• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 Introduction/background
 Genesys activities
 Progress relative to logical framework...
 Lessons learned and recommended...
 Administrative issues
 Appendices
 Outline of proposed summary of...
 Materials translated by Genesy...
 Original Genesys logical frame...
 Back Cover














Title: GENESYS Brazil Global Climate Program : final progress report, October 1994-March 1995
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Title: GENESYS Brazil Global Climate Program : final progress report, October 1994-March 1995
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Muirragui, Eileen
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
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Subject: South America   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: South America -- Brazil
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Executive summary
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Introduction/background
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Genesys activities
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Progress relative to logical framework indicators
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Lessons learned and recommended follow-up to Genesys
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Administrative issues
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Appendices
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Outline of proposed summary of Genesys socio-economic research
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Materials translated by Genesys
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Original Genesys logical framework
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Back Cover
        Page 47
Full Text
MERGE
438


GENESYS Brazil Global


Climate Program:
Progress Report


October


Eileen Muirragui
March 1995




SAID
United States Agency for
International Development
Office of Women in Development


Final


1994-March


1995


G E N S Y























GENES
Brazil Global Climate


YS
Change Program


Final Progress Report
October 1994 March 1995

Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00


Prepared by Eileen I. Muirragui, GENESYS/Brazil Coordinator
for: USAID/Brasilia
Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean
The Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
Agency for International Development








TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF ACRONYM S ........................................ i

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................... 1

Background and Major Project Activities .......................... .. 1

Activities at Participating NGOs .................................. 2

Meetings, Conferences and Training ............................... 4

Constraints .................................................. 5

Progress Relative to Logical Framework Indicators ..................... 5

Lessons Learned and Recommended Follow-up to GENESYS ............ 8

II. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND ............................... 9

III. GENESYS ACTIVITIES ...................................... 11

(A) Proposed Components of Third Project Extension ................. 11

(B) Status Report on NGOs and Gender/Social Science Specialists ........ 14

(C) Meetings and Conferences .................................. 26

IV. PROGRESS RELATIVE TO LOGICAL FRAMEWORK INDICATORS .. 27


V. LESSONS LEARNED AND RECOMMENDED FOLLOW-UP TO
G EN E SY S ..............................................

VI. ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES ................................

VII. FINANCIAL STATEMENT (included in SAID copies only)

VIII. APPENDICES

1. Outline of Proposed Summary of GENESYS Socio-Economic Research
2. Materials Translated by GENESYS
3. Original GENESYS Logical Framework


... 30

... 34


GENESYS/Fin.rep 1995








I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


This is the last progress report of the GENESYS/Brazil project, a sub-component
of the USAID Global Climate Change Program. The report covers the period from
October 1994 to March 1995. Previous quarterly and progress reports, and the GENESYS
Workplan contain a detailed explanation of the GENESYS sub-component, and the
respective roles and responsibilities of the FUTURES Group, International and its
Brazilian subcontractor, REBRAF.

BACKGROUND AND MAJOR PROJECT ACTIVITIES

The GENESYS Project was to have ended on October 4, 1994. On October 3, 1994
project staff received notification that the project had been extended for an additional six
months through April 4, 1995. Major efforts in the first two months of the extension
focused on 1) obtaining spending authorization from the USAID Procurement Office, given
on November 22, 1994; 2) developing a budget, and identifying major project activities, and
3) devising the means by which to implement them. This period was also used to define
the new roles of persons previously involved in the project, and the administrative
mechanism for carrying out activities taking place in Brazil after the expiration of the sub-
contract with REBRAF on October 4, 1994. A major change involved GENESYS/Brazil
Deputy Coordinator Suely Anderson, who joined the University of Florida's MERGE
project on an approximately half-time basis in late October 1994 and ended her association
with GENESYS. Rio-based Project Administrator Themis Rezende continued with
GENESYS from late December onwards, and her principal role has been in overseeing
translation and dissemination of materials.

The main project activities during this reporting period were the following:


* Drafting of a new project budget and definition of activities to be carried out in the
last months of the project which fell into five major areas: 1) Summary of Socio-
Economic Research; 2) Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products; 3) Translation
and Dissemination; 4) GCC Meeting, and 5) MERGE Collaboration and
Conference.

* Travel by Suely Anderson, John Dain and Karen Kainer of the University of
Florida/PESACRE/MERGE, and Marketing Manual author Peter Warner to
Washington D.C. to participate in an an end-of-project/lessons learned presentation
to representatives of different development agencies and projects on October 3,
1994.







* Travel by GENESYS/Brazil Coordinator Eileen Muirragui to Brazil between
November 27 and December 12, 1994 to discuss future activities with representatives
of USAID, MERGE, WWF, potential consultants, and three GCC NGOs in the
Amazon: CNS, STR/P and PESACRE.

* Negotiation of five, and approval of three new consultancy agreements for
activities which included production of a Chapter on Barriers to Women in
Marketing, a workbook (Cademo) to accompany the GENESYS NTFP
Marketing Manual, and for management of the translation and dissemination
of materials.

* Translation into Portuguese of three new documents to be used by women's
marketing groups, and development of a plan to disseminate key materials
translated and produced by GENESYS/Brazil.

* Continuing collaboration with staff of the University of Florida/MERGE and WWF.

* Completion of the final version of the GENESYS/Brazil Lessons Learned
Paper and preparation for presentations at GCC and MERGE Conferences.


ACTIVITIES AT PARTICIPATING NGOs


During this extension, the former gender specialists were not retained. Instead, the
strategy was to consolidate and finish the work initiated under GENESYS, notably in socio-
economic research, and to build a bridge with planned and proposed MERGE endeavors.
The table shown below summarizes what was accomplished in socio-economic research at
each NGO. It also details how GENESYS appears to have influenced the incorporation
of gender considerations in the research, the type of data available in sex-disaggregated
form. Finally it suggests areas of possible future focus for MERGE or other projects that
will build upon the base left by GENESYS.

No direct technical assistance (TA) to the NGOs was provided during the extension,
although it initially appeared as if PESACRE might get some assistance on marketing
questionnaire design and how to integrate gender considerations into it. FVA and WHRC
also expressed interest in having GENESYS provide TA to advise on how to return the
results of socio-economic research to non-literate audiences in the communities in which
they work. None of these proposed consultancies were carried out due to budget
constraints.








NGO Research, Incorporation of Gender and Suggested Areas of Future Focus




NGO Accomplishments in Incorporation of Gender Possible Areas of
Socio-Economic Research Future Focus/follow-up


CEPASP Completed and submitted a GENESYS influence apparent since Assist CEPASP to better document
final report, Comunidade final report explicitly notes that the production activities and production
Araras: Conquista e Resistincia 1992 survey strengthened questions calendars with the respective role of
na terra, summarizing two socio- on the participation of women. It men, women and children in view of
economic surveys at the Araras also clearly states the importance of supporting efforts of the Caixa
community, done in 1990 and not ignoring gender considerations Agricola and Women's Group to
1992 which focused on: 1) in surveys and using tools of gender improve the efficiency of production
family information; 2) farming analysis such as production and marketing. Train Women's.
data (including native and calendars. Report presents sex- Group in organizational skills,
planted crops, animals and disaggregated data in education, feasibility studies and marketing
medicinal plants); 3) rural participation in community using some materials from the
credit; 4) membership in organizations, and labor force GENESYS Manual de
community organizations; 5) employment. Also provides Comercializafdo and Caderno, and
land use, and 6) marketing. description of division of labor in the translated OEF materials. Test
agricultural and processing applicability of Barriers to Women
activities, in Marketing Chapter, and
document possible financial impact
of lack of membership access by
women producers to community
organizations such as the Caixa
Agricola.

CNS Completed reports on the socio- Not available for analysis Support former GENESYS
economic survey of the Cajari Specialist in the design and
reserve, in collaboration with implementation of a gender analysis
CNPT/IBAMA and of the course. Examine and analyze sex-
survey on the MaracA reserve, disaggregated data availability of
in collaboration with IEA/AP. survey data, including those on
Data on separate surveys on women and children in extractive
women and children funded, reserves.
but not currently available due
to conflict among researchers.

FVA Completed and submitted a Strong GENESYS influence shown Assist FVA to better document
high quality complete draft in use of separate male and female respective male and female roles in
report, Os Moradores do questionnaires. Report clearly the entire production system in Jau.
Parque Nacional do Jau, notes this approach was chosen to Follow-up on the differences in male
summarizing GENESYS- give more adequate and complete and female migration. Document
sponsored socio-economic view of local social relations. Sex- characteristics of female heads of
research at Ja6 Park. Topics disaggregated data available for household. Support and use high
included migration, land use, land tenure/titling, age distribution, caliber talents and interest of former
environmental legislation, education, possession of vital GENESYS Specialist, Regina
production and marketing records and legal documentation, Oliveira. Provide technical
(agricultural production, health problems, marketing, credit, assistance on how to present socio-
extractivism, logging, hunting access to media (radio). Partial sex- economic data at the community
and fishing), family disaggregation of production level, and how to engage in
composition, food consumption, systems and division of labor, marketing-related activities for non-
birth and health data. timber forest products.


GENESYS/Fin.rep 1995








NGO Accomplishments in Incorporation of Gender Possible Areas of
Socio-Economic Research Future Focus/follow-up

PESACRE Planned to complete two Not yet available for analysis. Analyze incorporation of gender
reports on GENESYS- considerations into PESACRE
sponsored research in Granada research and types of sex-
and Sao Miguel communities by disaggregated data available. In
February 1995. support of strategic planning goals,
encourage development of a pilot
monitoring and evaluation system to
track gender indicators in
PESACRE activities. Provide
technical assistance for
incorporating gender into
PESACRE's marketing endeavors.
Test the GENESYS funded NTFP
Marketing Manual and Cademo.


STR Completed and submitted Limited focus on gender Discuss and clarify whether and
tabulation of partial research considerations and weak sex- what type of sex disaggregation is
findings of the GENESYS- disaggregation of questionnaires relevant. Carefully examine the
funded socio-economic survey and results. Missed sex differences entire data set to see where it might
of two Capim River in several important variables such be possible to cull important sex-
communities, in collaboration as education, major health disaggregated information. Provide
with WHRC in document problems, sexual division of labor in technical assistance on returning
Resultados parciais do production and participation in research results to non-literate
Levantamento Socio-economico community organizations. Results audiences.
participativo de duas included data on participation in
comunidades do Rio Capim, the Club de Mies, but did not show
Paragominas-Pard. Pioneered male and female participation in
participatory approach to o their community groups.
research and return of
information to communities.




MEETINGS, CONFERENCES AND TRAINING



* On October 4, 1994 Anderson, Muirragui and Dain and Kainer, Warner made an
audio-visual presentation on the GENESYS project in Brazil at the end of project
Conference. This presentation discussed the challenges, accomplishments and
lessons learned by GENESYS/Brazil, and was used as a forum to present the new
NTFP Marketing Manual.

* Between November 29 and December 7, 1994, Muirragui and Anderson met and
travelled together to discuss how the NGO organizations might work with
GENESYS and MERGE.

* On December 8-9, 1994, Muirragui met with USAID-Brasilia to discuss future
activities and budget, and with WWF and ISPN to identify specific strategies of
collaboration with GENESYS/Brazil Phase III.


GENESYS/Fin.rep 1995







given at the GCC and MERGE Meetings.


CONSTRAINTS

Among the major constraints in this reporting period were the uncertainty regarding
the roles of staff previously associated with the project and the discovery of an error made
on the actual amount of funds available to GENESYS/Brazil. The latter led to the
elimination of the socio-economic research component and GCC Presentation by the
Project Coordinator, and curtailed the level of other planned activities.


PROGRESS RELATIVE TO LOGICAL FRAMEWORK INDICATORS

Progress relative to the original Logical Framework indicators (shown in Appendix
3) varied. Indicators centered in strengthening or improving the following areas: 1)
Brazilian NGO's capacity to incorporate gender considerations, socio-economic research
and analytical methods and skills; 2) Socio-economic sustainability of pilot projects that use
research results; 3) NGO organizational effectiveness; 4) NGO and community
understanding of NTFP marketing issues and strategies; and 5) NGO-level monitoring and
evaluation.

Part of the problem in evaluating progress is that some indicators are not accurate
measures of the narrative summary. Furthermore, none of the indicators were targeted in
terms of time, location, or organization/community. In some cases, such as for increased
marketing, there was no data system set up to track progress. There is also lack of
independence between levels for some indicators, for example indicators 1.1 for both
purpose and output are practically restatements. Other indicators (such as those for M&E)
were partially attained, either because activities to address them were introduced fairly late
in the project, or because of the difficulty of achieving them in a short time span, such as
output indicator 1.2 of self-sufficiency in research design and implementation.

Overall, there is evidence that in all NGOs, the GENESYS specialists have improved
their research skills, particularly in terms of the rapid rural appraisal methods which can
meet many information requirements. Some have better report writing abilities. It is
difficult to gauge changes in their management skills. Furthermore, there is indication that
four NGOs--CEPASP, CNS, FVA, PESACRE-- are at the early stages of beginning to
consider gender in project planning. None are at the stage of being able to manage gender
sensitive projects, nor can any adequately do socio-economic research design and
implementation without some sort of technical assistance. Yet some of the research that
has been recently completed and analyzed is beginning to serve in the design of activities
such as for the management plan at Jau Park, or marketing at CEPASP. The results of the
research may ultimately also influence project design.








Vis-a-vis monitoring and evaluation, with the exception of FVA, none of the
organization had knowledge or tools of monitoring and evaluation before August 1994.
Only FVA may be using indicators to manage their projects, but it is being done at a very
rudimentary level. No organization has an M&E plan.

The reasons why the results of the GENESYS/Brazil project have been mixed and
some of the indicators are only partially achieved are detailed in Gender and Socio-
Economic Considerations in Environmental Programs and Projects: Lessons Learned in the
Brazilian Amazon by Project Coordinators Eileen Muirragui and Suely Anderson. This
document discusses the design of the project, and its accomplishments and challenges. The
lessons learned as a result are discussed in substantial detail in the original document, but
are partially summarized below.

LESSONS LEARNED AND RECOMMENDED FOLLOW-UP TO GENESYS

GENESYS/Brazil has learned much from its three years of work in the Brazilian
Amazon, notably that the goals of institutionalizing the consideration of socio-efconomic
and gender considerations is a lengthy and complex process, which has only just begun in
the Amazon. As noted in the final Lessons Learned Paper, the most important of these
lessons are:

1) The process of integrating gender considerations into an organization is
slow because it is often perceived as an external mandate, so the first steps
of generating awareness and commitment are critical.

2) Successful strategies to integrate socio-economic and gender
considerations must produce some short-term benefits to the targeted
organization.

3) Without specific attention to gender and women in development issues,
socio-economic research does not necessarily provide information on
differences between men and women's roles, responsiblilites and rights, and
women may continue to remain "invisible."

4) Socio-economic research skills within NGOs are not easily developed
without trained social scientists on staff or high levels of technical assistance,
yet with less training and outside technical assistance rapid rural appraisal
and participatory rural appraisal can meet many information needs.







5) The quality and relevance of repeated exposure to socio-economic and
gender issues appears to influence how these are incorporated by an
institution, as does existence of a key individual or group continuously
promoting awareness of and commitment to them.

6) A system of monitoring and evaluation of socio-economic and gender
indicators is critical to reinforce the link between research findings and
planning, and to improve project implementation and reporting.

Based upon its experience, the project can provide the following general guidelines
for the continued integration of gender and socio-economic factors into GCC activities:

1) Build partnerships and networks, and encourage commitment through the
identification of M&E community, regional and overall program socio-
economic and gender targets and indicators on the part of several
collaborating project entities such as donors, expatriate and local
implementing agencies.

2) Continue promoting awareness and commitment at the highest level of
targeted organizations by effectively "making the case" for socio-economic
and gender considerations in terms of equity at the community and women's
group level, and efficiency vis-a-vis monitoring overall progress in terms of
management, environmental, financial and economic goals. Clarify early on
to all targeted groups and partners, the conceptual differences between sex
and gender, women in development (WID) versus gender in development
(GAD), and the importance of considering each for equity and efficiency.

3) Foster institutional development through training and targeted technical
assistance in socio-economic surveys, marketing, extension and monitoring
and evaluation, and incorporate gender considerations as integral parts each.

4) Work to develop a research culture of "asking the right questions"
through critical thinking skills and hypothesis testing with the participation
of local communities, and use gender analysis tools for field testing
hypotheses and developing new tools applicable to specific settings.

5) Identify a "critical mass" of key individuals that have "gender vision," and
can build networks and synergy.

6) Disseminate lessons learned and case studies as part of networking and
development and refinement of gender analysis tools.

7) Improve the access of both men and women to program/project benefits.
To improve the chances of successful incorporation and eventual institutionalization







of socio-economic and gender considerations in the research and development activities of
collaborators working with GCC, it is recommended that USAID-Brasilia, in collaboration
with the USAID WID Office and other funding agencies:

1) Encourage U.S. GCC organizations working with local NGOs to consider
the relevance of socio-economic and gender factors in their joint activities.

2) Promote the development of an M&E system of socio-economic and gender
indicators for all GCC collaborators by encouraging M&E plans and the
identification. and reporting of indicators that quantify the number of men and
women benefitting from GCC sub-project activity, and the gender-differentiated impact
of activities, including: a) marketing of non-timber forest products; b) research; c)
environmental impact assessment; d) land use and natural resource management; e)
legal reform and policy; f) education and training; g) community participation in
decision-making, and h) extension.

3) Finance the summary of all GENESYS-financed socio-economic research,
with particular attention paid to the type and relevance of sex-disaggregated
data, and use research findings to derive project, program and policy
recommendations.

4) In collaboration with U.S. counterpart organizations, continue to provide gender-
focused training and technical assistance to Brazilian NGOs in activities related to
monitoring and evaluation, socio-economic research, marketing and extension,
following the suggestions recommended for each NGO in this report. In order to
have measurable impact, the yearly level of effort and funding should be at least the
same as what has been given to GENESYS/Brazil in the past three years.

5) Promote the field testing and adaptation of materials produced and/or
translated by GENESYS/Brazil and others, particularly in the area of gender
analysis, participatory research and marketing of NTFPs.

6) Support former GENESYS/Brazil gender specialists and staff, as well as
other local professionals as valuable resources to be used for training,
networking, dissemination and technical assistance. Support their regular
meeting as a group twice a year.

8) Document the site-specific lessons learned by GENESYS/Brazil and MERGE
through the funding of the write-up of case studies of gender and natural resource
management, as well as other material that can be disseminated throughout the
Amazon, and to other countries.







II. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND

The GENESYS component of the Brazil Global Climate Change Program was
designed to integrate socio-economic and gender considerations into program activities.
Until October 1994, GENESYS/Brazil was implemented by the FUTURES Group,
International in collaboration with its Brazilian sub-contractor, REBRAF. The FUTURES,
Group, International alone implemented the last six months of the project through April
4, 1995.

The GCC Program focuses on sustainable use of the Amazon forest, institution
building, and policy reform. GENESYS/Brazil operated under the hypothesis that in the
Brazilian Amazon, both women and men play important productive roles in all the
extractive and agroforestry systems, as sources of traditional knowledge about the habitat,
as collectors of forest products, as processors of products, and as sellers. Yet there had
been little research and information about the division of labor and other gender
considerations in the Amazon region in general, and in renewable resource management
systems in particular. GENESYS maintained that to enhance the probability the GCC-
promoted forest uses and management practices would be adopted, socio-economic
information and gender disaggregated data on the knowledge, skills and labor of both men
and women should be considered, and must influence decisions on project and Program
activities.

Through the GCC Program, GENESYS worked primarily with Amazonian NGOs
to strengthen their capabilities to include socio-economic and gender considerations in the
design, implementation, and evaluation of sustainable activities in extractive reserves, park
buffer zones, and agroforestry projects supported by the GCC Program. GENESYS
activities included training, research, technical assistance and institutional strengthening.

The GENESYS scope of work included the following objectives:
* Strengthen the capacity of Brazilian NGOs to incorporate gender considerations.
* Assist NGOs in socio-economic research activities in their communities.
* Improve the socio-economic analytical and methodological skills of NGOs.
* Improve project-level monitoring and evaluation.
* Sponsor research to contribute to project socio-economic sustainability.

GENESYS activities included:
* Designing and delivering training workshops.
* Sponsoring the work of local gender/social science specialists with participating
NGOs.







* Designing and disseminating marketing studies.
* Providing short-term technical assistance to participating NGOs, notably in the area
of socio-economic research.
Anticipated accomplishments included:
* Increasing NGO incorporation of gender and research skills.
* Identifying and training local gender/social science specialists to integrate gender
considerations into NGO workplans, and carry out needed socio-economic research.
* Designing a gender differences "minimum data set."
* Identifying indicators of project results.
* Developing a participatory research approach for working with communities.

* Producing a marketing report on a specific non-timber forest product, and
disseminating training materials on how to implement market analysis and
planning for other non-timber forest products (NTFPs).

Target NGOs

GENESYS worked closely with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the University
of Florida (UF), and with the Brazilian NGOs which receive GCC funding:


* CEPASP

* STR-Paragominas

* FVA
* IEA/CNS

* PESACRE


Centro de Educacio, Pesquisa e Assessoria Sindical e Popular
in Marabd, Para
Sindicato dos Trabalhadores Rurais de Paragominas, in
Paragominas, Pard
Fundaqio Vit6ria AmazBnica in Manaus, Amazonas
Institute dos Estudos Amazonicos and O Conselho Nacional
dos Seringeiros in Macapa, Amapa
Grupo de Pesquisa e Extensao em Sistemas Agroflorestais do
Acre in Rio Branco, Acre.


Other Organizations

GENESYS also worked with another GCC Program organizations-- the Woods Hole
Research Center (WHRC). In addition over the life of the project, GENESYS
-collaborated with Brazilian and U.S. institutions including the Nucleo de Altos Estudos
Amazonicos (Federal University of Pard); The Rainforest Foundation/Fundagio Mata
Virgem; The Rainforest Alliance; World Resources Institute; DESFIL/Chemonics
(Development Strategies for Fragile Lands); The Pilot Program/The World Bank, and
others.







III. GENESYS ACTIVITIES


A. Proposed Components of Third Project Extension

In August 1994, GENESYS/Brazil was notified that a six-month extension might be
granted beyond the October 4, 1994 scheduled project expiration date. Confirmation of
this extension was given on October 3. The late date and uncertainty leading up to it
hampered a smooth transition, notably since project Coordinators Suely Anderson and
Eileen Muirragui had made alternate professional plans. Anderson took vacation in early
October, and had accepted an approximately half-time position with the University of
Florida MERGE Project beginning in late October. Muirragui had accepted a three-week
consulting assignment in October/November (ultimately covered by vacation time).
Furthermore, GENESYS Brazil-based Project Administrator Themis Rezende had a baby
on October 4, 1994.

Under these circumstances, planning of extension activities and development of a
budget did not occur until November. A proposed budget based on an understanding of
the money available was submitted to USAID-Brasilia on November 22, 1994, and
authorization to spend was given on the same date by the Contracts Office in Washington.
The budget and scope of activities centered around five major areas: 1) Summary of Socio-
Economic Research; 2) Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products; 3) Translation and
Dissemination; 4) GCC Meeting, and 5) MERGE Collaboration and Conference. The
major elements of these components were as follows:

1) Summary of Socio-Economic Research

The objective of this activity as originally envisioned was to produce a graphic
summary "data set" to illustrate socio-economic and gender trends in Amazonian
communities on the basis of data collected by GENESYS-supported surveys. These data
were to be compared to regional and national equivalents. The summary was to be carried
out by ISPN, an organization which had provided much technical assistance to the NGOs
in data collection and analysis. Personnel of the Institute for the Study of Society,
Population and Nature (ISPN) in Brasilia contributed a great deal to the definition of the
objectives, scope of work and budget of the proposed activity.

The synthesis was to be made available in three alternative communication media
following former GENESYS staff member John Jerome's two tools of the GENESYS
Gender Analysis Tool Kit, Quantifying Gender Issues and Country-Gender Profiles. Planned
outputs were: 1) A computerized graphic presentation to be shown at the GCC Meeting
and MERGE Conference; 2) A set of slides and overheads of 35-50 frames to be made
available to all collaborating NGOs and USAID; 3) A 30-35 page written document
summarizing and explaining the graphic data, 100 copies of which would be distributed to
key organizations in Brazil.







The target audience for these products was composed of mid-level technical and
administrative personnel who would be made aware and informed of the gender dimension
in economic and social systems in the Amazon. The NGOs that worked with GENESYS
were to contribute relevant parts of their data sets, and work with ISPN to produce the
synthesis. All but PESACRE showed interest in this activity.

After John Jerome's travel to Brazil became difficult due to job commitments in
Washington, it was decided that it would be simpler and more realistic to produce only a
100 page written summary, the content of which is shown in Appendix 1. A contract to
that effect was discussed, negotiated and was ready to be signed with ISPN. It could not
be carried out because of the lack of funds stemming from a miscalculation of the actual
amounts available to the project.

2) Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products

Planned outputs of this component were: a) a chapter on Barriers to Women in
Marketing; b) peer review of the GENESYS Manual de Comercializagdo de Produtos
Florestais, and determination of where it had been disseminated, and how it was being used;
and c) a Cademo to supplement the Manual and provide a series of practical exercises in
five key areas: family income; production; remuneration of labor; marketing; market
research; financial and economic viability of NTFP enterprise and working capital. In each
case, gender considerations and analysis were to be explicitly included. If they were not,
explanation and justification were to be given.

Some marketing technical assistance was also initially envisioned. While in Rio
Branco, Acre in December, Eileen Muirragui met with University of Florida Marketing
Specialist, John Haydu and discussed the possibility of GENESYS paying for consultants
David (Toby) McGrath and Connie Campbell to advise on a survey being prepared by the
PESACRE Marketing Team for the RECA Project. The team would assist to improve the
questionnaires given to producers, and to incorporate gender considerations into the survey.
Unfortunately, neither of these consultancies was carried out due to budget constraints.

3) Translation and Dissemination

Since the Project and USAID had recognized the dearth of gender related materials
in Portuguese, high priority had previously been given to translations. During the
extension, the focus was on translating three OEF documents for women's groups: 1)
Women Working Together; 2) Doing a Feasibility Study: Training Activities for Starting or
Reviewing a Small Business; and 3) Marketing Strategy: Training Activities for Entrepreneurs.
Themis Rezende was put in charge of checking the quality of past translations, and making
necessary revisions. A list of all materials translated by GENESYS/Brazil during project
life is shown in Appendix 2.








GENESYS/Brazil also planned to disseminate written material produced or
translated by the project, and prepared a mailing list of key Brazilian community, research
and academic organizations for that purpose. Depending on their focus, these
organizations will receive different publications. Another part of the dissemination strategy
was to work with staff of the MERGE Project to prepare a presentation for the GCC
Meeting (Component 4 below) and MERGE Conference in Gainesville, Florida in late
March 1995 (Component 5 below).


4) GCC Annual Collaborators Meeting


Until late January, GENESYS operated under the assumption that it would be in
charge of a half-day presentation at the annual GCC Collaborator's Meeting to be held
between March 6 and 8 in Bel6m. The goal of the presentation that was to be developed
jointly with MERGE staff, was to assist USAID-Brasilia to raise awareness and
commitment on the part of GCC collaborators to develop and report gender indicators of
project impact for its required reporting and annual Action Plan. GENESYS planned to
first provide a short summary of its socio-economic/gender findings in the Amazon, using
the presentation developed by ISPN in Component 1. GENESYS and MERGE staff also
planned to adapt the GENESYS tool and methodology for monitoring and evaluation
tested in Brazil in August 1994 to assist GCC collaborators to develop socio-economic and
gender indicators for their projects.

This planned activity did not take place for two reasons. In the first place, USAID
was faced with time constraints, and cut one day out of the GCC Conference.
Consequently, not enough time was available to do the originally planned presentation.
GENESYS was instead given 20 minutes to do a summary presentation on
accomplishments/lessons learned, and MERGE was given 45 minutes to discuss planned
strategies. Secondly, budgetary constraints did not allow GENESYS Coordinator Eileen
Muirrragui to travel to Brazil to the Conference. The compromise solution was to feed
GENESYS material to MERGE staff, who combined a presentation for both projects.


5) MERGE Collaboration and Conference


The MERGE Conference dates were March 27-29, dovetailing with the 44th Annual
Latin American Conference of the Center for Latin American Studies of the University of
Florida. GENESYS/Brazil participation centered in two key areas: a) presentation of the
lessons learned in efforts to integrate gender and socio-economic considerations into
environmental programs and projects in the Amazon; and b) application of the GENESYS
tool on integrating socio-economic and gender considerations into monitoring and
evaluation during a workshop given in Brazil in August 1994. Former GENESYS Gender








Specialists Irene Hohn of STR, and Denise Garrafiel of PESACRE were also scheduled
to share their experiences. Two other planned conference participants were former
GENESYS/Brazil Deputy Coordinator, Suely Anderson, and Marketing Manual author
Andrea Pontual, whose trip was self-financed. Due to lack of funds, GENESYS/Brazil
could not fund the travel of ISPN staff to present the socio-economic and gender
findings/tool planned in Component 1 as had been originally intended.


B. Status Report on GCC NGOs and Local Gender/Social Science Specialists
in the Post-GENESYS Period


Until October 4, 1994, GENESYS/Brazil supported five local gender/social science
specialists, at STR, CEPASP, FVA, CNS and PESACRE. These specialists worked half-
time on GENESYS-related activities, which included socio-economic issues, in general and
research, in particular. In the last year of the project, more attention was paid to gender
considerations. The gender specialists submitted bi-monthly reports and received targeted
technical assistance to assist them to incorporate socio-economic and gender considerations
into the activities of the NGOs where they worked.

When support of the gender specialists ended, GENESYS stepped out of one of its
key roles--facilitating the networking activities among the GCC NGOs and other GCC
institutions. This role began to be taken up by the University of Florida's MERGE staff,
notably Suely Anderson, contact person with local organizations, and Jon Dain, MERGE
Coordinator for Brazil. MERGE strategy is to encourage and support the gender
specialists to begin working and planning activities individually, together and in partnerships
and coalitions with others. These activities include training others in gender analysis,
incorporating socio-economic and gender considerations into their organization's activities,
and sharing their experiences with others through conferences and case studies.

The MERGE role is critical to continuing the work begun by GENESYS,
particularly given indications of what has happened in each of the organizations since the
end of formal collaboration with GENESYS. In most cases, although there is awareness
and varying degrees of commitment to gender considerations, activities incorporating a
gender focus will probably not be sustained to a meaningful level without continued outside
impetus, training and technical assistance. An overview of what has occurred in each of the
organizations during the extension period is given below.









PARAGOMINAS RURAL WORKERS' UNION (STR) -- Paragominas/Pard

GENESYS Specialist: Irene Margarete Hohn

The main thrust of GENESYS work with STR
STR was baseline participative socio-
economic research in two Capim River Founded in the late 1960s primarily to provide
communities. In July-August 1994, Gender medical and retirement assistance to rural
Specialist Hohn left Paragominas to relocate workers, in 1989 the Paragominas RuralWorkers
in Bel6m, where she accepted a new part-time Union (STR) expanded its objectives to include
job with a German project. She occasionally defending rural workers' rights, developing a
returns to Paragominas to work with ST on political/union organization, and providing
returns to Paragominas to work with ST on informal education and extension in agricultural
a volunteer basis. She has continued to production, natural resource management and
collaborate with WHRC to analyze the data health.
collected under GENESYS, and to return the
results to the community. The later was done
in October 1994, using art and numbers to
transmit main findings to a predominantly
non-literate audience.

In October 1994, STR produced a partial analysis of the GENESYS survey entitled Resultados
parciais do Levantamento Socio-economico participation de duas comunidades do Rio Capim,
Paragominas, Pard. Although the data presented were deemed useful to STR, very little of it was
sex-disaggregated as summarized in the table below:


TYPE OF DATA SEX-DISAGGREGATED

Total population and age distribution Yes
Place of birth Yes
Schooling No
Source of income No
Possession of vital record and legal documentation No
Land utilization patterns No
Production data (plant, animal, family garden, fishing, No
logging)
Use of fire No
Household ownership of material goods No
Source and treatment of water, waste disposal No
Major health problems No
Birth data and child mortality No
Participation in community organizations and labor union No








The strength of the Paragominas research is its strong participatory methodology,
in which community members were used for the identification of questions and in
interviewing. The findings were also returned to the communities. A focus on gender
considerations is much less noticeable. With very little additional effort, for example, there
could have been sex-disaggregated data on several very important variables such as
education, major health problems, and participation in community organizations. The latter
category included data on participation in the Club de Mdes, but did not show male and
female participation in other community groups. Other important areas of focus such as
production data could have been more informative if sex-disaggregated, since it would yield
valuable information on the division of labor. Yet producing such data would have
required use of gender analysis tools such as activities and production calendars, and STR
personnel did not receive such training until almost the end of the project.

Conclusions and Recommendations: The results of the partial analysis of survey data
highlight one of the important lessons learned by the project. Without specific attention to
gender and women in development issues, socio-economic research does not necessarily provide
information on differences between men and women's roles, responsiblilites and rights, and
women may continue to remain "invisible." Consequently, valuable baseline data on men and
women's respective roles and responsibilities has not been presented in the STR report on
GENESYS-financed research. Without concerted attention being paid to this gap, the
likelihood of inclusion of gender considerations in future STR data analysis and activities
is bleak, particularly given Hohn's departure as regular staff. It is thus recommended that
the MERGE Project work closely with WHRC staff and Hohn to carefully examine the
data set from which the report was written, and identify where it might be possible to cull
important sex-disaggregated information. During this process, it is important to discuss
whether sex disaggregation is relevant. If it is considered both important and relevant, it
should be collected in future research endeavors. A reference document to guide future
surveys is from the GENESYS toolbox, Gender and Household Dynamics: A Tool for
Analyzing Income and Employment Data from Surveys. Finally, the STR focus on
participation and involvement of the community in research is a recognized strength. Yet
MERGE must raise the question as to whether this approach is only partially participatory,
if it is not known how half of the members of the community--women and girls-- fare
quantitatively in terms of some of the major variables of interest.








NATIONAL RUBBERTAPPERS COUNCIL (CNS) Macapa/Amapf


GENESYS Specialist: Marcio Lima de Matos


The main thrust of GENESYS work with
CNS was the socio-economic research at
the extractive reserves of Cajari and
Maraca.
In this endeavor, GENESYS collaborated
with several organizations including
CEMA-AP, INCRA-AP, IEA-AP,
CNPT/IBAMA-AP, ASTEX-CA and
ASTEX-MA. The socio-economic survey
of Cajari covered an area of 481,650
hectares, 732 households and 3,479
inhabitants. A total of 622 questionnaires
were administered. CNS used the same
survey questionnaire in Maraca.
GENESYS also hired consultant, Ligia
Simonian to write findings specific to
women and children revise the
Questionnaire for women and children used


CNS

The National Rubbertappers Council
(CNS) was formed in 1985 to represent and
defend the rights of rubbertappers and
other forest dwellers. The CNS
coordinates Amazon-wide activities and
works with the government to reorient
regional development policies, provide
social services, and support favorable
product pricing. The centerpiece of the
CNS agenda has been the creation and
implementation of extractive reserves, a
conservation and development approach
that has caught the world's imagination.


in Maraca by IEA/AP, to be administered to


a sample of the population in Cajari since little is known about the role of women in the
extractive reserves, and their role in decision-making. CNS is interested in these data since
women and youth are not yet organized.

Although scheduled for completion in October, the two CNS reports were not available to
GENESYS at the time this report was being drafted. Furthermore, because of
interpersonal problems between consultant Ligia Simonian and others involved in the
research, she was not willing to share her report with GENESYS, and even offered to
return some of the money that had been initially paid to her for her work on the
questionnaire for women and children.

A positive aspect at CNS is that former gender specialist Marcio Lima de Matos is quite
interested in gender issues, and would like to see some gender analysis training given.
WWF had originally expressed interest in financing it, but plans have not come through.
CNS was also interested in collaborating with GENESYS in the production of a graphic
synthesis of socio-economic data.








Conclusions and Recommendations: There is budding interest in gender issues at CNS, but
it will be nipped in the bud if some support is not given to Marcio Lima de Matos, whose
funding at CNS apparently runs out in February. WWF has been generally pleased with
his work, and should consider funding him at least for the organization of a gender analysis
course, perhaps in collaboration with MERGE. Work here would advance the
incorporation of gender considerations into activities in the extractive reserves.
The content of the final survey reports should also be carefully examined, particularly in
terms of sex-disaggregation. Simonian must also be tactfully persuaded to share her work
on women and children. Both these roles can be carried out by MERGE.








CENTRO DE EDUCACAO, PESQUISA E ASESORIA SINDICAL E POPULAR
(CEPASP) Marabf/Para

GENESYS Specialist: Ivonete Nascimento Trinidade

The two major areas of GENESYS work with
CEPASP were: 1) GENESYS-sponsored CEPASP
marketing research, and marketing
recommendations on cupuaCu for the Caixa Founded in 1984, CEPASP's mission is to
Agricola of Araras, and 2) analysis of the defend the environment and advance
socio-economic data gathered by CEPASP in sustainable development efforts through
1990 and 1992. informal education and technical assistance
to local rural labor unions, and through
CEPASP's final report on the research, support to social movements in
Comunidade Araras: Conquista e Resistgncia na southeastern Pari.
terra was produced with the involvement of
GENESYS Gender Specialist Ivonete
Trinidade. The survey involved 132 families
and focused in six areas: 1) family information; 2) farming data (including native and planted crops,
animals and medicinal plants); 3) information on rural credit; 4) associativism with rural
organizations; 5) land use, and 6) marketing. The final report shows the influence of GENESYS
on CEPASP's incorporation of gender considerations. For example, the report very explicitly notes
that in the 1992 questionnaire, questions on the participation of women were 'strengthened.
Furthermore, the report clearly states the importance of not ignoring gender considerations in
surveys: "As pesquisas s6cio-econ6micas convencionais tem subestimado as contribug6es qualitativa
e quantitativamente que homes, mulheres ou individuos de faixas etirias distintas aportam ao
process de producao. Em funqCo desta falha, os resultados das pesquisas refletem mal a realidade,
apresentando generalizaq6es e anilises enviesadas e superficiais" (Comunidade Araras, p. 68)

As is shown in the table below, the report presents more sex-disaggregated data on certain key
variables than was the case with the STR Report, notably in the areas of education, participation
in community organizations, and labor force employment. Vis-a-vis the findings, the report also
points 6ut that cultural factors, roles and traditions impinge on women's schooling (Comunidade
Araras, p. 29). An interesting outcome of this finding is that CEPASP has organized adult
education, with attention being given to women's literacy.

The report also incorporates partial use of a tool transmitted by GENESYS and the University of
Florida gender analysis training in the later stages of the project: the use of activities and
production calendars. In the report CEPASP recognizes that: "....toda a mio-de-obra com que
contam 6 familiar, envolvindo homes e mulheres em idades diferenciadas....," and in discussing
the division of work in the family unit it highlights the roles of women and children (Comunidade
Araras, pp. 71-72). The report also notes: "A importancia de incluirmos "andlise de genero" em
estudos s6cio-econ6micos de comunidades reside no fato de podernos alcangar uma visao mais real
da unidade familiar e de suas condig6es de trabalho, bem como, da atuagio homen/mulher nas
diferentes atividades e etapas do process produtivo." (Comunidade Araras, p. 68).









TYPE OF DATA SEX-DISAGGREGATED
Total population and age distribution Yes
Place of birth/origin Yes
Schooling Yes
Major health problems No
Religion No
Participation in community organizations and labor union Yes, partial
Source and treatment of water, waste disposal No
Transportation access No
Community investments No
Land use No
Water resources No
Production systems No
Credit Access No
Labor Force Employment Yes
Cupuaqu production Partial
Marketing Options No



The CEPASP report provides a good description of agricultural and processing activities
in which community members engage, with some reference to the respective roles of men,
women and children. The analysis in this regard could be much more refined, with more
data that is sex-disaggregated in terms of labor utilization for specific activities identified.
Yet although there is little "hard" data in this regard, the report does indicate that there
is general recognition of respective men's and women's roles. For example it notes that
women predominate in paid activities in the areas of babaqu collection, education, health
and services (maids, seamstresses). The report also notes that there is more relative
unemployment among men than women.

The report also provides some interesting insights into the role of women in community
associations and relative power relations. For example, several economic benefits (e.g.
access to transport, community investments) that community members may have as a result
" of their association with the Caixa Agricola will be biased towards males because of the
membership rules of only one member per household, its head. Yet the important role of
the Women's Group is also highlighted, and its relationship with the Caixa Agricola for
cupuaqu processing.







Conclusions and Recommendations: Although Gender Specialist Ivonete Trinidade has
needed, and continues to need a great deal of technical assistance in socio-economic
research and gender issues, the CEPASP report shows her awareness and commitment to
them. Furthermore, Trinidade has been elected President of the organization, and is in a
much more influential position relative to what her position was before GENESYS. She
has shown great interest in continuing the work with MERGE, presenting findings and
lessons learned and working with Araras Women's Group on the marketing of cupuaqu
derivatives.

MERGE has an excellent opportunity to build upon what has been achieved at CEPASP,
and to follow several of the guidelines for future projects that have derived from the
GENESYS experience. These include: field testing gender analysis tools at specific
settings; rewarding those who integrate gender, and improving the access of both men and
women to project and program benefits (see p. 6 above). Specifically, MERGE could assist
it to better document production activities and calendars, and the respective role of men,
women and children. Data generated in the derivation of labor calendars could support
efforts to improve the efficiency of production and marketing which so interests the Caixa
Agricola. Furthermore, given the past experience and interest in marketing, MERGE could
do targeted training in Marketing with the Women's Group, using some of the materials
from the GENESYS Manual de Comercializagdo and Cademo, and the translated OEF
materials for women's group's on group organization, feasibility studies and marketing.
These activities would help to buttress the role and participation of women in these areas,
given their limited membership access to the Caixa Agricola.









FUNDA4(AO VICTORIA AMAZONICA (FVA) Manaus, Amazonas


GENESYS Specialist: Regina Oliveira da Silva


At present, FVA is in a transition phase
shifting much of its attention and staff into Created after Workshop 90 (the landmark
the field at Jau National Park. Former meeting convened in Manaus to identify
Gender Specialist Regina Oliveira will be and map conservation priorities in the
moving there to work more closely with Amazon basin), FVA is working to ensure
Park dwellers. It appears as if the the protection of natural resources, while
document summarizing GENESYS- trying to bring direct benefits to the
population of the Rio Negro basin.
financed socio-economic research, Os
Moradores do Parque Nacional do Jau, will ...
be a seminal piece for identifying an
Action Plan for the Park, and future activities with the population residing within.

The report on the GENESYS-financed research is based on three questionnaires: one for
males, one for females, and a medical sheet. Again the apparent influence of GENESYS
in getting FVA to consider gender differences is clearly stated in the report: "A opcqo por
trabalhar separadamente homes e mulheres se deu por acreditarmos obter desta forma
dados de natureza distinta que somados nos dariam uma visio mais adequada e complete
das relaq6es sociais locais." (Os Moradores, p. 12) The male questionnaire was directed
to male heads of household, and to women who filled that role. They covered information
on migration, land use, environmental legislation, production and marketing (agricultural
production, extrativism, logging, hunting and fishing). The questions in the female
questionnaires followed the same themes, but were more directed to particularities of
domestic life including family composition, food consumption, birth, health and migration
data.



TYPE OF DATA SEX-DISAGGREGATED
Land tenure/titling Yes
Age distribution Yes
Education Yes
Possession of vital records and legal documentation Yes
Health problems Yes
Production systems Partial
Marketing Yes
Credit Yes
Access to media (radio) Yes










The use of male and female questionnaires has provided a great deal of sex-disaggregated
data. A Senior Program Officer of WWF's Office of Population noted that the use of
questionnaires on resource use and income generation addressed to both men and women
was "invaluable, as it is one of the first of its kind that I have encountered in the context
of a conservation project" (Dounia Loudiyi Memo, March 18, 1994). For example, it
allowed cross-checking on possible consumption of endangered species, by comparing male
answers on what they said they captured with what the females said they cooked. The
latter estimates were significantly higher. Yet more could be done with the data set in
terms of better describing respective male and female roles in the entire production system
in Jau, which is not done in the final report. One of the few exceptions is fishing, where
the respective roles of men and women are statistically documented. It would also be
important to follow-up on the differences in male and female migration, and with
characteristics of female heads of household.

In addition to the valuable sex-disaggregated data base now existing at FVA, former
GENESYS Specialist Regina Oliveira is a great asset. She wants to apply a gender focus
to many future FVA field activities. She is also quite interested in the possibility of
participating as a trainer in a MERGE-sponsored course in gender analysis, although she
will not attend the MERGE Conference. FVA is now at a stage where it wants its staff
to curtail its outside involvements in order to focus time and energy on field activities in
Jau. This constraint will have to be seriously taken into account in considering how
Oliveira may be assisted to continue playing her potential catalytic role.

Conclusions and Recommendations: GENESYS assistance has enabled FVA to pioneer in
the design of questionnaires allowing the collection of sex-disaggregated data for
information on populations living within the boundaries of a national park. Although it is
a significant step first step, even more could be done to obtain a deeper understanding of
the respective and potential future roles of men and women in this setting. Thus while it
was useful that men and women were both asked questions, there might be further probing
of their knowledge of the other's respective roles, responsibilities and knowledge. MERGE
can probably have input into FVA activities by providing follow-up technical assistance for
examination and analysis of the Jau sex-disaggregated data set. It could also play a role
in supporting FVA's current emphasis on field activities. For example, FVA has expressed
interest in getting technical assistance on how to present socio-economic data at the
community level, and how to engage in marketing-related activities for non-timber forest
products.








GRUPO DE PESQUISA E EXTENSAO EM SISTEMAS AGROFLORESTAIS NO
ACRE
(PESACRE) -- Rio Branco/Acre

GENESYS Specialists: Denise Regina Garrafiel

Socio-economic and gender considerations
are now a stated integral part of PESACRE
PESACRE's institutional priorities, and
this development indicates the significant In 1986, the Federal University of Acre
impact made by GENESYS, which built (UFAC) and the University of Florida
upon a base initid by saff of the began a program of technical cooperation
upon a base initiated by staff of the to study ecological and socio-economic
to study ecological and socio-economic
University of Florida. PESACRE focuses aspects of forest management and
in three areas: (a) research on agroforestry agroforestry systems used by Indians,
and socio-economic issues; (b) agroforestry rubber-tappers and colonist farmers of the
and social extension; and (c) marketing of state of Acre. In 1990, these efforts were
NTFPs. Specific projects will involve further institutionalized by the formation of
multidisciplinary teams working with PESACRE, a consortium of 17 institutions
targeted populations of ApurinA indigenous (7 NGO and 10 governmental). Its mission
people; rubber tappers at SHo Miguel; and is to explore means to increase incomes of
peasants/settlers (colonos) at Granada and local small producers, and reduce pressures
Nova Calif6rnia on the resource base and biological
diversity.
Notwithstanding PESACRE's formal
acceptance of the importance of gender
considerations, there remains much to done, and bottlenecks exist. For example,
PESACRE's work momentum in several areas has been somewhat affected by its office
move and the travel of PESACRE's Director to the United States for advanced degree
training. Furthermore, key University of Florida staff who supported the incorporation
of gender considerations such as Jon Dain, Karen Kainer, Connie Campbell have left or
will soon leaving Acre.

Former GENESYS Specialist Denise Garrafiel is thus a critical person, yet her potential
role may be limited. In the first place her time tends to be overcommitted. Besides
working at PESACRE as Research Coordinator, she is also President of UNI, and teaches
at the Federal University of Acre. This may be one reason why the final reports on the
GENESYS surveys are still not finished. The report for Granada was scheduled to be
completed in January 1995, and the one for Sao Miguel in February. Nonetheless Garrafiel
is highly interested in gender issues, and has played a significant role in networking with
other organizations in Acre also interested in gender. She designed a course in gender
analysis for PESACRE, and is now planning to do another course in March for several
organizations in Acre. She is also interested in participating in MERGE training, and will
travel and present at the MERGE Conference. Yet paradoxically, she seems somewhat
reticent to further push for the deeper incorporation of gender within PESACRE's planned








activities outside her immediate control. For example, she was reticent to recommend
incorporation of gender considerations into the new marketing survey of the RECA project
to be done by the PESACRE marketing team. Previous work in marketing, even that
supported by GENESYS, has incorporated very little gender. The latter involved a few
short recommendations made by Toby McGrath in his final consultancy for GENESYS.
Notwithstanding, Garrafiel seem to prefer that lobbying for incorporation of gender be
done by University of Florida Marketing Specialist John Haydu, who appears willing. Her
argument is that she needs outside support since she states that several of her colleagues
appear to consider that gender considerations are "her thing alone." She was also the only
GENESYS specialist not entirely willing to share PESACRE data for incorporation into
the GENESYS summary of all the socio-economic data funded by the project, perhaps
because it highlights that the reports are not finished.

Conclusions and Recommendations: Although the University of Florida and GENESYS have
encouraged the incorporation of gender considerations into PESACRE's activities, much
still needs to be done to broaden their appeal. Since the organization has accepted them
into their overall strategic planning, so that it not be only lip service, PESACRE is the ideal
institution where MERGE could support the development of a pilot monitoring and
evaluation system to track gender indicators. Denise Garrafiel also needs support, either
in the form of funding for a junior person to assist her in research and training efforts,
and/or in the form of a group of respected senior "mentors" who will encourage her and
her colleagues to get beyond the mindset that gender is "her thing alone." MERGE should
encourage and if possible support the final production of the research reports on the
GENESYS-funded research. It could also collaborate closely with John Haydu to and
consider if it is possible to provide technical assistance for incorporating gender into
PESACRE's marketing endeavors. PESACRE, along with CEPASP might also be an ideal
candidates for testing the GENESYS funded NTFP Marketing Manual and Caderno, and
the newly-translated OEF Training materials on feasibility studies and marketing for
women's groups.









C. Meetings and Conferences


In the period between October 1994 and March 1995, GENESYS staff took part in several
meetings and conferences. These were:

1. Presentation of GENESYS Brazil Experiences at End of Project Conference

On October 4, 1994 Anderson, Muirragui and Dain and Kainer, Warner made an
audio-visual presentation on the GENESYS project in Brazil at the end of project
Conference. This presentation discussed the challenges, accomplishments and lessons
learned by GENESYS/Brazil, and was used as a forum to present the new NTFP Marketing
Manual.

2. Meetings in Brazil to Plan Extension Activities and GCC Meeting

Between November 29 and December 7, 1994, Muirragui and Anderson met and
travelled together to discuss how the NGO organizations might work with GENESYS and
MERGE. On December 8-9, 1994, Muirragui met with WWF, ISPN and individual
consultants to discuss specific strategies of collaboration with GENESYS/Brazil Phase III.
During these dates, Muirragui also had meetings with staff of USAID to discuss the
extension, budget and plans for GENESYS participation at the annual GCC Collaborator's
Meeting. GENESYS, in collaboration with the University of Florida was to present a half-
day session on monitoring and evaluation and derivation of socio-economic and gender
indicators. Because of time constraints, this session was eliminated by USAID-Brasilia.


3. GCC Meeting

GENESYS/Brazil was represented in the annual GCC Meeting in Bel6m on March
6-8 by former Deputy Coordinator, Suely Anderson. She spoke briefly on accomplishments
and lessons learned by the project in working to strengthen the NGO capacity to
incorporate socio-economic and gender considerations.

4. MERGE Conference

At the MERGE Conference between March 28-30, 1995, the GENESYS experience
was the basis of a session entitled "Voices from the Field." Presentations were made by
Eileen Muirragui of GENESYS, Denise Garrafiel of PESACRE, Marli Matos of Woods
Hole and Irene Hohn of STR. Muirragui also led a presentation of the GENESYS tool
for monitoring and evaluation. She received Introductory and Advanced Powerpoint
training to allow her to refine and enhance the planned presentations to be given at the
GCC and MERGE Meetings.








IV. PROGRESS RELATIVE TO LOGICAL FRAMEWORK INDICATORS


The original GENESYS/Brazil Logical Framework is given in Appendix 3. The
project accomplished a great deal. Yet the project's results relative to the Logframe
indicators--identified only at the purpose and output levels-- are mixed. There are several
ex-post explanations and reasons. In the first place, as discussed in detail in the lessons
learned paper, Gender and Socio-Economic Considerations in Environmental Programs and
Projects: Lessons Learned in the Brazilian Amazon by Project Coordinators Eileen Muirragui
and Suely Anderson, when the project began there were almost no guidelines on how to
integrate and apply gender and economic considerations into an environment as complex
as that found in the Amazon, and among institutions that were so heterogenous. There
were other challenges such as resistance to an externally generated mandate; lack of
understanding of the concept of gender and dearth of gender analysis tools and materials
in the Portuguese language; the complexity of some of the socio-economic research themes,
and different informational and research needs among the various parties involved in the
project.

In addition to, or perhaps because of these challenges, in hindsight it is clear that
the purpose was probably unrealistic. Part of the problem is that some indicators are not
accurate measures of the narrative summary (for example purpose indicators 1.2. to 1.3).
Furthermore, none of the indicators were targeted in terms of time, location, or
organization/community. In some cases, such as for increased marketing, there was no data
system set up to track progress. There is also lack of independence between levels for
some indicators for example indicators 1.1 for both purpose and output, which are
practically restatements. Other indicators (such as those for M&E) were partially attained,
either because activities to address them were introduced fairly late in the project, or
because of the complexity of achieving sustainability, such as output indicator 1.2 of self-
sufficiency in research design and implementation.

An analysis of the progress relative to each indicator is as follows:

PURPOSE:

1. IMPROVE THE INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION OF GENDER AND SOCIO-
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS INTO THE SUB-PROJECTS.

Indicators:

1.1 Gender is institutionalized within NGOs, i.e. gender and socio-economic issues
incorporated in NGO planning, data collection and reporting.

The results are mixed, but the tendency is towards progress in the direction desired.
Gender has been incorporated into PESACRE's strategic planning, but it is not very








evident how that has translated into its research, extension or reporting. Gender has not
been adequately incorporated at any level at STR. In terms of incorporation of gender in
to data collection, the situation is quite encouraging at CEPASP and FVA, where
considerable sex-disaggregated baseline data gathered under GENESYS can provide the
basis for planning and eventual reporting.


1.2 NTFPs are marketed.

1.3 Income alternatives are developed.

1.4 Proportion of pilot project's household income from sustainable versus non-sustainable
sources is increased.


Indicators 1.2 to 1.4 have been improperly placed at the purpose level, when they actually
are probably more applicable at the goal level. They are also not properly targeted in
terms of location, time and population. Progress towards their realization cannot be
gauged because the means of verification identified were incorrect, and no data system was
set up to track amounts marketed, or changes in income and production patterns.

2. STRENGTHEN AMAZONIAN INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITIES.


Indicators:

2.1 NGO staff have improved administrative, management and research skills and
experience.


There is evidence that at all NGOs, the GENESYS specialists have improved their research
skills, particularly in terms of the rapid rural appraisal methods. Some have better report
writing abilities. It is difficult to gauge changes in their management skills.


2.2. NGOs plan and manage projects that are gender-sensitive.

There is indication that four NGOs--CEPASP, CNS, FVA, PESACRE-- are at the early
stages of beginning to consider gender in project planning. None are at the stage of being
able to manage gender-sensitive projects.








OUTPUTS:

1. BRAZILIAN NGO'S CAPACITY TO INCORPORATE GENDER
CONSIDERATIONS, SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND ANALYTICAL
METHODS AND SKILLS STRENGTHENED.

Indicators:

1.1. Integration of gender and socio-economic issues into NGO research and projects.

Here is an example of lack of independence between indicators at output and purpose
level. See comments for indicator 1.1 at Purpose level.


1.2. Research design and implementation are designed to adequately address socio-
economic issues without assistance from GENESYS.

None of the institutions can adequately do research design and implementation without
some sort of technical assistance, except if rapid rural appraisal methods meet the
informational needs.

2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF PILOT PROJECTS STRENGTHENED
BY RESEARCH RESULTS.

Indicator:

2. Use of research results for adaptation of on-going projects and design of new projects.

The research has been recently completed and analyzed at most locations. There is ample
indication that the research results are serving for design of activities such as for the
management plan at Jau Park, or literacy classes at CEPASP. The analysis of results of the
research may ultimately also influence projects, but is not doing so yet.

3. NGO ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS IMPROVED.

Indicators:

3. Regular production of strategic documents such as need assessments, action plans,
research designs, research reports.

Action plans, research designs and research reports did improve and become fairly regular,
but the Gender Specialists needed constant prodding and technical assistance to deliver to
GENESYS.








4. IMPROVED NGO AND COMMUNITY UNDERSTANDING OF NTFP
MARKETING ISSUES AND STRATEGIES.

Indicator:

4. Development of community-based marketing strategies

The evaluation of GENESYS/Brazil showed that at least in the case of CEPASP, there was
a change in the locations where cupuacu was sold after the marketing research done under
the aegis of GENESYS. There may also be some further changes in marketing strategy as
the result of recommendations made during the workshop on marketing of cupuaqu for the
community of Araras. Attainment of this indicator may be better gauged in other locations
after the field testing of the second version of the Manual de Comercializagdo, and
accompanying Cademo.

5. NGO-LEVEL MONITORING AND EVALUATION STRENGTHENED

Indicators:

5.1 Establishment of monitoring indicators.

With the exception of FVA, none of the organizations had knowledge of tools of
monitoring and evaluation before August 1994. Only FVA has developed some M&E
indicators.

5.2 NGO use indicators in managing their projects.

Only FVA may be using indicators to manage their projects, but it is being done at a very
rudimentary level. No organization has an M&E plan.

There are a number of lessons to be drawn from the fact that the results of the
GENESYS/Brazil project have been mixed, and that some of the indicators have been only
partially achieved. These lessons help in the identification of both general guidelines and
specific recommendations on follow-up activities to GENESYS.


V. LESSONS LEARNED AND RECOMMENDED FOLLOW-UP TO GENESYS


GENESYS/Brazil has learned much from its three years of work in the Brazilian
Amazon. Foremost is the realization that the goals of institutionalizing and/or
incorporating socio-economic and gender considerations into GCC sub-projects and
organizations is a lengthy and complex process, which has only just begun. Other important
lessons, discussed in more detail in the project's lessons learned paper, are:








1) The process of integrating gender considerations into an organization is
slow because it is often perceived as an external mandate, so the first steps
of generating awareness and commitment are critical.

2) Successful strategies to integrate socio-economic and gender
considerations must produce some short-term benefits to the targeted
organization.

3) Without specific attention to gender and women in development issues,
socio-economic research does not necessarily provide information on
differences between men and women's roles, responsiblilites and rights, and
women may continue to remain "invisible."

4) Socio-economic research skills within NGOs are not easily developed
without trained social scientists on staff or high levels of technical assistance,
yet with less training and outside technical assistance rapid rural appraisal
and participatory rural appraisal can meet many information needs.

5) The quality and relevance of repeated exposure to socio-economic and
gender issues appears to influence how these are incorporated by an
institution, as does existence of a key individual or group continuously
promoting awareness of and commitment to them.

6) A system of monitoring and evaluation of socio-economic and gender
indicators is critical to reinforce the link between research findings and
planning, and to improve project implementation and reporting.


On the basis of three years of GENESYS/Brazil field experience, the project can
provide the following general guidelines for continuing the integration of gender and socio-
economic considerations into GCC activities. These guidelines are as follows:

1) Build partnerships and networks, and encourage commitment through the
identification of M&E community, regional and overall program socio-
economic and gender targets and indicators on the part of several
collaborating project entities such as donors, expatriate and local
implementing agencies.

2) Continue promoting awareness and commitment at the highest level of
targeted organizations by effectively "making the case" for socio-economic
and gender considerations in terms of equity at the community and women's
group level, and efficiency vis-a-vis monitoring overall progress in terms of
management, environmental, financial and economic goals. Clarify early on
to all targeted groups and partners, the conceptual differences between sex








and gender, women in development (WID) versus gender in development
(GAD), and the importance of considering each for equity and efficiency.

3) Foster institutional development through training and targeted technical
assistance in socio-economic surveys, marketing, extension and monitoring
and evaluation, and incorporate gender considerations as integral parts each.

4) Work to develop a research culture of "asking the right questions"
through critical thinking skills and hypothesis testing with the participation
of local communities, and use gender analysis tools for field testing
hypotheses and developing new tools applicable to specific settings.

5) Identify a "critical mass" of key individuals that have "gender vision," and
can build networks and synergy. Promote and finance regular meetings
among them, and reward their successes to integrate gender into activities,
projects and programs.

6) Disseminate lessons learned and case studies as part of networking and
development and refinement of gender analysis tools.

7) Improve the access of both men and women to program and project
benefits.


These are general guidelines, but they have to be implemented through concrete
specific activities. The MERGE Project is in an ideal position to do so, and to thus build
on the accomplishments of GENESYS. To improve the chances of successful incorporation
and eventual institutionalization of socio-economic and gender considerations in the
research and development activities of collaborators working with GCC, it is recommended
that USAID-Brasilia, in collaboration with the USAID WID Office and other funding
agencies:

1) Encourage U.S. GCC organizations working with local NGOs to consider
the relevance of socio-economic and gender factors in their joint activities.

2) Promote the development of an M&E system of socio-economic and gender
indicators for all GCC collaborators by encouraging M&E plans and the
identification and reporting of indicators that quantify the number of men and
women benefitting from GCC sub-project activity, and the gender-differentiated impact
of activities, including: a) marketing of non-timber forest products; b) research; c)
environmental impact assessment; d) land use and natural resource management; e)
legal reform and policy; f) education and training; g) community participation in
decision-making, and h) extension.








3) Finance the summary of all GENESYS-financed socio-economic research,
with particular attention paid to the type and relevance of sex-disaggregated
data, and use research findings to derive project, program and policy
recommendations.

4) In collaboration with U.S. counterpart organizations, continue to provide gender-
focused training and technical assistance to Brazilian NGOs in activities related to
monitoring and evaluation, socio-economic research, marketing and extension,
following the suggestions recommended for each NGO in this report. In order to
have measurable impact, the yearly level of effort and funding should be at least the
same as what has been given to GENESYS/Brazil in the past three years.

5) Promote the field testing and adaptation of materials produced and/or
translated by GENESYS/Brazil and others, particularly in the area of gender
analysis, participatory research and marketing of NTFPs.

6) Support former GENESYS/Brazil gender specialists and staff, as well as
other local professionals as valuable resources to be used for training,
networking, dissemination and technical assistance. Support their regular
meeting as a group twice a year.

8) Document the site-specific lessons learned by GENESYS/Brazil and MERGE
through the funding of the write-up of case studies of gender and natural resource
management, as well as other material that can be disseminated throughout the
Amazon, and to other countries.


VI. ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES

Among the major administrative issues in this reporting period were the uncertainty
regarding the roles of staff previously associated with the project and the discovery of an
error made on the actual amount of funds available to GENESYS/Brazil. The latter
resulted from an inadvertent overestimation of the match requirement for the Brazil
activity, which when corrected led to a decrease in actual funds available. The net result
was a curtailment or elimination of originally planned activities such as the socio-economic
research component and travel.

A major administrative change was the ending of the sub-contract with REBRAF
on October 4, 1994. Subsequent field activities were administered from Washington, D.C.
by Lourdes Loch-Martinez, the Administrator for the overall GENESYS Project for The
FUTURES Group, International. Field activities during the extension were carried out
through consultancy agreements.































VIII. APPENDICES































1. Outline of Proposed Summary of GENESYS Socio-Economic Research








Outline of Proposed Summary of GENESYS Socio-Economic Research


1. Cover Page following regulations for USAID/WID financed
publications

2. Table of Contents (up to 3 pages)

3. Executive Summary (3-5 pages)

4. Background of Socio-economic Research Component of GENESYS
Project (Goals, etc.) (3-4 pages)

5. Description of Organizations (3-5 pages)

6. Description of Research by Organization--5 organizations,
CEPASP, CNS, FVA, PESACRE, STR) (10 pages each = 50 pages)

a. Research Goals

b. Target Communities

c. Research Methodology Used

d. Analysis of Research (i.e. how analysis was done)

e. Major Research Findings

f. Quality/Reliability of Research Findings

7. Findings with Gender Implications, Gaps in Sex-disaggregated
Data (by organization/community) (3 pages each = 15 pages)

8. Lessons Learned, Recommendations for Future Research (5-8
pages)

9. Relevant Illustrative graphics (up to 15 pages)































2. Materials Translated by GENESYS








1 Um Outro Ponto de Vist.a: Um Mainr
Ide Genero para Trabalhadores Rurais.

I2. ILtruduzindo o Enfoque FCOCGN fr
ecursos Naturals e Desenvolvimento S

F. AnAlise de Grupos de Interesse:
Gerentes de Estrategia. 07 paginas.

L. Instruments de Analise de GSner
para Enfactiar 0 Tema G&nero no jeren
Iustent&veis. 44 pdginas.

5. Os Instrumentos da Comunidadc:
InstrumenLos de Avaliagao da Silvicul
paginas.


I. Muiheres, Conservaqao
Trainadorca. 80 pdginas.


I. Guia de Pesquisa de Genero para
Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais: uma
6todos. 52 paginas.

. ConsideragOes S6cio-econ6micas e
Avaliacgo. 36 paginas.


al de Treinamenco em Anl1ise
Rani Parker. 106 paginas.

hre Gnero, Gerenciamento de
ustentcvel. 20 paginas.

am Instrumento Vital para


: Guia com M4todos de Campo
ciamento de Recursos


Id6ia. Mdtodos e
tura da Comunidade. 153


Agricu1Lurrd.


Um Manual para


os Setores da Agricultura,
Ferrament. parn a Spl pgo de


le GAnero para Monitoramento


(em andame)to)


I. As Mulheres Trabalham Unidas par
onomico e da Comunidade. Original te
Prazo para entrega: 3 de fevereiro.

Appropriate Business Skills for
Feasibility Study. OriYilual Letm 176 p
azo para entrega: 31 de Janeiro.

1. Marketing Strategy Training z
iginal tem 95 paginas. Nao acabad
vereiao.


& o DesenvolvlmenLo Peubual,
i 103 paginas. NAo acabada.


Third World Women. Doing a
igldu. Nao acabada.


activity for Enterpreners.
i. Prazo de entrega: 10 de


T-TM'P% "0 VXLAMTC6320 Vft45nIYU0M a w=- MYw=Mwj






























3. Original GENESYS Logical Framework




OENESYS









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. . -" av




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I
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fiMO1l~nh~r)o*~rrs~N
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2. Socio-econ. sustainability of pilot
projects strengthened by research results.


3.NGO's organizational effectiveness
improved.



4. Improved NGO and community
understanding of NTFP marketing issues
and strategies.

5. NOO-level monitoring and evaluation
strengthened.


2. Use of research results for adaptation of
on-going projects and design of new
projects.

3. Regular production of strategic
documents such as needs assessments,
action plans, research designs, research
reports.

4. Development of community based
marketing strategies.


5.1 Establlahment of monitoring udicatoan.

5.2 NO use of Indicators In managing
their projects.


2.1 Site inspection of projects.

2.2 Review of project documents.

3. NO0 records, local specialists monthly
reports, deliverables.



4. Market research and strategy
documentation.


5.1 A Monitoring and evaluation plan.

5.2 Monthly progress reports.


I














A Project of
The Futures Group in
collaboration nith

International
Development Alternatives Inc.
1050 17th Street, NWI, Suite in' i,
I1',.,lo. i *.D DC 20036
Tel: (202) 7. 'i'.:;
Fax: (202) 775-9699
, ,. 9102504173FUTURESWASH
I". HI:. ; i #: PD C-1 11 ...t! 1 .'111l I 1 Jo
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International Development
Ollit e ofWomen in
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