Susan V. Poats and Sandra L. Russo
Tropical Research and Development, Inc
Gainesville, Florida, USA
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Training in Women in Development/Gender Analysis
in Agricultural Development:
A Review of Experiences and Lessons Learned
Working Paper Series No. 5
The authors would like to thank the many people who kindly agreed
to participate in this study. We appreciate both the time they
gave to us and the wealth of information they provided. We would
like to thank Mary Anderson in particular for the help she provided
in conceptualizing the study and in developing the themes for the
set of discussion questions. Her insights and experience in
training were critical to the development of this report. We would
also like to thank Paula Goddard and Kathleen Cloud for their
comments on the interim results of the study and ideas about
follow-up activities. We appreciate the comments from Hilary
Feldstein who reviewed the interim report on the study and provided
additional information about several training courses. Several of
the people who were interviewed for the study also reviewed the
report in draft form and provided critical feedback. We are
especially appreciative of the comments from Caroline Moser, Lucie
Bazinet, Letty Ozuna and Kristina Gaidry. Tropical Research and
Development, Inc. is to be commended for its excellent assistance
with the design and production of the report. Finally, we are very
grateful to Lisette Walecka of Tropical Research and Development,
Inc. who managed this project and provided critical review of the
report in its various stages. We are especially thankful for her
input on the sections dealing with lessons and recommendations and
recognize that without her positive enforcement of our many
deadlines, this report would not have been completed. While we
recognize the input and support of many people in conducting this
study, the authors accept full responsibility for the analysis and
interpretation of the information contained in the report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ACRONYMS iii
A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY............................. 1
B. STUDY METHODOLOGY............. ............... ............... 2
C. A RATIONALE FOR WID/GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING IN
D. EXPERIENCES FROM SELECTED INSTITUTIONS ......................6
1. The World Bank....................................... 6
2. United States Agency for International
3. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).....12
4. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)..........13
5. International Development Research Centre (IDRC).....15
6. Australian International Development
Assistance Bureau (AIDAB).. .............. ...............17
7. Experiences from the Netherlands......... ...........18
8. Experiences from the United Kingdom and Sweden....... .20
9. Other Institutional Experiences......................22
E. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCES.................26
1. Level of Institutional Commitment.....................26
2. Length and Format of Training Activities.............26
3. Trainers..................... ................. ....... 28
4. Training Methods and Materials.......................29
5. Training of Trainers (TOT) ...........................30
F. LESSONS LEARNED........................ ........ ..... .... 32
--.ANNBX 1 NAMES AND AFFILIATIONS OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED.........39
ANNEX 2 DEVELOPING A WID/GENDER TRAINING STRATEGY............40
ANNEX 3 TYPOLOGY OF WID/GENDER TRAINING COURSES..............44
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AIDAB Australian International Development Assistance
AIM Asian Institute of Management
CDA Collaboration for Development Action, Inc.
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CIMMYT Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo,
DAWN Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era
DPU Development Planning Unit
ESAMI East and Southern Africa Management Institute
ESHW Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development
Service of the Economic and Social Policy Department,
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FSR/E Farming Systems Research and Extension
GAP Gender and Agriculture Project
GAPA Gender and Planning Associates
HIID Harvard Institute for International Development
IDRC International Development Research Centre
IDS Institute of Development Studies
IRRI International Rice Research Institute
LSE London School of Economics
NGO Non-governmental Organization
NIPCCD An agency within the Ministry of Women's Affairs, India,
that has responsibility for training with the Ministry
of Women's Affairs
ODA Overseas Development Administration
SIDA Swedish International Development Agency
SIGAD Summer Institute in Gender and Development
SUMBI Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos, Peru
TOT Training of Trainers
TR&D Tropical Research and Development, Inc.
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities
UNHCR United Nations High Commission for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIFEM United Nations Fund for Women
USAID United States Agency for International Development
VSO Voluntary Service Overseas
WID Women In Development
WIRFS Women in Rice Farming Systems Network
A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The Training Programme in Women in Development/Gender Analysis is
being carried out under the Plan of Action for the Integration of
Women in Development which was approved by the FAO Council in 1988
and the FAO Conference in 1989. This Training Programme for FAO
staff both in Headquarters and in the Regional Offices is necessary
for the implementation of the Plan and is a major priority for the
Organization. In order to prepare for this large-scale training
programme, FAO carried out a number of activities including needs
assessments, strategy designs and pilot training courses.
This study was carried out at the request of the Women in
Agricultural and Rural Development Service (ESHW) of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) so that,
before beginning the training programme on WID/gender Analysis for
over one thousand staff members, it could carefully consider the
experiences and lessons learned from similar institutions that have
undertaken the same task. In so doing, FAO would be able to
enhance its own training strategy while avoiding problems that have
occurred elsewhere. The study was carried out in February 1989.
The purpose of this study is to survey, assess and compare the
experiences of selected institutions in training their staff to be
Women in Development (WID)/gender sensitive and to employ gender
issues and analysis in the design, monitoring and evaluation of
research and/or development projects. The explicit objectives of
the study are:
1. to identify the most relevant training experiences and
materials concerning WID and gender analysis in agricultural
research and development and
2. to identify the lessons learned from these experiences as well
as any gaps in the experiences and existing training
- a-. .
B. STUDY METHODOLOGY
The study relies on two sources of information: interviews with
persons involved in training in WID/gender analysis and secondary
sources dealing either with training programmes or training
In conducting the interviews, the first step was to compile a list
of institutions that fund, support or are otherwise involved in
agricultural research and development that have undertaken
WID/gender analysis training activities for their own staff in
order to cultivate and integrate gender issues and analysis within
their project activities. It should be emphasized that the
institutions selected represent only a sample of the total universe
of organizations that have engaged in WID/gender analysis training
for staff members. Individuals who were involved in the planning
and/or delivery of the training activities were identified and
interviews were scheduled. In some instances, only one person was
interviewed from an institution; in others, several people were
interviewed in order to gain various perspectives on the training
Several of the people interviewed have conducted WID/gender
training as consultants in more than one institution. They are not
permanently attached to the institutions where the training took
place and, therefore, their comments often were confined to the
actual training experience and did not extend to other activities
of the institution regarding gender issues. In other cases, the
persons interviewed are permanent staff of the organizations where
the training took place. In these cases, a broader picture of
gender issues within the organization was provided in the
interviews. While these differences result in some unevenness in
the presentation of the institutional experiences that follows, the
information was sufficient to draw out useful lessons for others,
including the FAO, in conducting training on gender issues and
--Whilme many of the institutions included in the study are also
engaged in development activities outside of the agricultural
sector, institutions were included only if they are engaged in
agricultural development work in order to'ensure greater relevance
to the work of the FAO. A complete list of the persons interviewed
and their institutional affiliations can be found in Annex 1.
Interviews lasted between one and two hours. Most were conducted
by telephone in an informal manner, in the style of an open
discussion. A set of open-ended questions listed below were
developed to guide the discussion.
1. How was the training effort initiated? By whom? Were there
any "guardian angels" or persons in high authority who
mandated or protected the training in its initial or
subsequent stages? What was the institutional setting and
climate for WID or gender analysis at the time the training
2. What was the purpose and role of the training activities? Were
these held in common or were there varying roles and purposes?
Were there any other hidden or not so hidden agendas?
3. What was (is) the structure and format of the training
activities? (i. e. length and organization of training
courses or workshops, leaders/trainers, sequencing,
evaluation, follow-up, materials used, training techniques).
Has this been altered since the effort first began? How?
4. Have there been any training of trainer (TOT) activities? Are
there people within the institution to continue the training
if outside trainers conducted the initial training efforts?
5. Who were (are) the participants and how were they selected?
6. What was (is) the outcome of the training? What did it
actually achieve? What are the future plans?
7. What is the current level of integration of WID/gender issues
in the institution? Is it directly attributable to the
training that was conducted?
In addition to the interviews, several secondary sources of
information were used to develop this report. These references can
be found in the bibliography.
C. A RATIONALE FOR WID/GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE
Women are critical to agricultural production, but access to
resources and effective technologies is often constrained by gender
barriers that lead to negative effects on the design and
implementation of effective agricultural development programmes
(Feldstein and Poats 1989). Recognition of this fact is growing
rapidly within the agricultural research and development community.
A number of projects now actively seek ways to include women in the
process of agricultural development. Incorporation of gender as an
analytical variable in agriculture is becoming a necessity.
Achieving this goal requires that agricultural professionals
acquire "a new set of conceptual and analytical perspectives and
skills in order to deal explicitly, effectively and efficiently
with women-related issues in the spectrum of projects in which they
become involved" (Overholt et al. 1985).
Such an analysis implies not only an understanding of what women
do; it also entails an understanding of the cross-cultural
variability in the social roles of men and women. Such analysis
requires more than endless checklists of questions or guidelines
for data collection. It requires the use of analytical frameworks
designed specifically to deal with gender issues (see analytical
framework in Overholt et al. 1985 and the conceptual framework in
Feldstein and Poats 1989).
The development of such frameworks has accompanied a shift away
from the WID focus on women's equity and involvement to a "gender
and development trend. . [that]. .. analyses the nature of
women's contribution inside and outside the household. . sees
women as agents of change rather than as passive recipients of
development assistance. . questions] the underlying assumptions
of current social, economic and political structures. . [and]
leads not only to the design of interventions and affirmative
action strategies which will ensure. that women are better
integrated into on-going development efforts. . [but]. . to a
fundamental re-examination of social structures and institutions"
(Rathgeber 1989). The term "WID/gender analysis", used throughout
this study to refer to the large set of issues and analytical
frameworks, captures both the importance of WID issues and the
evolution towards gender analysis.
The incorporation of WID/gender analysis into project design and
implementation requires training, as was pointed out by a recent
survey of projects using the Farming Systems Research and Extension
(FSR/E) approach to agricultural development (Poats et al. 1989).
While there was a correlation between having women and/or social
scientists on teams in relation to whether or not gender analysis
was conducted, not all women nor all social scientists conducted
gender analysis as part of their work. Their presence did not
guarantee attention to gender issues. However, in all cases where
training (either formal or informal) in gender issues and analysis
occurred, project team members, both male and female, subsequently
conducted or improved gender analysis. Though the total number of
projects included in the survey was small, the results indicate the
need for explicitly including training mechanisms in an overall
strategy to incorporate gender issues in project activities.
Institutions engaged in development activities are increasingly
giving attention to the need for training in WID/gender analysis.
Some deal with the issue by providing training to their own staff
so that they will incorporate WID/gender issues in their
development activities. Others have established courses to train
outside people rather than their own staff. A few have done both.
The experiences of a selection of these institutions are presented
in this report.
The remainder of the report is organized into three sections. The
first presents brief vignettes on the experiences of the selected
institutions. These are based on interviews and secondary
materials. They are not meant to be a complete study or evaluation
of any single institution, but rather a snapshot of WID/gender
training. The selected institutions include United Nations
organizations, bilateral donor agencies, private and non-
governmental development organizations, research institutes and
some universities. For some institutions, this type of training
has been part of a major commitment and thus the information is
quite detailed. In other cases, efforts may be on a smaller scale
or only recently initiated and thus less detailed.
The second section compares the experiences of the various
institutions. The set of questions used to guide the interviews
provides the themes for this brief comparative analysis. The third
section pulls out a set of "lessons learned" from the experiences.
Several annexes provide further clarification on types of training
and examples of training materials.
D. EXPERIENCES FROM SELECTED INSTITUTIONS
1. The World Bank
The World Bank was the first institution to conduct WID/gender
training for its own staff. The WID Advisor to the World Bank
commissioned James Austin, a well-known case method trainer at
Harvard University, to conduct a series of short workshops for
World Bank staff in 1980-81. While Austin had the expertise in the
case method, he was unfamiliar with WID issues, so he brought in
three other people with WID experience to create a team to handle
the World Bank request. These people were Catherine Overholt, Mary
Anderson and Kathleen Cloud. They had not worked together
previously, but through this initial effort developed some key
training materials and procedures that established a basis for much
of the training done subsequently at other institutions. This
team, referred to hereafter in this document as the "Harvard team,"
continued to work together and perfect their approach to WID/gender --.
analysis training as they conducted more training courses for a
wide array of development institutions, donor organizations and
The World Bank also commissioned several writers through the
training office to develop a number of case studies dealing with
WID/gender issues in World Bank projects. These cases were largely
case histories or detailed descriptions of projects that included
analysis of results and evaluations. Many presented a fairly
negative view of the impact of the project on women, and some were
more than 200 pages in length---far too long to be read in a
training session. With permission from the World Bank, the Harvard
team subjected these case histories to extensive editing and
developed them into much shorter (20 pages) teaching cases in the
style of those used in the Harvard School of Business.
In the Harvard School of Business, teaching cases are used for
training business management students in analysis and decision
making with respect to everything from factory design and financial
management to marketing. A teaching case is different from case
histories or analytical cases which describe, analyze, formulate
conclusions and evaluate a particular project or set of events. On
the other hand, "a teaching case describes a set of events and
provides available, relevant data, but leaves analysis and
conclusions to those who read it. Thus the material presented in
each case consists of description and data, often including the
opinions of different actors. Each case is a slice of reality,
covering a short amount of time, and using only data which was
available to decision makers when they were deciding next steps"
(Feldstein and Poats 1989).
The Harvard team developed an analytical framework to guide
trainees or workshop participants in the analysis of the case
studies. The framework uses four interrelated components: Activity
Profile; Access and Control Profile; Analysis of Factors
Influencing Activities, Access and Control; and Project Cycle
Analysis (Overholt et al. 1985). They then constructed a workshop
format in which three teaching cases could be studied and
This format is based on directing learning from individual study,
to small group discussion, and then to large group discussion and
analysis. Trainers facilitate discussion by using questions to
guide the analysis of the data (written case studies or project
information). Repeating the process of individual to group
analysis and discussion with different sets of data guided by the
same framework trains participants in how to use the framework as
a tool in their work and effectively demonstrates that the gender
analysis framework is applicable to all situations. The resulting
data, analysis and recommendations for actions differ. Repeated
use of the framework using different project information sets
enhances the skills of the participants in using the frameworkmand --
will encourage them to use it in their day-to-day work.
The format was transposed into an actual workshop that was
conducted off-site in a location where participants would not be
distracted by the demands of their offices. (Holding training
workshops in this residential fashion became a hallmark of the
Harvard team and a criteria from which they rarely deviate.) The
workshop would start with an evening session, usually with an
informal reception, where the objectives of the workshop were
presented, case study materials and the analytical framework were
distributed and some sort of visual would be shown to "get people
in the mood" for looking at gender issues. Often a film or slide
show showing men's and women's roles in various production sectors
was used for this purpose. Three case studies were then covered,
one in each morning and afternoon session. During the final
afternoon, the last session dealt with more general issues of
application of the framework and lessons from the cases to job
responsibilities of World Bank staff.
The Harvard team conducted 10 to 12 workshops with the World Bank
during the year and, overall, only a small proportion of the total
World Bank staff were trained. The workshops gave needed
visibility to WID within the World Bank and to the work of the WID
Advisor, but in retrospect, according to the Harvard team, it did
not actually alter World Bank work. However, this assessment might
warrant further study 'due to one particular feature of the
training. The first target group of participants for the workshops
were the upper echelon of the World Bank staff, including vice-
presidents. Though many of these- same people have moved on to
other jobs and responsibilities, often outside the World Bank,
their experience with the framework may be influencing the current
World Bank climate of greater recognition and acceptability 'of
The World Bank case studies were never published, but the Harvard
team continues to use them in other training workshops with
permission of the Bank. Training at the World Bank on WID/gender
analysis was suspended following the end of the Harvard team's
contract. The World Bank has undergone a reorganization since
training took place.. There has been a change in leadership for WID
and the creation of a WID Division within the Population and Human
Resources Department. The WID Division has produced a number of
working papers defining WID issues for specific sectors (cf.
Molnar and Schreiber 1989; Collier 1988), has conducted a review of
selected World Bank projects benefitting women (Hooper 1988), and
is engaged in several research activities.
The Division has also recently re-initiated training activities
with a seminar held off-site during May 1989 (World Bank 1989).
Participants included twenty-four World Bank staff members and
consultants from a range of sectors and levels. The seminar's goal
was to help build operational capacity to include WID in the
mainstream of the World Bank's lending and development assistance. --"-
The seminar lasted for one and a half days and included only World
Bank staff and consultants as facilitator and participants. A WID
framework for the World Bank was introduced (Duncan 1987) and
several case histories of development projects representing three
sectors (credit, agricultural extension and education) were the
subject of small group activities. Evaluations of the seminar
were, on the whole, quite positive, but it is too early to measure
any direct impact. The Division has plans to continue with future
While the World Bank is coming full-circle to conducting training
activities on WID/gender, the style and format of the training is
quite different. Today there is little institutional memory within
the Division concerning the training and the materials developed
with the earlier Harvard team and the Division is creating or
adapting a new set of materials for their current efforts.
2. United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Following the World Bank experience, the same Harvard team of
trainers felt more work was needed to perfect the analytical
framework and the use of case method training in WID/gender
analysis. This opportunity arose with a request from the.. WID
Office of USAID in 1983 to conduct a training programme for USAID
staff similar to the one conducted at the World Bank. The
contract, handled this 'time through the Harvard Institute for
International Development (HIID), included the development of case
studies based on USAID projects. It also provided support for the
improvement of the analytical framework and the development of
several sectoral technical papers to supplement the framework and
cases. The entire package of materials was published in .1985
(Overholt et al.) and has been widely used outside of USAID. A
brief set of teaching notes was also developed to accompany the
cases and was available upon request from the WID office.
As part of the HIID contract, the Harvard team led a series of
short (one and a half days and two evenings) workshops with USAID
staff and administration during 1984-85. The workshops followed
the same format as those run at the World Bank and were.held off-
site. Participants were primarily USAID personnel based in
Washington D. C. with a few participants from consulting firms and
universities handling USAID development project contracts.
The workshops received a positive response and evaluation from the
majority of the participants. Following the first round of
workshops for Washington-based staff, a series of regional
workshops were planned. There were also plans for training-of-
trainers in order to expand the number of trainers to work on
regional courses. Subsequently, one regional course was conducted
in Asia by a different group of trainers. Apparently, they were
not familiar with case method teaching and the workshop was .Rot ---
successful. By this time, leadership in the WID office had changed
and the training workshops came to a halt, while other activities
in the WID Office increased.
Between 1984 and 1987, the WID Office did not work directly with
training. However, they did commission the development of several
guidelines on gender issues and regional or sectoral development
(White et al. 1986; Anderson 1986; Otero 1987; Russo et al.
1988). Some of the guidelines are used in informal training
sessions by individual WID Office consultants in the course of
technical assistance work for the Office.
During 1986-87, a major study of USAID's experience in WID was
conducted (Carloni 1987; Cloud 1987). While this study did not
focus on training issues, it did demonstrate that the greatest
positive impact for women came from those projects where WID/gender
issues were integrated throughout the project rather than separated
as women's projects or presented as women's or WID components.
The widely circulated and discussed findings from this study served
to reinforce the critical role that training for all people engaged
in development efforts must play if WID/gender issues are to be
effectively integrated into projects at all levels.
Attention to training resumed in the USAID/WID Office in 1987 with
the addition of a new staff member to the office with a major
responsibility and interest in training. Though some training was
initiated for Washington-based staff, primarily through the
inclusion of short WID/gender issue modules in other training
efforts, the primary target became the regional USAID mission
staff. A Gender Information Framework (GIF 1988) based, in part,
on the earlier analytical framework was developed to assist USAID
staff to include gender considerations in the design of USAID
projects. The framework identified where gender issues should be
addressed within specific USAID programme and project documents.
Training workshops were resumed in 1987 on a.regional or country
basis. The first one was held in Nairobi as an "add-on" to the
annual meeting of agriculture and rural development officers. This
training course was the first test for the new GIF and responses
from participants were mixed. Evaluations called for a scaling
down of the detail in the GIF and clearer organization .of the
material according to the USAID project development process. This
was done and the GIF has continued to evolve in subsequent training
workshops. It has now been summarized in a six-panel brochure that
is distributed within the Agency.
Rather than using the existing case studies based on USAID
projects, the WID Office takes actual current project papers from
the region or country where the training is to be held, summarizes
them, and uses them as cases. These are supplemented with work on
applying the GIF to projects managed by USAID staff attending ehe *-
workshops. In anticipation of this activity, each participant is
asked to come to the workshop with a specific project or problem
he/she feels requires gender analysis. The experiential learning
cycle or experiential model---a training approach that is "learner-
centered and allows individual trainees to manage and share
responsibility for their own learning with their teachers"
(McCaffery 1988)---guides the teaching style of the trainers and
the use of the various training materials.
The format used for the training workshops run by the WID Office at
present consists of ten sessions or modules:
1. Introduction and definition of WID/gender issues and
2. Presentation of key elements of the GIF: task allocation;
access and control issues; constraints on beneficiaries,
opportunities and expenditures; and inclusion of women.
3. Presentation and reading of a USAID project document from the
region (usually a project paper pared down and summarized for
4. Group processing of the project document (individual study,
small group discussion, plenary discussion).
5. Discussion referring back to the GIF.
6. Presentation on data needs and available information for
conducting gender analysis. Includes short practicum on the
use of secondary data.
7. Use of the GIF in the overall USAID project planning process.
8. Individual and small group work on own projects needing gender
9. Gender issues in non-project assistance (structural
adjustment); discussion with small group activity.
10. Development of individual workplans, a copy of which is kept
by the trainers for follow-up monitoring and evaluation.
These ten modules or sessions are organized into a compact, three-
day workshop. The WID Office has extended the training workshop
format to add a fourth day where feasible to visit a field project
as well as national programme and ministerial-level officers. This
fourth day was first tested in a Southern African regional workshop
held in Botswana in the fall of 1989. This day is also designed to
present an opportunity to try out techniques of gathering existing
data on gender.
The WID Office has been using nearly the same training team for
most of its recent training activities. While this results in some
savings in terms of preparation time for the trainers and enhances
the team building necessary to develop a good training group,
substantial preparation time is still built into each workshop. In
the earlier courses, this was estimated at 8:1, or eight days of
preparation for one day of training. The estimate is less now, but
because project documents are adapted for each course, this part of
the preparation does not diminish significantly.
The current training team consists of four members for any given
workshop. In addition to this, there is a logistician and
secretarial support is provided to the team. A representative of
the WID Office is also present to answer questions directly
relating to office operations. The training team includes male and
female members, most of whom have previous USAID project
experience, and the team composition for any given workshop
reflects experience in the region where the workshop is being held.
Finally, all of the training team members have been trained as
trainers and worked in training before becoming involved in
The WID office estimates that the cost for the initial series of
three-day regional training efforts has averaged $150,000 each, not
including participant travel and lodging. This cost, however, has
included significant time and expertise for designing the training
methodology, training trainers, and developing training materials.
Training course costs are likely to be reduced as their experience
increases. For example, the next three-day off-site workshop will
be held in the Washington, D. C. area at a cost of about $75,000.
Some workshops have been professionally evaluated by an external
firm at an additional cost of $20,000.
Because USAID has mandated that WID/gender training and technical
assistance should be conducted on an agency-wide basis, a very
large project has been designed with a substantial training
component for a projected five-year period. The project contract
for approximately US $20 million has been awarded to a group of
private sector consulting firms. Work under the project contract
was to begin in late 1989 and numerous training courses were to be
conducted under this effort. The goal over the next several years
is to train 5,000 USAID staff, direct hires and foreign service
nationals. It remains to be seen whether the new contractors will
follow the same training format that has been used by USAID in
3. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Following the initial Washington-based training workshops with
USAID, the Harvard team was hired to conduct a training programme
for CIDA. The team followed the same format as used with the World
Bank and USAID with two significant changes. First, the programme
included a training-of-trainers effort. Those persons selected for
TOT were then paired with Harvard trainers as they gained
experience and became comfortable with the case method of training.
In order to deal with the bilingual requirements of CIDA,
francophone and anglophone trainers were trained. These trainers
then took over the training responsibilities for CIDA. They were
not CIDA staff, but rather consultants hired for a regular training
programme. The second change from the World Bank and USAID
experiences was that case studies were not developed based on CIDA
projects. Rather, the USAID case studies were used in trainingas --
was the original analytical framework.
An important feature of the CIDA experience is that the President
(a woman) mandated that all headquarters and regional staff be
trained in gender issues and analysis. The Harvard team was hired
to complete this initial phase. Once all existing staff had been
trained, CIDA instituted an on-going training programme to ensure
that any staff new to the institution would receive the same
training. The short one and a half day-two evening workshops are
being continued, four times per year, using two sets of training
consultants, one working in English and the other in French. The
consultants are not employees of CIDA, but are contracted for the
work and are managed by a training officer who is a permanent CIDA
staff member within the training and development division of the
Personnel and Administration Branch. The training itself is
handled out of the CIDA training division, rather than within the
Agency-wide commitment to WID/gender issues has been a key feature
of the CIDA experience. In addition to the mandate by the
President for training, CIDA developed a five-year plan in 1985 to
integrate nine specific WID objectives into the operations of the
institution. The initial WID policy was accepted in 1977. In
1984, senior management approved a newly articulated WID policy
framework in tandem with an implementation strategy to guide the
achievement and application of its policy objectives. The Harvard-
run training was one of the first steps taken to enact the WID
policy. Now, at the end of the third year of the plan, the WID
division is quantifying what has been done, the progress made, and
the needs still to be addressed. They are finding that, although
it is only the third year, they are coming to the end. of the action
plan. The objectives have been achieved, and many branches of CIDA
have gone further than anticipated. The plan worked because it was
flexible and could be adapted over time. Each branch was able to
develop its own plan to meet the global plan.
Another critical feature of the CIDA experience was the creation of
an agency-wide steering committee with representatives from all
divisions. This committee meets four times a year and discusses
WID issues and the action plan, and reports progress on a yearly
basis to the President's committee. The committee was given
responsibility for monitoring the agency's steps to implement the
WID plan and it took the job very seriously.
In addition to the above, CIDA job descriptions have WID
objectives, and annual evaluations include the level of effort and
success in incorporating WID/gender issues. All of these features
create agency-wide responsibility for WID/gender rather than
concentrating it in the WID division. This frees the division to
focus on new activities and enhance existing programmes, rather
than resulting in any loss of control or status. It allows and
cultivates creativity for the programme.
A workbook entitled "WID and the Project Cycle" (CIDA, 1986) has
been designed, tested, and re-designed for use by CIDA staff. The
WID division has developed a sourcebook listing all WID materials
developed at CIDA and a selection of outside materials. Finally,
they are now developing teaching case studies based on CIDA
projects to be used for briefings for project teams and executing
CIDA has also recognized a serious WID/gender gap in terms of the
project executing agencies. Like USAID, most projects are executed
by outside agents, such as institutes, firms, non-governmental
organizations (NGOs) and universities. Outside agents receive a
very general WID briefing, and some have attended the regular
training courses. The CIDA/WID division is currently improving the
briefing format and content, and adapting it so that a larger
number of people can use the briefing materials. The group is also
integrating WID/gender analysis into other training courses, such
as a course on participatory methods in community social analysis.
This will not substitute for the regular training course, but is
designed to further the process of incorporating gender issues and
analysis into projects. Finally, greater attention is being
focused on WID/gender training for people attached to country
projects who are the national counterparts to CIDA staff.
4. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
The Harvard team held a training workshop at UNDP headquarters in
New York City shortly after the CIDA experience. While the course
went well, UNDP did not have a strong internal WID division to
continue the momentum after the training. A new division was
created after the training and a Director was appointed at a high
level in the organizational structure. The placement of the WID
Director at this level allows her access and involvement in major
decisions on policy and programme within the UNDP. The combination
of position and an effectively designed programme has greatly
increased the level of WID/gender efforts at UNDP over the past
A second training workshop was held in the summer of 1986 with
outside trainers (Kathleen Cloud, one of the original Harvard team,
and Hilary Feldstein, who was trained by the Harvard team and
currently co-directs the Gender and Agriculture Project-GAP). The
case method and teaching case studies based on UNDP projects,
written by consultants, were used.
Training continues in UNDP in two ways. The WID division organizes
a series of short presentations and events highlighting WID and
gender work and focuses on an on-going effort of sensitization and
programming of WID/gender issues into projects and programmes at
In a parallel yet very complementary effort, the UNDP training
programme now incorporates gender training within its standard
training of Programme staff. A consultant was hired by the WID
division to conduct further training workshops. She was
subsequently moved into the regular UNDP training office and holds
a staff position with an annually renewable contract. She has been
trained by the programme in its regular TOT courses and now
operates a regular three-day training course for UNDP staff. Over
460 persons were trained in WID/gender issues during 1988.
The WID/gender trainer does not use the USAID case studies, because
she believes they are too long and detailed, but the original
analytical framework is used (Overholt et al. 1985). She has
adapted one of the early World Bank cases as a generic gender case
that is not specific to any region and uses it to give participants
practice in using the analytical framework. Very brief (6-7 pages)
UNDP cases and staff members' own projects are also used as the
data sets for exercises in gender analysis during the training
courses. She conducts WID/gender training courses either as
autonomous three-day training courses or as a one-day session with
two days of follow-up within the regular UNDP training course
programme. She has recently commenced training courses in the
regional UNDP offices, using consultants and testing materials and.
methods in both Spanish and French.
One difference between 'the training conducted at UNDP and the
course run by the Harvard team is that, at UNDP, the first morning
of the course is given over to a more lecture-discussion style
session on the basic concepts of the gender division of labour and
gender differentiation---all of the basic concepts that underlie
gender analysis. This session is included largely because it
results in a thorough understanding of the analytical framework
before participants begin the analysis of the first case study.
Another difference is that the concluding ideas of a session will
often be written down for participants to take home with them. As
much as possible, case studies and project documents discussed are
selected from the region of origin of the participants.
The core elements of case method training (the experiential
learning approach with individual and small group sessions,.
facilitator-guided group analysis, interactive discussion led by a
facilitating trainer, teaching case studies, and the use of an..
analytical framework) are very much evident in the UNDP training
programme. The WID trainer is anticipating a growing focus on the
special needs of agricultural programme staff concerning gender
issues and analysis and is considering using the new set of
training case studies based on farming systems projects that are in
the process of being published by the GAP of the Population Council
(Feldstein and Poats 1989).
5. International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
The WID programme at IDRC traces its origins to an advisory group
formed in 1983-84 to address research related to women. The group
was formed because of the IDRC's concern that it would be requested
to support participation at the UN Decade for Women Conference in
Nairobi in 1985, and it would need a strategy to deal with these
requests. IDRC put two panels together for Nairobi, and a
manuscript reporting on these increased the visibility of WID in
IDRC. Despite IDRC's reputation for being in the forefront of
development and agriculture, prior to this, the institute had no
focus or programme on women.
Following Nairobi, there was some pressure from CIDA and the
Ministry for External Affairs of the Canadian Government to do
something for women, but it was a change within IDRC that created
the environment for the new programme. In 1986, a new Director of
Social Sciences, a woman, was appointed. A new Director, formerly
with the World Health Organization, was also appointed to the
Health Division. Together with the Director of Agriculture, Food
and Nutrition, these three began to discuss gender issues and their
lobbying resulted in the creation of the WID unit. The current WID
coordinator, Eva Rathgeber, credits the change in leadership for
clearing the pathway so that the new unit could operate without
administrative impediments. This, along with adequate funding, was
essential to the early development of the unit.
The first WID/gender training at IDRC took place in September 1988.
Two trainers from the GAP were hired to assist the WID coordinator
in running a workshop for all of the Agriculture, Food and
Nutrition staff who were at headquarters for their annual meeting.
The WID coordinator has been running a very effective programme of
gender-related research for a number of years out-of the Social
Sciences Division and has provided opportunities for many
researchers working on projects funded by IDRC to attend gender
training courses at other institutions. Her office has also been
instrumental in establishing several WID/gender training courses
within various training or educational institutions (see below).
However, training of IDRC staff did not become a priority until
The workshop was requested by the agricultural division chief and
his entire staff was required to attend. It was scheduled for an
evening and a day within the annual meeting, and thus there was
some absenteeism due to conflicting needs, especially among the
visiting regional staff. The workshop had three sections: a case
study exercise using one of the GAP cases, a section on methods of
analysis based on lecture and discussion, and finally, a section of
analysis using an IDRC project. The format, though abbreviated,
worked very well and has served as the stimulus for initiating the
planning for several training activities among the regional offices
that aim to include the national researchers involved in projects
funded by IDRC.
Prior to the September training course, the WID unit carried out a
number of training-related and informal training activities that
indirectly influenced IDRC staff in regard to WID/gender issues.
An advisory group, consisting of members from each IDRC division,
was set up to review all WID projects and proposals. The group was
responsible for deciding whether an activity would be housed within
the WID unit or within another technical division. The coordinator
preferred the latter, because it required more involvement from the
technical staff members and most projects and proposals were
channeled in this direction.
In similar fashion, the WID unit funds interns from developing
countries at IDRC. These interns give seminars and work on
proposals and are placed within the technical divisions under the
supervision of a technical staff member. Through the interactions
of the intern with the WID unit, the supervising technical person
is drawn into the WID orbit.
The WID unit has also formed a reading group that meets informally
over lunch to discuss articles on WID/gender issues. The
coordinator picks the articles and distributes them; anyone who
attends joins the discussion. This provides an opportunity for
those interested in the topic to further their understanding.
The WID unit has also funded training on WID/gender issues in other
institutions. It supported the creation of the Summer Institute in
Gender and Development (SIGAD) with Delhousie University and St.
Mary's University. Half of the participants come from Canada and
the other half are from developing countries. This year, the same
course will be established at Lavalle University in Quebec to be
run in French.
In addition, for the past three years the unit has supported a
workshop on methods of gender analysis at the East and Southern
African Management Institute (ESAMI) in Tanzania. This course is
run by Hilda Tadria, a Ugandan anthropologist. The course has had
high male participation and focuses on how to incorporate gender
into research designs. Participants have come from research
institutions, universities and government institutions. A research
network, supported by IDRC, has been one result of the course. The
unit has also supported training in Brazil through the Development
Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN) and will soon support
a training workshop in Peru with the organization called Flora
6. Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)
Training at the AIDAB was conducted in early 1989 and followed a
format similar to that used at CIDA. Two trainers were involved:
Mary Anderson, one of the original Harvard team and Tim Brodhead,
who was one of the trainers trained during the CIDA experience. .
The training was requested by the Director General of AIDAB. There
was also some pressure from within Australia for greater attention
to WID/gender issues. However, in general the WID movement and
activity in the country are not as strong as elsewhere.
At AIDAB, there was a small WID advisory committee and a WID
coordinator who. were pressuring for WID training, but there was
some misunderstanding as to whether the training would be a vehicle
for improving the status of women in the AIDAB organization itself
or for enhancing the inclusion of third world women in AIDAB-funded
The training was conducted in three separate workshops for
different groups of participants during a two-week period. The
climate for the training was definitely negative. The trainers
estimated that roughly 3% of the staff were enthusiastic (the WID
contingent), 7% were apathetic (not opposed, but not supportive
either) and the remaining 90% were adamantly opposed to the
training. The latter group attended only because it was mandated
by the Director General.
The senior staff were trained in the first one-day workshop. Two
teaching case studies were used. The group was very technical and
consisted of 16-17 people. Of the participants, only one woman
currently holding an acting position participated. The response
from participants in general was positive, which was fortunate for
the trainers since the Director General had impressed upon them
that if the initial outcome was not successful, no one would attend
the rest of the sessions. The second session included director
level and country programme staff and more women participated.
Three case studies were used this time and feedback was quite good.
By the time the third workshop was held, there was a general
feeling that the workshops "were not so bad." The third workshop
included staff from various levels, some NGO staff and some
trainers. It was followed by a brief TOT session. AIDAB is now
continuing the training on its own.
The training workshops at AIDAB are an example of what might happen
when the trainers have very little prior knowledge or experience
with the institution and are brought in just to do the training.
The local WID group was small and inexperienced in terms of
training. Though a TOT session was conducted as part of the
overall training effort, there was very little time for follow-up
or co-training with the new trainers. Without additional follow-
up, it may be difficult for the WID group to sustain the momentum
created by the initial training courses, and thus, it is difficult
to predict the outcome of the training effort.
7. Experiences from the Netherlands
At the International Agriculture Centre, Wageningen, Netherlands,
short courses dealing with technical training and extension in....
agriculture are run on a regular basis. They last from six weeks
to six months and.experts often are brought in from other countries
to lead the courses. Two years ago, the Minister of Agriculture
called for the integration of gender issues into the courses taught
at the Centre. A person within the Centre was called upon to lead
this effort, but did not have training experience. Therefore, a
consultant formerly with the Population Council and with extensive
experience in gender analysis in field-level agricultural projects,
was hired to assist in leading a series of short workshops along
with the faculty of the Centre and from other universities.
The consultant/trainer, Constantina Safilios-Rothschild, was quite
familiar with the case method, had worked on case studies as part
of her previous Population Council work, and was familiar with both
the USAID and the GAP case studies series. Since the first
training workshop, she has adapted case method teaching to her own
style, but uses the analytical framework (Overholt et al. 1985)
and has adapted several existing case studies to fit her needs with
Dutch trainees. She has recently been hired on a permanent basis
by the Wageningen Agricultural University to head the new
Department of Gender Studies in Agriculture and is responsible for
teaching and training faculty and students at the university while
continuing to train Dutch project staff and management.
The workshop at the Centre was not a one-time effort. There were
several follow-up activities. One group that had worked with a
case study from Kenya, took the case back with them to Kenya and
collected more information to expand it. In a second workshop,
several of the men who were participants in the first workshop
became resource persons. Workshop participants numbered about 17
and the workshops were based on discussions, not -lectures, with
information, methods and lessons drawn as much from participants'
experiences as from the trainers.
Safilios-Rothschild stressed during the interview that when
conducting training for the faculty and project staff, it was
essential for the trainer to have an agricultural background and
field experience. Without training, the trainer would not have
been able to establish the "proper credentials" to talk to
participants about integrating gender issues in agricultural
Several other Dutch institutions have also conducted WID/gender
issues training or are planning to do so in the near future. Most
of the training courses are designed to train people who come to
the institutions rather than the staff or administration of the
institution itself. Deventer College runs an eight-month course
called "Women, Extension Workers and Agriculture." The course
contains both theoretical as well as practical components with
frequent field visits and is designed to address the lack of
training for women in fields other than home economics, nutrition
and general health care. It also offers training for female
extension workers to enable them to pay attention to both women's
productive and domestic tasks. The course is targeted to women
from developing countries who work in the fields of home economics,
nutrition and preventive health care to give them training in food
production and processing in order to enable these to be integrated
into their activities.
The Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam holds a training course
for policy makers and field workers to raise awareness about gender
issues in development work. Though the course was successful,
there was not enough interest within the Institute to continue it
on a regular basis for Institute staff. Instead, following this
initial course, the Institute developed a training programme aimed
at fieldworkers and holds two training courses each year. One is
targeted at international development field workers, such as Dutch
technical experts, and lasts for ten days. The other is targeted
at national field workers in developing countries and lasts for two
weeks. Recently, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities
(UNFPA) became interested in these courses and has joined the
Institute in the training programme. Consequently, this has
resulted in some changes and in a reorientation of the training
course content to reflect the participation of UNFPA-sponsored
The Institute operates the courses using its own staff and external
consultants as trainers. Existing case studies and analytical
frameworks, such as those developed recently for UNFPA by the
Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. (CDA), as well as cases
developed explicitly for the Dutch government, are used in the
courses. Video materials are also used. Personal experiences of
the participants themselves are the most important training
material used in the courses. Trainers facilitate discussions and
comparative analysis of these experiences and link them back to the
8. Experiences from the United Kingdom and Sweden
Though there are several courses taught at various institutions in
the UK that deal with WID/gender issues, few are targeted at UK
institutional staff.. Most are established to train participants
from other institutions, largely from developing countries. Two
such courses are briefly summarized here: "Women, Men- and
Development" established by Kate Young at the Institute of
Development Studies (IDS) in Sussex, and the "Planning with Women
for Urban Development" course initiated by Caroline Moser at the
Development Planning Unit (DPU) of University College, London.
The IDS course was introduced in 1984 and is aimed at intermediate-
level government policy makers and implementers, university
researchers, trade unions or women's organizations, and activists
from grassroots organizations (Rao 1986). The course is a self-
contained and self-supporting unit and in part, because of its
autonomous nature, has had limited impact on the rest of the
Institute in terms of getting gender issues incorporated into the...,
IDS teaching and short course programme. The course focuses on
gender implications of development theory, practice, policies and
programmes. Through various teaching methods and styles,
participants are trained in how to conduct gender analysis and how
to apply this analysis to development work and planning. Standard
lectures are complemented with informal discussion groups. Other
teaching tools used include films and documentaries, the "Manomiya
Game" (based on the roles of men and women in an African farming
system), field trips to organizations in the UK dealing with gender
issues in the workplace, and an end-of-course conference where
participants present project proposals to a panel of experts. The
range of activities accommodates the varied learning styles of the
One of the aims of the IDS course is to change the way IDS faculty
conduct other training activities. The course Director invited
other male IDS faculty to give lectures in the course and interact
with participants as a way of increasing their understanding of
gender issues. While many agree that gender is an important issue,
most restrict their engagement with the concept to the descriptive
level. They make women visible through statistics, but do not use
gender as an analytical tool. To do so would require further
study, which they claim not to have time for, and would also, more
importantly, require personal confrontation with their own gender
behaviour with respect to the women they interact with in the
workplace and at home. The dissonance created by this
confrontation is uncomfortable and thus avoided. Young states that
as long as most men shy away from dealing more fully with the
analytical realm of the gender variable, the burden will remain on
women to do the teaching and training on this topic.
In addition to the IDS training course, the Institute has also
created a one-year Master's degree in Gender and Development.
While the IDS course tends to be oriented more to research work or
grass-roots organizations, the course established at the DPU has a
different constituency and is targeted at development planners and
practitioners. The DPU course was established in 1983 by Caroline
Moser who taught it.until 1987. She then left DPU and is now with
the London School of Economics. With two colleagues, Caren Levy
from the DPU and Sukey Field from the Voluntary Service Overseas,
Moser runs a firm called Gender and Planning Associates (GAPA).
They now carry out a variety of gender planning courses for other
institutions and NGOs. The DPU course was organized around a
conceptual framework of gender planning (see Moser 1986). The
original course was structured around three modules. Module one
dealt with the theory of development, urbanization and planning;
module two focused on women's needs in specific sectors; and module
three covered the organization of interventions at the policy,
programme and project levels. The course does not involve
"preaching to the converted, but provides a forum for a fundamental
re-examination of previous work practices within the particular
field of each participant's expertise. This clearly showsthe._.
relevance and importance of gender-aware policy and planning as a
critical, if new, level of intellectual and professional concern"
Based on the experience and success of the DPU course, the training
team has conducted a variety of much shorter training courses with
other institutions, including several United Kingdom based NGOs
such as Oxfam, VSO and Christian AID. They have also worked with
the Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos (SUMBI) in Lima,
Peru, through a project of the Population Council, with UNIFEM and
Ford Foundation funding. Most recently, they have been conducting
training programmes with the Overseas Development Administration
(ODA), the key UK development assistance agency, and with the
Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA).
These short training courses have been carried out in close
collaboration with individuals within the various organizations who
have been charged to continue the training, efforts after the
initial development of the training programme. The courses are
organized into three stages. The first focuses on gender awareness
and the understanding of gender issues as they relate to different
sectoral development efforts. The second stage introduces gender
planning tools that can be used to appraise and evaluate specific
sector projects. This stage of the course includes the analysis of
actual projects from the institution where the training is taking
Unlike the Harvard team method, but more similar to the USAID/WID
training efforts, these courses do not rely on previously developed
case studies, but rather use and adapt existing project documents
for training purposes. In the third stage of-the training,
participants put their new knowledge and practice to work
integrating gender planning in the selection, appraisal,
implementation and evaluation of future projects. Though each
course is carefully adapted to the intended audience, all of the
courses follow this general three-stage format. The on-going
training at ODA and SIDA exemplify the approach used by this
Both the SIDA and ODA programmes are being operated in stages over
several years. The ODA programme began in 1988 while the SIDA
training courses were initiated in early 1989.
SIDA holds three-day training workshops and ODA holds workshops of
one-day duration each, but the content of the workshops follows the
three stages outlined above. In the SIDA programme, course
participants have been carefully selected and combined with staff
from headquarters in Stockholm, the heads of country development
programmes, and Swedish consultants who work with SIDA projects.
The training team is collaborating intensively with the WID
Division of SIDA. Two women from the division collaborate in the
design of the workshops, selection of materials and, most
importantly, in the selection of participants. Moser places great
importance on this, because consultants lack in-depth familiarity
with the institution and should not select participants. Equal
importance is placed on the involvement of the senior staff or
management of the institution. If training is to succeed, the
senior people must be committed and involved. If this is not the
case, then it is difficult to convince lower-level staff that
WID/gender is indeed an important issue.
The approach taken in both the ODA and SIDA initiatives, as well as
in the rest of the training undertaken by the GAPA team, is that of
assisting organizations to develop their own plan or strategy for
gender planning training. The GAPA team does not want to be
indispensable, but rather to work itself out of the picture over
time. The goal is to see gender planning become part of the normal
operating process of an organization, and not just an outside
consultant's job. The success of this philosophy is evident in the
experience of working with SUMBI in Peru and with Christian AID,
both of which are currently doing training on their own for other
government agencies. GAPA now serves as an advisor to these
activities. In ODA and SIDA, the GAPA trainers will gradually
reduce their roles, becoming first co-trainers and ultimately
advisors, as the trainers within the organizations take over the
9. Other Institutional Experiences
The experiences described in the preceding vignettes are not the
only examples of institutions or organizations that have undertaken
WID/gender training. During the course of the interviews conducted
for this study, information was obtained on a number of other
courses. While this information is not complete, it is summarized
here in order to provide a better picture of the extent of
While many universities in the United States have WID programmes or
offices, and courses are often given for students on WID/gender
issues, there are a growing number of examples where university WID
programmes have trained other faculty or administrators in
WID/gender issues. One example comes from the Women in
Agricultural Development (WIAD) Programme at the University of
Florida. In May 1987, WIAD organized a workshop to train faculty,
administrators and graduate students in gender analysis applied to
agricultural development and to train trainers in case method
training techniques. The Harvard trainers facilitated the course
and three teaching case studies were used in the initial part of
the workshop: one from the USAID series, one from the original
World Bank set and one from the GAP (Feldstein and Poats 1989).
The fact that the three examples were drawn from different
institutional contexts did not cause any problem since within the-._
university there is no standard set of procedures for development
assistance projects. Rather there. is interest in different
development assistance modes. While the training course received
high marks on the evaluation, no further short course training has
taken place. In part this is due to a shift in leadership and
direction of the programme, placing more attention on technical
assistance and graduate student research. More recently, the Home
Economics Department of the University of Florida, in collaboration
with WIAD and the Office of International Programmes, conducted a
short course for faculty and representatives from government
ministries and research institutions at the Agricultural University
in Cameroon, entitled "Curriculum Planning with an Emphasis on
Women and Agricultural Households."
Michigan State University has operated a course for university
faculty on how to conduct WID advising and consulting within its
realm of development contracts. The University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign has conducted several half-day workshops on gender
analysis in the project cycle. Case studies and project documents
are used as the primary training materials and the workshops are
aimed at faculty and senior graduate students. At the University
of Illinois a workshop on "Women, Public Policy and Development" in
June 1990 focused on the use of the new international comparative
data bases available from the UN for use on microcomputers.
After completing the series of training courses held at CIDA, two
of the trainers from the original Harvard team, Mary Anderson and
Cathy Overholt, created the Collaborative for Development Action,
Inc. (CDA). The firm has conducted gender training courses and
workshops for a variety of other countries and organizations
including the Government of Pakistan, the Population Council in
Thailand, and the Asian Institute of Management (AIM). At AIM, the
participants were already using the case method to train managers.
Thailand, and the Asian Institute of Management (AIM). At AIM, the
participants were already using the case method to train managers.
They now incorporate gender case studies in their repertoire of
training materials in order to provide managers with gender
analysis as part of their management training.
CDA is currently working with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees
(UNHCR) to develop WID/gender training workshops. The
collaborators at UNHCR are writing their own gender case studies
and CDA will help them conduct training activities. Both Mary
Anderson and Cathy Overholt, through another firm, James E. Austin
Associates, have also conducted a series of training workshops and
TOT courses for UNFPA. For this series of training activities, the
analytical framework was adapted for population issues and a
workbook with descriptive cases for self-teaching was produced.
Several training activities have taken place recently in India.
CIDA sponsored a gender analysis workshop for people at high levels
of the Administrative Service in India utilizing the USAID r.ase---
studies. Two people from the Service have gone to Canada for a TOT
workshop and they are moving ahead with writing and teaching their
own case studies. In December 1988, following a major conference
on women in agriculture sponsored by the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research, the Women in Rice Farming Systems Network
(WIRFS), of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), in
collaboration with the Ford Foundation, held a training course for
agricultural researchers on gender issues and analysis.
The M.S. University in Baroda India, held a course in July 1989 on
"Women, Households and Development", in collaboration with the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for senior researchers
and faculty. Also in July 1989, two training workshops were held
in Delhi on gender issues using the case method. The first,
lasting four days and funded by UNICEF, was held by the unit within
the Ministry of Women's Affairs that is responsible for its
training. The other, lasting three days, involved several
government institutions and was supported by the Ford Foundation.
Kathleen Cloud, of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
was the lead trainer for both workshops and several women staff
members of the respective institutions collaborated in organizing
and facilitating the workshops. Both workshops were attended by
senior staff from the institutions and the second included
consultants and staff working with PVOs in India. The Ministry of
Women's Affairs intends to move ahead with a plan to train all of
the staff of the Indian "Ministries.
WIRFS has also held workshops on gender analysis for its
representatives at IRRI in the Philippines (IRRI 1987). WIRFS'
leader, Thelma Paris, collaborated with the GAP in developing a
teaching case study on women in rice production in the Philippines.
This case and one other were used in a training workshop held iin
May 1988, and other teaching case.studies based on projects in the
region are being developed. As part of this effort, an IRRI
trainer attended a TOT sponsored by the GAP at the Farming Systems
Research and Extension Symposium in Fayetteville, Arkansas, in
The GAP has developed a set of gender case studies based on
agricultural research projects using the farming systems research
and extension approach. These have been used in a number of
training courses on gender analysis or in gender analysis training
modules within other training courses and workshops (Feldstein and
Poats 1989). These courses have been held in Zambia for the East
and Southern Africa Economics Programme of the International Maize
and Wheat Improvement Centre's (CIMMYT) workshop on household
issues in on-farm research, in the Philippines as described above,
at IDRC, UNDP, and as part of a number of academic and training
courses and conferences held at the University of Florida. The
case study materials are available from Kumarian Press.
In 1984, Janice Jiggins surveyed twenty-seven European institutes --
offering development training for their own nationals and/or
nationals from developing countries to elicit information on how
gender issues are handled and with what success. The results are
summarized in Rao (1986). Jiggins notes that a recurring complaint
from female trainers is the unwillingness or inability of their
male colleagues to carry over sensitivity to gender issues gained
from courses to other development-related courses which (as yet) do
not deal with gender issues. Unless concerned individuals are
prepared to spend time in assisting their colleagues in making the
connections, it rarely seems to happen spontaneously. Despite
this, it is well-recognized that gender issues acquire greater
legitimacy (1) if they are handled by regular course trainers
rather than by special experts from the outside, and (2) when there
are both male and female trainers. Outside experts can, however,
function well for particularly sensitive issues and in introducing
experience not available among either participants or regular
course trainers. Jiggins cites case studies, films and slide
shows, games (such as the Manomiya Game), academic literature, and
statistics as the predominant training materials used in gender
This brief discussion of other institutional experiences in
training staff in WID/gender issues and analysis is by no means
exhaustive. Many other institutions are in the process of
launching similar training efforts for their staff. However, these
examples confirm the broad range of institutions that are engaging
in WID/gender training and demonstrate the variety of approaches
used in training activities. From these examples, it is also
possible to identify a set of emerging common issues in dealing
with WID/gender training at the institutional level. These issues
are analyzed in the following section.
E. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCES
The purpose of this survey is to present the experiences from
various institutions in training around WID/gender issues and the
lessons learned from these experiences. Before moving on to the
lessons, it is useful to compare some of the similarities and
differences among the institutions with respect to a few of the key
issues involved in conducting WID/gender training. Though the
experiences lend themselves to further comparative discussion, this
section will focus on five key issues: level of institutional
commitment; length and format of training; trainers; training
methods and materials; and training of trainers (TOT).
1. Level of Institutional Commitment
Most of those interviewed consider strong institutional commitment
for both WID/gender issues in general and to training in particular
at a high level in the organization to be a very critical factor in
determining whether or not training will be successful. Official..
mandates and policies at USAID, CIDA, UNDP and IDRC show such
strong commitment. Such mandates are also reflected in the current
training being initiated at ODA, SIDA and in the Netherlands. A
mandate has existed at the World Bank, but only recently has a
division been given the responsibility, authority and resources to
carry out the mandate.
The experiences recounted here also demonstrate that the existence
of a WID/gender mandate or policy alone is not sufficient to ensure
its implementation within an organization. Training is
increasingly seen as the mechanism for implementing a WID/gender
policy or mandate and as the way to encourage integration of the
mandate across the divisions of an organization.
A strong WID/gender unit within the institution is also key to
conducting effective training. A weak, underfunded, poorly staffed
unit will not have sufficient capacity to operate, backstop or
follow through with training activities, even when well-qualified
outside trainers actually conduct the initial (and most risky)
training sessions. Institutional commitment to WID/gender issues
must be manifested by both policies and mandate and by the strength
of the actual unit empowered to promote WID/gender activities. The
two are linked and both are essential for conducting effective
2. Length and Format of Training Activities
The training courses and workshops covered in the descriptions can
be classified into four groups according to length of time used for
long courses of six weeks to eight months, more typical of the
independent or free-standing short courses from one to three
days up to two weeks in length, more typical of those given
within institutions to their own staff or of courses held in
field situations for researchers;
-training modules lasting from one hour to one and one-half
days that are inserted into other training courses or
workshops (these can sometimes be as long as the short
briefings lasting one or two hours that are.used to quickly
sensitize staff on specific assignments (usually short-term
The length of a training activity depends on the professional level
of the participants to be trained, participant expertise, time
available for training, financial resources, availability of
trainers, and the material and skills to be covered. These issues
need to be assessed within an institution in order to determine-the..
length and design of a particular training event. As seen in the
experiences described, no one strategy for training is the correct
one. Rather, each institution must determine what is appropriate
for its needs and be flexible in implementation since redesign to
accommodate changes may be necessary. An example of the steps that
can be used to develop a training strategy is presented in Annex 2.
Many trainers interviewed felt that at least two days are necessary
for training. As one trainer said, it is only on the second or
third day that the lessons become relevant to participants. Some
trainers describe this as the point in the training when it seems
as if people "see the light" and the term "gender issues" becomes
meaningful. If this is true, the question must be raised regarding
the effectiveness of shorter sessions.
In terms of subject matter, four types of training courses or
modules in training courses can be discerned from the discussion of
the institutional experiences: sensitization to WID/gender issues
and gender analysis; application of WID/gender analysis to
development planning or project processes; development of skills in
field methodologies; and TOT. This typology is discussed further
in Annex 3.
Overall, the examples covered in this study share a similar style
of training that moves' decidedly away from the more academic
teaching and lecturing format to one that is experiential. The
courses engage participants through highly participatory and hands-
on experiences such as case studies, role playing, games,
discussions, project analysis and redesign, and other interactive
experiences. Examples in this study indicate that adults learn new
material better, especially when it involves attitudinal change,
when they are engaged in a participatory process and take
responsibility for their own learning.
Trainers are key to successful training. Since training in
WID/gender issues carries with it considerable innate resistance,
especially at the beginning, and participants are often very
demonstrative of their resistance, it is very important for the
trainers introducing the concepts to be very skilled and
experienced in this sort of training. It is not wise to engage an
inexperienced trainer because this can lead to a poor outcome and
a poor outcome can jeopardize subsequent training efforts. With
experience, trainers learn to recognize potential pitfalls that can
be anticipated and dealt with effectively.
Trainers must be able to speak the language and use the vocabulary
of the organization in which they are training, in order to inspire
the participants' confidence in the trainers. Trainers also need -...
regional and subject matter experience. Training is not all
process but also requires content experience. Additionally, as
Janice Jiggins pointed out (Rao 1986), training seems to be more
effective when the training team includes both male and female
Training is best accomplished when trainers work together as a
team. The team work should start with the planning and delivery of
the course. Team training allows for better monitoring of the
training process, better adjustment of activities in response to
the learning experience of participants, and provides needed
variation in the leadership and facilitation of the course. It
also varies the style of delivery and reduces "trainer fatigue,"
both on the part of trainers and participants. With teams, one
trainer can deliver while the other watches and supports the
process. This usually results in better training and in better
self-evaluation of the training activity which can lead to better
redesign for future training courses.
Some preparation is always necessary in terms of adapting the
course and materials to the needs and experience of the
participants. When the same team works together on subsequent
training courses, time, effort and money can be saved in the
preparation of a course, in terms of team- building and in the
accumulation of experience with institutional concerns and problems
in implementing gender sensitive development.
With each course, the training team deepens its base of experience
in applying gender and WID analysis to projects of the institution.
This expertise can be translated into better course design and
improved materials. It can also result in improvements and
innovations in both the training methods and the actual methods of
gender analysis. While it may be difficult for an institution to
maintain a separate team to train only on WID/gender, it would be
advantageous to work out a long-term arrangement with the training
team for the duration of the initial phase of training so as to
obtain maximum utility from the training experience.
4. Training Methods and Materials
A majority of the institutions surveyed have used' or continue to
use the case method as a core training tool. Some, such as the
World Bank and USAID, have tried the case meLhod and abandoned it
for the time being or modified it substantially. Others rely on
other experiential learning techniques. The case method, as an
experiential mode of training that actively engages participants in
the subject matter, has been a particularly successful training
tool for many institutions. Learning to be a skilled case method
trainer requires significant investment in TOT. Because of the
limited number of trainers experienced in this method and the
trainer-dependency of case method training, it is wise for
institutions to use a variety of training techniques and methods in..,
their WID/gender training strategy. No matter what training
methods and materials are used, they-must be relevant to the work
or activities of the participants. Active engagement in the
subject matter is crucial for integration of the issues into the
mainstream of work.
Whatever methods or techniques are used in training, the global
objectives of a training strategy should include the following five
1. Teach the skills of WID/gender analysis.
2. Create a critical mass of personnel within an institution who
share concepts and skills for applying WID and gender
3. Create a common language to discuss and deal with WID/gender
issues and analysis and provide realistic, practical
experience in using this "language" within the "safe"
environment of a training activity.
4. Provide an opportunity to compare the operation of WID/gender
issues across different cultures and types of projects, and
view one's own institution in comparison with others, again
within a "safe" environment.
5. Allow for internalization of the process of conducting
WID/gender analysis through an encounter with actual problems
of real projects and people similar to those dealt with in
Nearly all of the institutions conducting WID/gender training wtth
the case method use either the analytical framework developed by
the Harvard team (Overholt et al. 1985) or one based on it that
has been adapted to a specific institutional project cycle or
development sector. The validity and utility of the analytical
framework is evidenced by its wide use.
Similarly the original USAID case studies (Overholt et al. 1985)
are still widely used and have served as models for the development
of a range of new cases based either on different institutional
project processes or specific development areas such as agriculture
The case studies available today fall into two categories. One
type is the project case which aims at describing how a project is
designed and implemented in order to examine it for gender
implications. Examples of these are the USAID and World Bank
cases. These cases are institution-specific because they deal with
very different organizational steps in designing and funding
projects. Research cases are the second type. These are typified
by the GAP case studies which,'although couched in institutional
settings and funded by different donors, focus explicitly "on
agricultural research and extension and provide details and data on
the results of research activities and extension events, not on
project design elements. These cases are best used in training
researchers and development workers, although they can be used to
train project managers as well. Because the focus is on the
results of projects, they are especially useful for training in
methodologies and analytical techniques and help to emphasize the
cross-cultural applicability of these tools.
While more detailed review of available training materials is not
possible within the scope of this study, several examples are cited
in the bibliography.
5. Training of Trainers (TOT)
While the informants interviewed gave considerable emphasis to the
importance of training of trainers, few provided explicit details
on how they accomplish this. There are very few secondary sources
that deal specifically with training of trainers for WID/gender
training. However, there are extensive materials and resources
available on generic training of trainers and facilitators.
One useful piece on the subject is Chapter One in Volume II of
Gender and Agriculture (Feldstein and Poats 1989). This chapter
describes the process of how to teach a case study. The teaching
notes in this same volume and those developed for-the USAID cases
are also useful guides for trainers.
Moser makes it part of her approach to train the trainers in the
institution to carry on the training work after she has completed
her contract. This is also true for Anderson and Overholt who use
the case method itself and the case studies developed by Harvard
University to train trainers.
In training trainers to deal with WID/gender issues, it is
important to have sufficient opportunity to practice training
skills and receive constructive critique. It is also very useful
for new trainers to intern with another more experienced trainer.
This is especially important in learning the style that works best
for dealing with the initially "emotionally loaded" issues in
Despite the emphasis placed on training of trainers, the available
pool of trainers who can carry out this activity is small. If the
wide range of institutions, organizations, national programmes and
educational centres needing this type of training are to obtain it,
there will have to be a great increase in the number of qualified
and available trainers. This should be a high priority for donor
and international organizations engaged in development activities.
F. LESSONS LEARNED
Fourteen key lessons on training in WID/gender analysis are drawn
from the experiences of the institutions highlighted in this
1. There must be an explicit mandate for WID/gender training from
the top of the organization. This mandate must be clearly
communic'ated-to all of the various units of the institution and not
only to the WID unit. It must be clear that training on WID/gender
analysis is for the entire institution and not just for the WID
unit or WID representatives. A broad range of people from within
an institution need to be trained in order to ensure that
WID/gender issues become a normal part of the operations of the
institution. A corollary to this lesson is that the directors and
administrators of the institution must attend the training. They
need to learn the language of WID/gender issues and how to use this
language. They also need to make a statement by their presence
that this training is indeed important to the institution ao a '--
2. Training can serve as an effective mechanism to integrate WID
perspectives and gender analysis into the operations of an
institution. However, training is a process and requires
sufficient time to achieve full impacts. WID/gender analysis will
not be effectively incorporated if training is conducted as a one-
time event. A series of training courses or activities over a
period of time is a better approach and will encourage greater
processing and learning of the skills needed for integration into
institutional operations. An individual should participate in more
than one course, starting with initial sensitization and moving
toward learning how to conduct gender analysis.
3. WID/gender training must be managed and backstopped by strong,
qualified professionals within the organization. Experienced
professionals need to provide leadership to the programme.
Briefing in all areas of agriculture is necessary for trainers to
be able to field technical questions as related to women and
gender. Trainers need to have recognized research and development
experience that will generate respect for them among their non-WID
colleagues. Training of others is facilitated when the unit
backstopping the training has demonstrable expertise in the field.
4. Someone from within the institution needs to have full-time
responsibility for training. Training is not an easy task and for
successful training to occur, many details need to come together in
concert. While consultants are routinely used by institutions to
conduct WID/gender training, they need to work with someone from
within the institution as a partner in the activity in order to
provide content and continuity to the training. This partner Aot
only coordinates all the logistical organization, but provides
crucial information on institutional culture and procedures to the
outside trainers who need this information to organize the
structure and content of the training event. This partner is known
by several titles but is in reality, a "Training Coordinator."
Whether this same person, or another WID division representative,
is present during the actual training depends on the nature of the
institution. In some cases, a representative is useful when
questions are raised about applying .the WID/gender analysis tools
to actual projects pertaining to aaWID division. However, WID
staff at CIDA noted that in other situations it can be beneficial
not to have a representative present so that the training is
explicitly not conducted only by or for the WID unit, but is a part
of the institution as a whole. The latter situation can also force
others located outside of a WID unit to take responsibility for
WID/gender because they will not be able to simply turn to an
available WID representative to assume this role.
5. Training is more effective and efficient when the same team or
at least a core group of the same team conducts the training over
the initial training period during which WID/gender analysis is
being introduced to the institution. This results in savings in
terms of preparation time and familiarization with the particular
institution. In time, trainers can be identified from within the
institution to take over the training. Because there is often high
ideological resistance to WID/gender analysis when it is first
introduced, and because this resistance is usually expressed quite
overtly, it is wise to engage highly qualified trainers
experienced in this kind of training to conduct or at least to
collaborate in the initial training activities. These initial
training courses or workshops have a high risk, so selecting highly
qualified, experienced trainers is worth the cost and effort. If
inexperienced trainers conduct the training and are not successful,
the entire issue will be set back significantly.
6. TOT is a critical element for achieving long-term integration
of WID/gender issues and analysis in an institution. The lack of
a sufficiently large pool of qualified trainers means that they are
not always available to service the initial or on-going needs for
training within an institution. One alternative is training staff
of the institution while another alternative is training
consultants who are then contracted over a relatively long period
of time. Both have advantages and drawbacks. The appropriate way
to deal with TOT should be considered in the development of an
institutional training strategy.
7. Every training course needs preparation time. While time can
be saved by having the same team train repeatedly together, there
is still a need to adapt materials and structure to the specific
needs of participants. A formula of three days of preparation for
every one day of training is useful for estimating the time needed
to prepare initially. However, if new materials need to 'be
developed, this time will be increased substantially.
Subsequently, this can be reduced according to the level of
experience of the trainers and the anticipated difficulties of the
participants. However, it is not advisable to reduce the
preparation time to less than one day for each training day for
each of the trainers.
8. Training must be financed, and costs for a training programme
must be comprehensive. Costs can vary considerably depending upon
logistics for participants and facilities, (the. distance the
participants have to travel, perdiem, etc. the availability and
costs of training facilities), training materials needs and the
costs for the trainers (salary, preparation time, travel and
expenses). It appears that the quality of a training course is not
correlated with cost and very good training can be provided at a
reasonable cost to an institution. However, the quality of the
trainers is most important, and excellent trainers are likely to
command higher salaries.
9. Trainers require adequate resources and support personnel." A
training course takes on a life of its.,own once it begins and must
fully engage the trainers. Trainers need good secretarial and
logistical support. Planning for training should take into
consideration the need for special resources and the budget must
include these costs to ensure their presence and delivery.
10. The case method approach is particularly well-suited to
training in WID/gender analysis, because it avoids lecturing to
participants, actively engages participants in learning as
individuals and in collective groups, and provides a realistic
experience in handling gender analysis-in development efforts. The
case method is not the only training technique in use, but it has
demonstrated a consistently positive outcome within institutions
conducting WID/gender training. While use of the case method may
no longer resemble exactly the style and approach first assembled
and used by the Harvard team, the process is the cornerstone for
engaging participants in the use of gender analysis. Other
techniques and materials are frequently used in training and should
be considered when initiating a new training programme. The
important issue is to choose materials that provide realistic
experience which can be applied by participants in their daily
11. It may not be necessary to develop new case studies in order
to begin training in WID/gender analysis. Existing gender case
studies can be used in initial training activities. Some of these
case studies are in the public domain, others are owned by the
authors and permission must be obtained to use them. These can be
complemented with project documents that typify the project process
for a particular institution and these can be used as an additional
case study in the training process (for example as the third or
fourth case study). Once a training programme is underway or'as
may then be worth the time and expense to develop case studies
based on specific experiences of the institution.
12. Selection of participants is crucial to a successful training
course or programme. Consideration of who should attend the first
training activity, what organizational units and levels) they
should represent, and how they will be encouraged to attend is one
of the most important steps in the organization of training on
WID/gender analysis. It is essential that someone within the
institution work carefully in advance with the trainers to identify
participants as part of the overall training strategy.
13. It is essential to provide participants with an analytical
framework for WID/gender issues and analysis. This framework is
the tool for analysis of the cases that provides the learning
experience for participants. The framework is what will be
applied by participants to their own work responsibilities. The
-framework is not a checklist or a recipe, but a tool that enables
critical diagnosis and analysis leading to better project design
and implementation. Institutions do not need to develop a--new"-
framework to begin training, but can adapt the existing frameworks
to fit their institutional settings, specific development sectors
or project design procedures.
14. There is no single training strategy that will fit all
institutions. There is no unique model for success. Each
institution needs to diagnose the internal situation in order to
design an effective training strategy that will successfully assist
in the process of integrating WID/gender analysis within the
institution. The experiences and lessons in this report will help
in the design process, but each 'situation requires its own
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Vocational Training. Office of Women in Development, Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination, U. S. Agency for International
Burfisher, Mary E. and Nadine R. Horenstein. 1985. Sex Roles in the
Nigerian Tiv Farm Household. West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian
Carloni, Alice S. 1987. Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience,
1973-1985, Volume I, Synthesis Paper. U. S. Agency for
International Development: A. I. D. Program Evaluation Report
Caye, Virginia. 1988. The Gender Information Framework. Office of
Women in Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination,
U. S. Agency for International Development.
Chaney, Elsa. 1989. A Strategy for Fulfillment of the Plan of
Action for Women in Development. ESHW, FAO.
CIDA. 1986. Women in Development and the Project Cycle: A Workbook.
Women in Development Division, Canadian International Development
Collier, Paul. 1988. Women in Development: Defining the Issues.
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Cloud, Kathleen. 1987. Gender Issues in USAID's Agricultural
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Implementation of USAID's Women in Development Policy in West and
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Cloud, Kathleen. 1988. A Teaching Module on Women and Agriculture:
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Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois. Manuscript.
Cloud, Kathleen. 1989. Report on the International Conference on
Appropriate Technologies for Farm Women, New Delhi. Arlington,
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Duncan, Ann. 1987. Economic Guidelines .Outline. Women in
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The World Bank, Washington, D. C. Manuscript.
Feldstein, Hilary and Susan Poats. 1989. Gender and Agriculture.
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Strategies in Gender Aware Planning" in Learning About Women and
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Schmink, Judith Bruce and Marilyn Kohn, eds. New York: The
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Washington, D. C.
ANNEX 1 NAMES AND AFFILIATIONS OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED
Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. (CDA)
Royal Tropical Institute, The Netherlands
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Canadian Council for International Cooperation
Consultant, U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
London School of Economics (LSE)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Iowa State University
International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
Professor and Head, Department of Gender Studies in
Agriculture, Wageningen Agricultural University
ANNEX 2 DEVELOPING A WID/GENDER TRAINING STRATEGY
The following notes on the development of a WID/gender training
strategy were developed by Susan Poats as part of a project
proposal written for'Tropical Research and Development, Inc. This
strategy is directed primarily to two intermediate objectives: 1)
to increase the skills for addressing gender issues and conducting
gender analysis and 2) to institutionalize systems and procedures
for incorporating gender issues in policies, programmes and
projects. A complementary four-tiered typology of training courses
is presented in Annex 3.
Overview of the Training Strategy
The key to a training strategy is its "structured flexibility".
The design and delivery of individual training activities needs to
be flexible so as to reflect the specific needs of the client
group. That is, each course should be tailored to address
regional, country or functional differences and provide directly
relevant experiences and skills for participants. Each training
activity should provide opportunities for participants to
contribute to the continued development of training through
evaluation and forward-planning mechanisms. The incorporation of
lessons learned and participant recommendations to future
activities should help to ensure appropriateness and increase
effectiveness of training.
Structured flexibility requires sufficient planning time for
assessing the needs and dimensions for any training activity.
Achieving timeliness requires close -collaboration with the unit
requesting the training and the ready and available collaborative
involvement of specialists with training process expertise as well
as depth and breadth within the WID field. The process envisioned
by the strategy for implementing a training activity includes the
following ten steps:
1. Formulation of a training request
A request for training may come from any of various levels:
internal WID units or advisors, external WID consultants, senior
management, field level offices, project-teams, advisory boards,
donors or a combination of these. It is important to determine
from where the initiative is coming, why, and how it relates to any
existing mandate or policy for WID/gender training. Inconsistency
between a training course and a mandate for WID/gender issues can
have a negative impact on a training course. It is also important,
as much as possible to have wide support and a constituency for
training, even if only relatively few people participate.
2. Participant selection
The initial choice of participants often will occur simultaneously
with a request for training. It is important to assess the
existing level of WID knowledge among the proposed participants and
their functional responsibilities in order to determine the type
and level of training needed. This can be done either through
discussions between the requesting entity (or person) and potential
participants or through a written questionnaire. In some cases, it
miay be advisable to recommend that a different grouping of
participants might be more effective or that other persons should
also participate in order to have a proper mixture and balance of
participants. Participation in any training event, especially
those held on a regional basis or those involving several
institutions or organizations, will shift between the time of
initial designation and the actual delivery of the course. The
role of the training team is to anticipate these changes,
accommodate as much as possible the last-minute additions, and
provide appropriate materials in advance to prepare participants
for the content and nature of the course.
3. Designation of trainers
Selection of a cohesive training team is based on the level and
type of participants and the context in which they will incorporate
WID issues and apply gender analysis. Trainer selection should
also aim for a mix of expertise in training processes and content.
Appropriate language and local or regional familiarity should also
be part of the selection of trainers.
4. Preliminary planning and design
Based on the participants, their work responsibilities, and the
institutional, geographic and cultural context of their work, the
training team would conduct the preliminary planning and design of
the course. This begins with the designation of the type of
training course needed. Adaptation of the general content of a
course would consider the actual amount of time available compared
with the minimal and optimal amount of time needed to deliver such
a course. A design plan would result from this phase which would
outline the length of the course, the division into segments and
the major topics or activities to be covered in each course segment
or time period. Course and topic objectives would also be a part
of the design. A visit to the facility where the training will
take place as part of the preliminary planning and design can be
very useful in ensuring that the course will meet the expectations
of the requester and also allows the training team to assess
logistical and other needs for the course. Participant assessment
can also be greatly enhanced with such a visit. If the training
team is to be entirely responsible for course logistics, a planning
visit is essential.
5. Selection, tailoring and development of appropriate materials
With completion of the design plan and course objectives, the
selection of materials assumes priority. There are now many WID
and gender analysis training materials available including case
studies, analytical and design frameworks, methodological
guidelines, training manuals and other research resources that can
be used in training. These should be selected for appropriate
segments of the course. Where necessary, they should be tailored
to fit current participant needs and experiences.
6. Final design
Detailed planning of each segment of the course should be completed
for the final training design. This includes final development of
all materials, appropriate placement and the allocation of
responsibilities among the trainers. In the case of courses
devoted to learning new methodological skills, experiential
exercises and field practicums should be designed in order to
provide participants with hands-on experience in the collectionof--
disaggregated data, location and utilization of secondary data on
household and gender research, gender analysis and interpretation
and the implications of results for planning, evaluation, re-
assessment, or other project and research activities.
7. On-going redesign
No matter how well a training course is designed, there will always
be room and need for adjustments and improvements. During the
delivery of a course, on-going monitoring and evaluation by the
training team can provide information on how well the participants
understand the concepts underlying WID/gender issues and their
ability to utilize the tools of gender analysis. Capturing this
information and putting it to good use means on-going adjustment
and redesign of the course while it proceeds. This requires a team
training effort with continuous backup and feedback among the
8. Forward planning
Participation in a.WID/gender training course can often be the
impetus for determining further training needs. A training
programme should capitalize on the tendency for such momentum by
designing into the training courses a time within the schedule for
participants to work with trainers to consider the need for further
Training course evaluation should be conducted on at least two
levels. On-going brief evaluations of each completed segment of a
course should be conducted in order to determine whether the
segment content has been adequately covered or if adjustments are
needed to provide further attention to specific issues. This type
of evaluation assists the team in spotting problems or deficiencies
in the course while there is still time to address them. A final,
more complete evaluation instrument should be used at the close of
each training course. These should be analyzed following the
course and the results should be included in the final report so
that these can be used in the redesign of the specific course if it
is delivered again, or in the design of new courses.
10. Reporting and review
A training report should be prepared at the close of each training
course by the training team. This should consist of the final
outline of the course, participant list, final evaluation results,
a narrative summary of the course activities, any new materials
developed specifically for the course, and the results of the
ANNEX 3 TYPOLOGY OF WID/GENDER TRAINING COURSES
There are four types of courses or content areas dealing with
1. sensitization to WID/gender issues and analysis;
2. application of WID/gender analysis to the development
3. field methodologies for WID/gender analysis;
4. training of trainers.
While there are certain standard or even generic issues that must
be addressed in each type of training course or content area,
adaptation to the needs of the participants is required.
Type 1: Sensitization to the Need for WID.
The objective of this type of course is to increase awareness of
WID issues, the consideration of gender as a variable in the
development process and the use of gender analysis as a tool to
address the gender variable. It is appropriate for everybody and
is especially recommended for all new staff, contractors or
consultants without previous exposure or with only limited
experience with WID/gender issues. The course can focus on
WID/gender in a general context across various development sectors
(agriculture, small-scale enterprises, education, health, natural
resources) or concentrate more narrowly on a specific sector.
Either focus would draw on the wealth of existing information
especially that which has resulted from the attention placed on WID
research during the past decade.
The sensitization course type is not limited to newcomers. There
is a great deal of mobility within many organizations, and often
technical officers move from one region to another or change
functional areas. These officers are not new to the institution,
but they are new to the specific of WID/gender issues in their new
working context. The questions that must be posed to generate
gender data for analysis are the same, but the responses are
different and the conditions affecting them are altered.
SSensitization courses on content areas can be used to assist
technical officers in the transition from one region or country to
another, and in the transition from one functional area of
responsibility to another by providing a broad understanding of WID
relative to regional/functional differences.
Type 2: Application of WID/Gender Analysis to Project Processes
Participants in this type of course learn to apply the analytical
framework for WID/gender issues to the procedures and steps
followed by an institution to design projects or to carry out other
work. It should be targeted to the persons who are responsible for
conducting project design and evaluation efforts. The participants
should have taken the Type 1 training described above, or have
equivalent experience. Otherwise a slightly longer time is
required in order to include an initial sensitization segment. The
normal length of this course should be approximately two to five
days, depending on the level of experience of the participants.
Type 3: Field Methodologies for WID/Gender Analysis
This course enables the participants to apply the methodological
skills and tools of WID/gender analysis to on-going project
activities. It helps participants answer the questions regarding
implementation of gender sensitive research and development
projects. This is an area where there is still a great need "or"
development of methods and materials... Existing case studies need
to be redesigned to focus on the skills of project redesign and the
analysis and interpretation of project data. Individuals directly
responsible for project delivery should be targeted in this
Participants should include contractor teams, WID officers,
nationals, NGOs, and other collaborators in project implementation.
The length of time required for such courses depends on the
specific content or methodologies desired. However, it is
anticipated that such a course would normally last from four to
five days, but can be extended to include expanded field practicums
or to conduct work relevant to on-going project or programme
Type 4: Training of Trainers (TOT)
This type of course prepares trainers in the application of
training methods to issues of WID/gender analysis. It should be
directed at training officers, contracted trainers and nationals
representing those- institutions providing long and short-term
training to professionals who subsequently staff development
efforts. Ideally, the course should be from two to three weeks,
but at least a minimum of one week. Experiential learning and
participatory techniques should be emphasized. It is preferable
for participants to have already completed courses of Type 1 and
either Type 2 or Type 3 (or have equivalent experience).