Table of Contents
 Priorities for implementing the...
 Review of substantive programme...
 Review of administrative actions...

Title: Second progress report on the implementation of the plan of action for integration of women in development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089960/00001
 Material Information
Title: Second progress report on the implementation of the plan of action for integration of women in development
Physical Description: ii, 23 p. : ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations -- Conference, 1991
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome Italy
Publication Date: 1991
Copyright Date: 1991
Subject: Women in development -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: At head of title: Conference, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Twenty-Sixth Session ... 9-28 November 1991.
General Note: "C 91/14; August 1991."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089960
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 24635343

Table of Contents
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Page 1
    Priorities for implementing the plan of action
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Review of substantive programme actions taken in pursuit of the plan and conference recommendations
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Review of administrative actions taken in pursuit of the plan and the conference recommendations
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
Full Text



C 91/14
August I77.L



Twenty-Sixth Session

Rome, 9-28 November 1991




I. BACKGROUND Paragraphs

A. The 25th Session of the Conference 1 3
B. Conference Resolution 7/89 4 6
C. Plan of Action for the Integration of Women
in Development 7


A. Programme Priorities 8
B. Administrative Priorities 9
C. Developments and Trends 10 14


A. Training Programme on Women in Development/
Gender Analysis for FAO Staff Members 15 21

Objective 15
Content and Methodology 16 19
Participants and Timetable 20 21

B. The Integration of WID Concerns into FAO
Regular and Field Programme Activities
for the Present Biennium, 1990-91 22 90

(1) Technical Training for Women and Training
in WID 24 34
(2) Policy Advice to Member Governments 35 37
(3) Project Development and Monitoring 38 57
(4) Reorientation of Home Economics and
Agricultural Curricula 58 62


c 91/14
Page ii


(5) Preparation and Promotion of WID
Guidelines and Manuals 63 68
(6) Data Collection, Research Studies,
Communications and Public Information 69 80
(7) Population Education and Women
in Development 81 85
(8) Sustainable Development, Natural
Resource Management and Environment 86 90


(1) Undertaking Organization-wide Efforts
of Awareness and Compliance 92 95
(2) Increasing Financial Resources for WID
Activities 96 101
(3) Increasing Female Staff Levels 102 106
(4) Enhancing and Strengthening Internal
Actions on WID 107 114
(5) Strengthening External Working
Relations 115 118

C 91/14
Page 1


A. The 25th Session of the Conference

1. It will be recalled that the Plan of Action for the Integration of
Women in Development was originally requested by the 24th Session of the
Conference and approved by the 94th Session of the Council in 1988. The
25th Session of the Conference in November 1989 unanimously approved the
Plan of Action and endorsed specifically its objectives and strategy
confirming FAO's three basic functions with regard to women in develop-
ment, namely (1) the general assessment and monitoring of women in
development activities; (2) the elaboration and promotion of suitable
policies; and (3) the preparation, support and implementation of
appropriate programmes.

2. The Conference requested that progress on the implementation of the
Plan be monitored and reported upon, at departmental and country levels,
to the 26th Session of the Conference in 1991.

3. The Conference also approved the intent of the Plan to raise
women's agricultural productivity and income-producing capacity and to
emphasize the need to support women's contribution to agricultural,
forestry, fishery and rural development, and their participation in
population programmes.

B. Conference Resolution 7/89

4. Through Resolution 7/89 the 25th Session of the Conference endorsed
the Plan of Action and the priorities identified in the Progress Report on
the Implementation of the Plan of Action for Integration of Women in
Development (C 89/14). It requested the Director-General to make efforts
to maintain the level of resources allocated to the WID sub-programme
within the Regular Programme.

5. The Director-General was also requested to: continue efforts to
integrate women into all aspects of FAO's regular and field programmes;
carry out the two-year staff WID training plan discussed in the Progress
Report; make all efforts to achieve significant results in the execution
of the identified priorities; and implement the suggested strategies to
increase the access of women to professional posts within the

6. Resolution 7/89 further requested Member Governments to make the
necessary efforts to implement the Plan of Action and to report
periodically on progress achieved at the country level, as part of the
WCARRD reporting process. It also urged Member Governments to provide
extra-budgetary resources in order to contribute to the implementation of
the Plan of Action as suggested in the Progress Report.

C. Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development

7. The Plan's objective is to bring about change in order to ensure
that, in FAO's sphere of responsibility, women are accorded equal rights
and opportunities and that their potential contribution is put to use by
their societies. Substantively, the focus of activities is to support
women in their roles as producers in agriculture, including fisheries and
forestry. With this aim, activities are designed to give greater

C 91/14
Page 2

recognition to women's requirements for increased access to: income-
producing activities and control of income; extension services and
training opportunities; appropriate technology; land, credit, markets, and
other productive resources; health and educational opportunities;
population and nutrition information; membership in development
organizations and cooperatives, especially at management and decision-
making levels; and natural resources and environmental conservation


A. Proqrame Priorities

8. The Plan of Action is for the medium term, period 1989-1995. The
first Progress Report defined seven programmatic priorities whose content
or activities have been refined and updated during the 1990-91 biennium. A
new priority is proposed for inclusion with these original seven
priorities (see para. 86), namely, Sustainable Development, Natural
Resource Management and Environment. This is in line with the expanded WID
focus that is given in the FAO Medium-Term Plan (1992-97). These eight
priorities are:

(1) Training on Women in Development
(2) Policy Advice to Member Governments
(3) Project Development and Monitoring
(4) Reorientation of Home Economics and Agricultural Curricula
(5) Preparation and Promotion of WID Guidelines and Manuals
(6) Data Collection, Research Studies, Communication and
Public Information
(7) Population Education and Women in Development
(8) Sustainable Development, Natural Resource Management
and Environment

B. Administrative Priorities

9. In addition to these eight programmatic priorities, five
administrative priorities were endorsed to strengthen FAO's institutional
support of the Plan of Action. These administrative priorities are as

(1) Undertaking organization-wide efforts of awareness and
(2) Increasing financial resources for WID activities
(3) Increasing female staff
(4) Enhancing and strengthening internal actions on WID
(5) Strengthening external working relations

C. Developments and Trends

10. The wide range of interventions outlined in the following pages
reflect an increasing awareness of the many problems impeding the full
participation of women in the social and economic development processes.
In brief, women's low access to credit, markets, training, basic social
services, land, extension services, technology, and employment
opportunities continues to present severe constraints to their integration
into development activities.

C 91/14
Page 3

11. The increased awareness of women in development issues and concerns
engendered through such FAO efforts as WID training programmes, research
and data collection, and public information dissemination has the
intention of creating an environment that encourages the formulation and
implementation of policies, programmes and projects that specifically
address women's constraints. This is particularly true in terms of
appropriate revisions to civil, agrarian reform, and other pertinent
legislation that will increase women's access to and control of such
important resources as land, credit and education.

12. At the same time, specific FAO programme and project efforts are
assisting women in a number of critical areas.

(1) Extension services are being made aware of women's specific
conditions and needs, taking into account their productive roles,
time and mobility constraints, and needs for appropriate

(2) Women's access to credit is being broadened through support for
alternative channels adapted to the types of enterprises women
manage and constraints they confront; credit programmes are being
coupled with savings and reinvestment incentives, management
training and technical assistance.

(3) Improved market access for women is being encouraged through
cooperatives and other means to increase the bargaining power and
direct access to consumers. The development of new products and new
markets, or the improvement of existing goods and market channels,
is seen as a means to achieve this end.

(4) Technology and inputs geared toward increasing the productivity of
women's tasks and releasing women's labour time for productive
activities are being developed and disseminated, with special
emphasis on reducing women's work loads in water and fuelwood
collection, transport and processing.

(5) Women's concerns are being incorporated into stabilization,
structural adjustment and agricultural and rural development
policies as these are broadened to include human needs,
environmental protection and sustainable development objectives.
Non-tradeables and locally traded sectors are being highlighted in
structural adjustment schemes in order to assure greater benefits
to women and resource poor farmers; and gender disaggregated data
are being generated for monitoring purposes.

(6) Women's increasing involvement in environment, natural resource and
forestry management is being encouraged through research, training
of extension personnel, user group formation, environmental
education and development of incentives for women's participation.

13. In addition to these efforts, FAO is playing a leading role in the
identification of statistical indicators relevant to women in agriculture
and rural development and in the incorporation of necessary revisions in
census and survey forms. Guidelines are being formulated at global and
regional levels for use by Member Governments and technical assistance is
available to incorporate the necessary revisions. Guidelines are being

C 91/14
Page 4

developed for generation of the data needed to perform gender analysis at
the sub-national (project) level, and baseline data are being developed
for purposes of project formulation, monitoring and evaluation.

14. Also, the coding system currently being implemented will permit
rapid identification of those activities that have the greatest relevance
to rural women as agents and beneficiaries of development, giving special
attention to mainstream activities. This will permit the identification
and planning of the use of expertise and resources directed to activities
that have the greatest implications for women, with a view to increasing
the effectiveness of FAO's women in development efforts.


A. Training Programme on Women in Development/Gender Analysis
for FAO Staff Members

15. Objective. An important aspect of the first programme priority,
Training on Women in Development, is to increase the ability of FAO staff
to understand WID issues and apply gender analysis (which considers both
men and women in the development process) to activities in their
respective technical fields. The intended result is greater integration of
WID issues in policy, programme and project planning, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation. Training for FAO staff members at Headquarters
and in the Regional offices is being undertaken under the Regular

16. Content and Methodology. In responding to this priority, the Human
Resources Division of the Economic and Social Policy Department (ESH)
undertook three need assessment studies within FAO, and prepared a state-
of-the-art paper on WID training programmes in the United Nations system
and at other institutions between December 1988 and May 1989. Three pilot
workshops were held between June 1989 and April 1990 to learn about and
benefit from methods and strategies being used elsewhere. During this
period, activities concentrated on developing training materials specific
to FAO needs, training and testing trainers and resource persons,
preparing case studies, addressing logistical problems, and holding
several workshops to further refine the training programme. All cases were
redesigned to be specific to the FAO project cycle and project documents.

17. By June of 1990, the Gender Analysis Workshop format was finalized
and the workshops were regularly scheduled. Each workshop was conducted by
two trainers skilled in the methodology developed for and by TrC. In March
1991 the P4 post earmarked for the WID Training Officer was filled and
this officer now coordinates the training programme.

18. As finally designed and tested, the Gender Analysis Workshops focus
on FAO projects and programmes and are tailored to the specific needs of
FAO professional staff. Workshop materials and case studies use FAO
projects from various regions, and cover diverse technical areas. A video
on the workshops was developed for purposes of explanation and promotion.

19. Each workshop was evaluated by the participants and the evaluations
have been used to modify materials and/or presentations. A computerized
system was established for tabulating participant evaluations carried out

C 91/14
Page 5

at the end of each workshop, and data from all past workshops have been
entered. In addition, a six-month, follow-up evaluation form was developed
in conjunction with the Office of Programme, Budget and Evaluation (PBE)
and sent to past participants beginning in the second quarter of 1991. Its
purpose is to measure the impact of the workshops on staff members'
understanding of the concepts and tools introduced, and on their
application by them in their own areas of work.

20. Participants and Timetable. As of 31 July 1991, 35 Gender Analysis
Workshops had been held, including the pilot workshops. Thirty were held
at Headquarters, five at FAO Regional Offices, two in Santiage, Chile (in
Spanish), two in Bangkok, Thailand, and one in Accra, Ghana. Of the
30 workshops at Headquarters, 25 were in English, two in Spanish and three
in French. Finally, a workshop is planned at the Regional Office for the
Near East in Cairo, for which two region-specific case studies will be

21. Staff participation at Headquarters and the Regional offices has
numbered 592 professionals, or about 58% of FAO professional staff, as of
31 July 1991. Attendance was monitored through a computerized system and
monthly updates were provided through PERSYS on new hires and
terminations. This same system permitted recent screening of the number of
FAO professional staff, taking into consideration retirements, vacancies
and elimination of purely administrative personnel. This therefore
resulted in a downward adjustment in the total number to be trained to
around 1 025 professional staff. It is anticipated that between September
and December 1991, an additional 433 staff members will attend, for a
total of 1025 trained in the biennium. Table 1 summarizes the major
activities of the training programme.

B. The Integration of WID Concerns into FAO Recular and Field
Programme Activities for the Present Biennium, 1990-91

22. In keeping with the Conference's recommendations and with
Resolution 7/89, particular efforts have been made to ensure that FAO
responds to requests from Member Governments concerning the implementation
of the Plan of Action. During the 1990-92 biennium, approximately eighty
such requests were received and acted upon. Five of these requests were
related to WID training, seventeen to WID policy and strategy advice,
twenty-seven to project development and monitoring, six to home economics
and agricultural curricula, ten to data collection and research, and
twelve to population education and WID. The FAO responses to these
requests are presented in more detail in the following sections.

23. The First Progress Report in November 1989 (C 89/14) indicated
examples of areas where FAO technical divisions could take the lead or
cooperate in activities to carry out the stated priorities. For this
Progress Report, the technical divisions provided information on relevant
programmes and projects that are currently under way or planned. The
information presented below indicates organization-wide interest and
support of the Plan of Action. The activities are organized according to
the eight priorities listed in Section II.

C 91/14
Page 6



Title of the

Ocigin of

Number of: Partici-
Courees pants

Stage on: Prparatory Phase
Needs asenmarent, stratagine development


Dec. 88
June 89

Stage two: Design of MIterials/aaurs

A. First Pilot

AG Dept.

June 89 1.5 days
Evaluation of gender
planning tools

B. Second & third
Pilot Workshxpe

C. Preparation/
aaptati n of

D. Training of

Training team 2
from outside
FAO; H staff

ESEM staff
and consultants

ESa staff and 4

40 Feb. 90
Apr. 90

1.5 and 2 days

Oct. 89 to Cntinuous development
Sept. 91 of new case studies

Oct. 89 to Training skills on
Apr. 91 gerItr issues

stage threl: Impl'nnatatio of Trining Progrit to 31 July 1991

A. Training for
FAO Staff
at H

B. Training in
regional offices

H staff and

MAC staff
PAPA staff
RAFR staff

22 English
2 Spanish
3 French

2 Spanish
2 English
1 French
& 1 English

June 90 to
July 91

2 day workshop

June 90
Nov. 90
June 91

Total FO staff trained:

Stage four: Pland Iqplaimtation to x i-of-Bianiu

A. Training of HQ,
NE, RE1R staff

HD staff, FACRs, 14
and regional

Total FAD staff covered
by Progranne:

Sept. to
Dec. 91

1 025

C 91/14
Page 7

(1) Technical Training for Women and Training in WID

24. The training here refers in part to efforts to include women
participants in FAO-sponsored training programmes at Headquarters,
Regional Offices and in member countries. For example, in various
professional-level training programmes sponsored by the Agriculture
Department (AG) in 1990, 33 of 407 trainees in animal production and
health programmes were women, 18 of 154 in land and water development, 17
of 95 in remote sensing, 11 of 94 in research management, 5 of 52 in rural
energy planning, and 5 of 55 in environmental workshops.

25. Also, following a survey in Yemen on the role of women in livestock
development, the Animal Production and Health Division (AGA) designed a
training programme on basic animal production and health for 180 women
livestock owners, with three Yemeni women as trainers.

26. In the Agriculture Department, the Animal Production and Health
Division (AGA) is promoting women's participation in its activities
including information dissemination and credit programmes. Because of
women's significant contributions to animal health care and production,
AGA is encouraging governments to nominate more women for training in
basic animal health care and husbandry for production systems and
associated processing and marketing. Timing, location and duration of
courses take into account the particular needs of women. Participation of
women in expert consultations is now estimated to be about 10 percent. AGA
is also promoting women's participation in future small animal vaccination
campaigns for poultry, and is designing workshop materials to train animal
health and production data-gatherers to be cognizant of gender issues in
field communications, interviews and questionnaire formulation.

27. However, training here also refers to efforts to train concerned
government officials at various levels in women in development issues. For
example, the Economic and Social Policy Department (ES) has responded to
requests for training in gender analysis from the Governments of Ethiopia,
Thailand, Indonesia, Chile and Honduras. Thus, the Human Resources,
Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division (ESH) has developed a training
project in gender analysis for extension staff in rural areas and in the
Ministry of Agriculture in Ethiopia, for which funding is being sought. In
Thailand, a project has been developed to train extension staff in gender
and agricultural issues. In Indonesia, Trust Funds received will be used
for a project on integrating gender issues for the Ministry of
Agriculture. A mission was fielded to Chile to discuss two training
projects for senior officers of the Ministry of Agriculture. Two gender
analysis workshops for governmental staff of the Agricultural and Planning
Ministries were undertaken in Honduras, with donor support.

28. Training programmes to improve the quality and safety of street
foods for food handlers, mainly women in Colombia, Nigeria and Peru were
carried out in 1990 by the Food Policy and Nutrition Division (ESN).

29. All training programmes of the Policy Analysis Division (ESP) under
project PROCAPLAN (Italy/FAO Programme for Training in Agricultural/Rural
Development Policies and Projects in Latin America and the Caribbean)
called attention to gender issues. The document "Peasant Women: Situation
and Policies in their Regard", prepared in 1990, was used as training
material in PROCAPLAN network courses for national and regional training

C 91/14
page 8

30. A UNDP-supported regional training project in sub-Saharan Africa
led by the Training Service of ESP gives special attention to the role of
women in agriculture and the impact of agricultural policies on women. In
the Sudan, FAO and UNDP are also supporting a training project designed
to involve more women in agricultural activities, both as beneficiaries
and decision-makers.

31. Also, in professional level training programmes sponsored by the ES
Department, 11 of 73 trainees in commodities and trade programmes were
women, 98 of 432 in policy analysis, and 817 of 1 696 in food policy and

32. In training programmes at the professional level sponsored by the
Fishery Department (FI), 104 of 1 040 trainees were women, as were 148 of
1 198 trainees in Forestry Department (FO) programmmes.

33. The Development Support Communication Branch of The Information
Division of the Department of General Affairs and Information (GII)
trained women as communication specialists; in Mexico, where half the
audio-visual specialists trained by an FAO project were women, and where
audio-visual training packages on income-generation, health and nutrition
and appropriate technologies were shown to village women. In Mali, a
multi-media training package on nutrition for pregnant women was produced.
In Nigeria, training courses in radio production, utilization, and
evaluation included five women communicators out of 31 national extension
staff trainees.

34. A social forestry development project in Ecuador identified the
need for training materials on women in forest management. GII, with
national consultants from Andean countries, designed the field methodology
and advised on the use of audio-visual materials (10 filmstrips and a
video programme).

(2) Policy Advice to Member Governments

35. Gender aspects need to be introduced systematically in policy-
oriented studies, training, advice and follow-up activities in
agricultural, forestry and fisheries sector reviews, strategies, policies
and plans for individual countries or sub-regions. The need to give
special attention to women's roles, constraints and potentials, especially
in those sectors where women predominate, is now increasingly recognized.
Gender concerns also need to be considered in providing policy advice in
such areas as nutrition, commodity price and marketing, and agro-
industries, credit and financial services, agrarian reform and agrarian
legislation, especially focusing on improving women's access to land, and
legal reforms to ensure the application of legal rights for rural women.
Women's concerns should also be integrated into stabilization, structural
adjustment and agricultural and rural development policies as these are
broadened to include human needs, environmental protection and sustainable

36. FAO has undertaken a number of activities in this area. The
Investment Centre (DDC), in its project formulation work for international
financing institutions, advised governments on the design of support
services for rural women in Burundi, Central African Republic, China,
Djibouti, Egypt, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Mozambique, Niger,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Turkey, Viet Nam, Yemen and Zaire.

C 91/14
Page 9

37. ES Department activities have centered on establishing or
strengthening WID units in agriculture and/or planning ministries in
Chile, Congo, Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia. Additionally, ESH
has been working with a number of Member Governments to analyse, revise or
establish national WID strategies, especially for the areas of
agricultural extension and rural development. These countries have
included Chile, Benin, Rwanda, Niger, the Central African Republic;
Argentina, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritania, Sierra Leone,
Thailand, Tunisia, Nigeria and Zaire. The Regional Office for Latin
America and the Caricbean (RLAC) will hold three sub-regional workshops in
1991 one for English-speaking countries in the Caribbean region and two
for Central and South American Spanish-speaking countries on the Plan of
Action with the aim to identify technical assistance needs and mechanisms
for the implementation at national and sub-regional level. A Regional
Workshop, which took place in Malaysia, assisted the Member Governments in
policy formulation for mainstreaming gender concerns into
programmes/projects of the Ministries of Agriculture in the ASEAN Region.

(3) Project Development and Monitoring

38. FAO is pursuing a policy both of undertaking projects specifically
targeted to women and of integrating women as participants and
beneficiaries in mainstream projects, though more emphasis is being given
to the latter. Gender concerns are being addressed in the planning,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of projects.

39. In the Agriculture Department, in recognition of the crucial role
of women in large and small animal production and care, the Animal
Production and Health Division (AGA) has been working to place more women
in management and decision-making roles. Through various project
interventions, AGA has been instrumental in the appointment of: two women
as district veterinarians in Afghanistan; a woman livestock extension and
WID specialist in Yemen to strengthen extension to women and to train six
women as livestock development agents; a women poultry specialist in
Somalia to strengthen extension to women poultry raisers; a woman as
director of a livestock distribution scheme in Uganda; a woman in Gambia
as a trainee in laboratory operations in a milk plant; a woman APO to
develop rural women's groups in Ethiopia; and women as project managers
and three senior technologists in an animal products and by-products
training centre in the Philippines.

40. AGA also directs specific project resources to women. For example,
women are the principal beneficiaries of a small animal distribution
project in Zaire, an indigenous cheese production project in Niger, and a
goat milk production and processing project in Peru. Other AGA projects
include smallholder dairy development in Pakistan with a component for
improvement of buffalo milk production by women's groups; a regional model
project for integrated dairy development in Ecuador with a module dealing
specifically with women, employing female promoters; and a regional
project for women on combined livestock/tree cropping in Indonesia, the
Philippines, and Sri Lanka.

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41. The Agriculture Department has a regional project in Asia and the
Pacific to facilitate timely provision of credit to women, as part of an
effort to simplify rural banking procedures; a project in China to
strengthen the national agricultural technology extension centre and
improve extension, especially to women farmers; and a project in Nepal in
which the great majority of beneficiaries are women, which includes
vegetable growing and marketing and seed production.

42. Of 37 Prevention of Food Losses projects currently operational in
the Agricultural Operations and Agricultural Services Divisions (AGO/AGS),
27 specify output and activities that target women or women's groups. In
India a project to limit post-harvest food losses introduced new
processing and storage techniques through female village-level workers. Of
56 projects in the Prevention of Food Losses pipeline, all gave special
consideration to women's involvement in post-harvest activities.

43. In Gambia, a horticultural development project of the Agricultural
Services Division (AGS) promoted marketing of fruits and vegetables by
women's groups by making customer contacts, building packing facilities
and providing market information. The group marketing approach for rural
women was also promoted in a project in Northern Thailand. A number of
UNFPA-financed projects in Eastern Asia improved the status of rural
women. A major component of the projects was a revolving credit fund for
rural enterprises that provided employment and utilized local resources.
In Sierra Leone a vegetable production/extension project had a credit
component that enabled women farmers to buy improved seeds. FAO then drew-
up a model for transferring the credit component to a commercial bank.

44. AGS backstopped 147 field projects, about one-fourth of which had
gender as a special consideration. Among these were: more efficient energy
supplies for water pumping in Somalia (using wind), for cooking in
Ethiopia (with biogas), and for crop curing in Malawi (using fuelwood);
land forming and water conservation by women in Niger; crop storage and
processing by women in Ghana; encouraging women in Malawi to make greater
use of draught animal technologies; and introducing pack animals for hill
transport in Burundi.

45. The Freedom From Hunger Campaign (DDA) involved women in projects
in Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mauritania, Mexico, Peru
and Sierra Leone. These included activities in food production, women's
group formation, and income generation.

46. The Investment Centre (DDC), has increasingly incorporated gender
analysis into those projects that require a sociological or target group
analysis. For the biennium, over 90 percent of all projects designed on
behalf of IFAD incorporated a gender analysis, as did abut 20 percent of
projects designed for other agencies such as World Bank, African
Development Bank, the UN Capital Development Fund and UNDP.

47. Of 28 projects prepared by the Investment Centre and approved in
1990, 13 had explicit WID activities; this pattern continued in 1991.
Projects with specific activities for rural women included agricultural or
rural development projects in Egypt, Niger, Nigeria, Turkey and Zaire (all
funded by IFAD); a sand-dune stabilization project in Yemen (an IFAD
project); an integrated hill farming project in Pakistan (World Bank); an
integrated development project in Uganda (United Nations Capital
Development Fund); and a soil conservation project in Comoros (IFAD). The

C 91/14
Page 11

Investment Centre also assisted in designing a number of projects where
mainstream components (such as credit, training or small ruminants) are
targeted to women as well as men. Examples include the Upang Delta project
in Indonesia; two IFAD projects in China, and others in Burundi and

48. The Field Programme Development Division (DDF) initiated several
programme and sector reviews in 1990. For example, DDF fielded a mission
to South Pacific countries, that resulted in project ideas that included
assistance to nutrition and the development of the family farm system in
Western Samoa, reorganization of agricultural extension services in Cook
Islands, assistance to women in agriculture in Vanuatu, and a regional
women's extension programme.

49. A rural women's development component was recommended in a DDF
review to strengthen agricultural extension in Nigeria. A marketing
project in Gambia assisted horticultural producers who are mainly women.
In Namibia, one of the Government's priorities for technical assistance
was a baseline survey of women's integration in food production and rural
development. In Comoros, a strategy was developed for gender-oriented
programmes. A review of fish processing in Gabon emphasized activities for
women's involvement. In Madagascar, a national strategy is being worked
out for better integration of women in field programme activities. A
FAO/UNDP mission in Pakistan will look into gender issues and formulate
WID programmes. DDF and concerned technical divisions will field several
missions to Guinea-Bissau in particular: a) to identify women's projects
that can be presented to donors; b) to evaluate current women's projects;
c) to make a feasibility study for the creation of cereal banks for
women's groups; and d) to provide food processing equipment and training
to women's associations. In Zambia, a project was developed for the
Ministry of Agriculture to help support women refugees from Mozambique.

50. A number of Member Governments received or are receiving assistance
from the Economic and Social Policy Department in formulating projects and
programmes for women in agricultural and rural development. These often
have strong training and extension components. A regional project has been
designed and approved by UNDP for execution during the 5th cycle, which
will focus on transfer of improved farming techniques to women farmers in
the Africa Region. This project also aims at strengthening national
institutions and promotes TCDC activities among the countries in the
Region. In Tanzania, a technical review mission of the Human Resources
Division worked to incorporate technical training activities into the
second phase of a women in agriculture and nutrition project. Similar
projects have been carried out or are ongoing in Chile, Mauritania,
Nicaragua, the Philippines, Togo (with UNDP and UNIFEM), Turkey, and
Zimbabwe. A UNDP-funded mission in El Salvador developed a project to
promote women's access to rural extension services. A mission in Honduras
prepared the second phase of a promotion and training programme for the
incorporation of women in rural development; the aim is to improve the
methodology and content of rural extension for women. A TCP project in
Egypt supported the training of women agricultural extension workers,
including training for trainers, so that the entire staff would be
prepared in the methodology of extension for women farmers. In Malawi, a
TCP mission assisted in establishing a documentation service for the
National Commission on Women in Development.

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51. In Burundi, an ongoing project of the Human Resources Division with
UNDP funding, involves women in food crop processing and introduces
improved technologies for animal traction in hilly areas. A related
pipeline project will focus on processing of animal products as intensive
animal husbandry replaces extensive large-scale animal production. Under
Phase II of a UNDP-funded project in Kenya, assistance was given to
disadvantaged women in dryland areas. A large UNDP-funded regional project
in Africa will improve women farmers' access to appropriate agriculture
technologies for Africa. Enhancing rural women's productivity for food
security goals is the objective of a project in Nepal, with funding from

52. Income-producing activities for women are the theme of a growing
number of ESH projects. In Cape Verde, FAO will participate in a multi-
agency mission organized by UNDP to identify income-producing activities
for women. In the Dominican Republic, the Belgian Government financed a
mission with a local non-governmental organization to develop a project to
assist farm women with income-producing activities, social organization,
and management training. In Jamaica, a formulation mission designed a
project to advise women farmers on food processing and marketing. Under a
rural development project in Niger, funded by Italy, a functional literacy
component was developed to train female members of the project's village
mill "management committees". In India and Malawi, projects are being
developed on women and watershed management/irrigation.

53. A People's Participation Project in Ghana involved women in grain,
root and vegetable production, operation of a processing plant for
cassava, and the marketing of their products. In Swaziland, an ongoing
People's Participation Project promoted women's self-help groups with
access to credit and training in organization and leadership skills. In
total, the ESH Division operated seven pilot People's Participation
Projects (in Ghana, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and
Zimbabwe), where women made up about 51 percent of the approximately
12 000 direct beneficiaries. About 40 percent of local project
coordinators and group promoters were or are women. Thirty-four other
rural development projects, with strong participatory elements (rural
groups, cooperatives), have significant women's involvement. In 1992 and
1993, participation by women as beneficiaries and promoters is expected to
receive even more attention as a consequence of greater support in that

54. The Food Policy and Nutrition Division (ESN) collaborated with the
Fishery and Forestry Departments to integrate nutrition and gender
concerns into fisheries and forestry projects. For a regional project,
"Training Network on Food Control in Asia", ESN undertook a gender-focused
review and analysis and prepared a project proposal on nutrition and women
in the forest environment of Nepal, Thailand and Viet Nam. ESN's food and
nutrition interventions involved the education and training of skilled and
unskilled people, at country and community level. The main components of
those programmes often addressed women.

55. The Fishery Industries Division (FII) formulated and implemented
regional and national projects integrating the improvement of living
conditions of women and their families in fishing communities with
population issues in the Bay of Bengal region, the Philippines, and in
Tanzania. FII also formulated projects on women's fish processing
activities and community development in Sierra Leone, on enhancement of

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the role of women in inland fishery and aquaculture development in
Southern Africa, and an interregional project on population dynamics of
rural fishing communities. FII further incorporated women's special needs
into sub-regional and national fishery credit programmes and plans in East
Africa, India, Pakistan, Tanzania and West Africa. The Fisheries
Department has had a Core Group on Women in Fisheries since 1986, whose
members review project documents to ensure the inclusion of gender
concerns and coordinate gender-oriented workshops and publications.

56. The Forestry Department has undertaken projects with tree planting,
agroforestry, sylvopastoral and desertification control activities in
Senegal, Cape Verde and Mauritania where a majority of the participants
have been women. An evaluation of a sand dune fixation project in
Mauritania noted this development and a recommended that women receive
special attention during the formulation of a new phase of the project.

57. The Office of Programme, Budget and Evaluation (PBE) evaluated a
number of projects, with WID components, in 1990. These included: an
integrated development project in Benin; a project in Ghana to promote
rural people's self-help organizations; support to training centres for
agricultural and rural development in Mozambique; extension training in
Tanzania; and the training of agricultural technicians in the Sudan.

(4) Reorientation of Home Economics and Agricultural Curricula

58. Home economics and agricultural extension workers serve as
important agents for promoting agricultural and rural development at the
grassroots level. Through updating and integrating agricultural and home
economics curricula, and including WID issues and women participants in
agricultural courses, extension workers of both sexes can be better
equipped to give appropriate advice and training to men and women farmers.
Assistance is needed in developing training materials and in redesigning
curricula to reflect WID concerns in home economics and agriculture at
training schools and higher educational institutions.

59. In the Economics and Social Policy Department, workshops were
organized by the Human Resources Division (ESH) at the Agricultural
University at Abeokuta in Nigeria and in Malawi in collaboration with the
Bunda College of Agriculture to test curriculum guidelines on rural
households and resource allocation for development. The curriculum
guidelines will be distributed to all agricultural and home economics
institutions at university level.

60. In India, ESH organized a national workshop in Hyderabad in
late 1990, for reorienting the home science curriculum to meet rural
needs. Follow-up in 1991 included placing students in selected villages to
assist them in better understanding the needs of rural families, and to
revise the home science curricula to meet those needs. A project in Sudan
is introducing an agri-home economics curriculum and aims to increase
female enrolment to 30 percent at an extension college.

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61. The Human Resources Division operated a multi-country project that
explored the extension needs of rural women, in order to improve women's
access to agricultural information, inputs and markets. Workshops were
held to review and revise extension policy and strategies, discuss
training needs, and prepare action plans to improve the level of extension
services for rural women. Working with a Rome-based NGO, ESH produced an
instructional unit for extension personnel on gender issues and extension
practice related to reaching rural women with appropriate information.

62. Directions in agricultural education for women in Asia and the
Pacific were a topic at the Regional Round Table on Strategies for
Agricultural Education and Training held in Bangkok in 1990. A paper
prepared for ESH proposed a holistic approach to agricultural education
curricula one that would integrate production technology, consumption
technology and resource-use skills thus moving away from the earlier
approach that addressed agriculture to men and home economics to women.
Another paper prepared made specific recommendations for redefining the
role of home economics in development, proposing a "human ecology
paradigm" focused on the totality of women's roles and the local realities
that women in developing countries face.

(5) Preparation and Promotion of WID Guidelines and Manuals

63. Guidelines and manuals are needed on WID and the subject also needs
to be integrated into general manuals. Envisaged guidelines will deal with
statistical indicators, population and development, fertilizer
utilization, horticulture, irrigation, plant protection, animal husbandry
and fisheries, among others.

64. A brochure on Farming Systems Development (FSD), and Guidelines for
the Conduct of a Training Course in FSD, both containing substantial
gender coverage were produced. Farm data handbooks prepared for the
Agricultural Services Division (AGS) included analyses by gender, whenever
possible. A joint effort by the Agriculture and Economic and Social Policy
Departments (AG/ES) will lead to development of guidelines for the
incorporation of women in dairy development programmes. In the Animal
Production and Health Division (AGA) a manual on primary animal health
care is under preparation, and guidelines are being finalized for the
integration of women farmer's concerns into mainstream plant protection
programmes in Africa by the Plant Production and Protection Division

65. The Food Policy and Nutrition Division (ESN) undertook a number of
studies and produced various reports and manuals that addressed gender
issues and concerns, including a manual on human energy requirements that
will allow gender issues to be taken into account in food and nutrition

66. Guidelines published by the Fishery Industries Division (FII)
discussed women in fishing communities as a special target group of
projects. The Division also revised its selective annotated biblography on
women in fisheries.

67. The Forestry Department (FO) published documents relating to women
in forestry concerns, including guidelines on integrating nutritional
concerns in forestry projects, on forestry and food security and on
monitoring women's concerns in sector review missions especially under

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the Tropical Forestry Action Plan. FO and the Inter-divisional Working
Group on Women in Development (IDWG/WID) provided guidance on the
preparation of a field guide for forestry project design and
implementation in relation to women.

68. The Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean (RLAC)
produced guidelines on the evaluation of income-producing projects with
rural women and developed a manual on a research methodology that aims to
support rural women's organizations.

(6) Data Collection, Research Studies. Communication and Public

69. The objectives of this priority include the development of
guidelines for generating the data for gender analysis at the project
level, and for collecting the baseline data needed for project
formulation, monitoring and evaluation. The priority also calls for FAO to
strengthen its database on women in agriculture, provide Member
Governments with statistical indicators, analyse standard agricultural
data disaggregated by sex, and carry out studies on women's issues related
to agricultural and rural development.

70. In the Development Department, studies were undertaken on the role
of women in Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries (TCDC)
activities, and on WID concerns in project formulation.

71. In the Economic and Social Policy Department (ES), studies
included: potential income-producing activities for rural women and
youths; a 154-country survey of women serving in and reached by extension
services; gender issues in access to land, agrarian reform and rural
development in Asia and the Pacific, and intraregional labour mobility and
agricultural development in the Near East.

72. Many technical units have undertaken research and produced reports
in various sectoral and technical areas that have focused on or included
gender issues. In the Agriculture Department, for example, the Animal
Production and Health Division (AGA) undertook studies in management
skills and production activities in poultry-raising in Togo, and dairy
development, training and extension in Tanzania, Kenya and Thailand; the
Research and Technology Development Division (AGR) in science and
technology research and technology transfer, and women in agriculture and
the environment; and the Agricultural Services Division (ACS) in
technology transfer guidelines and training manuals for the prevention of
food losses (fruits, vegetables and grains) on small-scale farms and rural
women's access to financial services.

73. Many of these activities are undertaken by and for the technical
units, with ESH assisting in the review process. ESH together with ESS is
playing a leading role in identifying statistical indicators relevant to
women in agricultural and rural development and to the incorporation of
the necessary revisions in national censuses and surveys. FAO will hold an
Inter-Agency Consultative Meeting on this subject for purposes of
coordination and orientation. Guidelines are being formulated for use by
Member Governments and technical assistance will be provided for making
necessary revisions. ESH has also been involved directly in preparing
information for public distribution and in undertaking research studies.
For example, in collaboration with the Information Division of the

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Department of General Affairs and Information, an illustrated booklet was
prepared in English (6 000 copies), French (2 000) and Spanish (2 000) on
the Plan of Action for distribution to donor agencies, government
departments, NGOs, and educational institutions. The intent of the booklet
is to spread information on WID to a broader population.

74. ESH was the lead unit in developing a series of case studies for
use in the gender analysis workshop training sessions. These research
studies covered a variety of countries and topics: Thailand (Social
Forestry); Gambia (Weed Control); Mali (Forestry Management); ASEAN
(Regional Small-Scale Fisheries); Viet Nam (Agricultural Sector Review);
Ecuador (Integrated Dairy Development) in English and Spanish; Burundi
(Agricultural and Rural Sector Review), in English and French; Benin
(Integrated Rural Development), in both English and French; Guatemala
(Watershed Management) in Spanish; and Honduras (Social Forestry), in

75. A study of the involvement of women in a project that increased
agricultural production and conservation in Rwanda was prepared by ESH in
1991. Another study focused on attempts to expand extension services to
women and youth in Senegal, while a third study detailed the situation of
women farmers in India. Studies were undertaken on women in intensified
agricultural production and soil conservation in Rwanda, rural extension
strategies for women in Senegal, rural women's legal status in nine Latin
American countries for a round table held in Chile, rural women's
organizations in five Andean countries for a workshop in Ecuador (ESH with
the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, RLAC); women in
agricultural production and development for a variety of inter-agency
meetings and for expert consultations: on migration, vulnerable women, the
status of women, structural adjustment in Africa, and databases in Asia
(with the Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, RAPA);

76. The Nutrition Division (ESN) undertook problems surveys on food
vendors in Nigeria and Uganda; prepared promotional materials in the form
of audio-visuals and guidelines on food vendors for Latin America, Africa
and Asia, promoted the disaggregation of data and gender analysis in
nutrition country profiles, and researched women in food security and
nutrition in Malawi, Nepal, Kenya, Mexico, Philippines and India. The
Statistics Division (ESS) produced reports on women, statistics and
databases in agricultural and rural development; the information sector;
household resources in agricultural production.

77. In the Department of General Affairs and Information, the
Information Division (GII) used a multi-media approach for women nurses
and social workers in Comoros to create awareness of the need for birth
control for better mother and child care. In Burundi, innovative group
methods were used to encourage discussion among women and men on
interpersonal communication techniques and use of media were organized for
field extension staff (including women) and women leaders in order to
create an awareness of population issues among rural people.

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78. The Library and Documentation Systems Division (GIL) produced a
bibliography of FAO Headquarters and field documents on women in
agricultural and rural development, and the Division extracted from AGRIS
the references on women in agricultural anad rural development to prepare
a worldwide bibliography. For the CARIS system, GIL is including the
gender identification of research leaders and researchers to evaluate the
participation of women in agricultural research programmes.

79. The Fisheries Department (FI) prepared studies and reports on women
in fisheries and aquaculture for workshops/round table meetings held in
Benin, Chile, Indonesia, Kenya, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe;
and case studies of the role of women in the production, processing and
marketing of fish in Senegal, Togo, C6te d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Ghana and,
more generally, in the Arab countries.

80. In the Forestry Department case studies were carried out on women
and forestry-derived enterprises for training/information purposes; a
slide presentation on Tanzanian women and forestry was produced. Studies
of women and forest enterprises in India, and on women and forestry
extension activities, and general papers for regional and international
meetings were also prepared.

(7) Population Education and Women in Development

81. Through population education activities that explicitly incorporate
WID issues, FAO seeks to improve the economic and decision-making status
and quality of life of rural women and their families so that women have
greater access to information and greater control over reproductive
aspects of their lives. Innovative approaches for integrating population
education into key technical areas that affect women and rural development
need to be explored in agriculture, fisheries and forestry, in training
materials and workshops, and in guidelines for project planners.
Additionally, more information on the relationship between women and
demographic factors in agricultural development is being collected for
planning and monitoring purposes.

82. In the Agriculture Department, a project in Nepal encouraged women
farmers to form groups for training in credit and marketing systems,
labour-saving technologies, and population concepts.

83. The Economic and Social Policy Department has a number of ongoing
population-related projects funded by UNFPA in China, Gh..na, Morocco,
Uganda, and Viet Nam. In China, income-production and population education
are the twin goals of a project,that covers three provinces. Another
project in China seeks to improve the status of rural women through family
planning, mother-and-child health care and income-producing activities.
Projects in Ghana and Uganda are promoting family life education through
support to women's income-producing activities. In Morocco, population
education and income-producing activities are aimed at women in rural
areas and low-income, peri-urban areas. The main phase of a women's
income-production and family planning project in Viet Nam, with UNFPA, is
in preparation.

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84. A global project on Interregional Advisory and Technical
Backstopping Services on Population, Women and Agricultural Development
was initiated by ESH. The Division commissioned detailed, pre-project case
studies in Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand to
contribute to the improvement of rural women's physical and socio-economic
conditions. A Regional Expert Consultation held in Malaysia reviewed the
findings of the country studies, developed guidelines on project
formulation at country and regional levels, strengthened inter-country
exchanges on population, agricultural development and women, and
identified areas for collaboration. Case studies were prepared in Lesotho,
Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe on "Women, Agricultural Development
and Population".

85. ESH also sponsored the production of draft guidelines, to be tested
at field level, on how to integrate population education into field
projects that aim at providing comprehensive technical services to women
farmers. Further, ESH funded an analytical study "Women, Population and
Agricultural/Rural Development in sub-Saharan Africa" that was prepared as
a contribution to a better conceptual and empirical understanding of the
relationships between the reproductive and productive roles of women in
smallholder agricultural family/households. The complex relationships
involved in the socio-cultural, socio-economic, technological and
environmental conditions affecting and determining the women's positions
and roles were analysed. Major trends and constraints with regard to a
reconciliation of women's roles towards both their own economic
independence and an improvement in the life-standards of rural
family/households were highlighted. Also, a number of action-oriented
recommendations, practical solutions and priority areas for project
activities aimed at integrating/women population components in
rural/agricultural development were offered in this study.

(8) Sustainable Development, Natural Resource Management and

86. In keeping with the 1990 Recommendations of the Commission on the
Status of Women that women and the environment be presented as an
additional priority theme for development in 1992, (also adopted by the
Economic and Social Council in Resolution 1990/213, and in follow-up to
the UNEP Global Assembly on Women and Environment planned for November
1991) this item has been added to the other seven priorities. FAO's aim is
to address WID issues in sustainable development, natural resource
management and environmental activities. This includes preparing a state-
of-the-art paper on Women and Environment, and promoting research on such
issues as: the impact o; environmental degradation on women's livelihoods,
the proper use and consideration of women's indigenous technical
knowledge, women's roles in resource management and prevention of
degradation, and women's roles in soil conservation, irrigation and
watershed management, shallow waters and coastal resources management,
integrated pest management, land use planning, forest conservation and
community forestry.

87. For the 1992-1993 biennium, the issues of women and sustainable
development, natural resource management and environment will receive more
systematic attention. Nevertheless, FAO has already been working in the
area of women and sustailable development, natural resource management and
environment, as indicated by the following description of activities. By
recognizing the role of rural women in the management of the environmental

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issues, FAO has scheduled a Regional Workshop for the Africa Region, with
the financial support of UNFPA, which will develop guidelines on
environmental protection measures and training activities to be undertaken
by programmes and projects that will have rural women participants.

88. In recognition of the importance of knowledge to long-term
sustainability in economic development, the Research and Technology
Development Division (AGR) is planning additional studies on gender issues
in research and technology transfer. In the documentation prepared for the
FAO/Netherlands Conference on Agriculture and the Environment, 15-19 April
1991, aspects related to women and sustainable development were analysed.
Thus, in Background Document No. 5 "Social and Institutional Aspects of
Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development" a special sub-chapter
was devoted to the status of rural women in the developing world. Emphasis
was put on women's role as major users and managers of natural resources
and their importance for resource conservation. The Agricultural Services
Division (AGS) participated in a workshop in Bangkok to discuss guidelines
on rural savings and credit options for women and other disadvantaged
groups. At the same time, considerable effort has been directed to
incorporating gender issues into the design of numerous watershed
management efforts in India by the Agricultural Services Division.

89. In the Fisheries Department's (FI) Medium-Term Plan on Fisheries
Policy, gender considerations in community-based fishery resources
management are among the emerging issues, women being direct or indirect
resource users. Gender differences in perceptions of resource management,
impact of management measures on women's production activities
(processing, marketing and other ancillary industries) and the role of
women in coastal resource management are to be considered in all relevant
activities. In terms of programme/project sustainability, credit emerges
from the Department's field experience as the single highest priority for
women in fisheries and aquaculture, as they normally are self-employed. A
greater proportion of credit in projects will be addressed to women and a
higher proportion of resources directed to the support of alternative
institutional channels to help women overcome obstacles to obtaining

90. A new programme in the Forestry Department on local community
planning of land and forest resources is being developed in conjunction
with ESD, to highlight the carrying capacity of these resources and
implications for community and family size. A new type of education
project is under way and expanding in Latin America. It deals very
successfully with the teaching in rural schools of the balanced use of
natural resources in the corresponding cultural context; the contents of
the curricula are geared in particular to avoid perpetuating
discrimination against women in forestry activities.


91. In addition to the eight programmatic priorities, five
administrative priorities were endorsed by the Conference to strengthen
FAO's institutional support of the Plan of Action.

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(1) Undertaking Organization-wide Efforts of Awareness and Compliance

92. The Director-General drew the attention of the FAO staff to the
importance of implementing the Plan of Action in a Bulletin issued in
February 1990 (No. 90/11). The significance of women in development
activities was further underscored by the Director-General who stressed
that the Plan of Action was one of nine overall priorities for the
Organization in the Programme of Work and Budget for 1990-91, and one of
the six priorities in the Programme for 1992-93.

93. In terms of awareness, as indicated in Section III.A., FAO
professional staff are participating in the Gender Analysis Training
Programme. As part of this training, the nature, content and scope of the
Plan of Action are described.

94. The formal Plan of Action has been distributed widely at
Headquarters and in the field, and the illustrated version has been
distributed to a much wider audience.

95. Sectoral guidelines have been or are being prepared for a variety
of technical areas, as indicated in Section III B. An important intent of
these guidelines is to help technical staff address women in development
issues systematically throughout the project cycle.

(2) Increasing Financial Resources for WID Activities

96. (1) Regular Programme. During 1990-91, there was a 9 percent
programme increase in the resources of the WID Coordinating Unit over
1988-89. This compared with a 5 percent increase for the Rural Development
Programme and only 1 percent growth in the overall budget.

97. The pattern of use of the Regular Programme funds available in
1990/91 reflects the priority items and the thrust of the Plan. For
example, the training programme and support to other Units on the
integration of WID issues in mainstream activities have received important
portions of the Regular Programme budget.

98. (2) Extra-Budgetary Resources. In 1989, it was anticipated that
extra-budgetary resources would provide important contributions to the
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service over the
1990/91 biennium. At the time, the needed Extra-Budgetary resources were
estimated to be US$780 000 for the biennium. In fact, these resources have
amounted to approximately US$1 900 000, which is quite indicative of
Member Government support for the WID programme.

99. Among other things, these extra-budgetary resources have been
important for the Coordinating Unit in accomplishing its activities. For
example, to strengthen project development and monitoring, the Government
of the Netherlands provided a P-5 Officer based at Headquarters to work
with the technical units and the IDWG/WID to support and coordinate the
integration of women into mainstream projects. This position was filled in

100. Also, UNFPA funds supported a P-4 post, also filled in 1991, to
undertake population and rural development activities. The Governments of
Finland and Canada assisted the Coordinating Unit through extra-budgetary
funds to support two Associate Professional Officers (APOs).

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101. (3) Field Programme. During the 1990-1991 biennium, ESHW has also
taken the lead, or joined with other technical units, to backstop
approximately eighty-five projects worldwide that have a combined budget
of nearly US$46 000 000. These projects are supported by Trust Funds,
UNDP, UNIFEM and UNFPA, and include the agricultural, forestry, and
fishery sectors.

(3) Increasing Female Staff Levels

102. A third area identified for urgent administrative attention was
securing an increase in the number of women professional staff as called
for by the Plan of Action. A strategy to increase the recruitment and
promotion of female professional staff was developed by the Recruitment,
Planning and Staff Development Service (AFPR), and action has been taken
on points of the strategy.

103. There has been some progress in increasing women's access to
professional posts in the Organization, although slow. The number of women
among Headquarters professional staff increased by 0.4 percentage points
(2.2% growth) during the two-year period ending in December 1990 (from
17.8 to 18.2%). In the Regional Offices and FAO Representations, the
increase was more significant: from 5.7% in 1989 to 9.3% in 1990. The
proportion of field staff positions filled by women, however, remained
stagnant at 3.4%. The overall percentage in the Organization as a whole,
is far from the UN target of 35%, although individual departments fare
better, such as General Affairs and Information (41%) Administration and
Finance (25%) and Economic and Social Policy (21%). Lower percentages in
other departments reflect the situation in many of the member countries,
where in the past fewer women than men pursued technical studies and
accumulated relevant experience.

104. In 1989, 8.8% of the consultants hired by FAO were women. In 1990
this proportion rose to 10.8%. However, the percentage of women candidates
on various consulting rosters has remained low generally, ranging at
present from 6.0% for the roster for agriculture, to 7.0% in forestry,
7.1% in fisheries, to a nigh of 17.0% for economic and social policy.

105. During the past year, the Organization received disappointingly few
applications from women qualified in FAO's technical areas of expertise
This is in spite of the fact that FAO wrote to the Permanent
Representatives of all Member Nations requesting the assistance of their
governments in identifying qualified female candidates frcm among
nationals of their countries and encouraging them to apply for positions
in the Organization. Several governments have acknowledged the
Organization's efforts to recruit women professionals and a number have
transmitted information about female candidates either for specific
vacancy announcements or to be considered as open applications.

106. The Organization continues its efforts to increase the percentage
of women in its programmes and has urged all those in positions of
responsibility throughout the Organization, to strive to identify
qualified women candidates.Vacancy announcements stress that positions are
open to male and female candidates, and they indicate that applications
from qualified women candidates are encouraged. Roster searchers of field
staff and external candidates are being made and qualified male and female
candidates are invited to ubmit applications for headquarters and regional
office positions.

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(4) Enhancing and Strenqthening Internal Actions on WlD

107. A fourth important priority endorsed by the 25th Session of the
Conference was the strengthening of internal actions on WID. The Inter-
Departmental Working Group on WID (IDWG/WID) formed of divisional
representatives as designated by the different divisions, has been
upgraded in terms of its membership.

108. Another activity designed to strengthen internal actions on WID has
been the collaborative effort to produce WID-oriented technical papers for
the recent Committee meetings on Food Security (CFS/90/4), Forestry
(COFO/90/4), Fisheries (COFI/91/4) and Agriculture (COAG/91/9).

109. At the Fifteenth Session of the CFS, held in March 1990, a paper on
women and food security was presented that emphasized the significance of
women to efforts to alleviate poverty and to improve household food
security. Subsequently, FAO has sponsored studies on the effects on women
of stabilization and structural adjustment programmes, and it has
sponsored research into the linkages between poverty and the especially
acute problems that women face in obtaining access to land, credit,
extension and training, market information and agricultural inputs.
Moreover, programmes and projects directed to post-harvest transport,
storage, marketing and food losses have focused on the crucial roles and
responsibilities of women in these areas.

110. At the Tenth Session of COFO, held in September 1990, a paper on
Women and Forestry was presented. Recognizing the importance of women's
knowledge of forest products, FAO has continued to integrate women as
equal partners in the design and implementation of forestry activities.
Work has been carried out on linkages between forestry and food security,
land and tree tenure as well as on participatory approaches. These pertain
to issues such as women's access to forest and forest products, land
inputs and credit, the crucial role of non-timber products and small-scale
forest-based enterprises as well as to the better integration of women in
forestry policy, research and field activities. This work is documented in
Community Forestry Notes, Field Manuals and Guidelines, and distributed
through the Forests, Trees and People Network. Work has also been carried
out on developing field project reporting in order to improve the
generation of information on women.

111. The Nineteenth Session of COFI, held in April 1991, discussed the
role of women in fisheries development. COFI recognized that women were
involved in both subsistence and commercial fishing as well as in
harvesting and marketing. While there was limited scope for increasing the
number of women in capture fisheries due to labour-saving technologies,
there was scope for more employment of women in aquaculture. It pointed
out a number of gender-related constraints, namely, lack of access to
technical training, extension and credit, traditional and cultural bias,
exclusion of women from statistical surveys, and limited numbers of women
in fishery professional organizations.

112. The Eleventh Session of COAG, held in April 1991, discussed the
integration of women in agriculture and rural development. COAG
acknowledged that women comprise a large proportion of the populations
engaged in agriculture and rural development and were the main source of
labour for small-scale agricultural and livestock production, storage,
processing and marketing. Because of male migration, their role as

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breadwinners and heads of households was also increasing. To improve the
status of women, COAG recommended the revision of legislation to improve
women's access to land and credit and that research and technology should
take into account women's special needs.

113. Monitoring the implementation of the Plan will be facilitated by a
system to code FAO projects for the inclusion of gender considerations.
This coding system, developed by the Coordinating Unit in conjunction with
the IDWG/WID,PBE and DDF, and now being introduced, covers both Regular
and Field Programmes and is integrated into the new FAO computerized
coding system of all projects.

114. At country level, two main categories of monitoring are envisaged:
(1) a reporting system to follow up on advisory assistance to governments
on national WID strategies and (2) the measurement of the impact of
projects and programmes on women through the standard review, appraisal
and evaluation missions.

(5) Strengthening External Working Relations

115. The UN system has established several mechanisms to coordinate
actions related to WID. First and foremost, global-declarations such as
the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS) and the System-Wide Medium-
Term Plan (SWMTP) establish policies on women for the System.
Responsibilities have been assigned to each Agency according to its
specific mandate. FAO has been preparing, or contributing to the
preparation of, reports for the following sub-programmes of the SWMTP:

Food and Agriculture
Health, Nutrition and Family Planning
Housing, Settlement, Water, Energy and Transport
Development of Statistics and Indicators
Information Dissemination
Technical Cooperation, Training and Advisory Service
Science and Technology
Coordination of a System-wide Approach to Women
and Development

116. FAO works in conjunction with the Division of the Advancement of
Women (DAW), which is the UN Secretariat to oversee inter-agency
coordination, to prepare appropriate submissions.

117. The ACC Task Force on Rural Development, for which FAO is the lead
agency, has on its agenda a regular item to discuss the implementation of
the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women.

118. FAO also cooperates with INSTRAW, UNDP, UNFPA, UNIFEM, UNSO and
ILO, especially through the development of joint studies and projects. FAO
actively cooperates with non-UN agencies, particularly through FAO-
sponsored and other meetings with international NGOs, federations and
unions and through people's participation projects and women's projects
executed by NGOs.

In light of the Progress reported above, in the priority areas of the
Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development, since its
adoption by the Conference in 1989, the Conference may wish to provide its
comments and guidance.

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