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 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Rural women beyond Beijing
 Networking for action for the advancement...
 Annexes














Title: Rural women beyond Beijing - the network of institutions for rural women in the Latin American and Caribbean region
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089989/00001
 Material Information
Title: Rural women beyond Beijing - the network of institutions for rural women in the Latin American and Caribbean region
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kirjavainen, Leena M.
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publication Date: 1994
Copyright Date: 1994
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089989
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Introduction
        Introduction 1
        Introduction 2
        Introduction 3
    Rural women beyond Beijing
        Page A
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
        Page A-5
        Page A-6
        Page A-7
        Page A-8
        Page A-9
        Page A-10
    Networking for action for the advancement of rural women
        Page B
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
        Page B-5
        Page B-6
        Page B-7
        Page B-8
        Page B-9
        Page B-10
    Annexes
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
        Page C-3
        Page C-4
        Page C-5
        Page C-6
        Page C-7
        Page C-8
Full Text
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UNIFEM STRATEGY
TOWARDS THE FOURTH WORD
CONFERENCE ON WOMEN ,













UNIFEM STRATEGY TOWARDS THE FOURTH WORLD CONFERENCE OH WOMEN


INTRODUCTION
A new conceptual framework for development, based on changing geo-political,
economic and social realities has been emerging in the nineties. Major global issues
such as new international relations, democratization and women's role in governance,
the international economy, new markets and the impact of these on women's
employment, the limitations of public sector services and increasing poverty, have all
contributed to a need to question existing strategies for integrating gender into
mainstream development. The global context of this decade has, above all, created
new challenges for developing implementation strategies; for supporting national
capacity and women's contributions to national development; for ensuring human
development and a better quality of life; and for furthering women's access to
decision-making at all levels.
The changing global context and Its impact on 'women in development' issues has
reqxaired~r-yIWWf developmentt agenda forth "ni ldi ander-
pinning for the preparations for the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) in
Beijing in 1995. A December 1991, 'Seminar on Integration of Women in Development',
convened by the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, focused on
this broader view of development. The Report of the Seminar contributed to the
subsequent work of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) at its 36th and
37th sessions in preparing the international framework for preparations for the Fourth
World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. The CSW Resolution 37/7 includes the
structure for the 'Platform of Action' for the 1995 WCW. It builds on the Nairobi
Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women and focuses on key aspects
to be achieved by the year 2000.
A series of Inter-Agency Consultations has also provided substantive input to the
deliberations of the CSW sessions and has engendered renewed cooperation and
coordination among UN agencies in developing their preparations for the WCW. The
UN system has recommended that the Beijing Platform for Action focus on critical
issues that will ensure a gender sensitive development strategy which has as its
primary objectives the equal sharing of power between men and women at all levels.
and the'sysfematic integration of the gender perspective in policy-making and in
programme implementation.

UNIFEM'S STRATEGIC APPROACH
The Fourth World Conference on Women presents a unique opportunity for the
international community to cooperate and strategize on actions to be taken to
advance gender concerns in all aspects of social, economic and political life. U IFF-M.
the ouily.UN fund with a specific mandate to assist grassroots women, is straitegically
placed .opflayan instrulenitn o ieTn the 1995 Conference Thogh small in size, the
Fund( i ogiSi-ii era pen rough its patne'pcr~iti tifinternationak.
nand ffitsctiooriented.approadil:.t ltearne












recognition for its contributions to both the United Nations Conferenceon
Environment and Development (UNCEDi in Brazil, where UNIFEM was able to
incorporate the concept of gender balance into Agenda 21, and the Human Rights
Conference in Vienna, where the Fund has raised awareness on questions of violence
againUlBtE.,a nBhas also worked to incorporate women's concerns into the s
Humanttf tfAxperiences in its corporate
stra1rtowards the Fourth World Conference on Women.

THE OBJECTIVES OF UNIFEM'S STRATEGY
1. To ensure that the articulated concerns of diverse groupsof women are heard during
all preparatory activities for the WCW through UNIFEM's brokering role between
and among these groups: e.g. NGOs, governments, donors, women's organizations
and networks, special issue groups and parliamentarians.
2. To advocate alternative strategies for gender-responsive development, including
mainstreaming.
3. To strengthen strategic networks and build new strategic alliances.
4. To promote the equal responsibility of men for advancing gender issues.
5. To promote the visibility of women as leaders and decision-makers at the United
Nations and in society at large, while advocating the expansion of women's access
to decision-maldngp
6. To influence the structure and mandate of new institutions and mechanisms which
may emerge from the WCW
7. To launch activities which will generate wider public information, awareness and
support for the WCGV
8. To promote visibility and recognition for UNIFEM through the Fund's leadership
during the preparatory process for the WCW.

MECHANISMS T10 ACHIEVE UNIFEM'S STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

1. Identifying key women's NGOs and networks, with particular attention given to new
organizations and networks; supporting these groups with information and training,
and providing them with opportunities to strategize and participate in all aspects of
the preparatory process and in the WCW; advocating for their acceptance by
convenors and organizers of Conference-related activities.
2. Leveraging funds from various sources for UNIFEM's core budget, for the work of
the WCWV Secretariat, and for the participation of women, especially grassroots
women, in all levels of the WCW process.
3. Participating in all official activities related to the WCW, in particular the substantive
contribution to the preparation of national reports and the Platform for Action.
4. Producing and disseminating substantive documentation on UNIFEM's experiences
in critical areas of concern to women, including emerging global issues; developing a
joint media strategy with key media networks at the global, regional and national level.












5. Supporting a process for promoting young women with alternative views and vision.
6. Advocating an effective and empowering style of leadership for the advancement of
women among leaders and decision-makers in the United Nations and in the
community at large.
7. Strengthening coordination with the WCW Secretariat, the UNDP, with governments,
and with regional and international organizations, in all preparatory activities
towards the WCW.
8. Forming alliances with, and raising awareness among key male leaders from
governments and NGOs participating in the various meetings and events leading up
to the WCW.
9. Monitoring the global environment to ensure that UNIFEM is involved in
influencing the development of institutions and implementing mechanisms that
may emerge from the WCW





MERGE
116



RURAL WOMEN BEYOND BEIJING -
THE NETWORK OF INSTITUTIONS FOR
..::RURAL WOMEN IN THE LATIN AMERICAN AND
CARIBBEAN REGION



PRESENTATION
by .

Dr. Leena M. Kirjavainen
Chief
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division
Economic and Social Policy Department




FOURTH CONFERENCE OF
WIVES OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT OF
THE AMERICAS AND THE CARIBBEAN

Castries, St. Lucia (West Indies), 11-13 October 1994






*Note: The views presented herein are those of the author and may not reflect those of FAO
Member Governments and Management


Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations







Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,


I would like to thank you for inviting me to participate in this Conference.
Mitchas gracias. It is my pleasure to be here today and have the opportunity to
discuss FAO's activities and achievements in support of rural women in Latin America
and the Caribbean, particularly as I have had the opportunity to represent FAO in the
Summits on the "Economic Advancement of Rural Women" both in Geneva and in
Brussels.


In my presentation, I would like to highlight several areas of interest to all of
us present today. The first is the relationship between FAO's overall mandate and the
advancement of rural women in agriculture and rural development. Then I will
illustrate FAO's Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development, which is
the agency's instrument for implementing the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies and
the Platforms for Action arising out of the World Conferences on Women. A topic of
particular interest to all of us here is the Fourth World Conference on Women in
Beijing, which will be touched upon third; and fourth is the FAO Network of
Institutions and Agencies in Support of Rural Women in Latin America and the
Caribbean. Finally, I will have a few words to say on our perspective beyond Beijing.



Women in Agriculture and Rural Development within FAO's Mlandate


For nearly 50 years, FAO has assisted Member States to raise levels of
nutrition and standards of living, improve production and distribution of food and
agricultural products, and better the condition of rural populations, thus contributing
to ensuring freedom from hunger.


However, all this is difficult to imagine in a world where about 24% of the
world's population lives in poverty. Food insecurity and environmental degradation
affect poor women and children most directly and profoundly, since it threatens their







2

food supply, incomes and health, and poor women and children have the fewest
resources with which to cope with these stresses.


For FAO, rural women are much more than a target group. Their roles as rural
producers, and as providers and caretakers of rural families, make them pivotal agents
of food security and sustainable development. For FAO, the need to promote the
advancement of rural women arises because: 1) they are a major group of agricultural
resource users and managers; 2) they constitute the majority of poor population, and
provide much of the sustenance for the poor; 3) their welfare is the most severely
affected by economic crisis and environmental degradation; 4) their ends, means and
constraints are distinct from those of men; and 5) they suffer from the greatest the
equity gap.


Promoting food security, sustainability and the advancement of rural women
requires the reorientation of policies, programmes and activities on many fronts. The
growing concentration of land and increasing insecurity of tenure for the majority of
the rural population, especially women, means the poor must occupy marginal lands
or migrate to urban areas. Technology must be introduced to reduce the workload of
rural women and increase their productivity and incomes. Women's economic
activities must be diversified and non-agricultural employment must be generated on
equitable terms with men. For many rural women, who have large labour burdens and,
little security, having a large number of children continues to be a major asset.


Achieving FAO's goals of food security and sustainability requires the full
integration of gender considerations and the full participation of rural women. To
fulfill this mandate and implement the Nairobi Foward Looking Strategies and the
Platforms for Action, in 1989 FAO's Governing Bodies approved the FAO Plan of
Action for Integration of Women in Development.









The Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development


The Plan of Action outlines four spheres of activities related to the civil status
of rural women, to their economic and social situation and to their role in
decision-making.


The Plan of Action has been operationalized through eight programmatic
priorities:


Training on Women in Development/Gender.
Preparation and Promotion of Guidelines and Manuals.
Policy Advice to Member Governments.
Reorientation of Home Economics and Agricultural Curricula.
Project Development and Monitoring.
Population Education and Women in Development.
Environment, Natural Resource Management and
Sustainable Development.
Data Collection, Research Studies, Communications and
Public Information.


The Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service,
headquartered at FAO in Rome, and the FAO Regional Office for Latin America and
the Caribbean, in Santiago, Chile, are directly responsible for implementing the Plan
of Action in the region. I would now like to briefly mention some of the major
activities that have been carried out.








4

Major FAO Activities for the Advancement of Women Latin America and the
Caribbean


Since the Plan of Action was approved in 1989, FAO has carried out major
activities in the region in each of the four spheres. The legal status of rural women
were investigated by researchers in nineteen countries who presented their findings to
the Round Table on "Legal Mechanisms to Facilitate Women's Participation in Rural
Development." Policy advice was provided to the Government of Chile to mainstream
gender issues into the National Plan for Development of the Peasantry, and the
Ministry of Agriculture in Argentina was provided assistance formulate a rural
development strategy for the North-Western region that explicitly considers women.
In Colombia, a project was developed to formulate a plan to implement the
Government's policy for women in rural areas, and in Panama, FAO is helping the
Government to identify possible means to improve the situation of rural women.


The constraints and opportunities that women encounter in their rural
organizations was investigated in five case studies carried out in the Andean region,
and the results were discussed in the "International Workshop to Formulate a
Methodological Proposal in Support of Rural Women's Organizations in Andean
Countries." Training and extension services for rural women were enhanced through
projects carried out with the governments of Argentina and Honduras, and with a large
women's NGO in the Dominican Republic; a project is now underway in Honduras
to reorient Home Economics curricula.


Studies have been carried out on women's role in genetic resources management
in potato production in Peru and in maize cultivation in Guatemala; a study is planned
on women's indigeneous technical knowledge in animal health and production in
Bolivia. In the Andean region, case studies and audio-visual materials were prepared
documenting women's roles in forestry within the context of the FAO Forests, Trees
and People Programme. Women's roles and needs in artesanal fisheries in South








5
America were discussed in a Workshop on "The Integration of Women in Artesanal
Fisheries in the South-Eastern Pacific" held in Concepcion in 1990.




FAO's Preparatory Activities for the Fourth World Conference on Women


Madame Chairperson, Honorable First Ladies, Guests and Colleagues,


The Fourth World Conference on Women presents a unique opportunity for us
to appraise the achievements of Member Nations and to renew our commitment to the
advancement of women. Since Nairobi, we have gained valuable experience and
learned important lessons on how to better promote women in agriculture and rural
development. The Platform of Action to be discussed and ratified by the Conference,
will be the new charter to bring women's issues to the forefront of development.


The UN General Assembly requested all UN Agencies to prepare for the
Conference by continuing to implement the NFLS, reporting on their activities toward
implementation, identifying major areas of concern, proposing strategies for the
Platform of Action for "post-Beijing", and assisting country and regional preparations.
FAO has developed an extensive programme of activities in preparation for Beijing
especially focused on promoting the interests of women farmers and other rural,
women in all Conference and pre-Conference activities, and on assisting in the
preparation of sectoral reports on women in agriculture and rural development.


Our Programme, "FAO Assistance in Support of Rural Women in Preparation
for the Fourth World Conference on Women," is providing technical and financial
support to over 30 Member Nations throughout the various regions. In Phase I,
countries have been supported to carry out participatory consultative workshops to
discuss the critical issues affecting rural women which should be addressed in the









reports, and then to prepare the sectoral reports on women in agriculture and rural
development.


In Phase II, FAO will assist countries to implement the Platform for Action by
providing assistance for the improvement of information on rural women, and for the
production and dissemination of audio-visual materials that document the findings.
These will be used to sensitize policy makers through a series of workshops, which
will also be oriented toward developing national action plans. The detailed
information on our prepartory activities can be found in the Information Note which
has been distributed to all of you.




FAO's Preparatory Activities in Latin America and the Caribbean


In its preparatory activities, FAO has been very active in the Latin America and
Caribbean region. Peru, Honduras, El Salvador, Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent and
the Grenadines and Santa Lucia have all received, or will soon receive, FAO support
for their preparatory activities. Further, the Regional Office for Latin America and the
Caribbean has supported several additional countries, including Mexico, Costa Rica,
Chile and Venezuela. A regional report has been discussed at a meeting in Mexico.
The revised report has been presented at the Regional Conference in Mar del Plata,
and will be incorporated into the regional report for Beijing.


These preparatory activities are stimulating true participation and consensus
building and are leading to improved understanding of rural women's issues and
concerns, and practical directions for action.









The Network of Institutions and Agencies in Support of Rural Women in Latin
America and the Caribbean


The entire preparatory effort for the World Conference in Beijing can be
characterized as a vast network for action. Networking involves bringing together
people who have common concerns from all sectors and walks of life to exchange
information and experience, to learn from each other and plan for the future, and to
develop consensus and commitment to action for change. In order to implement the
NFLS in its sphere of action in Latin America and the Caribbean, FAO has promoted
action-oriented networking as an ongoing process, through the establishment of the
Network of Institutions and Agencies in Support of Rural Women in Latin America
and the Caribbean.


The Network was an outcome of an FAO-sponsored workshop and round-table
held in El Salvador in 1991. which was attended by representatives from countries
throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The workshop was arranged to discuss
implementation of FAO's Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development.
The consensus was that a network should be formed in order to: (a) exchange
information at national and international levels among governmental institutions.
NGOs and farmers' organizations working for rural women; (b) represent rural
women's interests in social, economic and agricultural development policies, and (c)
identify and disseminate organizational and productive alternatives for the sustainable
use of natural resources in agricultural production activities.


Network members are mainly women professionals and technicians of national
institutions and NGOs, and leaders of farm women's organizations. Network
beneficiaries are women farmers, policy makers and staff of various development
programmes and projects operating in Network areas. The Regional Office for Latin
America and the Caribbean (RLAC) acts as the Technical Secretariat and provides









assistance to the sub-regional networks (Southern Cone, Andes, Mesoamerica and the
English-speaking Caribbean).


The Network's first priority is to develop a common framework for
understanding gender and development, and participatory methods for problem
identification and resolution. Armed with this common understanding, Network
members will implement actions to effectively incorporate the needs of women into
rural development strategies.


The Network can become a potent regional machinery for advancing the
concerns of rural women. But each of these Network sub-regions requires training,
technical and logistical support during their formative period. While seeking donor
support, FAO has employed its own funds to support the network.


Meeting in Chile in October 1992, the Network's coordinators established a
calendar of activities for the 1993-94 biennium. Among other objectives, the
programme included meetings to elaborate a plan of action for each sub-region, and
the execution of training workshops.


A good example of the operationalization of the network is provided by our
host Government in Santa Lucia. The Ministry of Agriculture of Santa Lucia, which
serves as Coordinator of the Network for the sub-region, worked to link the activities
of the Network with the CARICOM Member Countries, and received the
acknowledgement of the Permanent Committee of Ministers of Agriculture of
CARICOM. It also worked for the designation of focal points in the eleven Member
Countries. A meeting was held in Santa Lucia in October 1993 to provide a common
framework for the focal points in the area of Gender in Agriculture and give the focal
points an opportunity to develop a plan of action for the next two years to promote the
Network's activities in their respective countries.









Beyond Beijing: FAO's Perspective


Beyond Beijing, FAO will continue its efforts to ensure the participation of
women at all levels in the decisions which affect their lives and welfare. The full and
equitable participation of women in the development process requires a change of
attitudes, and this change will not occur rapidly nor easily. For this to occur, national
commitment and capacity must continue to be strengthened and much of that
strength will be provided through our continuing concerted efforts to work together
through the action-oriented networking that is so vital to social learning and change.




FAO will continue its recent efforts to promote inter-disciplinary and
multisectoral approaches to rural women's concerns, including training on
Socio-economic and Gender Analysis. It will continue to reinforce its actions leading
to increased access for rural women to productive resources, including land, credit and
technology, and to services and training. It will work to achieve greater economic
opportunities for women, especially through economic diversification, improved
marketing and the generation of adequately-remunerated employment, and to introduce
appropriate technology to increase the productivity of women's paid and unpaid
labour. The critical relations between women, population and environment will be
under further investigation with a view to identifying strategies that both advance rural
women and promote sustainable agricultural and rural development. The work that has
been accomplished so far to improve the collection, compilation, and diffusion of
statistics, data bases and information on rural women will be continued.


Day by day there are more actions at the global and regional level aimed at
promoting the FAO Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development. The
implementation of this Plan is an ambitious undertaking and your systematic and
strong support in its development and implementation is highly appreciated. Through
mutual effort we can succeed in identifying and implementing those elements that







10
contribute to the advancement of rural women who play a key role in sustainable
agriculture and rural development. .


Thank you for your attention. "Gracias por sufina atencion."











NETWORKING FOR ACTION
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF RURAL WOMEN


by

Dr. Leena M. Kirjavainen
Chief

and


Dr. Patricia Howard-Borjas
Training and Project Development Officer


Women in
Human


Agricultural Production and Rured Development Service
Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division
Economic and Social Policy Department


FOURTH CONFERENCE OF
WIVES OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT OF
THE AMERICAS AND THE CARIBBEAN

Castries, St. Lucia (West Indies), 11-13 October 1994






*Note- The views presented herein are those of the authors and may not reflect those of FAO
Member Governments and Management


Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations


r I II










Introduction


For nearly 50 years, FAO has assisted Member Nations to raise levels of
nutrition and standards of living, secure improvements in the efficiency of production
and distribution of all food and agricultural products, and improve the living condition
of rural populations, thus contributing to an expanding world economy and to ensuring
humanity's freedom from hunger.

Achieving food security and sustainable development requires the rational
management of all assets: natural, human, financial and physical. It entails a process
of human development, to achieve increasing human welfare together with the
preservation and enhancement of the natural base. Human development is the process
of enlarging the range of people's choices increasing their 'opportunities for
education, health care, income and employment and self determination which
requires a sound physical environment as well as economic and political freedoms.

Sustainable agricultural and rural development is difficult to imagine in a world
where more than 1.2 billion people in developing countries, or about 24% of the
world's population, live in poverty. It is widely recognized that food insecurity and
environmental degradation affect poor women and children most directly and
profoundly, since it threatens their food supply, incomes and health, and poor women
and children have the fewest resources with which to cope with these stresses. Poverty
also implies that there are no alternatives to living in deteriorated or marginal areas.
In their effort to satisfy their basic needs and, lacking any alternative means of
employment or access to capital, poor women and men are pushed to overexploit
accessible resources such as land, water and fuelwood. and to occupy marginal lands.


Promoting the Advancement of Rural Women

In FAO's perspective, rural women are much more than a target group. Their
position and roles as rural producers, and as providers and caretakers of rural
families, make them pivotal agents of food security and sustainable development.
Women provide the links between food production, storage, preparation and
consumption that are critical to food security and nutrition; between income and
investment in production, education, housing and health that are essential to human
development and welfare; and between economic security and family size that is
thought to be the major determinant of population levels. Their relation to
environmental sustainability is also fundamental and can be conceptualised around their
concerns with household food security. Changes in land and tree tenure, land use,
technology and inputs are viewed by women according to their effects on water supply
for domestic use and small-scale irrigation; on the possibilities for gathering fuelwood,
fodder and medicinal plants; on tree, plant, and animal production for consumption









and sale. Indeed, with one foot in the household and the other in agricultural
production, it is not surprising that it is women who make the links between these two
realms and the disruption and threat posed to both by environmental deterioration.

In summary, for FAO the need to promote the advancement of rural women
arises because: 1) they constitute a very large group of agricultural resource users and
managers in those developing countries where problems of food security and
environmental degradation are great; 2) they form the majority of the population that
is poor, and are a major source of sustenance for the rest of the poor population; 3)
their welfare is the most severely affected by environmental degradation; 4) their ends,
means and constraints are distinct from those of men; and 5) the equity gap between
the contributions rural women make to development and the benefits they receive -
represents perhaps the greatest gap of all, and that which it is the most necessary to
overcome.

Promoting food security, sustainability and the advancement of rural women
requires the reorientation of policies, programmes and activities on many fronts. The
growing concentration of land resources in the hands of the few, and the increasing
insecurity of tenure for the majority of the rural population, especially women, results
in displacement of the rural poor to marginal lands and increasing migration to urban
areas, contributing to increasing poverty, food insecurity and environmental
degradation.

Poor rural women, who most need agricultural technology in order to reduce
their workload and increase their productivity and incomes, usually do not have
adequate access. Since technology is introduced in part to reduce the cost of labour,
there is little incentive to introduce technology for those productive activities where
labour is not paid, such as in those agricultural tasks performed mainly by women and
in most domestic activities. Because of the lack of access to labour-saving technology,
rural women's demand for labour is high and even increasing, but this does not
translate into higher income.

When rural women's access to the means of production is eroding, or when
they cannot produce enough to survive, their welfare then depends on non-agricultural
employment. In developing countries, the net result of low levels of employment
generation and eroding access to agricultural, forestry and fisheries resources is
poverty, which is transferred to agricultural frontiers and urban areas through
migration.

Rural women are assigned domestic, farm, and community roles and in addition
must cope with poor resource access and tenure patterns that favour men, complex
timing patterns for various farm and domestic activities, eroding ecological conditions,
male out migration and high morbidity which imply ever greater labour burdens. In
view of this, it is highly probable that, for rural women, having a large number of








children continues to be a major asset and source of immediate and long-term social
and economic security. The value of children remains very high, especially for women
food producers.

Achieving FAO's priority goals of achieving food security and sustainability
requires the full integration of gender considerations and the full participation of rural
women. In order to address this and implement the Nairobi Forward Looking
Strategies (NFLS) and the Platforms for Action, in 1989 FAO's Governing Bodies
approved the FAO Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development.


FAO's Instrument for Implementing the NFLS: The Plan of Action for
Integration of Women in Development

The Plan of Action.outlines four spheres of activities related to the civil status
of rural women, to their economic and social situation and to their role in
decision-making:

IN THE CIVIL STATUS SPHERE, FAO's actions seek to improve the
legal and attitudinal climate to permit women to contribute to and benefit from
agricultural and rural development and increased food production.
i
IN THE ECONOMIC SPHERE, the Plan foresees actions to enhance
the role of rural women as producers in agriculture, fisheries and forestry and
to recognize the need for access to resources, markets, extension and training
services and technologies that increase their productivity to maximize the
benefits from economic activities and reduce their labour burdens.

IN THE SOCIAL SPHERE, the Plan seeks to emphasize the relation
between rural women's productive and reproductive roles, emphasizing the
reduction of women's labour burdens, population, nutrition and education
issues, especially by increasing women's access to social services and
education.

IN THE DECISION-MAKING SPHERE, the Plan seeks to increase
women's involvement in decision-making through greater participation in
institutions and people's organizations and to train women in the skills needed
to play a greater role in national and local-level decision-making.

The Plan of Action has been operationalized through eight programmatic
priorities:








4

* Training on Women in Development/Gender. FAO has trained its own
technical staff and some government counterparts and will continue training
within the Socio-Economic Gender Analysis (SEGA) framework, so that both
men's and women's concerns in development programmes will be addressed.
The SEGA Programme, to be executed together with the ILO International
Training Centre, will be oriented toward training of trainers at national level
in order to reach the largest possible number of development agents.

* Preparation and Promotion of Guidelines and Manuals. Within the SEGA
training programme, FAO will continue to prepare and promote guidelines and
manuals, since decision-makers, advisors and technical assistance staff at
international and national levels need practical tools to integrate gender
concerns in mainstream projects and programmes. These include various
sector-specific technical supplements for project planning and design
considering the various sub-sectors of crop and livestock production, forestry
and fisheries, in a collaborative effort with various technical divisions and units
of FAO.

* Policy Advice to Member Governments. FAO assists Member Nations
interested in revising their legislation and offers policy advice to national
ministries of planning, agriculture and rural development for the purpose of
building and strengthening Women in Development units, and for including
gender issues in the planning of overall national strategies on agriculture.
forestry and food security, co-operative development and rural people's
organizations.

* Reorientation of Home Economics and Agricultural Curricula. The Plan
provides for the reorientation of home economics and extension services and
curricula, for assistance to Member Nations to develop training materials and
execute training, to reflect women's concerns and better reach rural women
with these services.

* Project Development and Monitoring. FAO will continue to use the
mainstreaming approach to integrate women into ongoing technical assistance
projects through the use of gender analysis and the participation of rural women
in the design, implementation and monitoring of rural development projects
dealing with agriculture, livestock, forestry, fisheries, environmental
management, nutrition, credit and extension.

* Population Education and Women in Development. The Plan calls for
the provision of technical support on WID issues for projects with a population
component, for research and policy advice to Member Nations on the
integration of women and population concerns, and for the organization and








5
implementation of regional workshops on women, population and environment
concerns.

Environment. Natural Resource Management and Sustainable
Development. This priority was added by the FAO Conference in 1989, and
includes all activities related to follow-up to UNCED Agenda 21, Chapter 24.

Data Collection. Research Studies. Communications and Public
Information. The Plan foresees improvement of collection and use of
gender-disaggregated statistics and information, incorporation of these data into
agricultural, economic and socio-demographic data bases, research in all areas
related to women, agriculture and rural development, and diffusion and
exchange of information.

The Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
(ESHW), headquartered at FAO in Rome, and the FAO Regional Office for Latin
America and the Caribbean (RLAC), located in Santiago, Chile, are directly
responsible for implementing the Plan of Action in the region.


Major FAO Activities for the Advancement of Women Latin America and the
Caribbean

Since the approval of the Plan of Action in 1989, FAO has carried out major
activities in the region in each of the four spheres. The legal status of rural women
was investigated by researchers in nineteen countries who presented their findings to
the Round Table on "Legal Mechanisms to Facilitate Women's Participation in Rural
Development," held in 1990 in Santiago, Chile. Policy advice was provided to the
Government of Chile to mainstream gender issues into the National Plan for
Development of the Peasantry, and the Ministry of Agriculture in Argentina was
provided assistance to formulate a rural development strategy for the North-Western,
region that explicitly considers women. In Colombia, a project formulated a plan to
implement the Government's policy for women in rural areas, and in Panama, FAO
is helping the Government to identify possible means to improve the situation of rural
women.

The constraints and opportunities that women encounter in their rural
organizations were investigated in five case studies carried out in the Andean region,
and the results were discussed in the "International Workshop to Formulate a
Methodological Proposal in Support of Rural Women's Organizations in Andean
Countries," held in 1991 in Quito, Ecuador. Training and extension services for rural
women were enhanced through projects carried out with the governments of Argentina
and Honduras, and with a large women's NGO in the Dominican Republic; a project
is now underway in Honduras to reorient Home Economics curricula.










Studies have been carried out on women's role in genetic resources management
in potato production in Peru and in maize cultivation in Guatemala; a study is
planned on women's indigeneous technical knowledge in animal health and production
in Bolivia. In the Andean region in 1991, case studies and audio-visual materials were
prepared documenting women's roles in forestry within the context of the FAO
Forests, Trees and People Programme. Women's roles and needs in artesanal fisheries
in South America were discussed in a Workshop on "The Integration of Women in
Artesanal Fisheries in the South-Eastern Pacific" held in Concepci6n in 1990.


FAO's Preparatory Activities for the Fourth World Conference on Women

The Fourth World Conference on Women to be held in Beijing in 1995 presents
a unique opportunity to appraise the achievements of Member Nations and to renew
the commitment to the advancement of women. Since Nairobi in 1985, very valuable
experience has been gained and important lessons have been learned on how to better
promote women's interests in, and contributions to, agriculture and rural development.
The Platform of Action, which will be discussed and ratified by the Conference, will
be the new charter for governments as well as for UN agencies to bring women's
issues to the forefront of political, social and economic agendas of development.
FAO's Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Develppment will be revised
accordingly.

The UN General Assembly requested all UN Agencies to prepare for the
Conference by continuing to implement the NFLS, reporting on their activities toward
implementation, identifying major areas of concern, proposing strategies for the
Platform of Action for "post-Beijing", and assisting country and regional preparations.
FAO has developed an extensive programme of activities in preparation for Beijing
at national, regional and international levels, especially focused on promoting the
interests of women farmers and other rural women in all Conference and
pre-Conference activities, and on assisting in the preparation of sectoral reports oi
women in agriculture and rural development.

FAO's Programme, "FAO Assistance in Support of Rural Women in
Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women," is providing technical and
financial support to over 30 Member Nations throughout the various regions. In
Phase I, countries have been supported to carry out participatory consultative
workshops to discuss the critical issues affecting rural women which should be
addressed in the reports, and then to prepare the sectoral reports on women in
agriculture and rural development.

In Phase II, FAO will assist countries to strengthen national capacity to
implement the Platform for Action by providing assistance for the improvement of
quantitative and qualitative information on rural women, and for the production and










dissemination of audio-visual materials that document the findings. The data and
materials will be used to sensitize policy makers through a series of workshops, which
will also be oriented toward developing national action plans.


FAO's Preparatory Activities in Latin America and the Caribbean

In its preparatory activities, FAO has been very active in the Latin America and
Caribbean region. Peru, Honduras, El Salvador, Barbados, Grenada, St. Vincent and
the Grenadines and Santa Lucia have all received, or will soon receive, FAO support
for their preparatory activities. Further, support for the preparation of sectoral reports
has been provided to several additional countries by the Regional Office for Latin
America and the Caribbean, including Mexico, Costa Rica, Chile and Venezuela. A
regional report is under preparation based on the results of the country reports and a
sub-regional meeting held in Caracas. This report has been discussed at a meeting in
Mexico and the revised report has been presented at the Regional Conference in Mar
del Plata, and will be incorporated into the regional report for Beijing. A list of the
activities carried out in the preparatory phase in Latin America and the Caribbean is
included as an annex.

These preparatory activities are stimulating true participation and consensus
building between the various sectors and groups concerned with rural women, and are
leading to both improved understanding of rural women's issues and concerns, and
practical directions for action at the national, regional and international levels. An
example of the recommendations stemming from one of the national workshops,
sponsored by the Government of Santa Lucia, is included as an annex.


The Network of Institutions and Agencies in Support of Rural Women in Latin
America and the Caribbean

The entire preparatory effort for the World Conference in Beijing is built on
the recognition that organizations working for the advancement of women, including
grassroots groups, professional associations, NGOs, and Women in Development units
and focal points in governments and international agencies, play a vital role by
forming the core for political advocacy and acting in the political domain to change
the social and economic status of women. In this sense, the whole preparatory process
can be characterized as a network for action. Networking involves bringing together
people who have common concerns from all sectors and walks of life to exchange
information and experience, to learn from each other and plan for the future, and to
develop consensus and commitment to action for change.

In order to implement the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies in its sphere of
action in Latin America and the Caribbean, FAO has promoted action-oriented










networking as an ongoing process, through the establishment of the Network of
Institutions and Agencies in Support of Rural Women in Latin America and the
Caribbean.

The Network was an outcome of an FAO-sponsored workshop and round-table
held in El Salvador in 1991, which was attended by representatives from countries
throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The workshop was arranged to discuss
implementation of FAO's Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development.
One of the conclusions reached by participants was that, although there is a growing
body of research and experience on the status and needs of rural women in the region,
there is little regular exchange of information or experiences among concerned
institutions and organizations. The lack of exchange limits the systematic diffusion
of findings and leads to a loss of scarce development funds as a result of the
duplication of activities.

The consensus was that a network should be formed in order to: (a) exchange
information at national and international levels among governmental institutions,
NGOs and farmers' organizations working for rural women; (b) represent rural
women's interests in social, economic and agricultural development policies, both at
national and regional levels (within bodies such as the Andean parliament and
CARICOM); and (c) identify, validate and diffuse organizational and productive
alternatives that can ensure the sustainable use of natural resources in agricultural
production activities involving women farmers.

Network members are mainly women professionals and technicians of national
institutions and NGOs working in the area of women in rural development, and
leaders of farm women's organizations. The beneficiaries of the Network are women
farmers, policy makers and staff of various development programmes and projects
operating in Network areas. The Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
(RLAC) acts as the Technical Secretariat and provides assistance to the sub-regional
networks (Southern Cone, Andes, Mesoamerica and the English-speaking Caribbean).

The Network's first priority is to develop a common framework for
understanding gender and development, and participatory methods for problem
identification and resolution. Armed with this common understanding, it then becomes
the responsibility of the Network members to implement actions which will bring
Sdecision-makers, programme and project planners and implementors, and farmers'
organizations to effectively incorporate the needs of women into rural development
strategies.

The Network can become a potent regional machinery for advancing the
concerns of rural women. However, to accomplish this, it is crucial that each of these
Network sub-regions receive the necessary technical, training and logistical support
during their formative period. While seeking extra-budgetary resources, FAO has









employed Regular Programme funds to plan sub-regional workshops that focus on
building a common framework for understanding gender and development as well as
on providing participatory methodologies and organization and communication skills.

A good example of the operationalization of the network is provided by this
meeting's host Government. After the Santiago meeting in 1992, the Ministry of
Agriculture of Santa Lucia, which serves as Co-ordinator of the Network for the
sub-region, worked to link the activities of the Network with the CARICOM Member
Countries, and received the acknowledgement of the Permanent Committee of
Ministers of Agriculture of CARICOM. In turn, it worked for the designation of focal
points at national level in the eleven Member Countries. The meeting in Santa Lucia
in October 1993 was held as a result of this effort, and was fundamental for the focal
points to agree on a co-ordinated action to consolidate efforts in order to influence
policy decision-making levels in the sub-region.

A Training Workshop on Gender for the English-Speaking Caribbean was held
from 12-14 October 1993 in Santa Lucia, within the framework of the Network. The
main objective of the workshop was to provide a common framework for the focal
points in the area of Gender in Agriculture, in view of its importance for planning
programmes and projects. It also gave the focal points an opportunity to discuss
proposed objectives and priorities, evaluate these in the different national contexts, and
develop a plan of action for the next two years to promote the Network's activities in
their respective countries.


Beyond Beijing: FAO's Perspective

FAO will redouble its efforts to ensure the participation of women at all levels
in the decisions which affect their lives and welfare. In this context, it is worthwhile
noting that, at the closure of the 27th FAO Conference, it was stated that one of the
important points of the debate in the world forum is the recognition that the need for
full and equitable participation of women in the development process requires a change
of attitudes, and that such change will not occur rapidly nor easily. For this to occur,
national commitment and capacity must continue to be strengthened and much of that
strength will be provided through continuing concerted efforts to work together
through the action-oriented networking that is so vital to social learning and change.

FAO will continue its recent efforts to promote inter-disciplinary and
multisectoral approaches to rural women's concerns, including training on
Socio-economic and Gender Analysis. It will continue to reinforce its actions leading
to increased access for rural women to productive resources, including land, credit and
technology, and to services and training. It will work to achieve greater economic
opportunities' for women, especially through economic diversification, improved
marketing and the generation of adequately-remunerated employment, and to introduce









10

appropriate technology to increase the productivity of women's paid and unpaid
labour. The critical relations between women, population and environment will be
under further investigation with a view to identifying strategies that both advance rural
women and promote sustainable agricultural and rural development. The work that has
been accomplished so far to improve the collection, compilation, and diffusion of
statistics, data bases and information on rural women will be continued.

Day by day there are more actions at the global and regional level aimed at
promoting the FAO Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development. The
implementation of this Plan is an ambitious undertaking and systematic and strong
support in its development and implementation is highly appreciated. Through mutual
effort it is possible to identify and implement those elements that contribute to the
advancement of rural women who play a key role in sustainable agriculture and rural
development.








ANNEX I


IV World Conference on Women

Activities/reports carried out in 1994 (phase I)


PHASE I

Phase I has provided support for (i) the preparation of sectoral reports on women
in agriculture and rural development, and (ii) consultative workshops to discuss
critical issues affecting rural women which should be addressed in the report, in
the following countries in the Latin American and Caribbean Region:

Honduras

Sectoral report
Consultative workshop

Eastern Caribbean

St. Lucia, Barbados, Grenada, St. Vicent & Grenadines

Consultative workshops (meeting reports)

El Salvador

Sectoral report

Peru

Sectoral report
Case study on "Women in the Peruvian Amazon", which analyzes the
situation and roles of women in the social and economic context of the
Peruvian Amazon. Included in the report are actions that need to be taken on
a variety of fronts to improve the status of women in the region.


FAO Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (RLAC)

RLAC has provided support to several additional countries (including Mexico,
Costa Rica, Chile and Venezuela) for the preparation of sectoral reports on women
in agriculture and rural development. RLAC is also in the process of preparing a
regional document that analyzes the situation of rural women in Latin America and
the Caribbean during the period 1985-1995. The document will be based on the









Annex I 2
national reports, including the sectoral reports, prepared for Beijing, as well as on
the outputs of the sub-regional workshop on Women, Rural Development and
Decentralization Processes held in Caracas, Venezuela, August 1994.


PHASE II Future Activities


Phase II of the programme has the overall objective of strengthening national
capacity in the Latin America and Caribbean region to implement the Platform for
Action, which will be adopted by the Beijing Conference, as a tool "capable of
leading to feasible, effective and immediate action in order to achieve women's
equality, development and peace." Funding is currently being sought for the
implementation of Phase-II activities.











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ISSUE RATIONALE SUGGESTED APPROACH TARGET GROUPS


Improving Gender Relations at the Generally (rural) women's low self esteem has Stress Management Programmes Consultants
Community Level contributed to their own abuse end further
helped to deter the pace of their social Parenting Skills enhancement Family Ufe Educators
nd economic advancement
Counselling sessions Counsellors

Legal Aid Facility Lawyers

Promotion of Leisure / Recreation for Rural Women Ministry of Community Development,
Social Services, Youth and Sports



Promotion of Community Organisation Institutions which impact/influence development Training in: Assertiveness NGOs
and Participation of the rural sector has generally not been able Time Management, Team
to moblise women into exerting a greater Team Building governmental Institutions
influence on the direction of development actitivies Conflict Resolution
which impact significantly on their roles as mother, Needs Assessment international Donor Agencies
housewife, nuturer; in addition to that of income
earner. Participatory Approach to: Project Planning
Project Implementation
and Management
Monitoring and Evaluation






Agenda 27 / Chapter 24


GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS
SUSTAINABLE AND EQUITABLE
DEVELOPMENT














Extract from 'Global Assembly of Women and the
Environment: Special Report 5'










Agenda 21 Defines the Role of Women in Sustainable Development


The past two issues of the Global Assembly of Women and
the Environment- "Partners in Life" Special Follow-up
Reports provided you with the texts of UNCED documents as
they were developed. The mandate for women in the UNCED
process emanated from Decision 3/5 at the August, 1991
PrepCom III meeting in Geneva. At the conclusion of PrepCom
IV in April 1992, the section entitled "means of implementa-
tion," which focused on financial and institutional measures for
implementing the actions was locked in brackets due to disagree-
ment by government delegations. After much hard work by
many individuals at the PrepComs and during the Earth Summit,
the UNCED Conference adopted the Global Action for Women
Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development in Clif-tii'24,
IfRf X gi' l 'The section on financial and institutional
measures was dropped and dealt with separately under the
umbrella section on financial resources, mechanisms and
institutional matters. Therefore the UNCED language on the
role of women, which we reproduce below, deals only with
gender as a cross-cutting issue. We highlight in bold print those
parts of the text dealing specifically with women and environ-
ment.


A/CONF.151/4 (Part III)


Chapter 24


GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUS-
TAINABLE AND EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT

PROGRAMME AREA

Basis for action

24.1. The international community has endorsed several
plans of action and conventions for the full, equal and beneficial
integration of women in all development activities, in particular
the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of
Women, which emphasize women's participation in national and
international ecosystem management and control of environment
degradation. Several conventions, including the Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
(General Assembly resolution 34/180, annex) and conventions
of ILO and UNESCO have also been adopted to end gender-
based discrimination and ensure women access to land and other
resources, education and safe and equal employment. Also
relevant are the 1990 World Declaration on the Survival,
Protection and Development of Children and its Plan of Action
(A/45/625, annex). Effective implementation of these
programmes will depend on the active involvement of women in
economic and political decision-making and will be critical to
the successful implementation of Agenda 21.


Objectives

24.2The following objectives are proposed for national Govern-
ments:

(a) To implement the Nairobi Forward-looking Strate-
gies for the Advancement of Women, particularly with
regard to women's participation in national ecosystem
management and control of environment degradation;

(b) To increase the proportion of women decision-
makers, planners, technical advisers, managers and exten-
sion workers in environment and development fields;

(c) To consider developing and issuing by the year 2000 a
strategy of changes necessary to eliminate constitutional, legal,
administrative, cultural, behavioral, social and economic
obstacles to women's full participation in sustainable develop-
ment and in public life;

(d) To establish by the year 1995 mechanisms at the
national, regional and international levels to assess the
implementation andimpact of development and environ-
ment policies and programmes on women and to ensure
their contributions and benefits;

(e) To assess, review, revise and implement, where
appropriate, curricula and other educational material, with a
view to promoting the dissemination to both men and women of
gender-relevant knowledge and valuation of women's roles
through formal and non-formal education, as well as through
training institutions, in collaboration with non-governmental
organizations;

(f) To formulate and implement clear governmental
policies and national guidelines, strategies and plans for the
achievement of equality in all aspects of society, including the
promotion of women's literacy, education, training, nutrition
and health and their participation in key decision-making
positions and in management of the environment, particu-
larly as it pertains to their access to resources, by facilitating
better access to all forms of credit, particularly in the
informal sector, taking measures towards ensuring women's
access to property rights as well as agricultural inputs and
implements;

(g) To implement, as a matter of urgency, in accordance
with country-specific conditions, measures to ensure that women
(See Agenda, page 6)


Global Assembly of Women and the Environment: Special Report 5







(Agenda, continued from page 5)


and men have the same right to decide freely and responsibly the
number and spacing of their children and have access to
information, education and means, as appropriate, to enable
them to exercise this right in keeping with their freedom, dignity
and personally held values;

(h) To consider adopting, strengthening and enforcing
legislation prohibiting violence against women and to take all
necessary administrative, social and educational measures to
eliminate violence against women in all its forms.

Activities

24.3 Governments should take active steps to implement the
following:

(a) Measures to review policies and establish plans to
increase the proportion of women involved as decision makers,
pl -r's, managers, scientists and technical advisers in the
design, development and implementation of policies and
programmes for sustainable development;

(b) Measures to strengthen and empower women's
bureaux, women's non-governmental organizations and
women's groups in enhancing capacity-building for sustainable
development;

(c) Measures to eliminate illiteracy among females and to
expand the enrollment of women and girls in educational
institutions, to promote the goal of universal access to primary
and secondary education for girl children and for women, and to
increase educational and training opportunities for women
and girls in sciences and technology, particularly at the post-
secondary level;

(d) Programmes to promote the reduction of the heavy
workload of women and girl children at home and outside
th 3h the establishment of more and affordable nurseries and
kindergartens by Governments, local authorities, employers and
other relevant organizations and the sharing of household tasks
by men and women on an equal basis, and to promote the
provision of environmentally sound technologies which have
been designed, developed and improved in consultation with
women, accessible and clean water, an efficient fuel supply
and adequate sanitation facilities;

(e) Programmes to establish and strengthen preventive and
curative health facilities, which include women-centered,
women-managed, safe and effective reproductive health care and
affordable, accessible, responsible planning of family size and
services, as appropriate, in keeping with freedom, dignity and
personally held values. Programmes should focus on providing
comprehensive health care, including pre-natal care, education
and information on health and responsible parenthood, and
should provide the opportunity for all women to fully breastfeed


at least during the first four months post-partum. Programmes
should fully support women's productive and reproductive roles
and well-being and should pay special attention to the need to
provide equal and improved health care for all children and to
reduce the risk of maternal and child mortality and sickness;

(f) Programmes to support and strengthen equal employ--
ment opportunities and equitable renumeration for women in the
formal and informal sectors with adequate economic, political
and social support systems and services, including child care,
particularly day-care facilities and parental leave, and equal
access to credit, land and other natural resources;

(g) Programmes to establish rural banking systems with a
view to facilitating and increasing rural women's access to credit
and to agricultural inputs and implements;

(h) Programmes to develop consumer awareness and
the active participation of women, emphasizing their crucial
role in achieving changes necessary to reduce or eliminate
unsustainable patterns of consumption and production,
particularly in industrialized countries in order to encourage
investment in environmentally sound productive activities
and induce environmentally and socially friendly industrial
development;

(i) Programmes to eliminate persistent negative images,
stereotypes, attitudes and prejudices against women through
changes in socialization patterns, the media, advertising, and
formal and non-formal education;

(j) Measures to review progress made in these areas,
including the preparation of a review and appraisal report which
includes recommendations to be submitted to the 1995 World
Conference on Women.

24.4 Govemmenis are urged to ratify all relevant conventions
pertaining to women if they have not already done so. Those
that have ratified conventions should enforce and establish legal,
constitutional and administrative procedures to transform agreed
rights into domestic legislation and should adopt measures'to
implement them in order to strengthen the legal capacity of
women for full and equal participation in issues and decisions on
sustainable development.

24.5 States parties to the Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination against Women should review
and suggest amendments to it by the year 2000, with a view
to strengthening those elements of the Convention related to
environment and development, giving special attention to the
issue of access and entitlements to natural resources,
technology, creative banking facilities and low-cost housing,
and the control of pollution and toxicity in the home and
workplace. States parties should also clarify the extent of the


6 GlobalAssembly of Women and the Environment: Special Report

.... ...'.









Convention's scope with respect to the issues of environment
and development and request the Committee on the Elimina-
tion of Discrimination against Women to develop guidelines
regarding the nature of reporting such issues, required
under particular articles of the Convention.

(a) Areas requiring urgent action

24.6 Countries should take urgent measures to avert the
ongoing rapid environmental and economic degradation in
developing countries that generally affects the lives of
women and children in rural areas suffering drought,
desertification and deforestation, armed conflicts, natural
disasters, toxic waste and the aftermath of the use of unsuit-
able agro-chemical products.

24.7 In order to reach these goals, women should be fully
involved in decision-making and in the implementation of
sustainable development activities.

(b) Research. data collection and dissemination of information

24.8 Countries should develop gender-sensitive databases,
information systems and participatory action-oriented research
and policy analyses with the collaboration of academic institu-
tions and local women researchers on the following:

(a) Knowledge and experience on the part of women of
the management and conservation of natural resources for
incorporation in the databases and information systems for
sustainable development;

(b) The impact of structural adjustment programmes on
women. In research done on structural adjustment programmes,
special attention should be given to the differential impact of
those programmes on women, especially in terms of cut-backs in
social services, education and health and in the removal of
subsidies on food and fuel;

(c) The impact on women of environmental degrada-
tion, particularly drought, desertification, toxic chemicals
and armed conflicts;

(d) Analysis of the structural linkages between gender
relations, environment and development;

(e) The integration of the value of unpaid work, including
work that is currently designated "domestic", in resource
accounting mechanisms in order to better represent the true value
of the contribution of women to the economy, using revised
guidelines for the United Nations System of National Accounts,
to be issued in 1993;

(f Measures to develop and include environmental,
social and gender impact analyses as an essential step in the


development and monitoring of programmes and policies;

(g) Programmes to create rural and urban training,
research and resource centres in developing countries that
will serve to disseminate environmentally sound technologies
to women.

(c) International and Regional Cooperation and Coordination

24.9 The.Secretary-General of the United Nations should
review the adequacy of all United Nations institutions,
including those with a special focus on the role of women, in
meeting development and environment objectives, and make
recommendations for strengthening their capacities. Institu-
tions that require special attention in this area include the
Division for the Advancement of Women (Centre for Social
Development and Humanitarian Affairs, United Nations
Office at Vienna), the United Nations Development Fund for
Women (UNIFEM), the International Research and Train-
ing Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW)
Sand the women's programmes of regional commissions. The
review should consider how the environment and develop-
ment programmes of each body of the United Nations system
could be strengthened to implement Agenda 21 and how to
incorporate the role of women in programmes and decisions
related to sustainable development.

24.10 Each body of the United Nations system should review
the number of women in senior policy-level and decision-
making posts and, where appropriate, adopt programmes to
increase that number, in accordance with Economic and Social
Council resolution 1991/17 on the improvement of the status of
women in the Secretariat.

24.11 UNIFEM should establish regular consultations with
donors in collaboration with UNICEF, with a view to
promoting operational programmes and projects on sustain-
able development that will strengthen the participation of
women, especially low-income women, in sustainable
development and in decision-making. UNDP should estab-
lish a women's focal point on development and environment
in each of its resident representative offices to provide
information and promote exchange of experience and
information in these fields. Bodies of the United Nations
system, governments and non-governmental organizations
involved in the follow-up to the Conference and the imple-
mentation of Agenda 21 should ensure that gender consider-
ations are fully integrated into all the policies, programmes
and activities. 0


Gobl Assenbly ofWanen and the Ervironment: Special Report 7




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