credible, insightful,
provocative, impressionistic or immature, but they truly
represent our voices. Sang-Soo Yoo, Omar Kutbi,
Wei-Hao Tseng, Amal Al-Abbad and Ismael Yacouba

Chinese Valentine's Day (The Seventh
Evening of July)
Chun-ting Huang (Katrina)
RW 40

One of the most famous and romantic festivals in
Taiwan is the Chinese Valentine's Day. It comes from a story
of a good-looking but poor orphan living with his elder brother
and sister-in-law. After his parents passed away, his brother
inherited the house and the land. The boy only owned an old ox.
He needed to work on the farm with the ox everyday. So he was
called Niulang cowherdd). For a long time, Niulang worked
very hard with the old ox, who became his best friend. His daily
life was just like in a Cinderella story.
One day, the ox suddenly opened its mouth and started
to talk. He told Niulang that the Heavenly Weaving Maid and
her sisters were going to bathe in the river and he should go
there and steal the clothes of the Weaving Maid, so that she
would become his wife. Niulang followed the ox's words and
hid himself at the river bank, waiting for the girls to bathe.
When Niulang saw the girls went into the water, he rushed out
and grabbed the Weaving Maid's clothes. After bathing, the
other girls got dressed and returned to the Heaven, except for
the Weaving Maid who could not find her clothes. Then
Niulang came to her and said he would not return the clothes
unless she was willing to be his wife. The Weaving Maid was
shy but agreed to marry him. They lived happily ever after.
When the Emperor of Heaven knew about this, he was
very angry and decided to separate them by forcing the
Weaving Maid to move to Star Vega and Niulang to Star Altair.
Magpies were moved by their true love and many of them
formed a bridge for the couple to meet in the evening of the 7th
day of the 7th lunar month, the day that the Emperor allowed
them to meet once a year.
People say that it's hard to find a magpie on Chinese
Valentine's Day, because all magpies fly away to make the
bridge for the Weaving Maid and Cowherd. One piece of
evidence is the feathers on the heads of the magpies, which are


much fewer after the Chinese Valentine's Day. If it rains the
night before Chinese Valentine's Day, the rain represents the
tears of the Weaving Maid and Cowherd.

Obesity: A Growing World
Byunlg/oon Chung (J)
RW 60

One day, I saw a man on TV who had lain down on his
bed and had not moved for a long time. In fact, he could not
move his body out of the bed by himself. He was very big and
obese. In addition, I have seen many obese people who seem to
have problems walking since I came to the U.S. They eat
McDonald's Big Mac and Coca-Cola, which are one cause of
their obesity. However, this is not only a problem in the U.S.
but also a big issue over the world. Asian countries including
Japan, whose people are known for health and longevity, have
been suffering from obesity recently. Moreover, I watched
news of South Korea, which showed obesity problem among
juveniles.
As people might think, diet is the most accountable
cause of obesity. Asian diet used to consist of less meat than
Americans. For example, Koreans used not to consume meat as
much as Americans did. The people in the small Asian country
had eaten rice and vegetables instead. After the Korean War,
however, the people started following American diet style as
the U.S. has become the most influential county in Korea and
the world. Young people in the world are getting used to eating
and enjoying fast foods such as McDonald's, Burger King,
Wendy's, and so on. Also, soda, which contains much sugar,
causes obesity. According to Super Size Me, a film directed by
Morgan Spurlock (21" '4), soda such as coke is a more harmful
aspect to human health because soda has not only lots of
calories but also lots of sugar; for example, a 16 fl oz cup Coca-
Cola in McDonald's has 150 calories and 40g sugar, which is a
recommended maximum amount of daily sugar consumption,
and the more serious problem is that people drink more than
one small cup of coke.
Another cause of obesity is lack of exercise. People
should bur the calories that they consume by exercise in order
to keep healthy and prevent fat and obesity. However, people
do not move and exercise as much as before as transportation is
developing and people do not any longer have to walk a long
distance if they do not want to. They even drive when they go
to buy a bottle of water in front of their houses. Also, they only
sit on their chairs and do theirjob, which has mostly happened
in industrialized countries. Besides, people have started
moving to urban areas from rural areas to find jobs and
machines have replaced human roles in workplaces. Thus,
people do not need to sweat for their jobs in many professions
and must do something else to bur what they eat. As a result,
they cannot help getting fat if they do not go to a gym and work
out.
Although diet and lack of exercise are certain causes of
obesity, there is a cause which includes those causes. Lifestyle
is the one which we cannot ignore. Industrialization has had an
effect on not only the workplace but also the home. It has


ELI Student Voices 4








brought convenience out in human life so that people can live
with less physical difficulty. Also, it has changed our leisure
style, especially juveniles' and children's leisure. When I was
little, children used to play in a playground at a school or ride a
bicycle, which is more active than what present children do. In
Korea, children stay at their home, play video game, and enjoy
outdoor sports less and less. Their physical constitutions are
getting better; however, their physical strengths are getting
weaker compared to the past. Although they are taller and
bigger than previous generations, they are weaker and have an
obesity problem.
Obesity is now the most serious health problems,
followed by smoking which people might consider more serious
than obesity. It causes other health problems, such as diabetes
and heart disease, and economic loss because obese people have
a higher chance to be absent from their jobs and to spend more
money for their health care. It would be an unnecessary cost if
they were not obese. The total economic cost attributable to
obesity was estimated at $99 billion in the U.S. in 1995 (Wolf
& Colditz, 1998). The cost is approximately the annual
government budget in South Korea.
In fact, obesity must be prevented no matter how huge
the economic cost of obesity is because obesity is directly
relevant to our 'health.' Also, people had better concentrate on
its prevention instead of its treatment, which is less effective
and more expensive than the prevention. The best way we can
prevent obesity is education in school.

Reference:
Wolf, A.M. & Colditz, G. (1998). Current estimates of the
economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obesity
Research. 1998 Mar. 6 (2):173-5

Obesity: Is it a Problem in Saudi Arabia?
Ibrahim AlKhars
RW 60

Obesity has become one of the most used terms
worldwide. It is a term used to indicate an excessive deposition
of fat in the body. In health care practice, they use Body Mass
Index (BMI), which has been found to correlate with the degree
of body fat, as an indicator to measure obesity. If the BMI is
more than thirty, then the person is considered obese. Some
people may be under the impression that obesity is simply a
shape-up or appearance issue. This is not true! Obesity is
considered as one of the most common diseases and the most
frequent cause of preventable death after smoking.
Data collected from around the world shows that there
has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity in the past
10-15 years. Some people may think that obesity tends to be
more common in highly developed countries and upper-class
societies where there is a sedentary lifestyle with minimal
dependence on exercise. This is not true! Obesity is becoming
a major problem in the developing countries too. A typical
example is Saudi Arabia.
Statistics released from the Ministry of Health in Saudi
Arabia showed that obc's.i affects 51% of Saudi women and


45% of men, as well as 29% of teenage girls and 36% of boys."
According to research conducted by the Ministry of Health in
Saudi Arabia, "More than three million children, or one out of
five, in the Kingdom, suffer from obesity." It said, "Obesity and
its associated health risks are one of the most common
nutritional diseases at present" (Hammond, 2006, 2). This is
higher than what has been reported in the USA (28% in males
and 33% in females) (Hellmich, 2005, 2), the UK (46% and
32% in males and females), and Italy (21% and 24% in males
and females), (Ellen, 2003, 4) but lower than Australia (63%
in males and 47%in females) (Adrian, 2003, p. 427). Other
research confirms that overweight children "are more prone to a
number of serious chronic illnesses, especially heart disease,
with the number of at risk children, currently reaching 61% in
Saudi Arabia" (Alsharq Alawsat, 2005, 1).
There are many causes of obesity in the Saudi Arabian
society which are pretty similar to those in other countries.
Economic development in Saudi Arabia during the last 30
years, with advancements in technology and improved living
standards, has changed nutritional and lifestyle habits with more
energy intake. For example, American style fast food
restaurants become a common restaurant and a model of the
modern life in Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, lifestyle is
becoming more and more sedentary and energy expenditure is
reduced. The imbalance caused by increased energy intake and
reduced energy expenditure leaves its effect in the form of
obesity.
Another factor is genetics. Genetics also contributed to
the development of obesity. Many studies proved that the
probability that a child born from obese parent will tend to be
obese much more than a child from a non-obese parent. Also,
studies indicated that "obese children have a higher risk of
being obese adults" (El-Hazmi, 1997, p. 204).
Obesity has adverse effects on health in both young
and old individuals and it has been shown that "obese
individuals have an increased overall mortality rate compared to
the normal weight population." Studies have shown that
"compared to normal weight population, the mortality rate is
increased with an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI)" (Calle,
1999, p. 1098). Obesity is also associated with increased risk of
hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cerebral
and peripheral vascular disease, biliary tract disease,
osteoarthritis, gout, cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, uterus
and ovary, and diseases of the female reproductive tract.
Obesity is not only causing a harmful effect on people
but also to the economy. In the United States, statistics showed
that "the cost of obesity management alone is approximately
$100 billion annually, of which approximately $52 billion are
from the direct costs of health care." This represents about
5.7% of all US health expenditure. If we look to the indirect
cost, statistics showed that the cost of lost productivity due to
obesity is approximately $3.9 billion, while another $33 billion
is annually spent on other weight reduction products and
services (UK Obesity Statistics, 2004, p. 3).
The best solution to control and prevent obesity is
educating the community. A well-designed educational program
must be designed to increase the information about obesity, its
harmful effects and measures to prevent it. This program ought


ELI Student Voices 5








to be comprehensive, concentrating on children as well as
parents. Such programs should be evaluated to ensure their
efficacy in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity in
the population.
Finally, obesity is not a unique problem to a specific
country. Obesity is a global problem that is increasing rapidly
around the world. Therefore there should be cooperative efforts
between all countries to control and prevent this problem.

References:
Adrian J Cameron, Timothy A Welborn, etl (2003). MJA; 178
(9): 427-432. Retrieved March 25, 2006 from
Imp \ \ \ .mja.com.au/public/issues/178 09 050503/
cam10689 fm.html
An epidemic of obesity myth. Retrieved March 25, 2006 from
http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/healthcare/a/cdcbadstats
.htm
Calle EE, Thun MJ, et al (1999). Body-Mass Index and
Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of U.S. Adults. N
EnglJMed; Oct 7;341(15):1097-105. Retrieved March
25, 2006 from
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/341/15/109
7
El-Hazmi M, Warsy A (1997). Prevalence of Obesity in the
Saudi Population. Ann Saudi Med; 17(3):302-306.
Retrieved March 25, 2006 from
Ihp l \\\\ .kfshrc.edu.sa/annals/173/96-177.html
Ellen Hale (2003). Junk food super-sizing Europeans. USA
Today. com. Retrieved March 25, 2006 from
mhp '\ \ .usatoday.com/news/health/2003-11-17-
europeans-obese_x.htm
Hammond Andrew (2006). Saudi wants to trim waists of
overweight population. Retrieved March 25, 2006
from
lhp 1 \ .khilafah.com/home/category.php?Docume
ntID=13013&TagID=2
Hellmich Nanci (2005), Health spending soars for obesity. USA
Today.com. Retrieved March 25, 2006 from
mhp % \ \ .usatoday.com/news/health/2005-06-26-
health-spending-obesity_x.htm
Obesity Epidemic Spreading in Saudi Arabia: 61% of children
at risk of heart disease. Alsharq Alawsat Newspaper,
23/06/2005. Retrieved March 25, 2006 from
http://aawsat.com/english/news.asp?id=547§ion= 1
UK Obesity Statistics, Trends in Overweight and Obesity
(2005). Retrieved March 25, 2006 from
ihp \ \\ \\ .annecollins.com/obesitv/uk-obesitv-
statistics.html

American Fast Food
Jorge Roman
R/W51

Fast food chains bring advantages to Americans by
generating many jobs. Some of the direct jobs are represented
by people who work in restaurants making food and serving
customers. Fast food also generates indirect jobs, such as the


people who work in farms, the manufacturing companies, and
the transportation services. Eric Schlooser says, in his book
Fast Food Nation, that one of every eight workers in the United
States has been employed by fast food chains (Eco Books).
Therefore these restaurants represent a very important part of
the US economy.
On the other hand, fast food provides many
disadvantages to the American people. While people need to eat
food in order to fuel their bodies because food provides the
energy that humans need, and this energy is consumed during
physical activities. There has to exist a balance between the
total of energy eaten and energy expended. Experts in nutrition
suggest two thousand calories diet per day for an adult.
However, a Big Mac, a very popular sandwich at
McDonalds, with big fries and a big soda contains almost one
thousand four hundred calories (FATCALORIES.COM), so one
meal almost covers a person's daily needs. It is not only the Big
Mac, fast food of every chain contains a lot of calories. The
United States has become the nation with more people with
overweight on the world. Obesity has been linked to many
diseases like diabetes, prostate and colon cancer, insulin
resistance, heart diseases, and many more (Supersize Me).
However, people seem to ignore all these facts when eating fast
food.
In conclusion, people have to get knowledge and know
the facts about the advantages and disadvantages of fast food.
Restaurants generate jobs but their food destroys American's
health. Many measures must be taken to prevent a bigger
problem. But these measures have to consider both sides of the
coin to ensure a positive solution for everyone.

Dragon Boat Festival
Yi-Chia Su
RW 41

We have many festivals in Taiwan. Chinese New Year,
the Moon Festival, and the Dragon Boat Festival are three
important festivals. Dragon Boat Festival is on the fifth day of
the fifth lunar month. It's on May thirty-first this year. Maybe
you would wonder why we choose the dragon. We were an
agriculture country and the dragon stands for the rain, so we use
it for a favorable weather. There are some special meanings
about it, and it's my favorite holiday. Thus, I want to introduce
the history, and the traditional activities.
We celebrate the day to remember a poet who loved
his country very much, and his name was Chu Yuan. His king
wanted to be related with another country, Chin, by marriage,
but he told the king that was a trick. However, the king and
other ministers didn't believe it, so Qu Yuan was sent to the
border. Then, the king continued the wedding and was killed by
the Chin. Chu Yuan was very sad when he knew the news, and
he jumped into the Mi Low River. People were moved by this,
so they named the day he died Dragon Boat Festival.
The first tradition is eating rice dumplings. In the past,
because people don't want the fish to eat Chu Yuan's body,
they put the rice into bamboo tubes and threw them into the
river. Nowadays, we eat rice dumplings. We wrap rice in two


ELI Student Voices 6








bamboo leaves. Most people don't make it by themselves
anymore, but they just buy it in a store.
The second tradition is the dragon boat race. The
reason is that ancient people wanted to find Chu Yuan's body.
It has become a team race now and more and more foreigners
like it. There are at least 8 to 10 people who row a boat and a
drummer who inspires contestants. Which boat can catch the
flag first is the winner. Because we don't want the ghost in the
river to bother us, we would have a ceremony before the race
begins.
The third tradition is hanging "Artemisia indica". It
will become hotter after the day and there are infectious
illnesses. The herbs can cure illnesses, so people hang it on the
door to stay healthy.
The fourth tradition is drinking Xiong Huang Wine.
Xiong Huang Wine is a healthy drink and people believe that it
can keep the evil spirit away from us. There is a story about a
man who married a white snake. He did not know it until the
snake drank the Xiong Huang Wine. For this reason, children
wear sachets and the adults drink wine during these days.
The fifth tradition is drinking the well water at noon.
The noon on the day is important. People believe that the well
water at that time can cure illness. Furthermore, if you can
make an egg or a coin stands up straight, you will have a good
luck next year.
Chinese have many festivals and holidays. Some of
them really have interesting stories. These stories exist in both
Taiwan and China and the way people celebrate is the same. I
think we just have different flavor of food.

Popular Destinations in Europe
Jung Ju Lee (Ju)
R/W51

When people travel to foreign countries, they make
their own memory about the country. Most people want to visit
Europe, because there are a lot of beautiful spots where they
can make their own sweet memories. Before I visited Europe, I
didn't know the reason why people wanted to go there. When I
visited Europe in the summer in 2004, it was a really wonderful
experience. I have visited eight countries in Europe and seen a
lot of famous places. I was deeply impressed by Rome, Prague,
and Paris.
At first, everybody has heard about Rome, even
though they have never been there. Fontana Di Trevi has a
legend that whoever drinks its water, or throws a coin in the
fountain, will return to Rome ("Fontana Di"). I did not drink
the water, but I threw a coin. So, I hope someday I will go to
Rome again. And the Pantheon is also a famous temple in
Rome. There is a hole at the ceiling, but a scientific structure
prevents it from rain and provides lights inside of the pantheon.
I can't imagine how the ancient people can make a marvelous
structure.
Second, Prague was the first city in my trip, but I did
not have any information about it. At that time it was not a
famous city. But nowadays it is a very famous city in Korea
because since that time, the Korean airline has been serving a


direct line between Korea and Prague. So, people can go to
Prague easier than before. There are two places I recommend-
Prague Castle and Golden Lane. Prague Castle is the largest
ancient castle in the world (570 m long, on average 128 m wide,
area 7.28 hectares) ("Prague Castle and Hradcany"). At night,
lights on the castle can be seen from the Charles Bridge. It is
very beautiful. I cannot express its beauty. There are many
colorful small houses in the Golden Lane. In the 18th and 10th
centuries they were occupied by squatters, later it was the home
of the writer Franz Kafka (house 22) and the Nobel-Laureate
poet Jaroslaf. Most of them are souvenir shops today ("Prague
Castle and Hradcany").
Third, I believe that most people want to go to Paris. I
heard from many people that Paris is the most romantic city in
the world. I completely agree with them. When I was in the
Eiffel Tower at night I decided that I must fall in love with
somebody or I must come again with somebody I love. And the
Seine River is the most beautiful river I have ever seen. I took a
pleasure boat which has a second floor. Every traveler sang
their country's song, some couples hugged and kissed each
other, and some people drank beer or wine. It was exactly
"romantic Paris" itself.
In conclusion, I thought if I were one of them who live
in these cities, I would not understand its value. Most people
tend to want to have what they don't have. Probably, to visit
popular destinations makes people realize what they have
already had but they have not known it was presents for their
life.

Going to the Dentist in America-A
Cultural Experience
Yi-Chia Su (Doris)
R/W41

What do you think about going to the dentist? I think it
can be frightening...
I used to refuse to see a dentist unless my teeth hurt
very very much. However, I changed the way I think about
dentists after I saw Dr. Patty Webb here in Gainesville. Dr.
Webb was my second dentist in Florida. She is so nice and she
has many good dental assistants working for her. Also, all of the
dental assistants are women! When I went to her office for the
first time, I immediately had a warm feeling because all of the
people who work there are very welcoming. The people at "Dr.
Patty's" always smile and talk with every patient. It is like
being at home, not just a dentist's office. They didn't mind that
my English was not great, and we communicated with the help
of my electronic translator. I felt like a curious child while I was
at Dr. Patty's office. While I was there, I asked the staff to
explain things to me whenever I heard new vocabulary words or
sentences that I didn't understand. They seemed to think I was
"cute" when I had questions for them, although I don't think I
said or did anything interesting!
Everyone there taught me different things and after
talking to me, then they would tell each other about what they
told me. They even liked to tap me on the head in a friendly
way. It was a very interesting experience!


ELI Student Voices 7








Unfortunately, not every dentist in Gainesville is as
good as Dr. Patty. The first dentist I went to, for example, was
not very nice to me and I did not feel warm and welcome there.
He became impatient with me when I could not tell him which
tooth hurt. I kept thinking to myself that if I knew what the
problem was, I would not have come to see this dentist! He told
me: "I am not sure what's wrong, but it should be XXX or
XXX." I didn't understand what the two words meant that he
used. I thought that maybe they were proper nouns. I expected
that he would explain further for me, like other people do.
Unfortunately, he ended up calling the ELI office and telling
Barbara that I didn't understand English and had no idea about
what was wrong with my teeth. I only talked to this dentist for
less than 10 minutes. I felt sad and angry! He refused to have a
conversation with me just because I did not know those two
words he used!!! Not only that but his attitude was bad too!
Although he said "thank you very much" to me, I don't think he
meant it. It made me think of a question on my teacher Todd's
telephone homework: "Was your language confidence hurt?"
The answer to that was yes, very, very much!
However, this story ends well because I am very
happy that I have a good dentist now. I really like Dr. Patty. I
will miss the ladies at Dr. Patty's office when I leave
Gainesville!

How to Recover from Losing Faith in
Ourselves
Tohouegnon Christian Ahihou
R/W41

There are many kinds of pains a human being can
suffer from. Some of them are physical while some are
psychological. For example, "losing trust in oneself' is a
psychological pain. But what are its symptoms? How can we
treat it?
Sometimes in our life, we all have sorrows and our life
feels empty. Then we need someone else to lead us. We need
someone to take our hands for we are in darkest hours. But, it is
not always enough to be satisfied even if everybody is taking
care of us. In fact, the presence of other people around us is not
sufficient to solve all the problems we are having at this right
moment. Even though there are a lot of people around us, we
still feel lonely and we never stop asking ourselves if we are in
the right place. We're bored by everything taking place where
we are. In addition, no matter the friendship people can offer us,
nothing is quite enough to make us feel better. When something
like that happens in someone's life, it is no doubt that this
person is suffering from losing the ability to trust himself. So,
by definition, the feeling of emptiness we have is when we fail
to believe in ourselves. We think that we are not strong enough
to face neither the present nor the future. All we think is that
everything is going to be against us and we start living in a
definitive fear of everything. It is like we will fail any project
we start. The problem becomes overwhelming when we begin
asking ourselves if our life is still necessary for us or for
anything else. We begin wondering if we still deserve to live
and then thinking about how to leave life.


But before this critical time of losing complete faith in
oneself, the solution is always possible. In fact, this solution is
so easy to find that it appears very difficult at the end if we
don't pay attention. It is just to return to ourselves because the
lost trust doesn't go anywhere else; it's hidden somewhere in
us. The only important thing is that it's less strong than our fear
about everything at the moment we're enduring the pain. So,
the only thing for us to do, is to make it stronger than the fear
and there is no doubt that we shall be healed.
Eventually, losing faith in oneself is very harmful for a
human being. But as it's a psychological pain, its solution is
psychological too. So, there is no need of medicine to cure it.

*************************************************
Students in R/W 41 wrote poetry! The first poem is Western style. The
other poems are "haiku. Haiku is an unrhymed poem ofJapanese
origin. They usually have three lines with 5, 7, and 5 syllables. Count
the syllables in each line.

My Dream
Juan David Ochoa

I love who you are,
I love each of your details,
I love all of you.
If you are a dream,
I do not want to wake up
Or ever let go.

Music
Kaoru Tokushima

I'm falling in love
Can you guess who it might be?
Why, it is music!

Sunrise
Adriana Alvarez

Beautiful sunrise
lights up my life every day
perfect beginning.

Cookies
Adriana Alvarez

Delicious cookies
perfectly sized for the heart
but not for my jeans.


ELI Student Voices 8








Love I
Soo-Hwan Byeon (David)

Room of sun beams shine
Darkness share in this moment
Sweet whispers are there

Love II
Soo-Hwan Byeon (David)

One part in my heart
Amazing, richness, bliss song
Sprouting verdant bud

Lovers
Hatem Alhazmi

She is the moon light
But I'm a bird, she's a fish
So we'll never meet


Special Section
These last five pages include two journal articles written by one
student in R/W 60, Shinya Nagatomi. Shinya is studying Sport
Management. Though he used the same topics (Heroes and
Male/Female Psychological Ditterive eL as other students in R/W 60,
he chose to use this professionaljournal style. This is the style used by
graduate students and professors.

The Characteristics of Sport Heroes and
Their Impact on People and Society
M./11/iy Nagatomi (Tomi)
RW 60

Demographic Differences in Sport Hero Choice
How many heroes do you have? Who's your sport
hero? These answers depend on not only whether a person is
interested in sports or not, but also their age, gender, race and so
on (Wann et al., 2001). According to Harris's (1986) study,
children who are too young don't have heroes as adults
commonly regard them. In addition, people who are from 17 to
22 years old have more heroes than any other age. In short, the
number of heroes is increasing to a zenith in the late teens and
early twenties, and then decreasing slowly. In fact, 13 percent
of a thousand children who are from 6 to 14 years of age in the
U.S. answers "athlete" to the question, "Of all the people you
know about, who are the top three you look up to most?"
(Wallis, 1999). About 80 percent of them responded "parents."
These studies show that if age of people is different, the number
of heroes is also different.
There are also differences in gender. For example, 100
percent of boys chooses "male" figures as their hero while 83
percent of girls does the same (Wann et al., 2001; see also
Harris, 1994). Moreover, the Sasakawa Sport Foundation (SSF)


conducts the research of sport life in Japan every other year.
According to SSF (2" '14), in the top ten of sport heroes in
Japan, on the one hand, men choose all male heroes (e.g.,
Ichiro; MLB player, Matsui; MLB player, Kiyohara; Nippon
Professional Baseball player and so on). On the other hand,
women select two female athletes (Takahashi; Gold medalist at
Marathon in 2000 Olympic games, and Tani; Gold medalist at
Judo in 2004 Olympic games) in the top ten. Therefore, who is
a hero and how many heroes are different among ages and
between male and female.
The differences of heroes' choice of people are not
only age and gender, but also race. For instance, according to
Vander Velden (1986), three-quarters of white college students
and two-thirds of black ones selected sport heroes whose race
matched their own. Moreover, black athletes didn't appoint a
single white figure as an exemplar (Wann et al., 2001; see also
Castine & Roberts, 1974). In addition to them, all black college
students (participants) regard Mike Tyson, who offended rape,
as innocent even after watching his movie "Mike Tyson,"
which described his negligence and his problems with women
(Wann et al., 2001; see also Eisenman, 1994). This result
shows that people have a kind of bias to judge heroes who are
same race. Therefore, it depends on their race or cultures how
to choose sport heroes and evaluate them. Following these
results, people have a variety of angles to select sports heroes in
different age, gender, and race.
Qualities of Sport Heroes
However, these figures have common qualities to
make themselves heroes for people. Heroes of the sportsworld
stand for success to people who follow them (Wann et al.,
2001). For example, Sadaharu Oh, Japanese baseball hero, hit
868 homeruns, which is the world record, in Japanese
professional baseball and won the first world championship in
World Baseball Classic as a Japanese team manager in 2006.
Seattle Mariners baseball player, Ichiro Suzuki, also is a hero.
He established the historical record of the number of hits, 262,
in one regular season in MLB and also 210 in Nippon
Professional Baseball (NPB). In fact, when people watch
sports, they pay attention to athletes' physical skill (e.g., Trail
& James, 2001), which is the "well-executed performance" of
the team (Fink, Trail, & Anderson, 2002) and physical
attractiveness (aesthetic; e.g., McDonald, Milne, & Hong, 2002;
Wann, 1995), which is sc \ appeal" of an individual player
(Fink, Trail, & Anderson, 2002). In addition, when a sport
team or a hero (player) is succeeding (e.g., the team is winning
a lot of contests, the player in this team is showing excellent
performance, and so forth), the number of spectators in the
stadium increases more than usual (Baade & Tiehen, 1992;
Wann et al., 2001; Zhang et al., 1995). In other words, people
are inclined to watch heroes' distinguished skill and
performance and want it. As a consequence, sport heroes
should have legendary history which general people cannot
achieve and remarkable abilities in their field.
In relation with it, people have motivations to watch or
support specific team or heroes (players) in sports, such as
vicarious achievement (Fink, Trail, & Anderson, 2002; Funk,
Ridinger, & Moorman, 2003; James, Kolbe, & Trail, 2002;
Mahony et al., 2002; Trail, Anderson, & Fink, 2000; Trail,


ELI Student Voices 9








Fink, & Anderson, 2003; Trail & James, 2001). Vicarious
achievement is defined as "the need for social prestige, self-
esteem and sense of empowerment that an individual can
receive from their association with a successful team" (Fink,
Trail, & Anderson, 2002, p.198). Because people cannot play
baseball with, for example, Ichiro, Sosa, Rodriguez (MLB
players) and so on, when they identify with them as heroes, they
can experience the triumph and enhance their self-esteem
through their heroes' achievement. In more technical terms,
these tendencies could be explained by BIRG (Basking in
Reflected Glory) (Cialdini et al., 1976; End et al., 2003) and
CORF (Cutting off Reflected Failure) (Snyder, Lassegard, &
Ford, 1986; Campbell, Jr., Aiken, & Kent, 2004). The BIRG
phenomenon is defined as "people appear to feel that they can
share in the glory of a successful other with whom they are in
some way associated" (Cialdini et al., 1976, p.366). In contrast
to the BIRG phenomenon, the CORF phenomenon is defined as
"a means of decreasing one's association with unsuccessful
others" (Snyder, Lassegard, & Ford, 1986, p.382). To illustrate,
according to Cialdini et al's (1976) study in college football, on
the one hand, when this college team beat other team in
Saturday game, students in this college say "we" won. On the
other hand, when lost, they say "they" lost. Students change the
personal pronoun depending on whether the team won or lost.
To put it another way, they tend to connect with winner or
successful person, the BIRG phenomenon, while they are apt to
put the loser team far away, the CORF phenomenon. Why do
they do differently? Because they are controlling their self-
concept and trying to keep or enhance it. To wear their sport
heroes' replica uniform, for example, they can show the
connection and commitment with this hero toward other people.
As a consequence, sport heroes should be succeeding to satisfy
people's self-concept and desires.
People also regard sports heroes as a role model.
Wann et al. (2001; see also Barney, 1985) suggested that heroes
must show moral prominence in all aspects of their life, such as
acting with honesty, humility, generosity, sportsmanship, and
self-control. Funk, Mahony, and Ridinger (2002) and Funk,
Ridinger, and Moorman (2003) suggested that the positive role
model of the players, especially for young people (boys and
girls), in some specific teams is important for people to watch
their teams' contests and support them. In addition, a role
model of sport heroes has educational meanings. In other
words, when teachers and parents of children teach them
principal, manner, attitude toward others to live in their society,
they can just say "look like a Rudy," who had been making
great efforts, had not given up, to be a Notre Dame football
player and could achieve his dream finally (see the movie
"RUDY", 1993; Ruettiger, 1995). He taught us if you don't
give up and keep doing hard, dreams will come true. Moreover,
Magic Johnson, who was one of the great NBA players, also
has the ability of a good role model for people and impact on a
lot of people (Wann et al., 2001). In 1991, he confessed to the
public that he had a HIV infection. This announcement
impacted the attitudes and behaviors of people. For instance,
after the announcement, people were more likely to search for
more information about AIDS, be anxious about interacting
with an AIDS sufferer, and talk about it with their friends in the


future (Wann et al., 2001; see also Kalichman & Hunter, 1992;
Zimit et al., 1993). Therefore, sport heroes should be good role
models to impact people and their lives. In this angle, even
though, for example, Mike Tyson, who committed rape, Denis
Rodman, who is a skillful NBA player but whose attitude and
behavior is so bad (speech in public, clothes, plethora of tattoos
and so on), and Jose Camseco, who made 40 homeruns and 40
steals at once in one regular season, but used steroids which
were banned in MLB, made great history in each field, they
couldn't be heroes because they lack of morals which mean a
good role model for people.
The Functions of Sport Heroes
In addition to qualities of sport heroes, sport heroes are
not all of the same type, nor do they perform the same functions
(Wann et al., 2001). Their research examined the functions of
heroes. They said mainly that the functions could be divided
into five categories, such as leadership function, idealized social
order, interpersonal involvement, fitness motivation, and
economic function (Wann et al., 2001). First, sport heroes
could serve in some form of leadership capacity. For example,
Magic Johnson must have been an effective spokesperson for
people in AIDS campaign (Wann et al., 2001). Sport heroes
should have the ability to lead people and society. Second,
sport heroes have the idealized social order, which is to keep
the "status quo" or to make new norms or behavior (Wann et
al., 2001). For instance, Hideo Nomo, who is a Japanese
pioneer to play baseball in MLB, broke the concept that
Japanese baseball players could not play baseball in MLB. He
also made a successful track to play in MLB. Sport heroes need
to possess the ability to achieve difficult tasks. Third, sport
heroes are largely in the public territory (Wann et al., 2001). In
other words, people can make some new communities or keep
existent ones. To illustrate, the fan club of specific sport
players which is made by people who admire them is a good
example for it. Through sport heroes, people can build a
society in which people have a common evaluation, their
heroes. Subsequently, sport heroes have the ability to let
people, especially their fans, take part in sport and exercise
activities (Wann et al., 2001). They are likely to engage in, for
instance, fitness activities because fitness magazines on their
heroes recommend doing it and actually heroes are doing.
Finally, team owners and sport marketers already know that if
their team has a celebrity or a star player (hero), the value of the
team can increase (Wann et al., 2001). In fact, people have one
of the angles to evaluate this team through heroes' (players')
existence in this team (Fujimoto, Nagatomi, & Matsuoka, 2004;
Funk et al., 2001; Gladden & Funk, 2001; Kwon, Trail, &
Anderson, 2005; Ross & James, 2003). Moreover, as
mentioned, there is a relation between heroes, who are
performing very well, and the attendance in the stadium.
Following their suggestions, sport heroes could make scads of
money for their team, for society (e.g., tax) and sometimes for
people when gambling. For the above-mentioned reasons, sport
heroes have many specific functions for people and their
society.
Conclusion
To sum up, sport heroes have many different
characteristics for different people. First, people have various


ELI Student Voices 10








reasons to regard sport athletes as their heroes among different
ages, genders, and races. Second, people tend to seek sport
heroes who have legendary records and excellent skills and
aesthetics in their field. Sport heroes should also be successful
players (i.e., winning) because people want to connect with a
successful person to keep or raise their self-concept. Besides,
sport heroes are a role model for people, especially children.
Therefore, they need to behave accordingly. Finally, sport
heroes serve several important societal functions. Sport heroes
need to be leaders to improve society as well as have a great
energy to make scads of people happy.

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Wann, D.L. (1995) Preliminary validation of the sport fan
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The Difference in Sport Spectator
Behavior between Males and Females
/in/11u Nagatomi (Tomi)
RW 60

General Introduction
We can find a lot of differences between male and
female in our lives. For example, in general, men work outside
and women work domestic duties. We realized that this is a
kind of role model of both men and women. It can be thought
that men had been hunting and women had been gathering
seeds near their home and cooking them in some specific eras
and this tradition has been continuing nowadays. For another
example, while women like shopping, men dislike shopping and
generally it irritates them (The Alligator, 2002, Dec.11; The
Gainesville Sun, 2003, April 2). According to The Gainesville
Sun (2003, April 2), most of the men find Christmas shopping
stresses them, so they don't like shopping. It has been hard to
understand and explain human behavior in both men and
women.
Sport Industry
In sport management and sport marketing fields,
researchers have been challenged to recognize gender
differences and distinguish between them. According to Meek
(1997), the sport industry ranked among the top 25 industries in
the U.S. in 1995. It is estimated that this figure is 151.9 billion
dollars. This is higher than some industries, such as electrical
equipment (138.5 billion) and industrial machinery and
equipment (123.3 billion) (Chelladurai, 2005). Moreover, in
North America (both the U.S. and Canada), the number of
spectators who watch college sports or join sport activity is 200
billion a year, cumulatively (Howard & Crompton, 2004).
These data indicate that there are a lot of people involved in
sports. However, the ratio of people who watch orjoin sports is
different between male and female. According to Shank's
(2002) "Who goes to Races," the number of male spectators is
higher than female ones in CART, NASCAR, and NHRA.
Moreover, the percent of male spectators in professional
baseball is 63.9% while the percent of female ones is 36.1% in
Japan (Nagatomi, 2005). These research studies show that there
are different spectators in different sports. Abraham Lincoln
said, "You can please all of the people some of the time and


some of the people all of the time but you can't please all of the
people all of the time." In short, it is impossible to satisfy both
male and female all at once. We need to realize that there are a
slew of differences between men and women and there are
many reasons to behave differently.
The Impact of the Socialization Agents
How are they becoming sport fans? One of the reasons
is that there are the different impacts of the socialization agents.
Wann et al. (2001) defined socialization as "the process of
learning to live in and understand a culture or subculture by
internalizing its values, beliefs, attitudes, and norms" (p.24). In
other words, people are becoming sport fans through their
culture and people surrounding them. According to
McPherson's (1976) study, there are four different agents:
parents, peers and friends, schools, and community, to influence
his/her becoming a sport fan. He also found that while male
participants were most influenced by peers and friends
(M=6.02, a 8-point response format), female participants were
most affected by schools (M=5.04, a 8-point response format).
Among these agents, male was more strongly influenced than
female. In addition, parents, both father and mother, have a
different impact toward the participants. Father is considerably
more influential than mother. As a whole, male has a bigger
impact on people to be a fan than female. These results also
show that sports are the exemplar of boys more than girls
(Wann et al., 2001; see also Russell & McClusky, 1985). They
showed the relative size of exemplar categories. This indicated
that 16.2% of boys recognized sports as their exemplars; in
contrast, 5.7% of female did as their exemplar. Even though the
number of participants in sports has been increasing in school
and college because of the law of equal opportunity (e.g., Title
IV*'), there are different socialization agents which impact
different gender and sport is recognized as male more than
female.
Spectator Motives
After people are interested in sports and become a
sport fan by the different socialization agents, people start to
watch sports. A lot of research has been conducted in sport
spectator motives (e.g., Funk et al., 2001; McDonald, Milne, &
Hong, 2002; Trail & James, 2001; Wann, 1995). They
indicated that there are a lot of motivations to watch sports and
there are a variety of motivations among different
demographics. Motivation is defined as "an internal force that
directs behavior toward the fulfillment of needs" (Shank, 2002,
p.596). In gender, there are a lot of differences between male
and female. Wann (1995) and Wann, Schrader, and Wilson
(1999) suggested that male spectators are more likely than
female ones to seek the excitement and arousal, feeling self-
esteem through the winning of the cheering team, and enjoy
sport performance. Differently from this, female spectators are
more likely to spend a lot more time with their family than
male. In connection with this, Wann et al. (2001) indicated that
while male spectators tend to prefer to watch combative sports
(e.g., boxing, football, hockey, and so on), female ones tend to
watch sports which are aesthetic, such as figure skating and
gymnastics. Following this research, both male and female have
different motivations to watch sports.


ELI Student Voices 12








Evaluation Differences (Sportscape and Team Brand
Associations)
In relation to the motivations to watch sports, there are
a lot of differences to evaluate sports or teams. For instance,
there are sportscape (sport venue) evaluation and team brand
associations. Sportscape refers to "the physical surroundings of
the stadium that affect spectators' desire to stay at the stadium
and ultimately return to the stadium" (Shank, 2002, p.199).
Trail, Anderson, and Fink (2002) set six criteria (cleanliness of
venue, parking, audio experience, restrooms, concessions, and
staff) to evaluate team's venue and they found that female
regards 4 of 6 criteria (cleanliness of venue, audio experience,
restrooms, and staff) as important more than male (p<.05). It is
important to female spectators for the venue to be kept clean
and convenient more than male.
In addition, both male spectators and female ones have
different angles to evaluate their favorite sports or teams as a
brand. Aaker (1991) defined brand association as "anything
'linked' in memory to a brand." In sport team's concept, team
brand associations are the thoughts distributed to a brand when
we see team's name or logo, see a related visual, listen to a
team's song, and so on (e.g., brand mark, team history, team
play characteristics, rivalry, and so forth) (Ross & James,
2004). For an example of the differences between male and
female in this point, Robinson and Trail (2005) suggested that
spectators evaluate a team with seven points of attachment
(player, team, coach, community, sport, university, and level)
and female spectators look on the team as player and sport
(p<.05) more strongly than male when they evaluate the team.
Moreover, Fujimoto, Nagatomi, and Matsuoka's (2005)
research used a paper and pencil free-thought listing procedure
(technique) to demonstrate how spectators regard a team. They
asked spectators in the stadium, "When you think of (team
name), what words come to your mind first?" After the content
analysis, they found that while 59.2% of female participants
associated team with team players more than male ones
(39.2%), 50.6% of male participants remember the team as
team performance (e.g., aggressive, defensive, team strategy,
and so forth) more than female ones (25.0%). Following these
suggestions, male spectators are likely to evaluate the team as
results and performance of the team, or sport itself. In contrast,
females are likely to worry about not sport itself, but venue of
team and other entertainments.
Conclusion
In conclusion, there are some differences between
male and female in sport spectator behavior. First, people have
different socialization agents and these impacts are different
between male and female. Second, though people who watch
sports have a variety of motivations to watch sports, there are
different motivations in different genders. Finally, when
spectators watch sport or specific team contests, they have
different criteria to evaluate teams or games between male and
female. People, especially sport marketers and researchers,
should realize the differences both male and female, satisfy
each demand, and supply benefits for them effectively.

*1 This law was passed in 1972 in the U.S. This states "no
person in the U.S. shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded


from participation, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected
to discrimination under any education program or activity
receiving Federal financial assistance" (Shank, 2002, p.82).
This law impacts on increasing the number of women's
sports participation dramatically (Shank, 2002).

References
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The Gainesville Sun (2003, April 2) Shopping too tough for
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properties. Journal of Sport Behavior 24 (1): 108-127.


ELI Student Voices 13








Trail, G.T., Anderson, D.F. and Fink, J.S. (2002) Examination
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Wann, D.L., Melnick, M.J., Russell, G.W. and Pease, D.G.
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Thanks from the Editor
Thank you students for sharing your writing with everyone. I
hope you enjoy reading your fellow students' essays,
paragraphs, and poems. Also thanks to Megan Forbes and the
HUB for arranging the gift certificates, to Todd Allen for
publicizing this issue of Student Voices, to the Reading/Writing
instructors for supporting their students in their writing, to
Deborah Neuzil for co-editing this issue, and to Deborah
Neuzil, Helena Cong, Chris Sabatelli, Karen Eberly, and Todd
Allen for reading and evaluating the entries.

Thanks everyone! Steve Flocks







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ELI Student Voices 14




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