• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Acknowledgement
 Collecting
 Preservation and clearing
 Rearing
 Key to families
 Annotated list
 Unsolved problems
 Summary and conclusions
 Check list of the caddis flies...
 Biographical note
 Copyright






Group Title: caddis flies of Alachua County, with notes on those of Florida
Title: The caddis flies of Alachua County, with notes on those of Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089982/00001
 Material Information
Title: The caddis flies of Alachua County, with notes on those of Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Nirenberg, Marshall Warren
Publisher: Marshall Nirenberg
Publication Date: 1952
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089982
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000546271
oclc - 13213009

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Acknowledgement
        Page 9
    Collecting
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Preservation and clearing
        Page 13
    Rearing
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Key to families
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Annotated list
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Unsolved problems
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Check list of the caddis flies in florida and index
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
    Biographical note
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Copyright
        Copyright
Full Text












THE CADDIS FLIES OF ALACHUA COUNTY,

WITH NOTES ON THOSE OF FLORIDA












By
MARSHALL NIRENBERG











A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE










UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
February, 1952


















TABLE OF CONTENTS




X Inxtroducticn... R*.. ** e*,t*** @ *l41

* /clmcTn~e^^fryentSe **************************9



4i Preservetico u es n ClrreFrgor,,e,;*..,, *...,...IS.1



64 Key to rF.uali L.* **.ii; .**00 ****. v *****.** . 19

74 Armotated Li8..*...*......,4*.** *****29

84 unDsrVPd Prolftzs'**U *****we**>* f ** **i v n * rl61



10 R eferences,.<........, ... ..... .. ............ .I1G

114 Chlok List of the Ceddis Flies of Florida

and IBdexi..,..,.,********. ,** .. ******.172

12* Biographiorl l .te....,. ,. .,.. ,,,......,,.,o..177





-14


IITRODUCTIO'T


Historically speaking, some of the caddie flies of the south-

east were described at a relatively early date, about one hundred

years ago. At that time Francis Walker (1852 and 1860) of the British

museumm described twenty species from Georgia which were sent to him

by Abbot, and.this constituted the earliest large collection made in

the southeast. The investigation of caddie flies in the south stag*

n.ted for the next eighty-five years, for esxamle, fifteen years ago,

two out of three species collected in the state would hrve been un-

described. Since then much incidental work has been done by visiting

trichopterists and by entomologists rorlrkin in allied fields,


Caddis flies are f-irly abundant, but as compared with other

states, Florida shows a general paucity in the number of species

present; a rnucity most probably due to lpck of lmowledge rather than

a lack of ceddia flies. One hundred and eighty-four species have

been found in Illinois, a thoroughly studied state. On the other hand,

only sixty-three species have been found in Florida, thirty-eight of

which occur in Alachua County. Some day when the state has been in-

vestit-ted a ruood deal more thoroughly, this number will undoubtedly

be pre.tly increased.


In the Trichoptera, as in other orders of insects, our know-

lpdae of the immiture stages has leted far behind that of the adults.

The larvae of many species of caddir flies amoim to occur in the state

still are unknown or unesaocinted.






-2-


Betten (1934),. alduf (1939), and Ross (1944), have all care-

fully and fully summarized the extensive literature deocribinc and

deteilin- the life histories and habits of caddis fliee. For this

reason, no further discussion of this subject will be included here.


The current status of the knowledge of cr.dis flies in Florida

can be stated concisely. The species are very incompletely known;

cornm-r-tively few larvae have been associated with the adults. The

larvae of some genera have never been found and. much more collecting

of adults is needed. Georr"r.hic variation of the Trichopterap of the

1Thited States has never been investie ted thoroughly. Little col-

lecting has been done in northwestern Florida and many new records

plus undescribed species should be found there. Obviously, there is

amle room for far more study.


This researrch problem was specifically limited to the caddie

flies of Alachua County; however, as I had access to material collec-

ted in northwestern Florida I decided to extend the scope of the

.ntida; to include all th.t was known end all that I could find out

Pbout the ceddie flies of Florida. This additional material consisted

of caddie flies collected by Dr. Lewis Berner in 1939 and 1940, and

also spPcinens which were in the collections of the University of

Florida.


7ttendin the study by the inclusion of this supplementary

nrterlpl -reatly broPdened the entire picture, but also, simultaneously,






-3-


complicated its for the oolleotions examined were sufficient to raise

a multitude of questions but were insufficient to answer may of them.

For eanry problem solved, two were discovered which ccvld not be ao-

p-rorad.


This report is the result of an investigation earrr.c onm for

two yearc-----from Fcriary, 1950 to Februlry, 19r6-----in .- '..ch time

I colleotec appro!rnPtely 10,000 speciiens and examirne an ,'l1tieonal

eight lrTndred inrdivdirrle vhioh were collected by other.


The purpose of this investigation is to present (1) an

annotated liaf of the caddis flies found in Alachua County, (2) a

oheck list of the oaddia flioj of Florida, (3) keys for the identifi-

cation of the larvae and adults found in Florida, vnd (4) a biblio-

graphy which inolides all references to Florida ead'li fliec. In

Ohort, this investigetion has two Frir~ry rpirposes: to report Cn the

caddie flies of Alatohna County and to gather together all tha-i: is

Imown about the crodiv flies of Florida. As such this report mirj.t

well aorve as a foundation for a future study of the oanidii flios of

Florida,


On the basis of the information gathered in this study, which

of necessity is very incomplete as collections from parts of Florida

other than Alaohua County are very spotty, the state of Floricn oan be

subdivided Into two areas hwv nG d3itinct caddsi fly faunara (1)

Iorthweteorn Florida, and (2) Peninsular Florida. Northwest-rn Florida






-4-


certainly has a fairly distinct fauna for many species of caddie flies

hrvinf northern effinities Pa& are found here which are not collected

in the Gainesville region. "The Apalachicola River draineTe has with-

out doubt been the main hirh::.y of ingress to Florida for the great

majority of animals which require flowing water or h-rdwood forests.

Ro ers (1933) found that the ecological conditions existing in the

Apalachicola drainage woould admirably explain the distribution of

many northern craneflies in Florida, Carr (1940) reports that the

most extensive invasion of Florida by the northern element is encoun-

tered in that portion of the panh-ndle which is drained by the Apala-

chicola River. Hubbell (1936t354) states that in this peculiar en-

vironment (the deep ravines of the Apalachicola region) a gre-t many

northern plants occur, evidently the remnants of a northern flora left

as relicts from Pleistocene times in these deep, moist, cool revines.

"It has elso been noted that many northern plants re-.ch their southern-

most limits in these rrvines and many typically southern plants inter-

nin'-l here with the northern species. Iot only is this true of plants,

but such has proved to be the case in the craneflies, the Odonata, the

Opilionids, the Orthoptera, the crayfish, the PrThibi:,ns, and the rep-

tiles." (nerner, 1950). Peninmnil-r Plorida has a number of endemic

species, but the majority of the fauna is composed of species having

a far riider reolra.nhlc range.


Oaddil flies are fairly nbundrnt in Florida --- they can easily

be found -- but they do not appear to be present in numbers as larre






-5-


as those occurring in many northern streams. I hnve never collected

caddie flies in the north or the west, but I have reed many descriptions

of the immense numbers of these insects which swarm in northern streams.

The rock dam near Poe Springs is the only locality in Alachua County

which apnropches these descriptions of northern abundance.


In the north caddie flies are an important link in the aquatic

food chain, for they convert small units of food into larger units,

and since they ere present in tremendous numbers, they are a group to

be reckoned with, Caddie flies constitute an important factor in the

diet of many northern fish.


This does not seem to be true in Florida. I do not believe

that caddie flies are abundant enough (except in certain scattered

localities) to be a major link in the aquatic food chain. Reid (1950)

found the number of caddis flies eaten by the Black Crappie, Pomoxli

nIorm-clntus, in Orange Lake was insignificant. William McLane

(personal communication) found the same condition to be true while

he was workln- with large-mouth bass in the St. Johnts River. Very

few caddie flies were found in the stomachs of the bass.


Caddie flies are important in Florida, however, as indicators

of stream pollution. Many stream forms of caddie flies have an ex-

tremnly low ecological tolerance and cannot withstand any stream pol-

lution. According to William Beck, Jr., of the Florida State Borrd











of Health (personal communication), Cheumatopsyohid larvae will

tolerate pollution of a minor degree while most other caddis flies

will not. Personal observation bears this outt for example, in the

summer of 1950 the East Branch of Hogtown Creek had a caddis fly

fauna composed almost entirely of Cheumatopsychid larvae, while the

West Branch had a more varied fauna. Many old, empty Leptooella

and Oeoetis cases were found in the East Branch showing that other

species had lived there. Since it is known that the East Branch

occasionally becomes polluted, it would seen likely that the oreek

was slightly polluted in the summer of 1950, and that only the

Cheumatopsychid larvae could withstand the pollution. Ross (1944)

corroborates these observations* He states that members of the

genus Cheumatopsyche can frequently succeed to some extent in streams

too polluted for almost any other caddie flies. Therefore, it appears

that caddis flies can be used to show compnrative pollution (1) if

a stream is unpolluted, there will be a varied caddie fly fauna present,

(2) if a stream is slightly polluted, only Cheumatopsychid Iyrvae will

be found, and (4) if a stream is highly polluted, no oaddis fly larvae

will be present.

Although this is the first systematic study of this group of

insects in the state, the Trichoptera of Florida, and ccpecially

Alachua County, were previously fairly well investigated. Caddie

flies were collected by Drs. Lewis Berner, J. Speed RoEers, Frank

Young and others, end vwre sent to authorities for i~Sntification.











V.-rioui ruthorities on caddis flies made quic': collecting trips

thro-,th'out the stte. Almost all of this has been incldent.!'l col*

lectlnr in scattered locations rather tha. thorou.-'h, s.ytem7tic,

faunal studieS. Furtherr.re, information on the caddis flies of

Florida was citttrred -- indceed much of it was unpublished -- and

has been inpcceesible to all but a spFC"lirit. For these reasons

this problem has been Turnued long the aforementioned lines; a

faunal study and a consolidation of knowledge.


The collector's names are abbreviated throughout the thesis.

The abbrevi-.tions refer to the following ment D. A. S., 3. A. Bc-r-

rington; W. M. o ., V. M. Becek, Jr.; L. 3., Lewis Derner; A. J. H.,

A. J. Henry; A. M. L., A. '. Lpessle; A. F. C., Archie F. Carr;

E. L., Ellis Lanquist; H. ,, TN. Marshall M. W. B., 'p:rahanll Niren-

bert J. S. R,, J. Speed RoCers; R. P. T. R. P. Trondon; F. N. Y.,

Frr nk TYoun; J. S. I., J. S. :cCulluph.


:'oEt of the drawings in this report which illustrates the

keys were copied, and come from many different sources. Although

some of the illustrations were taken from the illustrations accom-

,r.nyAng oriin.Il descriptions, it has ceened Fdvis-ble to use the

best ir.idnrs available, and thus some newer, redescriptions were

nsed in -'ince of the older, original descriptions.


All of the original LrPwinrt were made with a camera lucida

fron uncle.red specimens preserved in 85;' ethyl alcohol.


-7.










lTh source of each lllutrrtlon is a s followbr 'ics. 1-36,
Ross, 1941P; Iri. 37, "irenbTrc:; -i. 38, Ross, 1944: Pir-. 39, -aos,

1948 : 1'1?. 40-64, ross, 194; rFi. 65, Vorhies, 1909; Figs. 66-73,
Rnos, I2!'8!; Pig. 74, Theur; .i:'s. 75-79, Ross, 1944; Fig. 80, Ross,
19!P7-; Frgs. 81-99, Ross, 19'4; 1igs. 100-100A, Theur; PiVs3. 101-
106, Bose, 1944; Fir. 107, Ross, 19-41; Fi-s. 108-117, Ross, 1944;
'igf. 118, DPnninn, 1947; rlig. 119, Poss, 1941}; Vig. 120, Dennln;,
19'8: T'irf.121, Ross, 1948; irc. 122, Ross, 1944; Fig, 123, Denning,
19L7; igs. 124-125, Ross, 1944; rig. 126, Denning, 1948; Figs, 127-
128, Ross, 19W!; rlg, 129, Ross, 19-1; Firs. 130-131, ~enninr, 1947;
Yirs. 132-256, Ross, 1944; Fic, 157, Theur; ri,,c. 158-1767, oBe,
1944; fiG. 168, ?:irrnberg; nit. 169, Ross, 1947; Ti r. 170-171,
];irenbcr,-i: Fis. 172-173, Ross, 1944; Figs. 174-175, Teur; Figs.

176-177, Ross, 1944; Frc. 178, Bkans, 193S; rics. 179-180, Ross,
1944; PIGS. 181-183, ITrenberg; Figs, 184-185, Ross, 19441 Fics. 186-
187, .'It r; 'ic. 188, Ross, 19'4; rig. 189-190, Toss, 1947; ~ iez. 191-
192, Ror, 1944; 7.i. 193, Ross, 1941; 71-~. 194, Ross, 19'4; Fig. 195,
Boss, 19380; j'ir. 196-200, Rose, 1944; fi-c. 201-202, Theur; Fig, 203,
Ross, 1944: 'ir. 204, Ross, 1941; Tic. 205, Firenbers; Pig. 206,
Theur; Fie. 207, Tirenberr: rir. 208, Theur; ri'-. 209, ,lTtten Cn
:!ocel:, 1940; Firs. 210-211, loss, 1944.










ACRNME1DnaEIMED TS


This study could not have been completed without the help

of many individuals. I take great pleasure in acknowledging the

time and thought spent by these men and was greatly impressed by the

willingness with which this help was extended.


I especially wish to thank Dr, Lewis Perner for his guidance,

constructive criticism, and for the many specimens collected by him

in other parts of Florida, Dr. M{inter Testfall spent many hours

helping with the photography, Dr. Cornelius Betten sent a list of

all the caddie flies he had collected in Florida end a list of all

the oaddie flies recorded in the literature which were collected

in Florida. Dr. Herbert Rose of the Illinois Natural History Survey

sent me many of his reprints, gave advice and identified some

specimens. Dr. D. G1 Denning of the University of Wisconsin sent

a number of his reprints. Mr. Ellis Lanquist, Dr. J. Speed Rogers,

Dr. Frank Young, Mr* R. P. Trogdon, Dr. B A. Barrington, Mr. Jon

Herring and others too numerous to mention, collected specimens used

in this investigation. Mr. Bert Theuer helped greatly in the

preparation of the keys by drawing the heads of some larvae.


William Book, Jr., George N. 7Teld and William MoLane aided

by oantributing bits of essential information used in this study,


Last, but by no means least, I would like to thank all

those who contributed materially by offering criticism, advice

and suggestions.













Three different methods were used in collecting cpddin flies:

(1) the larvae and papae were collected from water, (2) the adults

vere collected at light, and (3) adults were collected during the

day by sweeePin vegetation overh-nr~ning in-ter or by ne-rchin- crevices

underneath bribes. Since no one method will yield a representr.tlve

collection of the area, a conrbin-tion of all three was used,


All ITearctic caddie fly lprvee rnd, .puae p rrea qu.tie, and

almost any type of ?qu-tie hl.bitat is a -otenltinl collecting site.

Stonor and pieces of :ootd were brought to the surface for examine-

tlon. Leaf-drlft, rouvtic vepet-tion, end debris vere du-ped in a

pile on shore, After drying for a few minutes, the lprv. e begin to

rovr and can easily be .rottec.. Some pupal and larval cases show a

high derTer of protective colorFtion tnd blend in well with their

surroundinns, but with practice these cases can be readily disttin*




Fron a quantitative point of view I found the best place to

collect larvae and nnrpe in Alachua County was in rpTida end riffles;

for example, the rock dam at Poe Sprin'!. The larvae are present in

this snot in tremen9ovs numbers. I also found nui.ntities of larvae

by exratinlnrg the lenf-,rift in some of the numerous, small, swiftly-

flowin,, urnpolluted streams scr.ttered thror-hort' the county; for

e2rample, ptrts of "o~to:n Creek. Larvae nr' be found in all conceiv-

able tyrnes of aquatic habitats, for there are records of immatures






-11.


being found in pitcher plants and the hollowed-out boles of tree

stumps that had collected a little pool of water,


Adults of most species of caddis flies will come to light on

warm, still nights, and I used this technique extensively. Specimens are

to be found on store vindons; pink neon lights especially attract these

inseots. TMhile some specimens can be found in town on store windows,

lighting on the shores of streams, lakes, oto* is essential. I have

had good results using a Coleman, single mantle, gasoline inltrn.

Caddis flies clinging to the lighting sheet can be collected by

holding a small, wide-mouth jar half full of 85" alcohol directly

beneath the insect and tapping directly above the insect w.ith the

forefinger. The startled caddie fly will leap backnanrds into the

open jar* Dipping an index finger in alcohol, scooping up the insect

rapidly but gently on the wet surface and then dipping it in the bottle

is a rapid method which I used for collecting iany small caddis flies

I have used an automatic light trap with success. The trap

was set in various places overlooking water and was periodically

checked.

In daylight collecting of adults, sweeping vegetation with

an insect net is a neo&ssity for some species are negatively photo-

tropic and cannot be caught at light. Resting places differ with

the species, but most eaddia flies prefer shaded, humid places. Vege-

tation overhanging water and crevices of tree trunks are favorite

resting places. These insects are very fast and agile, and swift






-12-





movemont i~ required to oaptura then,


Frequently the adults may be captured on sticks end vegei-

tion floating on the water. When floating vegetation is submerged,

trapped adults will quickly swim to the surface,










PRPS9TRVATIOT MD CLTA'RIIC-G


All cddfis flies, both immature and adult, were preserved in

85,' ethyl alcohol. One genus, ,Letocella, wao collected dry since

identific-tion in this genus depends lrrely on the p-ttern of hairs

on .the wrinrB. I eost specimencof this genus were killed in a cyanide

jar and were carefully pinned.


The genitalia were used to identify almost all species of

caddie flies. It was usually necessary to clear the genitalia to

see the dipgnontic characters. I have used the following clearing

procedureI The apical third of half of the abdomen was removed and

placed for five minutes in a hot five percent potassium hydroxide

solution heated in a water bath. It was then transferred to alcohol

and the viscera were gently squeeze out. The cleared gFnital cap-

sule and the cnecimen to.rhich it belongs were put in a small vial

rpnroximntely 74 by 4 mm. This vial was filled, stoppered with a

cotton plug and inverted in a ring neck 4 dram vial.


It was desirable to clear the entire body of the micro caddie

flies belonrnin: to the family Hydroptilidae. The Mbdomen was not

detached. The procedure used is the same as above except in this

case it was necessary to teat a slit in the base of the Pbdomen through

rhich the dissolved viscera was expelled.,






.14.


Two major methods were used to associate larval caddie flies

with their adult forms. The larvae or pupse were either reared in

cmes until the adult emerged, or the pup-e were dissected.


Laboratory Rearing


Reprinn caddis flies in the laboratory is a difficult pro-

cedure, for many species have a low ecoloLc-l tolerance, and n-tural

conditions mnist be clmulnted. Therefore, in trying to increase the

yield of reared adults, I developed a number of different rearing

methods: (1) a series of eight screen wire cages, each enclosing

a balanced, aereQted aquarium were used Both larvae and pupse were

kept in the nquaris. All the larvae died occoslon.lly some adults

emerged from the pupal case. Vhen caged together, the larvae are

cannibllttic, and the larvae that survive are usually killed by

the chaneI in their environment. Pupae, however, require nothing

to eat, and if the putp is mature, the pdult will emer~e within a

few days. Pupae of certain species are often rather scrarce, which,

since it is difficult to find enough individuals to nmrai certain that

re.nlts will be obtained, constitutes a. major icrAvwnt ce. (2) SCob-

terred rocks and vegetation covered with r.upne end Irrvr.e were taken

from their natural habitat and kept emoitened, but not submerged, in

large screen-wire cages. The enddis fly inn.atures were able to get







-1&5


all the o-yp.en they needed by 5'eepinr them in contact with air r-ther

than water, The larvae died, but many pupae survived and .,ere re-red

to the Piut -tage. Micfel and Milliron (1939) described a Esilrr

method of rearing caddis flies. They placed -i.p"e in shallow pie

p-ns containing dnamn srhpmnhain m oss. The moss kept the ..nae roist,

and the pupae received more oxygen than they would have received in

water. TIy method was quantitative rather than qualitative, for if

two or more species of a genus were present, a specific association

could not be n'de. (3) The pupae were separated under a binocular

microscope and npcked, in groups of five, in dG~pn cotton. ach group

was then put in a shell vial covered with a wire screen top. This

senTrpted the species qualitltively, however, only a small percentaPe,

approximately two percent, could be reared since r-!ny pupe were Un-

doubtedly injured in hnndlin. (a balanced

cqFrium- with a strong jet of air eere-ting the water and Incident.lly

stirrin-t the water swiftly and constantly. A slow flow of tap water

fell into the aquarium, and a'slnhonin' arrrncEment took care of the

overflow. The larvae were fed with plnlkton. Time and lack of

eqruiment prevented me from making full use of this method, but I

believe this method was the best and can be used to cdvanate with

both larvae and pupre.



Field Rerinw


On three different occasions I set series of modified, copper-

wire pillow cages filled with larvae and pupae in the west branch of






-16-


Iogtown Creek near Gainesville. TheoreticIlly, this should be an

excellent method for associating stges in the life history of cAldis

flies, but in practice it was unproductive. Uore extensive, con-

trolled field reorinr should yield good results.



1n- al Dissection

Certain pupae form the connecting link between larvae and

adults and can be used to associate the adults with their specific

larval forms. In most caddis fly groups the larval scleritts, which

are readily diagnostic to species, are packed into the posterior end

of the pupal chamber after the pupa is formed. Just before emergence

of the adult, the genitalia of both sexes becomes completely formed,

hardened.and colored, which therefore specifically identifies the

slpeimen.


If a cocoon or case is collected which has a matire pup? in

it, the larval sclerites and fully formed renitalir can be associated,

and it is thus possible to linkfthe a:1ult and larval forms of the

species. VTowever, it is ,unll:y necessary to collect n.any pupae bs-

fore one is fomud with mature genitalia.


The family Leptoceridae constitutes a major exception to this

type of linkage. In this family the pupal chamber has a slit and not

a mesh in the closing cap at both ends. Through these slits the pupa

pushes out all the larval sclerites, so that it is irmossible to get












associations of adult structures and Inrrvl sclri1tes in the asme

case, For this reason it is neeessary to rear these larvae.


Care was taken in trPnsportlng the larvae and pupae. I hlve

had bent results by packing both larvae and pupme in drmp moss. The

caddis flies were transferred to their permanent aquarium or cage as

soon as possible.


















ane
pr n t rn- -- -









ii































metanoum --



later I hu p-






-19-


KEY TO FAMILIES



Bays to genera and species are incorporated within the

annotated list Refer to the Cheek List And Index at the end of

this volume for page numbers.


Larvae

1. Larvae (not pupae) living in and carrying around a
definiete C&8**********************.****,****, *********.** 6

Larvae without cases&*.......**** .....*.......*. ...*****.....lO


2. Case like a snail's shell, fig. 210.
Belicopoyahidaa (Ielioopgyohe borealis)

Case not lie a snailr shell,*.....*..*...*...........****..5.


3S Larvae smaller than 4 mas pro-, meso- and metanotum
each with a single, solerotized shield embracing
the entire notum.
Hydroptilidae

Larvae usually larger; either mesa- or metanotum or
both without solerites or with solerotized shield
subdivided into separtto plates, fig* 11....................4


4. Clnws of hind legs very small, those of middle end
front legs large, fig, 2.
Molannidae (Molanna tryphena)

Claws of hind legs as long as those of middle legs,
fig. 8o*..**.*.***.****.>f..*.....**.*.........*..*.....**

5. Antennae long, at least eight times as long as wide,
and arising at base of mandibles, fig. 4...*.
Leptoceridae

Antennae much shooter, not more than three or four
times as long as wide, often very inconspicuous,
and arising at various points, figs. S and 6*....+..,.......6



























aal















A B















I S Ul0@TOK




















40



U *S






-21-


6. T.esonotum subnembranous, except for a- pair of
parenthesis-like, sclerotized bare, fig. 7.
Leptoceride.e

?Mesonotum 'dthout such barae.. .0 or.....* *&**.. *.. ..o... 0


7. Meson end metanotum entirely. membranous.
Phryganeidae (Bankuiola conoatenats)

Mesonotum with some conspiouous sclerotized
platess *.**. *.................... .******. ............8


8. Anal hooks formed of 2 or 3 long teeth ,ituatd one
over another, fig. 8 A.
Serioostomatidae (Sericatosma orsssioornis)

Anal hooks formed of a single large, tooth with
1 or more mail teeth on its dorsal edge, fig. 8 B........*.9


9. Pronotun with a deep furrow running almost the ..
full width of the soleritae head as in fig. 10.
Braohyeentridae

Larvae large, living in a case made of sticks,
fig. 135.
LimnopAhlidae (Pyonopsyohe ep. A)


10. Pro-* meso- end metanotum each with a single,
sclerotised shield embracing the entire notuim,
fig. 12i abdomen with many oonspieuous branched
gillls fig. 12.
HIydropsyohide.

Either mesoo or metanotum or both without solerites
or with salerotised shield subdivided into separated
plates, fig II******,** ********************.***.,******.II


11. Labrum with anterior end lateral portions expanded
into a ilde, mnembranous area, fig. 13.
Philopotamidne (rhiiarra)

Labrum shorter, entirely selerotised, fig. 14.
Psyohortriidae





















;ell
k 4"

FIG. 13 --- U TITZT-1



'Y'

4


FIG. 14-11-,ABR7


FIG. 12 ----- 1A7VA OF


SC2 Ft P2 Ft R4
antenna --------------------------- R5
median ocellus -------------
anterior wart ------------- ---
compound eye ----------
lateral ocellus ----------- M2
postero-lateral wart - - - M3
pronoturn ------------
CU
a., t M4
tegul c u uM----
mesonotum -C"
scut C.-d
(posielol tuumm----- '4 b
metanotum ------- --------
...... Sc
............



2 R4
iA
r F1,
abdomen ............. 2
cvb cu. M, M M,



--1o
claspers genitalia
-.:aedeagu'---





1 2 3 4,
maxillary palpus,, 7
io claspers

labial paipus.----- me'so-
pleurae
metapleurae
c 0)(aj
trochanter, 'apical spurs
femur,
tib a' tarsus
claws_._. preapical spurs


FIG. 15 - - ADULT, ILLUSTRATIEG TEER11INOLOGY OF PARTS.











Adults

I. Small, hairy individuals not over 6 mm long; meao-
scutellum with posterior portion forming a tri-
angulpr, flat area with steep sides, fig* 161
mseoscutum without warts.
Hydroptilidae

Size ~mng of 5 to 40 mm; either mesoeoutellum evenly
oonvex, without a triangular posterior portion set
off by sharp sides, firs. 17 and 18; mesoaoutum
with warrts* ....**..***************. ... ******* *******


2. Ocelli present, fi. 15*........*........**,*,,*..*..*..........

Ocolli absent ese***** ***


*aegamented, fig* 19.
Limnonrilidne (Pyonopeyohe spi A)


r'axillnry palpi 4. or 5-segmented............................


4. Msxillary palpi


o. Maxillary palpi
times as long


4-segmented, fige 20.
Phryganeidae (Bankaiolsa conatenata)


with fifth segment two or three
as fourth, fig. 22.
Philopotamidae (Chimarra)


axillary palpi with fifth eeg~int not nore than
one and one-third times as long as fourth, figM 2$3......*....


6. Haxillary palpi with 5 or more segments, fig. 24*..e...,,*....*7

1laxillary palpi with less then 5 segents.............*......10


7. Terminal segment of maxillary palpi much longer than
prooeding and with close, suture-like, cross strike,
which are not possessed by the other r~gments, figs.
25 end 2a*n**********n************************


*230


8. Maxillary palpti


Maxillary palpi 5-segmented,fig 21s,*.... .....********.******















































In














rI.






-25.


Terminal sognont cf maxillory pwlpi without such
strike and similar in general structure to fourth
segment, usually of same length***........*......**,.....10


8. Anterior tibiae with a proapionrl pur*.
Psayoho' iidao

Anterior tibiae without n preapical Bpur*........* ....** ....*9


9. !!s3ooutum without warts, fig. 17. ...
Hydropsychidne

Tepsoutu:n with a pair of smail warts, f 27*.
Psyohotrildae

10. Ifiddle'tibiae without preapi cl spurs Pnd with a
row of black spines, fig*, 28.,*..., ...........,........,1

middlee tibiae with preapionl spurs, with or with*
out a row of sGinee..**..,..... ....,....,,..,,*****.,,,14


11. l esonotum with soutal warts represented by a long,
irregular line of estate spots, fig* 291 antennae
always very long and slender.
SLeptoeoridne ... .. .

Mesonotum with soutal warts either small, fIg, 30,
Or nbsent, fig, 188 antennae fairly short.....**********,,* 12


12. Male genitalia as in fig. 31S ventral aspect of
abdonon of femle as in fig. 32i
Ilelicopsychidtoe (Hfelioopsyche 'boroalia)

Genitalia of male and female not as in figf. 31
and 322.********t******w******. ***********e**e******e..... .13


13, I esonotum with a deep, antero-mesal fissure with
soutal warts as in fig, 33.
Seri noFstcomatide (Sericostoma craesioornis)

Mosonotum with only a shallow antero-mosal crenas,
with scutal-warts as in ffiCS. ..
Brachyeentrid roc

















































(lift"















.5s 10) as m OT.S,-






-27.




14. Middle femora eaoh with a row of -.10 blaek apltes
on nntoro.-vetrnl face, fir. 55.
Pol1anidne (Molanna tryhrena)

?fiddle femora each with none to 2 black spines on
antero-ventr.'l face,
Er.-cycontrldie


































AA








VIE; B, EEAG
F S F 4
MAF











U S 0M






029*


Key To The Speoies Of Chimarra



Larvae

1. Apex of frons as in fig. 36,
Chiirarrft aterrima

2. Apax of frons as in fi,. 37.
ChLmarra florida

3. Apex of frans ae in fig. 38.



Adults

1. Apex of abdomen with a pair of cleaners (maleas)*.*,,.****2

Apox of abdomen without claspers (females)... ***....*........*4


28 Color brown, genitalia as in fig* 39.
Chimarra perigua

Color blackish....,.......,.,, ... ...*******.****************.


S. Genitalia as in fig. 40.
ChiLmrra aterrima

dGnitalin as in fi g 41.
Chimarra florida


4. Color bro=n,
Chimarra periguaa

Color blaocish ..** **iii*es.*t**.*r.*******>** *5

S6. inth tergita produced into well-defined, lateral,
solorotised ears, fig, 42.
Chimarra florida

Ninth tergite without oars*
Chimarra aterrima











SChimarre aterrima Hagen


Range Eastem and southern states*

Desriptiont Ross, 1944.

Remarks: The larvae of this species live in small, cool, fast-

flowing, spring-fed creeks. Although I found a stream in Golden

Head State Park where 0. .torrima was the dominant caddis fly, it is

not usual for the species to be so abundant, The fact that I have

never collected adults at light suggests that they may be negatively

phototropic.

Previous Florida Reoordst Rose (1944) records this species from

Florida but does not give the locality. Totton personall commimi-.

oation) oolleoted C. aterriia in the vicinity of Lake Placid.

Specsa ens Examined Five larvae, 2i- miles W. of Gainesville, L. B.,

1/28/391 3 adults, 2-i miles W. of Gainesville, L. B., 1/28/39 1

larva, Alachua Co., 11/9/371 40 larvae, T1o,,tn Creek, In leaf detritus,

F, N. Y., 12/31/471 1 Inrva, Devil's Uillhopper, 10/25/37; 1 larva,

Devil's Millhopper, 10/2/51; 400 larvae man upae, Golden Head

State Park, M1 W. N, 8/12/601 40 larvae, Hogtown Creek, M. WV. N,

8/8/501 38 larvae, Hogtona Crook, M. N., 6/4/51.






-31-


Chimrrtr per~ga Ross



Range Florida, Georgia and Illinois*


Description& Rose,,1948, ,

Renarkt: Ross (1948) states that C. perigua was recorded erron-

eously as sooia and the latter species was thus listed as being

present in Florida. Chimarra sooia does not occur in the state.

According to Ross (1948), "Re-examination of a Irrge series of

Booia---.---( Indxiates) a wide eastern and northeastern range for

scoia and a small range of perig a which is peripheral on the southern

and western portions of the range of soola."

The larvae of C, periua live in clear, cold, rushing water

such as that pouring over the rock dam at Poe Springs. The adults

appear to be negatively phototropic, for though I "lighted" for

caddis flies many times in this locality, I did not collect any

adults.

The larva was Pseociatod with the adult by a process of

elimination. I collected larvae of three distinct species of

Chimarra and adults of three species C. aterrima Co perigua and

C. florida. The larva of C. nterrima was previously described and

was easily identified. I associated the larva of C* florida by

pupal dissection, which left one unidentified species, The adults

of C. perigua are very similar to C. sooa, and the third larva

was also extremely similar to that of Co socia. It seems obvious,






-S2-


therefore, that those larvae must be those of C, porigua,

The larva of C. periiua cannot be distinguished from that

of Ce sooia using the description given by Ross in 1944, I do not

have comparative material of C sooia and, therefore, cannot look

for differences in morpholoSgicn characters between the two species,

but a critical examination of both larvae is definitely in order,

Previous Florida Reeordat "Holotype, male---wSanta Fe River,

Alachua Co., Florida, April 6, 1940, L. Berner. Allotype, female---

Santa Fe River at Poe Springs, Alaohua Co., Florida, Maroh 12, 1938,

L. Berner. Paratypea-----Floridat same data as for allotype, 1

male." (Ross, 1948)

Spea 2ines fxaminea Two adults, Poe Springs, L. B., 3/12/481 3

larvae, 6 miles W. of Gainesville, B, A. B., 11/6/S39 1 larva, 5

miles W. of Gainesville, B. A. B., 12/?/39i 1 larva, Alaohua Co.,

L. B., 2/7/39 4 larvae, Poe Springs, 3/2/s38 10 pupae, Santa

Fe River, J. S. RI, 8A2/30; 8 larvae, Poe Springs, !I. We N.,

3/24/501 2 larvae, Poe Springs, U. WV, ., 8/8/650 14 larvae, .I

mile south of Gulf HaI.ock, Me W. N. 7/30/50S






-53 A.


C* thlrra florid Roes .


Ranget Florida and Georgia.


Desorintiont Rossa 1944.

Remarks The undeecribed 1erva of C. florid was nasooiatedl Vwith

its adult forn by nmean of r~~rl dissocotl. .. .


The larval stage of this species was only found in the most

rapid Torticns of very s ift caloareous streamse

Previous lrorid P.ecordet Oae male, Freeport, Walton County,' collected

by Dr, Lowis Berner, Aprr!l 3, 192?. .(from Rose, 1944)


Specimens aEamined: Three males, fast stream, .1 mille S of Gulf

Hammock, tLvy Co., sweeping, M, W, Ne,, 7/30/501 1 pupa, .1 mile S.

of Gulf Ham-ock,. Levy Go., i.1. Vi. No, 7/30/0sO 9 larvae, Poe Springs,

10/14/47; 1 female, Poe Springs, at light, M.. W. 2, 9/9/601 1 pupa,

Pow Springs, M1 W. N., 8/24/51; 1 pupa, no dnta; 1 male, sweeping, Poe

Springs, M. W. N., 3/24/50; 2 males, 6 females, Poe Springs, at light,

M, W. V., 7/2/s0.






















10






-- 45--,APAX
A:-.AL ITCOX AYAT- PITA:




Z


10 10







FIG. 47 ---- APEX OP FIG. 43 ---- AYWX OF
ABD( MUM











FIG. 49 --- X DIr L E, S FIG, 50-OAMUTS







...............






F IG. 51 --- T.4kNDIBLi7,S FIG. 52--wTUDIBLES






-34-


oey to the Psycharnyidae


Larvae

1, Anal hooks with a row of 4 or 6' lng teeth along
S inner ventral mn.rri.n, fit 44s tenth segwent'short*
with seareely any ventral margin fig. 45.
Psyohoaprla flavida

Anal hooked with at most very short, inner toeth, fig.
486 tenth segment longer and tubular, figs. 47 end


2S Mandibles short and triangular, eaoh with a large,
thiok brush on the mosal side, fig. 49.
Phylooentropus placidus

tMndibles longer, fig. 50, with only a thin brush
on loft mandible, none on ,rightf......u***...,*i* ,..* 3


3. Right mandible with two large dorsal teeth whioh
completely overhang and hide the ventral rows on
the left mandible the dorsal row of teeth over.
hangs and hides the ventral row, fig* 51.
Cyrrellue marginalia
Right mandible with a single dorsal tooth whioh only
partially hides the ventral row of teeth on the
/ left mandible the dorsal row of teeth does not hide
the ventrol row$ figs. 50 and 653....*.....,*.*.*r,,.*,***4


4. Basal segment of anal appendages (tenth segment)
without hair, fig, 47; left mandible wtth basal
tooth small and with a linear brush cn msanl
face near bnse, fig. 47.
Neureclinsis crepusoularis

Basal segment of anal appendnCos (tenth segment)
with long hair, fig. 481 left mandible with basal



































rr




?l". 7 ( TAlD TG




FI.5--wi&ILR

PAMPf PA3"






-36-


tooth large, subequal to one .above nod with
brush small, fig. 52.
Polyoentropus

Adulta

1. Front tibiae with a preapioal spur.........**...*....,......,.2

Front tibiae without a preanpial spur......*...** .,.......*. .6


2. Both pairs of wings with R2 present end branohing
from:R3 at radial crossvein, fig 56oS
Phyloeentropu placdus

Both pairs of wins with R2 either absent or
branching from RH near margin of wing, fig. 54.............


53 Hind wings with M.S-brancihd, fig. 55.
eureelipsia orepusoularie

Hind wings with M 2-branohed, fig. 6.......,,.,...,........4


4. Front or hind wings, or both, with 'R present,
fig. 55.
Polycentropus

Both wings with R2 absent, fig, 56...........................5


5. Maxillary palpi with second segment long, third
only slightly longer than second, fifth short,
fig. 57.
Cyrnellus marginalis

:axillary palpl with sooond segment short, third
three times as long as second, fifth long, fig.
68.
Nyotiophylax vestitus

6. laxillary palpi with second segment only one-*
half to one-third as long as third segment
and with the apex enlarged into a small cushion,
fig. 69,
Carnotina






437.


Uexillefr palpi with second cement as long as
third end uniformly cylindrical fig. 60*,...****......*..,7


7o Hind wings with apex evenly rounded1 figa 61,
LySpU diverea

Hind wings with apex tapering and somewhat
pointed. fig* 62*
S, Payohosyia flavida



T':1T1CTLIPSIS ToTachlrn


l7eureolinsis arepu eulrria ('alkeer)


This species has not been taken in Alachua County, but

Better (personal communication) collected it in Florida (location

not given).










PHYLOCENTROPUS Banks


Phylooentropus plaoiddus (Banks)


(Holooentropua laciduB Banks, 1905b
f.iocOentropua maximus Vorhies, 1909)

Rnnoet Eastern, central and saithern states










Description: Ross, 1944.

Remarks: This species appears to be rather rare in Alachua County,

for I was able to obtain only a few speoimans.* One larva was found

in a lake, the other in a slow stream with a soft, flooculent bottom.

Vorhies (1909, p. 712) gives an excellent description of the unusual

larval ease.


"The larva burron~ into the sand of the bottom of the

stream and forms a long, often complexly branched case of sand,

scarcely firm enough to keep its shape when it is eXtracted from

its position. This oann, about 5 rmo. in diameter, excepting some

smaller branches, is ofton as muoh as 65 mia in length, the rretter

portion buried, only 10-20 am. projecting from the stream bed."

Previous Florida Recordst Dead Lake, VWewahitohka, oollected by

J. G. Needhan (Betten, 1934, p. 213); speoamens collected by Betten

(personal comnunioation), loortion not given.

Specimens Examinedt One female, Waashington Co., L. B., 6/SO/40;

1 larva, Lake Santa Fe, 12/8/47; 1 larva, .low stream, 5 miles N.

W. of Gainesville on U. S. 441, i. W. N., 6/21/50; 1 male, Worth-

ington Springs, at light, M. W. N., 7/3/50.








-40-






-41-


rOLY Ti. "OPUS Curtis



-Ke yTo The Spocies Of Polyoentropus


Larvao

1. Spots on larval head as in fig. 68.
Polyoentropue sp A

Larval stage unknown.
Polyoentropve orascioornis


Adult

1, Genitalia of iamlen as in fig* 70o genitalia of females
as in fig. 71.
Polycontronpu on assicorni




Polyoentroeas orassioornia W'alker



The larva of this spsoieo, although it has a wideepread

range throughout eastern United Stotes tnd Canada, ia unknown. Banks

(1907) records P. orassicornie from Jaoksonvillel however, I have no

other record of its occurrence in Florida. Possibly Folyoentropu

sO. A Is the undescribed larva of P. crnsioornis.



Polycentropua sp. A



Although I collected the larvae of this species in a num.

ber of locations, a constant search for the adults failed to produce





-423


a singlo *speoimen The adults nay be negatively phototropso, for

night lighting and daylight sweeping were both ineffective in col-

looting them. I attempted to rear some larvae which I collected

in Big Hatchet Creek, but the larvae died before pupation.

These larvae appear to be very similar to the larvae of P.

remotus (fig. 68). Since P. remotus has been collected in British

Columbia, Illinole, Minnesota, New Hampshire and New York, a wide-

spread geographic distribution coupled with a looal occurrence ia

indicated. It is possible that the larvae of Polycentropus ap. A

are the undesoribcd larvae of P. ,rassioornia, which has previously

been collected in Florida, but it is also possible that they are

the larvae of P. remotus. Further study will undoubtedly permit

association of larva and adult*


Sieoimene Examineds One larva, Poe Sprines, J. S. M., 5/14/384 1

larva, Santa Fe River, 3/24/357 1 larva, Big Hatchlt Creek, M. Wo

N., 4/24/60; 2 larvae, stream, .1 mile S. of Gulf H1m-~nock, Levy

Co., Ie 1. 1 1., 7/50/6SO 3 larvae, Big Tatchot Croos, WI N,,

8/l0/60s 1 pupa, ravine stream, Golden Head State Park, Clay Co.,

M. V. li., 8A2/60.






4-42-


IYOTITOPHYLrA Brauer


Only two Nearctic species are Inown for this genus, one

of tlie from Florida. The Itrvrne have not yet been associated with

the adults


Kyotiophylatx Vstitus (Hagen)


(Polyoentronus vestitus Hagen# 1881
Polyoentropus affini Bannks 1897
1r lYla ax moeestue Danks, 1911
vOT estItu (Haren), Sibley, 1926)


Ranget Eastern, central end southern states.


Dereriptiont Ross, 1944.






-43-


Romarkce The larva of *. vestitus is unmownar however, it found,

the larva might very well turn out to be one of those which are now

classified under Psychomyild Genus A. Further study should clorifyj

this interesting enigma.


Nyctiophylax vestitus is rare in Alsahua County, having

been collected only at Poe Springs.


Previous Florida Reoords: This species has not previously been re-

ported frhn Florida. Betten (personal -comnunictticn), however, aol-

looted it in the state (locality not oited).


Specimens Examinedt One male, Blue Springs Creek, Jackson Oo., L.

B., 6/5/40)1 1 female, Poe Springs, at light, M9. V, N., 8,42/650 1

male, Poe Springs, at light, M. W. XN, 9/9/60,




CEtNOTINA Ross


No larvae of this genus have been discovered, and no morph-

ologiarl differences lhve been found to distinguish between the fe-

males of the various Epooles, the genitnl segments of vhloh form a

conical structure with only simple parts as shown in fig. 77T I

have examined specimens of the following ferTles, ~oich cannot be

identified specifically since they were not collected together with

males 1 female, Gainesville, at light, M. W. No, 5/3/60; 1 fensle,

Big Hatchet Creek, at light, M. W. N., 6/12/60 2 females, Vorth-



























( A L -j 7 T



IFRCU5
S Ak











ington Springs, at lirht, M* Vr NX, 7AS/560 2 females, St. John's

Rivers Putnnan Co~ at light, 7/66/60 60 females, Poe Springa, at

light, M. W. N,, 9A//60S 25 females, Poe Springs, at light, M. '.

, 8s/8/so5.



o:y To Tlhe Speoias Of Cornotina

Larva--**- Unknown


Adults



Females, fig. 77----Not keyed.


2. Corci vwith 3 or 4 long, black teeth on the wmeal
side near the base, fig. 78.
Cernotina oncaea

Ceroa without long, black meosa teeth..*..*........*,*....S3


, (Genitalia as in fig. 79.
Cernotinta spioaa

beenitalia as in fig. 80.
Cornotina truno.ma






-406


Cernotins oenloes os



r.n: The rnnae of this species ir *Aide, but C caloee aper-rs

to be locally distributed. It has been taken in Illinois* Missouri,

Oklahoma, Texas and Flor ida


Desoripticon Ross, 1944.


P.emgrhsa I collected, adults at Poe Sprntgs and Worthington Springs,

but continued inveetigatico within wneing; distance of the shore

y iel cd no larvaei. The larvae may rossihly be found in the deeper

parts of the Santa Fe River, beyond wading depth*


Emergence, met likely, takes place over the entire stummer,


Previous Florida Recordat Ross (1944) lists this species as occur-

ring in Florida but does not speiofy the locality* aetten (personal

coniuniocticn) reports tainag C. ealaea in the vicinity of Lake

Placid.


Speoisena Examined; Twelve males and feomles, Poe Springs, at

light, U t W. *N. 7/12/50s 100 malos and females, Worthingtcn Springs,

at light, M# 7, N,, 7L3/50; 20 males end forales, Poe SprinCs, at

ligit, gU W* N*, 9/t/50; 30 males and females, Poe Springs, at light,

M. W#. N, 7/3/51.






.47.


rn2 T' Carnl;' Cr-f. n- riCCrS.




qoaniwintliont anosS 1047,


Tr-Phs: I nollootoe this cr-oleo on oanl" tiwo o- 'oloai, t.toth t!nos

on ithe o cr o cCf it-o P1i-r '^ty To Yr tynociIro t'-o typo mntoriol

rIpls r ario eO

;:nro a n'Go. r of i:'Iv'durlu wro i*ourAd9 it n-'.crrv

ll!al t':-t the larvae emrn be found in the ryivr; hBoavorc, at corah

lia. t.r. rtdien-; el ctarco of t'c C:(oro .lor to roeval t':n. I 1.0.

limev the rro.lcn leto o te^.r to tbr.t oCf fer-m-**'*:c lrt.rroe

are to be Ccunti In the flconor nntera, boeycri vOtir depth.


T'e;'re s"s ctr *n'rr'o.--.crl datrovtrrca .1:-l car. tIo usvt to

it'':ero:'t':A-!.b'? tt .c!-o a rlcrlr o01 tao egernu. It'tv-;;- I eol-

loctod toa fe-nloc of Co trImco-n Wlich habd not bon collected

prov.cuaely, no rorcela-tlcl r't-r*tro -:ror founr Id thit nc'ld

be us1Te9 to Ci IneV!tui-clv t:-.on fro other-. fnr.cror in t':. gPanu8e


rlVe.o--0'o Prt-k r 0 't IIo9, :c;:tc:u: :o.vt?1, VoGlrt'ii- Co.9, fod

lo::ota ;lo.ol, Tir. :'p1 r o r -.- ':, 0/27/4s. (ross, 147a)


Aaolmrnas ; n. l Two rArlos, 383 tfenarlo, rivr Styx, at ig lt,
. ?. I., 7/A2/a/ 5 Inlec, g2 Cor lnr, river !tPx, M lr-t, V. C.

:;., n/bA/.











Cernctine rpicate Rose



aCrnet s Maine, Tcichi-.n, Ci1hne., end Florid-., OCernotina pcaeta

has not previously been reported from Floridn, It is obvious

though, from its spotty distribution, that S spioa.ta is far more

widely dietriluted than has 'baem thought and most probably occurs

In certain areas of the intervening territory,


Deaoriptiont Ross# 1944*

Re~mr-ks Ceornotia spio.at_ is umoonon in Alaohu.. CoWmty, for I

collected only four spoclimns at t o widely separated points. Most

likely these individuals had floan some distanaoe Two of the adults

were taken near Gainesville, the others on the banks of the Santa

Fe River.


P.evlous loridn Recordst 4one.

Specimens Examinedt Onemalet Blue Sprinj~ Crcee, Jaokl:sa Co., L.

B., 6/5/40r 1 male, one female Pond B, at light, M. W. N., 7AO/O60

2 mrles, Poe Springsa at light, UM, N,, 9/9/50






-049.


Psyho'yll.a Genus A


Pan: t Illinois, Florida, Michigan da r.d "isscnGin.

DescriptiLnt nossg 1944.


Remarket The adult of this curious larva is unklowno but it is

probably one of those now, known only. from the adult stage, auoch.,

as Tyctidopyl.x or Cornotina. In Alachun County the larva (fig,

81) ias only been colleste'1 in the Santa Fo River and 31ig atchet

reec.


Previous Florida Reoordea Rose (1944) records this larva from

Florida but does not givo tke locality-


Speolmens Examinedt Two larvae, Santa Pe Rivers 3/24/37; 2 larvae,

Alaohua Co., 1/b1/51; 3 larvae, Big Hatchet Creek, l. v,, N., 4/29/50s

1 larva, Big Hatohet Crook, !L. 1,. N*, 8/40/51i 2 larvae, Big I atahet






-SO.


Creek, MN,% No 4/29/50.



LPE McLaohlan


_es diversa (Banks)


Ross (1944) records this spooles as occurring in Florida

(looality not given), but I have not collected it in Alaohua County.

Perhaps it ooours in northwestern Florida.












PSYCEiOAY IA Piotalt



Of the throee described North Amer5oari speoiesg only P,

flavida has boon taken in Florida.






-52..


Psyohomia fla vida Hagen


(Pryachopa flavida Eagen, 1861
Suoiiia pulchella Banls, 1899
PyMhangi&a moeata Bank& 1907a)


Rane BEastorn central and southern states, Since ,flavida

has not previously been take in in Porida and Kentuokyp Tennessee

and Vorth Carolina were the nearest reported collecting siteae

finding this species in Florida indicates that it occurs in the in-

tervening territory.

Desoriptiont Ross, 1944.

Remarks Perhaps northwestern Florida is the only area in the state

this species can be found, for, although I collected no specimens in

Alaohua County, I examined one specimen which was collected in the

vicinity of Iarianna.

According to Rose (1944), the larvae are restricted to

swift, cold streams.


Previous Florida Recordst one,


Specimen Examinedt One female, Blue Springs Creek, Jackson Co., L,

B., E8//40*





















iloi





-Uynnej.jus -10.r7inalis
FIG. 74--- C
MEAD 07, TAIR-A.













A
FIG. 75 ---- Cyrnell-Qs mar,7inalis, 'AL1 &1, 7 ITALIA.
V61-TRUL ASPC'T 01?
A, EAT UL ASP,-rr
'1211'










FIG. 76--anneilus
;G7r inalis, FE7ALE
UM-TTALIA -






*54-


COYZSNLUS Banks



Cyrnellue marginalia (Banim)

(Qlyotiophylax marGinalis Banks2 1903b
Cyrnellus zernyii osely, 154)

iange~ Central end southeastern states also known from near the

mouth of the Amasn River in South America. In the Southeast, C.

marginalis has been reported from Tennessee, Kentuolj and Alabana

but not from Florida. Although I have not verified the correct-

ness of the identification of the specimens from South Amerioa,

finding this caddie fly in Florida is an indication that it must

ooour in at least limited portions of the intervening territory,

namely Mexico and Central America.


Descriptian: Ross, 1944*

Remarkst Only one North American species, marginalis, is known for

this genus. The immature stages have never been discovered, but

evidence presented here, I believe, will clarify the association of

the various stages. I found two species of larvae which were keyed

(Rose, 1944) to Psychohniid Genus At one of which is to be found

under Psayeholild Genus A in this thesis, and one of which was un-

described. I collected an innature pupa, however, in Lake Vlauberg

which contained the larval solerites of the undescribed species of
Psychomyid Genus A, The fact that these sclerites could be identi-

fied as Psychomyiid Genus A would eliminate Phylocentropus, Neurei*





.*i5


elip is and Polycentropu. The pupa had a preapical spur on the
front tibia whilh eliminated Cernotinaj, Igpe end Psayohonmia leav-

ing only Cyrnellus and yTtioetphylax The maxillary pelpi, the key

character for distinguishing between the two genera, are identical

with those of Cynellus, so I feel the assooi.tian is a valid one.

It appears, therefore, that tho Lake 1nauberg specimen is the pupa

of C, tmaginalis while the second species still romains iitho:t a

name In PsychoTlld Genue A*

This species is not very abundant in Alaohua County. Ify

records indicate that emergence occurs In the Spring*

Ross (1944) states that the adults are mainly found on

the shoroa of lIrge rivers but also on tse shores of small streams

and lakes. Although I collected adults from rivers and streams,
I found larvae only in lakes.

Previous Florida Recordst None.

Spooin ons _xaminedi Three larvae, Kingsley Lake, Clay Co,, bottom

sample 10 feet deep, silt over sand, Je So R. and As F.'C,, 5/18/33

1 larva, i ak.-anta PF, bottom example 4-5 feet deep, 12/2/477 2

larvae, Johnson Lake, Golden Iead State Park Clay Co*, Me W. N.,

8sA2/60s 1 larva, LerJ Co., E. L., G/A8/G50s 7 females Prairie

Crook, at liCht. # M Wt 1., 8/29/61; 1 male, 1 female, Viorthington
Springs, at light, U We, 1,# 7/13/801 2 females St. John's River,

Putnam Co., at light, 7/A6/50 19 males and females, River Styx, at





















































A,








STIUAO ST S:T,






-S7-


light, HI I .N, 7/17/50$ 1 pupa,, Lakei VTauberg,iM..W. TT.. 6/18/504




IE'Dr.o'PSYCnIDAE



Ross (1944, p* 76) characterizes the family IIydropyohidae

very rvll h en he says, "The larvae of all genera are remarkably

uniform in habits and appearance. They are wormlike, active and

yugnaoious, and possess rows of bushy abdominal gills. They pre-

fel the more rapid locations in stress, ,usually being conoentratod

around riffles, spilltays and rspi.De,. although they my also be.

found wherevertheee. is an appreciable current They make a re-

treat under and ab)t trac.h, logs, stonel and any other haVen.

In front-of this. ryc-reat they build a aet whioh is reputed to

strain food frm ro thei flwingwter. or pupation they spin an

ovoid coooon near the retreat, generally. ueing sand, atones and

bits of trash..


ICKy o The &ydropayohi!da



l1 Head with a d6nrp, U-shnapod ridge, fi(. 871
Maoronenmm carolina

Head without a sharp, U-shaped ridge, fig. 103OS......*****,*,2

2. Stridulator of fore Aoo~ not forked, fig* 808 '
W Dipecatrona mnodesta

Stridulator of fore coxa forked, fig. 89....,......*..***.*.S













































FI. 96SEAEFG, 7--liLL


ASEC. iSE"T












S3 Prosternal plate tith a pair of posterior soleritos,
fig. 90.
rydropsyche

Prosternal plate without a pair ef posterior solerites,
fig. 91.
Cheumatopsgohe

Adult

1. LarCe, Etrkidng caddle fly with piot.,red wings end
very long antennae, fig. Cr.
SaorW~Pmun- oarolina
Caddie fly not as in fig* 02............ ..* a,*4,*,,...* 2


2 Hind wings with apex round and with So and R bowed
deeply at apex, fig. 93.
Diplectrona modest

Hind wings either with So and Ri not markedly bowed,
or both wrngs with apical mrgln ino eed...,,****c**,****,.


e 41 jK0B8************************************************* ***

2021Pei *** ************************************************ 6


4. Base of aedeagus cylindrical, fig* 94.
Uydropqyohe in commodn
Base of aodeagus bulbous, fig. 95.
Cheumatonsycoie

6, Sternal plate of eighth cegpent separated to base
of soiment, fig. 96.
Chlouiir~topsyohCo

Stornal plates of eighth segment seopcrated only
tno-thirds distance to base of segment, fig. 97.
IHdropeycho incomrioda






-GO-


DIPTLT:C;A .c st-wood


Diploctrona nodostn Banks



Rnn.a: ,astern and southern states.


Descriptions Rosa, 1944.


Renmrkat Dipleotrona modest does not occur in Alaohua County and

most probably is limited to t'he northwestern part of Florida.


FrevlcTs FloridA. recordoat 2oc (194) .11st this apecies as occur-

ring in Floridr. but dose not cite the loc1Aity.


SpeciRmes ExE= ned: Six larvno, Torreya Stato Park, Liberty Co.,

5/7/331 1 larva, Crestview, Okaloosa Co.. L. B., 12/L2/87.










































in c ori:-,, o A7 OF 17
CR I 'i,,E 1,(71 A


FI G. 99 --- I-Tvdro Svche
inco'lmoda.











A B
FIG. 101---L.lyd
= ILche FIG.102 --- ad v he
Ln-_22-rao(Lp_, APEX OF inc6.-Tcla, M-1,11ALF,
AEDEAGUS. A, LATEPAj, GENT TALIA.
ASPECT; B, VENTRAL ASPECT.










HYDROPSYCIIE Piotet



The genuea fdropsyohe contained over fifty peCieso of onddis

flies, but only one, Hydropsyche inco-tnoda, is IknoMI to oaeur in

Alachua County. The larvae prefer clean, fast-flowlng, cool water


Key To The Spe.os Of Hlydropgsy(ie ,


Larvae,

1. Head as in fig. 100.
E dropsyo he incormoda

Head as in fig, 100A.
Itydropyoche ep. C


Adults

1. Genitalia of males as in fig. 101; genitalia of
females as in fig, .102.
fydropsyocho ineooimoda





lydropsyche incomrB~oda HEgen

Rancea Recorded from Florida, GeorEgi, ITorth Carolina and Illinois.


Desariptlont Roess 1944.


Remarks The immense numbers of enddis fly Inrivae swarming over

the rocks and loaves of eel grace (Vallieneria sp.) at the rook dam

never Poe Springs is certainly strilking. For shoor numbers, there

is no other place in Alaohua County which even approximates it.






-653


Cool, '.crric m ttaOr ryuCde r-: : -":. Ith cnsicdoranblo

epcad, sM t'o lari:, reOC" krve.o of V. Snooodc 2crm a8 conoploorsa

olo-.entA of t'o 1:r.3tt,;


?.o0 linrcr b'lyild rotreate in l pro.d 'iA trach rid bito of

dobric l t' on roolks &! vol rct. Xn frott of tetA rOtrcIt they

uilk' s rot to etrr" fccfZ front t':o flo.e- wsatr, lot for :rnpatiC

t".:", crn n oi!d c

Z necoasltaed thi rprovl oucldy nteon it-nt':ro ctnaoo wu th

t%'or rEult forw ty rctrir;In howveorl, C, tVh larvte t iro very wmn-

rn.'oliatio Mssd ia i loa e inO..ol.i'."er tolornnaeo, I o'tn-arnod tost

ror.'tto by tC':!-' r-ifl :;rctca ocf ptinO 3d pcH-;)% t': o in Er-f

eotto"ns 'Ocvatoo C*:lt:' c-zrod Cr4 <- ovrr 57y '.lre, 7: f C1i-

Ito acOroultini tn raadoe t'.r-a2. ct':; cf U.o thtval aoliurttroc,

tc;t:i wVero ncv'Vd :rto Vte' ;'oetor':c -rortlron of t'io Vncrtfod puncli




A Inr rx nrlr or of lro tni' ;.:;rco dloi gl tio 1i.l transg-

rpTrteO In ',ter*i "ar ticien io.r. t nveo rm d Svootr-timi for trs-ne-

poertatict n mau W fr r othe vat '"-roeroiro :roed,


'"oe tnd'to foI.) crrs! !7r"AO1*fln:ro to Ity tioir o:.so .o

tt:, t'o or'a* t '" "of r- '. m rI -lt' I toCd livO, wn'ult

eicrilro of j. aio;! n T'r.cod than w-:*mr.?at-or. Thteo hoir: eat

tie boiTy nrd ifnre rproveort9 O t'on frtom rottir-n rots ,'d ithe oc rFeic

flioa, mn rel3oncro 'boo'ce to -'-n rirre, c't.1: 1roTo t'rour'> t'e






-64-


surface film and flow awoay Complete eubmergenoo did not seem to
affect them in the least,

Previous Florida 'Peorclst Ross (1944) lists this pooies as occur-
ring in Florida but does not specify the locality.

Speoimns Examinedt Two males, 6 females. Tavarea, Lake Co., P.
E11 Y., 3/23/36 7 larvae, Sweetwmter Creek, Liberty Co., L. B,#
12/40/S7t 2 larvae, Shoal River, Okaloosa Co ,, L. B, 12I/11S/
16 larvae, Santa Fe River, J. S. R., 8/12/381 24 larvao, Hillsboro
River, L. J. M., 2/18/ 9~ 1 female, Santa Fe River, L. B., 3//40O
I male, Santo Fe River, 4/6/40; 3 females, Blue Springs Creok, Jaolk
son Co., L. B., 6/E/401 11 Irrvne, Poe Springs, 10A4/47; 54 larvae,
6 pupae, Poe Springs, M W. N, 3/24/501 3 female., Big nlathot
Crook a li, t li M, W, No 6 2/60t 1 male, 4 females, Hogtom

Creek, at light, MI W, T., 6/49/60s 104 larvae, Poe Springs, M, W.

iN, 6/21/60; 1 male, Poe Sprinnre, smeepinc, M. WVT, r*, 6/21/60; 275
males and females, Poe Springs, at light, '!. N, , 7/2/50s 125
lervee iend pupae, etre~em .+ mile S. of Gulf Tammonok, Levy Co.,
M*, WT, ., 7/30/60; 9 males, 23 females, Poe Springe, at light, TM.
IT, ,# 9/9/501 approxz 2000 larvao and puppo, Poe Sprir-s, .T W,
IN, 6/6/50; 175 males and females, Poe SprinCe, at lirht, TI. W. i#,

7/s/51.






-656


Hydropeyhe spe A


FIG. 100A---mydrop2ydhe sp. Aj
H1iAD OF LARVA.


The larva (fig. 100?') of this specion is undsoribod, and I

have not-yet been able to ascoo~Ito it with an adult forms indeed no

adults of the genue Rydroppyohe, other than 1. incoioda, have been

collected in the state. I have not found those larvae in Alachua

County.


Specinen Examinedt Two larvae, Jasper, Eoamilton Co,, L, Be

2/4/383 2 larvae, Lenont, Iedison Co., L. B,, 2/6/38: 1 larva,

Drifton, Jeffereon Cow, L. B., 2/6/388 4 larvae, Golden ITeaa State

Park, Clay Co,, I. W, 1I., 8/12/50.











CT.!isATOPSYCHGIT allengren


ostt of the small, broan Trichoptera larvae with bushy ab-

dominal Gills belong to this gonue. Both larvae and adults are

very similar in appearance and behavior to the larvae and adults of

!Sydropsryhe.


According t~o illiam Beok, Jr. of the Florida State Board

of Health (personal co~unmioatioin) Cheumatopsychid larvae will

tolerate pollution of a minor degree while most other caddis flies

will not. Personal observation bears this out; for example, in the

summer of 1950 the Eest Brnnoh of Hogtown Creek had a caddie fly

fatma composed almost entirely of Cheumatopsychid larvae, while the

West Branch had a more varied fauna* Many old, empty Leptooelia

and Oeoetis oases s were found in the East Eranoh showing that other

species had lived there. Since it is known that the East Branch

occasionally becomes polluted, it would seem likely that the areek

was slightly polluted in the su.mor of 190Q, and that only the

Cheumatopspyhid larvae could withstand the pollution.


I collected many larvao in Alaohua County, for this genus

is abundantly represented. To structural characters haie yet been

found to separate the larvae to species; therefore, these records

will not be given. Liarrv of Cheumatopsyche are very coacan and

occur in most of the streams in the county*



































FG 03--











cheynaonynh 0












UF 7, .
710 10 -- Chmaryh buki






-G*S


Key to The Speates Of Chenatqovyche

Laryva-----atot xeod. See fig. 10.S


Adults

1, Genitilial of mnles as in fig. 104 egenitilia of re-.
males as in fig* 103.
CheumatoMgoh burkai


2, Genitaltf of males as in fig. 105) genitalia of efo.
males as in fig, 109.
C 10hou-.rnMAtofsy Cho afalis


3 G Oenitalia of sales as in fig. 1061 genitalia of fe-
males as in fig. 110.
Cheumatopsyohe 9ahanta


' 4. Genitalia of males as in fig. 107.
Cheunatopsyche pitaca





Choumatopgyohe buyrlsi Roes


Ranget Florida and Illinoisa, Undoubtedly further collcctir-. will

fill in the gaps in our knoiledGo reGcrdinG the distribution of this

species,


DosoriptiDon RosS, 1944*


RemArkas I aseoclated the previously und@ecribed larva with its,

adult form by rearing pupae in damp cotton. No morphological char-

aoters were found, however, to distinguish thia apooloe from the

others In the genus.
























A

c
FIG. 107-------,heuTMto,)s li. 2Lnaa, UALE GENITALIA.
A, LAfk]'-lZAL ASPECT; B, CAUDAL ASPECT CIF TE1171 T,
C, CLASHR, CATMAL ASPECT.




IV





A
FIG. 108----Cheumatopsyche burksi, ms"ilp'LE
GENITALIA. A, IXTEAL WSPEECT OF ITINTIT Al-.,D
TEENTH TERGITES; B, DORSAL ASPECT.











FIG. log --- C. FIG. 110 --- C
FEMALE
-Ea -li S aphanta, FE."LuE
GENITALIA. GEITITALIA.






-70-


Those lrtvae ooeur in immense numbers on leaves of eel grasn

(Vallisneria sap) and rooks at the dam in the Santa Fe River near

Poe Springs. The larvae are very similar to Hydropsychid larvae

and are oanTonly found assooint-., ":ith them. The 1..rval nets of

both Cheunato syhe burkri and Hydropsyahe .inCooroda are easily and

ofto oseen the submerodc rooks and vegetation.


Previous Flori'da Reeordat 1Ross (1944) rooorde'tnis t Os pocl from
Tava-aes.


Speoimoue Examineds Sinoo extraordinary numbers of lar vae can be

found at Poe Springs any tim of the 'year, I will omit ey records as

they are not indicative of the numbers present. One male, 7rdla!ia,

Putnn~ Co., R. B., 3/6/46i 250 males and fewless, Poe 3prings, at

light W. IT ., 7A12/50 1 mible, 5 fennalse, 'Torthington Springs, at

light, m. 7. ,, 7/3/50; 27 females, River Styx, at light, s1. 7. 0TX,

7/27/50 j. males 23 females, Poe Springs, nt lijht, T:. W, I,*

9/b/0so 280 males and females, Poe Springs, at light, Mt. WT. .,
7/3/51.




Choumra&topElohe analis (Banko)

(Hydropsyoho analis Banks, 1903b
Ilydronss'ch_ ^ it^i Bar'rs, 1903b)

Rane. Widespread, ocourring over most of the United States with

the exception of the Southwest.






-71-


Deaoriptiunt Ross, 1944.

Remarks Cheumatoppycae analis is a rare oaddis fly in Alachua

County. According to Rose (1944) the larvae inhabit snall streams

but also occur in larger rivers. They have a wide coological toler-

anoe and are often found in streams carrying considerable pollution.

Previous Florida Recordst this species has not previously been

taken in Florida.


Speoina Examineds One male* Ebro, ahington Co., L. S., 5/30/401

1 male, Gainesville, no date; 1 male, 1 female, Hogtown Creek, at

light, M. W. ., 6/19/601 4 males, 3 females, Hogtown Creek, at light,
M. W. X0 7?/160.




Chaumatopsyohe aphenta Ross


Ran!gy The range of this species is poorly delineated, It ocurs

in Illinois, Indiana, Arkansas and possibly Florida.

Desoriptiont Rose, 1944.

Remarks The identification of this species is based up n two spea-

imens, both of thich were females, These specimens did not quite

agree with the description of the species given by Ross (1944), so

I sent them to Dr. Ross for confirmation of identification. He said

they were certainly very close to Cheumatopsyche nphanta, but also






-72-


suggested that they might represent a different spooios present in
this locality* It therefore seems advisable to record this species

as questionable until males are secured which would then corroborate

the record.


Previous Florida Recordsa, !tone*


Speimaens Exanedt Two females, Poe Springs, at light, M, WVt N.,

9/9/60.




Choumatopsyehe pinaoa, Ross



Riget -Southeastern states.


Desoriotions Rose, 1941.


Remarks Cheumatoprohe pifnaooa as collected on two oocaiaons, both

times at light, at widely separated pointso-*-* Poe Springs end Hog-

town Creek.

The larva has not been found, ooasequently nothing is known

regarding the biology of thia species.


Provioue Florida Recordse This spooies has not previously been

recorded from Florida.


Specimens Examinedt One males Poe Springs, at light, M, W. i0., 7A2/601

1 male, Fogtown Creek, at light, M. 'W. ., 7A/6/0,






-753


IACRCTE'ULI Burmeister


Macronemum arolina (Banks)


Ranse Southern states.

Pesoriptoan Ross, 1944.

Remarkas The adults are among the largest aeddis flies found in

Florida and are very striking, with their extremely long antennae

and polished, brightly-colored wings (fig. 92).

This species is only occasionally found in Alaohua County.

1o larvae were collected; however, the larvae probably inhabit the

deeper portions of the Santa Fe River, for Ross (1944) says that the

species frequents large, rapid rivers.

Previous Florida Recordst Rose (1944) lists this species as ooour-

ring in Florida but does not specify the loonlity. Betten (personal

oonmmnlcation) has taken specimens at Lake ITewahitchka,

Sneoimons Examineds One male, Ebro, 7ashington Co., L. B., 5/30/40;

1 nmle. 6.4 miles W. of 7ashington Co. line at Hwy. 10, nalton Co.,

L.o B., 6/31/40s 2 males, Bayou "Marquis, Esonmbia Co., Lo BD, 6/1/40;

Smale, Poe Sprinegs at light, MS. V. N., 7A2/50; 1 male, Worthington

Springs8 at light# M, WO No,, 7/1/S50 1 role, Prarie Crook, at light,

MH O !., 8/29/60.


















"'TZ















T 7











FI G 113 - APEX ,Jr, 11
Al T)
CF ARD U L 77
A] AL












FIG. FIG. 117---
-H(-)R A X TT-TORAX.











T-o1 1TTLDiAS


This family comprises most of the "micro" onddis flies.

The adults are extremely minutes some having a total length of only

one end one-half millemoters.


A good deal of work has recently been done on the HydroptilidRe

of Florida. Denning (1947 and 1948) studied the miero oaddis fly

fauna of south and central Floridn in some detail and deoribed a

number of now species from there. Rose (1948) ias recently described

some new species on the basis of materiel 'sent to him by a number of

entomologists collecting in the state.


Many fydroptilidno have a very wide geographic distribution

but seen to occur only in certain limited localities within its

ranges for instance, lMaatrichia yama ocoure from the extreme

southern portion of Mexico end Florida to New York and Montana*

but withn that broad area its distribution is spotty. It is very

evident that muah more work needs to be done on the geographic

distribution of the whole group of micro caddis flies




Key to The Genera Of Hydroptilidae

Larvae

X1* middle end hind legs almost three times as long as
front legs, fig, 1l11
QOyethira

Middle end hind legs not more than one and one-half
times as long as front legs, fig. 112*.............*...*.....











2. Anal legs distinctly projecting from body mass,
fig 115.......****************************f****************

Anal logs apparently combined with body mass and
only the claws projeotingr *******........... ...............


3. Thorncie termites clothod with long, slender, ereot
inconspicuous setae, fig. 114; case of sand grains,
evenly tapered and without posterior slit.
Neotrichia ranen

Thoracic tergites clothed with shorter, stout, black
setae which are conspicuous, fig. 1165 ease trcns-
luocnt, evenly tapered and with dorsal side either
ringed or fluted with raised ridges, fig. 132.
itypatri Cain iE~DURG.

4. Case long, smooth and round in cross section,
tapered at each end and with an indented slit
at both ends.
Orthotriohia

Case purse*lise (wcaants change purse),
Hydroptila


Adults

Ooelli prbsent*..*... ...es e** *********A******o



2. "Motasoutollum almost rectangular, fig. 1160
Orthotrichia

Metasoutellui pentagonal to triangular, fig. 117.
Hydroptila

S, Hind tibiae with only 1 preapical epur.
Neotriohia ransa

Tind tibino with 2 preapical spurs...........................4




















A0



.3'~
&I.foia ,7









9EE'TS C, FZ-AF GE 4 4 LI




A B
























































A. B


























7 A, 8 9






, ..-


4. m idlle tibiae without a preapioal spur.
1 aystriohi a '. '

HIiddle tibine with a preapioa aspur.
Oyeothira





OXY=TiTIRA Eaton



Six apeioes of this genus are reported from Florida; how-

ever, only one,.O, 0 anella was found in AlaohuaaCounty* No ohar-

aoters have been found which oan be used to determine the species

Of the larvae.




Key To The Species Of Oayethira


Larvae-----Not keyed.


Adults

1 .M ale genitali as in fig. 118t female genitalia as
in fig. 118C0
Oyothira floridn
2. TNale goritalia as in fig. 119.
C 3la'ira sa


8. Male genitalia






64 Male genitalia
5. Ma'le genitalia


as in fig.-120.
Oyote'irn gne1llo


as in fig. 121.
Oerethira lumosa


as in fig. 122.
Oxyethira verna











GC Male gonitalia as in fig. 123.
Ovyqthira walteri





(Oxethirajnenella Denning



Raols Florida and Lomiainna.

Desoriptiant Denning, 1948,


Romanrks Oxoethira eanxella was described by Dennimg in 1948 on the

basis of two male speimens; one from Winter Park, Florida and the

other from rew Orleane, Louisiana. This species is the only rep-

resentative of the genus Oxyethira that I found in Alaohua County*

Since a lea of janellZ were collected along with females

at both Poe Springs and Vorthingtan Springe, it oan be assumed

that the fonnele are the undoscribed forms of this spooieo. Teny

other females of Ox_0 thirn, collected at the River Styx and Dig

Hatohet Creel., could not be speoificnlly identified due to the fact

that no males were project. In all probability tV'se females be-

long to the apeclea 0. janellea howeverE bor.use of a lack of oomw

parative material, I do not feel that I can place a nnmo oa them

at this time.

Although almost all caddi fliees that are attracted to li)ht

come directly to the source of the light, I noticed that 0* janella

came to the nore dimly illuninatod portions of the hBeet, such as










the back of the sheet, indicating that they are less strongly photo-

tropio than most other species.

Previo's Florida Rocordst "Holotyne, nalo--*-Winter Trk, Florid..,

May 16, 1940, (H. T. Fernald), Par~lt --*-ew Orlems, Loulsiana,

October 10, 1945, (D, G. Donnin), I male." (Denning, 1948)

Speoimane Ixamineda One r lo, Hogtom Creek, at light, 1 k:,. i.,

/1/650 7 males, 02 females, Pee Springs, at light, M1. N.,

/7A/50t I mle, 11 females, WTorthington Springs, at light, I. V7. N.,

7/13/50s 2 nales, 16 females, Poe Springs, at light, I!. I ,I JI.,

7/5/51,




Oxethira florida Donning


Ranat South Florida.

Descritiont Denning, 1947.

lomarka: Oxyethira florida was described by Denning (1947) on the

basis of specimens collooted in "ianmi. I have not found this species

in Alachua County, and therefore, I assuam that it does not oceur as

far north as Oainesville.

Previous Florida Reoordset "Iolotype, ale-masMiafZS, Plorida#, Feb. 1,

1945, D. 0, Denning. Allotype, female*-wHaian, Oot. 1, 1944, D. G.

Denning. Paratypos, four males---' tLanI, Florida, nTv. 15-30, 1944*






.32-


Lliht trnp, D G. Denning. Peratypes, thee males, eleven foe-alos

---..--Tiai, Florida, Oct. 12-30. 1944o Light trap, D. G. Denning.

Paratypcss fiv-o nalos, six females, .1.i-ni, Florid Oct. 1, 1944.

Light trap, D, G* Dennange Farntyhtcs, five =aleo, nine fnelos,

Liami, Floridn, March 1-15, 1945. D. G. Denning Panrat'pos, coven-

teen nales, twcnty-nine females, IUiani, Florida, PFb. 2-8, 1945.

Light trapD.o G.: Denning." (Deaning, 1947)


Specimens Examinedt N neo




Oyothira gLtar Bosa



Range Oklahoma, Florida, Georgia and Louisiana.


Desoriptient Rose, 1941.


P.marke: Donning (1947) found 0. lasa to be a Lbndont in southern

Florida, bat it has not as yet bean collected in Alaohua County,

Since this species does occur in Georgia and Louisiana, it mnfht

be ass~jud that it does inhabit some part of northern Floridn.


Previous Florida ecords: "Floridat Miamit February 1"8, 1945,

light trap, D. G0 De inning, males. February 16 1944, Do G. Denning,

19 males. February 2n-28, 1944, D. G. Donning, 16 Pales*. !arch

1-16, 1945, li.gt trap, D. G. Denni-C, 2 TnMale3, ovorlhr 15-SO4

1944, li!ht trap, D. G..DonnrinC, 16 males. Deooober 4, 1944, D. G.

Donning, 14 males. December 14-15, 1944, ligCit tr#p, D, G. Denning,











28 males*


Sgomlnena Examinad c None.




O2rethira 1umos~as Ross



Rnan Florian.


Desoriptiont Rose, 1948.

Ronarkcas 9oyethira lumosa waas described by Rosa n the bnais of

one male collected at Daytina Beach. It has note to my ckowledee,

boon oolleoted slnor


Previous Plorida Records: -olotjgY <..k-"<---Tcaytoca Po oh, Fla.,

AuCusn 27, 1945, G. T. PieOcl." (Rose, 1948)

Spe'~naons Exmnined. ITone.




e athira vorarn Ros



RBanE* Nw Brunmwick, Illinois, Florida. rnd Loutisient

Desofnriti
nenar~et Aaoordinc to DonninG (1947) Cyohliirr. vrri.a is the nost

abundarit spooioa of iydroptil-dae in sout:crna 1lordrita; honovcr, I







084.


have not collected It In Alachua County. It ap -ers to have a very

rddo goosraphio distrirtion but only occur in cortAin aroas Within

its overall rsniee


Previous Florida Records: "Ploridat 'uian February 1-8, 1945,

LfghCt trap, D, G. Denuing, 168 males, 92 females. February 15,

1944, D. G6 Denning, 11 males. February 23, 1044, D. G. DonninG, S

na.les. March 15S0s, 1945, D. G. Denning, 12 males. April 10, 1944,

D. G. Denning, 56 nmloo. October 1-3, 1945, Licht Trap, D. GO Denning,

5 males 28 fenn les. October 12-30, 1944, Light Trap, D. G, Denri0ng,

25 males, Sl females. I:oveo:ber 15-10, 1945, Li(ht Trap, D. Ga Denning,

34 raloe. December 4, 1944, Light Trap, D. G. DerninG, 18 males.

December 14415, 1944s Light Trap, Da G. DonninG, 23 males. December

20, 1944, Light Trap, D G. Donnings, 32 males." (Denning, 1947)


Snecirnens Examinodt Cone,





OxyethIra alteri Denning


Ranger Florida, GeorCia and Louisiana*


Description Denning, 1947.


P.en-rrl:sz Denming (1947) collected 0. walteri in !iaamir however, I

have not found it in Alachuaa Oounty Since this cpeaecs ocura in

Goorgia, one might surrniz that it can be found somewhere in northern

Florida*
























































ameica "ALE GEMTAIA







*38.


Previous Florida Reoords: "'olotjiypro mrle*m-c-Plorinz Ujiarit

tovombor 50, 1944, Light trap, Di Go Denning. Paratypeos: ;Linr.it

Ilarch 15, 1945, D. 'G Denning, 6 mnrle. 'ny 10, 1^.4, D. G. DSrj.1inC,

12 males. :'wovembr 15, 1944, D. G. Denning, 4 -nles. Dooembor 20,

1944, D. G. Denning, I ale." (Donning, 1947)





Cr.THOTnECI If. EatCn



SoRX femalos of this gonus, found at several localitios

(Rivor Syxr iorthingrta Sprinco, Devil's -Tllhoppor and Poe Springs),

could not be identified speoofloally duo to lack of oomparative

material. A larva found in Lake Alice al2o could not be identified

to pooeies.



Koy To The Stocies Of Ortheotrie:ina


Larvae*-- -i-lot keyed


Adult

1. iIalo genitalia as in fig. 1241 female genitalia as
in fig, 127.
Orthotriohia amerioana


2. Unle qo nital'a as in fig. 125; fnrale cenal1-ia na
in fi. 128.
Ort'atrialain critata


38 Malo oenitalia as in fig* 126t foenles not k~yed.
Orthotrichia instabiliS



























Orthotriohia americana Banks


Reaggt This speolis has a wide range enoompassing an area from

Texas and Florida in the South to Nw York and Minnesota in the

North,

Description Ross, 1944.

Remnarkst Denning (1947) found 0 ameriant to be present throughout

the year in Miami howovor, I have not tabn any males in Alachua

County This species does occur in this section of Florida, though,

for peo lmons from the St. John's River in Putnam County were ex*

amined by me. Perhaps the unidontifiable fo-ales and tho larva

found in Lake Alice also belong to this species.


Previous Florida Recordes "Poridat Mianit DOtOber 1-S, 1944,
Light trap, D. G. Denning, 40 males, 7 females. October 12.4O, 1944,

D. G, Denning, 7 males, 2 fomales. November 15, 1944, D, 0G Donning,






488.


1 male, 1 female. February I-8, 1945, Light trap, D. Go Denninge
21 nalos, 15 fomalea. 7Tarch 15, 1945, Light trap, D. Go Denning,

1 male. ITay 10, 1944, D. Go Denning, 14 males, 12 females."

(Donning, 1947)

Specimens Examinedt Four males, 10 females, shore of the St. John's

River, at light, J. H., 7/5A/60.




Ofthotriohia oristata Morton


Range ost of eastern end part of western United States.

Description: Ross, 1944.

Remarks Denning (1947) collected one male and one female in niami.

I havo not found this spocios in Alachua County.

Previous Florida Recordes "Florida T HiaTmit .April 10, 1944, Do G.

Denning, 1 male, 1 female." (Denning, 1947) .

Speolmens Egminedt None

































A B c
FIG. 129 ---- Hydroptila berneri, IIiALE GENITALIA. A,
LATERAL ASPECT; B, CIA.SPERS; C, FE71ALE GENITALIA.













B

FIG. 130----Idr2p-bila wakulla. A, ITALE
GEIJITALIA; B. FEMALE GEITITALIA.






-90-


Orthotrichia instabiliae Denning


Rlen t Contra.l Florida,


Deaoriptionz Denning, 1948a.


nemarku: Denning (1948a) described 0. instabilia on the basis of

Nine males colleeted in Winter Park. I have not found this species

in Alachua County and can give no further data about it.


Previ ou3 florida Recordst "Holotype, nrmle--Z--.&inter Park,

Florida, .lay 16, 1940, (H. T. Fernald). Paratypee ---- Florida,

sem data as for holotype, 8 nales." (Donning, 1948a)


Snooimons fBlandnodt Yone.




HYDROPTIIA Dalman



This Conus embraoes abcut forty Fearotio apocloes comprising

cne-thilr of the Hydroptilidae. Only two species, H. berne. end

t. wakulla have been taken in Florida,


Key To The Speloes of Hydroptila


Larae.--Not keyed.

Adults

1. Hale conitalia as in AfiG 129 A and BS female genitalia
as in fic. 129 C0
fYdroptia berneri






-91-


2, Male genitalia as in efie 1SO A fA;o.lo genitalia As
in fig, 130 B.
Hydroptila watl1la




&ydroptila borneri Ross



Rangt Floridan.

Descriptiint Ross, 1941.


Remarks This species was described by Ross (1941) on the basis of

two males and one female collected at Poe Springs by Dr. Lewis

BDrner. I was able to collect topotypical material and was aloo able

to collect the uidosoribod larva. This larva, which is fairly

oonrno at the rook dam near Poe Springs makes a purseeshaped onae

of sand grains. The eases are attached to submerged vegetation and

rooks in the slower moving portions of the river around the dam,

The adults are attracted to light, but seem to come to the

light a little later in the evening than most of the other caddis

flies.

Previous Florida Reoordst Two males, 1 fealdo, Poe Springs, at

lidht, collooted by Lowis Bernor, 3/4/39. frontn Rose, 1941)


Speoimonsm Examineod Four males, 10 females, Poe Snpring, at light,

U* A7. * 7/12/560 1 males Big Hatohet Creek-, at light W5 is,

4/i2/60 1 male. Poe Springs, at light, 1U. vT. It, 9/b/s0o 3 males,











5 female, Poe Springs, at light, Io VT. T,,* 7/3/561 6 larvae Poe

Springs, Ml' V 1. Nl., 3/24/60.




hydioWil.a xkulla Donning


Rgn2ea Florida.


Des oipticai Denning, 1947.


Remarket ydropftila waklla was described ly Denning (1947) an the

basis of 11 specimena collected at Wakulla Springs. I havo not fo~nd

this spoolo in Alaohua County end have found no othor data oonoern.

ing it in the lteoramture.

Previous Florida Recordst "nolo%'po, male-----Florid1t Tfakulla

Springs Ootober 23, 1945, D. G. Dening. Allotype, feomle*-m-*-

Same data as for holotype. araty -S data as for holotypoe

I male 8 fomales.s (Denninc. 1947)


Efpeoimiens Exawnined Ncmne.


-32-











NEOTRICIHIA Morton


1eotriohia ranea Denning


gafmLt Georgia end Florida,

Deooriptiont Dennlng, 1947.


Remarkast Notrishia reanea is undoubtedly the smallost caddis fly

that occurs in Alaohua CounCty a full-grown male is omly one and one*

half nillimeters long,


This speooie was described by Denning (1947) am the basis of

two males, one from Florida, the other froa Georgia. I have collected

the undesoribed female of the speoles.

Previoue Florida Peoordez "One naelo Ilionl, May 10, 1944, D. Go

Denning." (Denning, 1947)















































FIG 13 -- FG 14--M











Speoimlena IxaAmnedt Two males 2 famaleos, 7ort'iingc'o .prinsg, at

light T, V. II, 7A/SOij 1 female Poo Springs, at light M -T. T.,

7/i2/50t 1 malo, 1 fomalo, Poo Springs, at light, I o. I* E#, 9/b/50.




MlYATRICUIA Moeoly


This genus contain three North American apeoies, of which

omly one, M ay aa has been taean tn Florida,


layatrichia Mlosely


r nOt Very iido-spread over most of the eastern states. Ranges

front extreme southern t.oxloo to oew York end Iontana. Although the

records are scattered over a wide area, the spooios is quite rare

in collections*

Desoription s Rossa 1944.

ra, arkst P.oac (1944) lists this species as occurring in Floridn, I

exarinod sixz females whioh, due to the lack of comparative material,

cannot be identified to speoious however, these specimens (one from

the St. Jolm's River in Putnam County and the other five from Poe

Springs) most probably belong to I. ayara

Previous I'lorida Rooords: Rooc (1944) record this spoo5io from

Florida but does not qpecifj the locality.






*96.


Spooirnons Examinedt Ictae.





PHRYG.A!EID.AE



BA:K3IOcIA Martynov



Bankaiola conontenata (Walikr)



Waller (1852) described this species oa the basis of speci-

mans caught at St. John's Bluff, East Florida, which is near the

mouth of the St. John's River. I have not collected this species

but en including it for the sake of ocmpletoneass





LI!TCD'ILIDAE



PYCIPZYCTTi E Banks



The family Linmephilidao is a very largo one containinG

numerous species scattered throughout the United States, and thus

it is rather uprising to find caly one representative ooaurring in

Florida.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs