Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Back Matter

Title: PLA notes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089961/00001
 Material Information
Title: PLA notes
Alternate Title: Participatory learning and action notes
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Institute for Environment and Development -- Sustainable Agriculture Programme
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: International Institute for Environment and Development, Sustainable Agriculture Programme
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: March 1995
Copyright Date: 1995
Frequency: three no. a year
three times a year
completely irregular
Subject: Sustainable agriculture -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Sustainable agriculture -- Methodology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with no. 22, published in 1995.
General Note: Description based on: No. 23, published in 1995; title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089961
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 32226547
lccn - 00220329
issn - 1357-938X
 Related Items
Preceded by: RRA notes

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
    Back Matter
        Page xii
        Page xiii
Full Text

PLA Notes
Notes on Participatory Learning and Action
(Formerly RRA Notes)

* General Information

* Guidelines for Authors

* How to Obtain Back Copies

* Mailing List Application Form etc.

March 1995



3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD
Tel (+44 171) 388 2117
Fax (+44 171) 388 2826
e-mail: iiedagri@gn.apc.org

Established in 1971, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
is a policy research institute linking environmental concerns with the development needs
of resource-poor people in the South and with other global environment and
development priorities.

The Institute's Sustainable Agriculture Programme promotes and supports the
development of socially and environmentally aware agriculture through research,
training, advocacy, networking and information dissemination. Emphasising close
collaboration and consultation with a wide array of institutions in the South, research
projects are aimed at identifying the constraints and potentials of the livelihood strategies
of those in the Third World who are affected by ecological, economic and social change.

Who to contact with questions and requests?

* For more information about the programme, details of publications and
materials and mailing list enquiries, please contact Ginni Tym (see Mailing
List Form on the last page).

For information on how to submit papers or reports for publication, please
contact Fiona Hinchcliffe (see Guidelines for Authors, page ii).

To obtain backcopies, contact Marilyn John at the HED Bookshop (see the
Backcopies Order Form).

@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @


.... AND HELLO TO ....


The ever-increasing popularity of participatory approaches is vastly encouraging. This has been
clearly reflected in the Notes, and particularly in our rapidly expanding mailing-list! Last year we
distributed RRA Notes to over 3000 individuals/organisations in 120 countries, free of charge. As
participatory approaches become more widely used in ever-diversifying situations, however, there are
implications for the Notes.

The last issue, RRA Notes 21, focused specifically on participatory planning in urban areas. Is it still
possible to refer to this vast body of methods and approaches as Participatory Rural Appraisal, never
mind Rapid Rural Appraisal?! After consultation with many practitioners of participatory approaches,
and following suggestions from some of our readers, we have decided that a new title is definitely
needed, and feel that Participatory Learning and Action Notes (PLA Notes) more accurately describes
the wide range of contributions that we receive.

In this rapidly evolving field, critical reflections continue to be needed to prevent complacency and
encourage innovative and high quality work. We are therefore especially keen to receive articles
which contain conceptual reflections, highlight methodological innovations and/or discuss new
thematic applications in a critical light. See also the Guidelines for Authors on page ii.

However, the vast expense of producing and mailing out such large numbers of RRA Notes has meant
that to continue providing the series free of charge to individuals and organizations in the South, we
need to ask those of you who subscribe in the North (except libraries) to pay an annual subscription
fee (to start in June 1995). Details of costs are given below, but the mechanism for dealing with
subscriptions is yet to be finalised, so please wait until June before sending money or making
enquiries. We will keep you informed.

But there is some good news. Along with paid subscriptions, we want to improve the publication.
This means, among other things, three regular issues of PLA Notes a year (February, June and
October). And there is still no copyright on this material, so please feel free to photocopy articles
and pass them on.

SUBSCRIPTION DETAILS (these may be subject to change)

Subscription Costs:
15/$25 a year to subscribers in the North (hut free to libraries)

Free to subscribers in the South and those with problems obtaining foreign exchange

Backcopies: one free copy to requests from the South
For requests from the North:
Issues 1-10: 3 each
Issues 11-21: 6 each
Full set of backcopies: 15% discount off total Invoicing will start in June 1995

@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @



A growing awareness of the failures of conventional development approaches in meeting the needs
of resource-poor people has led to the exploration of alternative methodologies for investigating
resource management issues, and planning, implementing and evaluating development initiatives.

Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) offers a creative approach to information sharing, and a
challenge to prevailing biases and preconceptions about rural people's knowledge. Advocates of this
approach argue that the production of knowledge and the generation of potential solutions should be
devolved onto those whose livelihood strategies form the subject for research.

The methods used in PRA comprise a range of field-based visualisation, interviewing and group-work
which promote interactive learning, shared knowledge, and flexible yet structured analysis. These
methods have proven valuable for understanding local perceptions of the functional value of resources,
processes of agricultural innovation and social and institutional relations. Furthermore, PRA can help
to bring together different disciplines such as agriculture, health and community development, to
enable an integrated vision of livelihoods and well-being. PRA approaches, combining research and
practice, also offer opportunities for mobilising local people for joint action.

The terms PRA and RRA are two of a wide range of approaches with strong conceptual and
methodological similarities. These include Participatory Learning Methods (PALM), Rapid
Assessment Procedures (RAP), Participatory Action Research (PAR), Rapid Rural Systems Analysis
(RRSA), M6thode Acc6lree de Recherche Participative (MARP) and many others. The common
theme to all these approaches is the full participation of people in the processes of learning about
their needs and opportunities, and in the action required to address them.

The refinement and application of participatory learning and action in research and development is
an area of special emphasis within IIED's Sustainable Agriculture Programme. More detailed
information on these approaches and a publications catalogue are available from the Programme on


Participatory learning and action (PLA), has been adopted by the Sustainable Agriculture Programme
as a collective term to describe the growing body of participatory approaches and methodologies.
Established in 1988 by IIED's Sustainable Agriculture Programme, and formerly known as RRA
Notes, the principal aim of PLA Notes is to enable practitioners of participatory methodologies
throughout the world to share their field experiences, conceptual reflections and methodological
innovations. The series is informal and seeks to publish frank accounts, address issues of practical
and immediate value, encourage innovation, and act as a 'voice from the field'.

From February 1995 PLA Notes will be distributed regularly three times a year. Up until now it has
been distributed free of charge to over 3000 individuals and institutions in 120 countries. However,
due to the growing costs incurred, from June 1995 subscribers from the North (except for libraries)
will be charged an annual subscription rate.

There is no copyright on the material, and recipients are encouraged to use it freely for non-profit
purposes only (but with full reference to the authors). The series is partially funded by the Swedish
International Development Authority and the Ford Foundation.

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
Sustainable Agriculture Programme

PLA NOTES (formerly RRA Notes)

The principal aim of the PLA Notes series is to share current experiences and methodological
innovations among practitioners of participatory learning and action approaches such as PRA. We
aim to keep the series informal to prevent the commonly encountered delays between practice and the
sharing of knowledge through publication.

The editors would like to hear of recent experiences and current thinking, and are seeking short and
frank accounts of experiences in the field or in workshops; what has worked and what has not;
dilemmas and successes. Due to the great number of submissions that we receive, the editors
particularly favour those articles which contain one, or all, of the following elements:

* an innovative angle to the concepts of participatory approaches or their application;
* the use of the approaches in a new context or setting, including critical reflections on the
lessons learned from the author's experiences;
an attempt to develop new methods, or innovative adaptations of existing ones.

Also, please send details of any relevant training manuals, papers, reports or articles, which may be
listed in the Endnotes section.


Articles should be legible (preferably typed), with clear copies of any drawings that are to be
included. The use of short sentences and paragraphs and simple language is encouraged. Please do
not worry otherwise about the text style and presentation. The editors will take care of this.


Maximum: 2,000 words plus two full-page diagrams. If references are mentioned, please include
details. However, since the PLA Notes series is intended to be informal rather than academic,
references should be kept to a minimum!


These should preferably be black and white for ease of reproduction and should have captions and the
name of the author clearly written on the back.

Disk Conversions

If you are sending a disk, we use size 3.5" and prefer WordPerfect. Please keep your formatting as
simple as possible, ie do not use commands for bold, italic etc, and also provide an original 'hard'
copy of the printed article. Please also ensure that your disk is not overloaded as this can make the
disk unusable.

Materials or correspondence should be sent to Fiona Hinchcliffe at:

PLA Notes, Sustainable Agriculture Programme, International Institute for Environment and
Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD, United Kingdom

Tel: (+44 171) 388 2117 e-mail: iiedagri@gn.apc.org Fax: (+44 171) 388 2826


RRA Notes 1: June 1988

1. RRA Methods Workshop in Thailand Jules Pretty
2. Notes of an RRA Meeting held in Sussex Robert Chambers
3. Pairwise Ranking in Ethiopia Gordon Conway
4. Direct Matrix Ranking in Kenya and West Bengal Robert Chambers
5. Recent Publications Jennifer McCracken

RRA Notes 2: October 1988

1. Using RRA to Formulate a Village Resources Management Plan, Mbusanyi, Kenya Charity
Kabutha & Richard Ford
2. Learning About Wealth: An example from Zimbabwe lan Scoones
3. Investigating Poverty: An example from Tanzania Sheila Smith & John Sender

RRA Notes 3: December 1988

1. Ranking of Browse Species by Cattlekeepers in Nigeria Wolfgang Bayer
2. Direct Matrix Ranking in Papua New Guinea Robin Mearns
3. Sustainability Analysis lain Craig
4. Oral Histories and Local Calendars Robin Mearns
5. Portraits and Stories Jules Pretty
6. Bibliographic Notes

RRA Notes 4: February 1989

1. Wealth Ranking in a Caste Area of India Ruth Grosvenor-Alsop
2. Popular Theatre through Video in Costa Rica Keith Anderson
3. Participatory RRA in Gujarat Jennifer McCracken
4. Successful Networking!

RRA Notes 5: May 1989

1. Letter to the Editor Barbara Grandin
2. The "Fertiliser Bush" Game: A Participatory Means of Communication Kristin Cashman
3. Rapid Appraisal for Fuelwood Planning in Nepal John Soussan
4. Rapid Food Security Assessment: A Pilot Exercise in Sudan Simon Maxwell
5. RRA Has a Role to Play in Developed Countries Peter Ampt & Raymond Ison

RRA Notes 6: June 1989

1. Rapid Assessment of Artisanal Systems: A Case Study of Rural Carpentry Enterprises in Zimbabwe
Godfrey Cromwell
2. The Rural Rides of William Cobbett: RRA and Sustainable Agriculture in 1820s Jules Pretty
3. A Note on the Use of Aerial Photographs for Land Use Planning on a Settlement Site in Ethiopia -
Dick Sandford
4. Using Rapid Rural Appraisal for Project Identification: Report on a training exercise in Jama' are
Local Government Area, Bauchi State, Northern Nigeria Michael Hubbard, Robert Leurs &
Andrew Nickson
5. Visualising Group Discussions with Impromptu Cartoons Ueli Scheuermeier
6. The Use of Community Theatre in Project Evaluation: An Experiment from Zimbabwe Andrea
Cornwall, Mathou Chakavanda, Simbisai Makumbirofa, Guilter Shumba & Abraham Mawere

RRA Notes 7: September 1989
Includes summaries of presented papers on topics of diagrams, aerial photographs, interviews and
groups, ranking, health, participatory approaches, and monitoring and evaluation (Papers by Jules
Pretty, Ruth Alsop, Ueli Scheuermeier, Robert Leurs, Peter Dewees, Robin Mearns, Howard Jones,
Anne Floquet, lan Scoones, Miranda Munro, Susan Rifkin and Hugh Annet, Pauline Ong, John
Thompson & Peter Veit, Jennifer McCracken, David Potten & Mike Howes). Also includes notes
on discussions of these topics, plus the ideology of RRA, the dangers of RRA, training in RRA, and
the future of RRA.

RRA Notes 8: January 1990

1. Nutrition and RRA Judith Appleton
2. The Use of Wealth Ranking in Nutrition Surveys in Sudan Helen Young
3. The Role of Community Participants in RRA Methods in Ethiopia Dessalegn Debebe
4. Attitudes to Income-Earning Opportunities: Report of a Ranking Exercise in Ethiopia Simon
5. Economic Classification of a Community Using Locally Generated Criteria Parmesh Shah
6. Publications: Manuals and Guidelines Jennifer McCracken

RRA Notes 9: August 1990

1. Wealth Ranking: A Method to Identify the Poorest Verona Groverman
2. Rapid Rural Appraisal: Lessons Learnt from Experiences in the Philippines Victoria Ortega-
Espaldon & Leonardo Florece
3. Some Techniques for Rapid Rural Appraisal of Artisanal Infrastructures Godfrey Cromwell
4. Hearing Aids for Interviewing John Mitchell and Hugo Slim
5. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Is it Culturally Neutral? Thoughts from a PRA in Guinea-Bissau -
Weyman Fussell

RRA Notes 10: February 1991

1. Farmer Participation on On-Farm Varietal Trials: Multilocational Testing under Resource Poor
Conditions The women of Sangams, Pastapur & Michel Pimbert
2. Rural Development in the Highlands of North America: The Highlander Economic Education
Project John Gaventa & Helen Lewis
3. Assessing Women's Needs in Gaza Using Participatory Rapid Appraisal Techniques Heather
Grady, Amal Abu Daqqa, Fadwa Hassanein, Fatma Soboh, Itimad Muhana, Maysoon Louzon,
Noha el-Beheisi, Rawhiya Fayyad, Salwa el-Tibi and Joachim Theis
4. The Bias of Interviewing John Mitchell & Hugo Slim
5. The Outsider Effect Ueli Scheuermeier
6. Focusing Formal Surveys in Thailand: A Use for Rapid Rural Appraisal Karen Ehlers and
Christine Martins

RRA Notes 11: May 1991

Includes a summary of workshop presentations and discussions (Jules Pretty and Ian Scoones) and
15 individual papers covering five thematic areas, namely: A Critique of Landuse Planning (Barry
Dalal-Clayton, Adrian Wood); Applications of Participatory Planning Approaches (Tony Gibson,
Margie Buchanan Smith and Susanna Davies, Chris Roche, Melissa Leach); Institutionalising Local
Level Planning (Donald Curtis, Robin Grimble, Martin Adams, Mary Tiffin, Henri Roggeri, Robert
Leurs, Mal Jumare, A Andeley and S Ogede); Governments and NGOs Linkages (Kate Wellard,
Tony Bebbington); and Organisational and Management Issues (Alan Fowler).

RRA Notes 12: July 1991

1. Some Advantages to Having an Outsider on the Team Don Messerschmidt
2. Revolutionary Rural Appraisal Susan Johnson
3. Participatory Mapping and Modelling: User's Notes James Mascarenhas & P D Prem Kumar
4. Rapid Appraisal for Women in the North West Frontier of Pakistan Mehreen Hosain
5. Harvesting Local Forestry Knowledge: A Comparison of RRA and Conventional Surveys Andy
6. Beyond Chapatis Mick Howes
7. Topical Surveys as a Tool for a More Dynamic Farmer-Extension Worker Relationship Antony
van der Loo
8. Endnotes

RRA Notes 13: August 1991

IIED/MYRADA. Edited by James Mascarenhas, Parmesh Shah, Sam Joseph, Ravi Jayakaran, John
Devavaram, Vidya Ramachandran, Aloysius Fernandez, Robert Chambers and Jules Pretty

Overview of PRA in India: Review and Future Directions James Mascarenhas, Parmesh Shah, Sam
Joseph, Ravi Jayakaran, John Devavaram, Vidya Ramachandran, Aloysius Fernandez, Robert
Chambers and Jules Pretty

1. PRA and Participatory Learning Methods: Recent Experiences from MYRADA and South India -
James Mascarenhas
2. Sharing our Limited Experience for Trainers Aloysius Fernandez, James Mascarenhas and Vidya
3. Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning (PRAP): The Experience of AKRSP Parmesh Shah,
Girish Bharadwaj and Ranjit Ambastha
4. Farmers as Analysts and Facilitators in Participatory Rural Appraisal and Planning Parmesh Shah,
Girish Bharadwaj and Ranjit Ambastha
5. PRA in Malda District, West Bengal: Report of a Training Workshop for ActionAid India and
Tagore Society for Rural Development Thomas Joseph and Sam Joseph
6. PRA for Rural Resource Management John Devavaram, Ms Nalini, J. Vimalnathan, Abdul Sukkar,
Krishnan, A P Mayandi and Karunanidhi
7. Anantapur Experiment in PRA Training Somesh Kumar
8. PRA Camp at Mahilong, Bihar: Krishi Gram Vikas Kendra Ravi Jayakaran
9. Wealth Ranking in Mahilong, Bihar Anup Sarkar
10. PRA Approach and Strategy: the HIDA/MYRADA Agroforestry Programme in Andhra Pradesh -
Eva Robinson
11. Participatory Impact Monitoring of a Soil and Water Conservation Programme by Farmers,
Extension Volunteers and AKRSP Parmesh Shah, Girish Bharadwaj and Ranjit Ambastha
12. PRA: A Brief Note on ActionAid's Experience Sam Joseph
13. MYRADA Kamasamudram Project: A Brief Report A L Shivaraja, Rajendra Prasad, T G Bhat,
Anjaneya Reddy, Amarnatha Jadav and Benedicta Cutinha

RRA Notes 14: December 1991

1. But How Does It Compare With the REAL Data? Gerard J. Gill
2. RRA and the Analysis of Difference Alice Welbourn
3. Participatory Modelling in North Omo, Ethiopia: Investigating the Perceptions of Different Groups
through Models Ejigu Jonfa, Haile Mariam Tebeje, Tadesse Dessalegn, Hailu Halala and Andrea
4. Shoulder Tapping: A Technique of Training in Participatory Rural Appraisal Anil Shah
5. "Pass on the Pen" Approach: Identifying the Poorest of the Poor Families K Chandramouli
6. The Use of the School Essay as an RRA Technique: A Case Study from Bong County, Liberia -
Jennifer A Sutton and Blair D Orr

RRA Notes 14 cont..

7. Methodological Notes on Exploring Indigenous Knowledge and Management of Crop Health -James
8. The Thippapur Experience: A PRA Diary Somesh Kumar and A Santhi Kumari
9. RRA Notes Readership Survey The Editors
10. Endnotes

RRA Notes 15: May 1992


1. The Elusive Poor: A Wealth of Ways to Find Them. Report on IDS/IIED Seminar on Wealth and
Well-Being Ranking Irene Guijt
2. Wealth Ranking in the Gambia: Which Households Participated in the FITT Programme? -Marie-
Therese Sarch
3. Villagers' Perceptions of Rural Poverty Through the Mapping Methods of PRA Neela Mukherjee
4. The "Beans-Game" Experiences with a Variation of Wealth Ranking in the Kivu Region, Eastern
Zaire Stefanie S Schaefer
5. Direct and Indirect Uses of Wealth Ranking in Mongolia Robin Mearns, D. Shombodon, G.
Narangerel, U. Turul, A. Enkhamgalan, B. Myagmarzhav, A. Bayanjargal and B. Bekhsuren
6. Finding the Poorest in a Tamil Nadu Village: A Sequence of Mapping and Wealth Ranking -Jules
Pretty, S. Subramanian, N. Kempu Chetty, D. Ananthakrishnan, C. Jayanthi, S. Muralikrishnasamy
and K. Renganayaki
7. A Simple Method for Scoring Housing Conditions as Income Proxy in Ethiopia Mauro Ghirotti
8. FARMI's Experiences of Wealth Ranking in the Philippines: Different Farmers Have Different
Needs F.T. Banlina and Ly Tung
9. Cultural Sensitivities on the Rapid Appraisal Team Donald A. Messerschmidt
10. Interviewing Cows Kassaye Hadgu, Mohammed Yisehak and Girmay Tekle
11. An Architect from a Different School Ranjit Ambastha and Meera Shah
12. Together get a Grip on the Future: RRA in the Emmental of Switzerland Ueli Scheuermeier and
Raymond Ison
13. A User's Note on Wealth Ranking by Cards and List of Sources on Wealth Ranking Irene Guijt
14. NEW!!!! Tips for Trainers: Fruit Salad
15. Endnotes

RRA Notes 16: July 1992


Editorial Alice Welbourn (Guest Editor)
1. Rapid Appraisal for Health: An Overview Susan Rifkin
2. Participatory Rural Appraisal: Potential Applications in Family Planning, Health and
Nutrition Programmes Richard Heaver
Discussions with Communities
3. Qualitative Methods for Assessing the Acceptability of Immunization in Somalia Anne
4. Unemployment and Health: the Development of the Use of PRA in Identified Communities
in Staveley, North Derbyshire Teresa Cresswell
5. Community-based Information Systems Francesca Moneti
Illustrated Discussions
6. Training Workshop on Participatory Rural Appraisal for Planning Health Projects Sheelu
Francis, John Devavaram, Arunothayam Erskin
7. Trends in Health Care Alok Kumar

RRA Notes 16 cont..

8. Participatory Rural Appraisal in Identifying Major Illness, Healthcare Providers and Costs -
Sam Joseph
9. A Little Experience of PRA Exercise Conducted at Mecluskigang Mahadeo Sahu and
Ranjan Tirkey
10. Extract from: Participatory Rural Appraisal for Nepal: Concepts and Methods. A Guide to
the Slide Presentation Lorna Campbell and Gerard J Gill
11. Participatory Methods for Research on Women's Reproductive Health Elizabeth Tolley and
Margaret E. Bentley
12. Body Mapping in Health RRA/PRA Andrea Cornwall
13. Notes from a Food and Nutrition PRA in a Guinean Fishing Village Judith Appleton
14. A Note on the Use of Disease Problem Ranking with Relation to Socio-economic Well-
being: An Example from Sierra Leone Alice Welbourn
South America
15. Exploring the Potential for Primary Environmental Care: Rapid Appraisal in Squatter
Communities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil) P. de Colombani, G. Borrini, M. C. Meira de
Melo, M. Irshaid
16. Actual or Potential Uses of RRA/PRA Methods in Health and Nutrition.

RRA Notes 17: March 1993

1. Correspondence Corner
2. Helicopters at Nhlangwini Raymond Auerbach
3. Resource Flow Venn Diagrams: a Two-in-One Approach Rama Gounder, K.
Natarajamoorthy, C. Chinnusamy, P. Nasuredeen, R. Ganesan, N. Shanmugavalli, V.A.
Sakunthala, J. Rao
4. Measuring Agroecosystems Properties: Adaptation of Matrix Scoring Technique M.
Shanmugam, A. Palchamy, S. Jeeva, A. Kumar, K.C. John, Mr. and Mrs. Marappan
5. Sorting Fact from Opinion: the Use of a Direct Matrix to Evaluate Finger Millet Varieties -
Michael Drinkwater
6. Ranking in Planning of Emergency Programme in Angola Marie-Noelle Vieu
7. The Role of Focus Group Interviews in Assessing the Primary Health Care and Family
Planning Programme in India Abusaleh Shariffand Pravin Visaria
8. Comparison of RRA and Intensive Residential Study: the Case of Marit, Plateau State,
Nigeria RRA Workshop Participants (Marit Team) and Newcastle University Expedition
9. Women's PRA in Hindupur Eva Robinson
10. Examples of PRA in Wetland Development in Guinea Bissau Koos Neefies
11. Rapid Appraisal of Organisational Cultures: a Challenge for Field Work Uwe Kievelitz and
Rolf-Dieter Reineke
12. Methodological Innovations in Burkina Faso with Village Network Mapping Irene Guit
13. Tips for Trainers: the Margolis Wheel

RRA Notes 18: June 1993

1. Genealogies as a Method of Social Mapping in PRA David Mosse and Mona Mehta
2. Are Some "Participatory" Techniques Culturally Biased? (Or: Are We Hooked on Mom's
Apple Pie?) Gerard J Gill
3. Community Self Survey Huub Gaymans and Yanti Maskoen
4. Learning to Use RRA and PRA to Improve the Activities of Two Landcare Groups in Australia -
Tony Dunn
5. Finding Out How People Prioritise Their Food Security Problems in Chad: the Challenges of RRA
at National Level M. Buchanan-Smith, K. Abdelkader, M. Saleh Abdelmajid, A. Allemane, I.
Banguita, Behom, S. Djel, B. Idrissa, U. Kleih, B. Mbailenang, F. Rivibre, A. Sainibi, D. Tambayo
and B. Vandou
6. Community Participation in Small and Big Villages N. Narayanasamy and M.P. Boraian

RRA Notes 18 cont..

7. Some Observations on Wealth Ranking after an RRA Looking at Soil Fertility Management in
Northeastern Zimbabwe S. Carter, A. Chidiamassamba, P. Jeranyama, B. Mafukidze, G.
Malakela, Z. Mvena, M. Mudhara, N. Nabane, S. Van Oosterhout-Campbell, L. Price and N.
8. Wealth Ranking for Agricultural Research Purposes in the Eastern Hills of Nepal G. 'G Sharrock,
K. Waldie and Y. Joshi
9. FARMI's Experiences on Wealth Ranking in the Philippines: Different Farmers Have Different
Needs L. Tung and F. Balilla
10. PRA: An Approach to Find Felt Needs of Crop Varieties M. Manoharan, K. Velayudham and N.
11. Tips for Trainers: Symbolic Introductions
12. Endnotes

RRA Notes 19: February 1994

Editorial: Training for Learning Jules Pretty

Training in Universities
1. PRA Training in Universities: Some Thoughts Prompted by a Recent Workshop in Canada -Andy
Inglis and Janice Jiggins
2. RRA Training in a UK-Based Rural Development Course Mick Howes
3. PRA Exercise in an Indian Village A Retrospective Evaluation of the Process N. Narayanasamy
4. RRA Training in a US Masters Programme: The Director's View Stephen Howard
5. RRA Training in a US Masters Programme: The Students' View Tracy Mygrant
6. Learning by Doing to Enhance Local Initiatives Marc Lammerink
7. PRA Training for Health Workers Neela Mukherjee

Reflections of New Trainees
8. Some Reflections of a New PRA Participant: The Action Researcher Kavita Srivastava
9. Some Reflections of a New PRA Participant: The Development Manager Manu N. Kulkarni

Reflective Learning of Trainers
10. Extracts from a Trainer's Notebook Alice Welbourn
11. Reflections of a Trainer James Mascarenhas

The Forgotten Issues: Training Areas Commonly Overlooked
12. Making a Difference: Integrating Gender Analysis into PRA Training Irene Guijt
13. From Participatory Appraisal to Participatory Practice: Viewing Training as Part of a Broader
Process of Institutional Development John Thompson
14. Some Insights into Training for Rapid and Participatory Appraisal in a Northern Setting Uwe
Kievelitz and Reiner Forster
15. PRA Training Workshops: Follow up Issues from Uganda and Ethiopia Parmesh Shah

PRA Trainingfor Special Applications
16. Participatory Rural Appraisal in Women's Health Education Project in Bangladesh Marcy Vigoda
17. Applying the Methods to a New Context David Thomas
18. PRA Learning Methods in Agricultural Policy Analysis: Implications for Training Gerry Gill
19. Training in Rapid Rural Appraisal for Baseline Data Collection and Target Group Identification -
Bill Duggan
20. Applying PRA Methods to Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation: Report on a Course Held in
El Obeid, Sudan Suzanne Quinney
21. Training of Village Analysts: from PRA Methods to Process Parmesh Shah and Meera Kaul Shah
22. PRA Training for Church Workers: An Example from Tanzania Thomas Kroeck
23. PRA Training in the Participants' Workplace: an Example from Kenya Kenneth K. Odero

RRA Notes 19 cont..

Training Tips and Ideas
24. Juggling Game to Energise a Seminar Sarah Holden
25. Twenty-One Ways of Forming Groups Robert Chambers
26. Twenty-One Tips for Short PRA Workshops with Lots of People Robert Chambers
27. Endnotes

RRA Notes 20: April 1994
Editorial: Pra and Livestock Development: Some Challenges Cathy Watson and Adrian Cullis

1. A Review of PRA Methods for Livestock Research and Development Kate Kirsopp-Reed

Case Studies: Animal Health
2. Ethnoveterinary Question List Barbara Grandin and John Young
3. Planning a Community Animal Health Care Programme in Afghanistan Tim Leyland
4. Seasonal Disease Incidence in the Sanaag Region of Somaliland David Hadrill and Haroon Yusuf
5. Livestock Healthcare for Tibetan Agro-Pastoralists: Application of Rapid Rural Appraisal
Techniques Claire Heffernan
6. Evaluation of an Animal Health Improvement Programme in Nepal John Young, Henk-Peter
Dijkema, Karen Stoufer, Narayan Ojha, Goma Shrestha and Lava Thapa

Case Studies: Animal Production
7. Sheep Husbandry Among Tzotzil Indians: Who Learns from Whom? Raul Perezgrovas, Marisela
Peralta and Pastor Pedraza
8. The Progeny History Data Collection Technique: A Case Study from Samburu District, Kenya -
Karen lies
9. Rapid Appraisal Techniques: A Tool for Planning and Managing Animal Health and Production
Development Programmes Mauro Ghirotti
10. Ranking with Shagaa in Mongolia Adrian Cullis

Case Studies: Natural Resource Management
11. Browse Ranking in Zimbabwe lan Scoones
12. Natural Resource Mapping and Seasonal Variations and Stresses in Mongolia Robin Mearns, D.
Shombodon, G. Narangerel, U. Tuul, A. Enkhamgalan, B. Myagmarzhav, B. Bayanjargal and B.
13. Mapping of Seasonal Migrations in the Sanaag Region of Somaliland David Hadrill and Haroon

Case Studies: Socio-Economic Dimensions
14. Pastoral Production in Mongolia from a Gender Perspective Louise Cooper and Narangerel
15. Historical Matrices: A Method for Monitoring Changes in Seasonal Consumption Patterns in
Mongolia Louise Cooper and Narangerel Gelezhamstin
16. Livestock, Livelihood and Drought: A PRA Exercise in Botswana Neela Mukherjee
17. Proportional Piling in Turkana: A Case Study Cathy Watson
18. Evaluation of a Community-Based Buffalo Project in Tamil Nadu John Devavaram
19. The Problem and Solution Game Jeremy Swift and Abdi Noor Umar
20. Success Ranking in Garba Tulla, Kenya Stella Maranga
21. Livestock, Livelihood and Change: The Versatility and Richness of Historical Matrices Karen and
Mark Schoonmaker Freudenberger

Case Studies: Land Tenure, Conflict and Institutions
22. The Application of PRA Methods to the Study of Conflict Management in a Pastoral Society -
Michael Bollig

RRA Notes 20 cont..

23. Institution Ranking and Social Mapping in Rural Mongolia Robin Mearns and D. Bayartsogt
24. Livestock Rehabilitation Programme in Mozambique Anabela Braganca
25. Endnotes

RRA Notes 21: November 1994

Editorial: Addressing the Gaps or Dispelling the Myths?: Participatory Approaches in Low Income-Urban
Communities Diana Mitlin and John Thompson

1. Urban Management Training, Action Learning and Rapid Analysis Methods Philip Amis
2. Rapid Assessment Procedures in Urban Communities: The Experience of the Health and Habitat
Project in Barrio San Jorge, Argentina Silvina Arrossi
3. Regaining Knowledge: An Appeal to Abandon Illusions Joel Bolnick and Sheela Patel
4. The Death of the Clinic? Participatory Urban Appraisal (PUA) in a Dominican Barrio Hilary
5. Participatory Needs Assessment in the Peri-urban Areas of Lusaka, Zambia Michael Drinkwater
6. PALM in Slum Improvement Projects: a Training Experience from India Sheelu Francis
7. Showing What You Mean (Not Just Talking About It) Tony Gibson
8. Targeting Aid to the Poorest in Urban Ethiopia is it Possible? Rapid Urban Appraisal Martin
9. Observations on Urban Applications of PRA Methods from Ghana and Zambia: Participatory
Poverty Assessments Andy Norton
10. Linking Government Agents and Local Users: PUA for Artisanal Fishing Port Development Reng
Reusen and Jan Johnson
11. Community Participation in the Sustainable Development of Human Settlements in Mexico City -
Gustavo Romero, Patricia Nava and Lilia Palacios
12. Community Participation and Empowerment: Putting Theory into Practice David Wilcox
13. Bottom-up Planning for Urban Development: the Development Planning for Real Pilot Project -
Ellen Wratten
14. The Million Houses Programme in Sri Lanka
15. Endnotes

PLA Notes 22: February 1995

1. Sharing our Concerns and Looking to the Future
2. Handle with Care! Rapid Studies and the Poor Clas Lindberg, Vesa-Matti Loiske, Wilhelm
Ostberg and Claude Mung'ong'o.
3. PRA and Raised Expectations: Potentials and Pitfalls Richard Edwards
4. The Grandfather Graph Nurul Islam Nazem and Pete Atkins
5. Social Maps and Geographical Transects some recent experiences in Orissa, India Prahlad
Mishra and Gayatree Mohanty
6. Women Prefer Lunchtime Claus Euler
7. Beyond Ranking: Exploring relative preferences in P/RRA Simon Maxwell and Claud Bart
8. Defending the Land with Maps Derek Denniston (with Andrew Leake)
9. PRA in a Health Education, Water and Sanitation Project in Kenya David Adriance
10. RRA in Coastal Resource Planning: Malampaya Sound, The Philippines Michael Pido
11. Rehabilitating Minor Irrigation Tanks S. Kasivelu, Rupert Howes and John Devavaram
12. Diagrams in Demographic Data Collection: Examples from the Tembomvura, Zimbabwe Ravai
13. PRA for Self-Reliant Rural Development: The case of a resettlement area in Ethiopia Savina

RRA Notes 22 cont..

14. A Participatory Organisational Appraisal of ACORD Mick Howes and Chris Roche
15. Ranking Constraints in a Community Forestry and Soil Conservation Programme Kebede Asrat
16. PRA for People and Parks: The case of Mole National Park, Ghana John Mason and Elijah Danso
17. The Use of RRA in Conservation Expeditions: Experiences from Sierra Leone Sarah Pocknell and
Danny Annaly
18. Tips for Trainers: Non-Verbal Sequences


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