The Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service of
The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
Susan V. Poats and Sandra L. Russo
Tropical Research and Development, Inc.
519 N.W. 60th Street, Suite D, Gainesville, Florida 32607
Tel. (904) 331-1886 Fax (904) 331-3284
TRAINING IN WID/GENDER ANALYSIS
IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT:
A REVIEW OF EXPERIENCES
AND LESSONS LEARNED
We would like to thank the many people who kindly agreed to participate in this study. We
appreciate both the time they gave to us and the wealth of information they provided. We
would like to thank Mary Anderson in particular for the help she provided in
conceptualizing the study and in developing the themes for the set of discussion questions.
Her insights and experience in training were critical to the development of this report. We
would also like to thank Paula Goddard and Kathleen Cloud for their comments on the
interim results of the study and ideas about follow-up activities. We appreciate the
comments from Hilary Feldstein who reviewed the interim report on the study and provided
additional information about several training courses. Several of the people who were
interviewed for the study also reviewed the report in draft form and provided critical
feedback. We are especially appreciative of the comments from Caroline Moser, Kate
Cloud and Lucie Bazinet. Letty Ozuna and Kristina Gaidry, Tropical Research and
Development Inc., are to be commended for their excellent assistance with the design and
production of the report. Finally, we are very grateful to Lisette Walecka of Tropical
Research and Development, Inc. who managed this project and provided critical review of
the report in its various stages. We are especially thankful for her input on the sections
dealing with lessons and recommendations and recognize that without her positive
enforcement of our many deadlines, this report would not have been completed.
While we recognize the input and support of many people in conducting this study, the
authors accept full responsibility for the analysis and interpretation of the information
contained in the report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF APPENDICES ...................
LIST OF ACRONYMS ....................
A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
B. BACKGROUND OF STUDY ............
C. STUDY METHODOLOGY ..............
D. A RATIONALE FOR WID/GENDER
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . iv
. .. . . . . . . . . . . v
. . . . . . . . . . . ... 1
. . . . . . . . . . . . 3
E. EXPERIENCES FROM SELECTED INSTITUTIONS ............
1. The W orld Bank .......................................
2. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) ....
3. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) ...........
4. United National Development Program (UNDP) ..............
5. International Development Research Centre, Canada (IDRC) .....
6. Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB) .
7. Experiences from the Netherlands .........................
8. Experiences from the United Kingdom ......................
9. Other Institutional Experiences ...........................
F. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCES ........
1. Level of Institutional Commitment .........................
2. Length and Format of Training Activities .....................
3. Trainers ...........................................
4. Training Methods and Materials ..........................
5. Training of Trainers (TOT) ..............................
6. Training Costs .......................................
G. LESSONS LEARNED ....................................
H. APPLICATION OF LESSONS LEARNED TO FAO .............
APPENDIX 1 NAMES AND AFFILIATIONS OF PE
DEVELOPING A WID/GENDER TRAINING STRATEGY .
TYPOLOGY OF WID/GENDER TRAINING COURSES ...
LIST OF APPENDICES
Names and Affiliations of Persons Interviewed
Developing a WID/Gender Training Strategy
Typology of WID/Gender Training Courses
LIST OF ACRONYMS
Recruitment Planning and Staff Development Service, FAO
Australian International Development Assistance Bureau
Asian Institute of Management
Collaborative for Development Action, Inc.
Canadian International Development Agency
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico
Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era
Development Planning Unit
East and Southern Africa Management Institute
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development
Service of the Economic and Social Policy Department,
Food and Agriculture Organization
Farming Systems Research and Extension
Gender and Agriculture Project
Gender and Planning Associates
Harvard Institute for International Development
International Development Research Centre, Canada
Institute of Development Studies
International Rice Research Institute
London School of Economics
An agency within the Ministry of Women's Affairs, India, that
has responsibility for training with the Ministry of Women's
Overseas Development Administration
Swedish International Development Agency
Summer Institute in Gender and Development
Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos, Peru
Training of Trainers
Tropical Research and Development, Inc.
United Nations Development Program
United National Fund for Population Assistance
United Nations High Commission on Refugees
United Nations Children's Fund
United Nations Fund for Women
United States Agency for International Development
Voluntary Service Overseas
Women In Development
Women in Rice Farming Systems Network
A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to survey, assess, and compare the experiences of selected
institutions in training their staff to be Women in Development (WID)/gender sensitive and
to employ gender issues and analysis in the design, monitoring and evaluation of research
and/or development projects. The explicit objectives of the study are:
1. to identify the most relevant training experiences and materials concerning WID and
gender analysis in agricultural research and development, and
2. to identify the lessons learned from these experiences and the "gaps" in the training
area particularly related to development of new materials.
B. BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The idea for this study originated from a request by the Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development Service, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), to Tropical
Research and Development, Inc. (TR&D) for assistance in developing and delivering one
or more training courses for the staff of FAO. TR&D proposed that before training
courses or a strategy for a training program be designed to train all of the FAO staff in
WID/gender issues and analysis as applied to the problems of agricultural development,
FAO should carefully consider the experiences and lessons learned from similar institutions
that have undertaken the same task. In doing so, FAO would be able to enhance its own
training strategy while avoiding problems that have occurred elsewhere. FAO
commissioned the study in February 1989.
C. STUDY METHODOLOGY
The study relied on two sources of information. The first came from interviews with
persons involved in training in WID/gender analysis. The second was from selected
secondary sources dealing either with training programs or training materials.
In conducting the interviews, the first step was to compile a list of institutions that fund,
support or are otherwise involved in agricultural research and development that have
undertaken WID/gender issues and analysis training activities for their own staff in order
to cultivate and integrate gender issues and analysis within their project activities. It should
be emphasized that the institutions selected represent only a sample of the total universe
of organizations that have engaged in WID/gender analysis training for staff members.
Individuals who were involved in the planning and/or delivery of the training activities were
identified and interviews were scheduled. In some instances, only one person was
interviewed from an institution; in others, several people were interviewed in order to gain
various perspectives on the training program. Several of the people interviewed have
conducted WID/gender training in more than one institution as consultants. They are not
permanently attached to the institutions where the training took place and, therefore, their
comments often were confined to the actual training experience and did not extend to other
activities of the institution regarding gender issues. In other cases, the persons interviewed
are permanent staff of the organizations where the training took place. In these cases, a
broader picture of gender issues within the organization was provided in the interviews.
While these differences in the interviews result in some uneveness in the presentation of
the institutional experiences that follows, the information was sufficient to draw out useful
lessons for others, including the FAO, in conducting training on gender issues and analysis.
While many of the institutions included in the study are also engaged in development
activities outside of the agricultural sector, institutions were only included if they are
engaged in agricultural development work in order to ensure greater relevance to the work
of the FAO. A complete list of the persons interviewed and their institutional affiliations
can be found in Appendix 1.
Interviews lasted between one and two hours. Most were conducted by telephone. The
interviews were conducted in an informal manner in the style of an open discussion. A set
of open-ended questions listed below were developed to guide the subjects of discussion.
1. How was the training effort initiated? By whom? Were there any "guardian angels" or
persons in high authority who mandated or protected the training in its initial or
subsequent stages? What was the institutional setting and "climate" for WID or gender
analysis at the time the training was done?
2. What was the purpose and role of the training activities? Were these held in common
or were there varying roles and purposes? Were there any hidden or not so hidden
3. What was (is) the structure and format of the training activities? (i.e., length and
organization of training courses or workshops, leaders/trainers, sequencing, evaluation,
follow-up, materials used, training techniques). Has this been altered since the effort
first began? How? Why?
4. Have there been any training of trainer activities? Are there people within the
institution to continue the training if outside trainers conducted the initial training
5. Who were (are) the participants and how were they selected?
6. What was (is) the outcome of the training? What did it actually achieve? What are the
7. What is the current level of integration of WID/gender issues in the institution? Is it
directly attributable to the training that was conducted?
While the terms of reference for this study did not explicitly include surveying participants
in WID/gender issues and analysis training courses or workshop, an interim report on the
study (Poats, 1989) indicated that some participants would be interviewed. Subsequent to
the interim report it was determined that an objective assessment of participant reactions
to and utilization of the information and skills presented in training would require a more
thorough and rigorous survey than possible within this study. Nonetheless, anecdotal
information was obtained from some participants and, where relevant, is included in this
In addition to the interviews, several secondary sources of information were used to develop
this report. These references can be found in the bibliography.
D. A RATIONALE FOR WID/GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING IN AGRICULTURE'
Women are critical to agricultural production, but access to resources and effective
technologies is often constrained by gender barriers that lead to negative effects on the
design and implementation of effective agricultural development programs (Feldstein and
Poats, 1989). Recognition of this fact is growing rapidly within the agricultural research and
development community. A number of projects now actively seeks ways to include women
in the process of agricultural development. Incorporation of gender as an analytical
variable in agriculture is becoming a necessity. Achieving this goal requires agricultural
professionals to acquire "a new set of conceptual and analytical perspectives and skills in
order to deal explicitly, effectively and efficiently with women-related issues in the spectrum
of projects in which they become involved" (Overholt et al., 1985:xii).
The analysis implied in the above discussion does not involve just understanding what
women do, rather it entails an understanding of the cross-culturally variable social roles of
men and women. Such analysis requires more than endless checklists of questions or
guidelines for data collection and it requires the use of analytical frameworks designed
specifically to deal with gender issues (see analytical framework in Overholt et al., 1985 and
the conceptual framework in Feldstein and Poats, 1989). Creation of such frameworks has
been part of a shift away from the WID focus on women's equity and involvement to a
"gender and development trend...[that]...analyses the nature of women's contribution inside
and outside the household...sees women as agents of change rather than as passive
recipients of development assistance...question[s] the underlying assumptions of current
social, economic and political structures...[and] leads not only to the design of interventions
and affirmative action strategies which will ensure that women are better integrated into
on-going development efforts...[but]...to a fundamental re-examination of social structures
and institutions" (Rathgeber, 1989). Recognition of the importance of the WID history and
issues while moving to a focus on gender analysis is captured in the term WID/gender
analysis which is used throughout this volume to refer to the large set of issues and
The incorporation of WID/gender analysis frameworks into the way projects are designed
and implemented is intimately linked to training. A major finding by a recent survey of
projects using the Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) approach to
agricultural development was that training is crucial to the effective integration of gender
issues and analysis in research decisions (Poats et al., 1989). While there was a correlation
between having women and/or social scientists on teams and whether or not gender analysis
was conducted, not all women nor social scientists conducted gender analysis as part of their
work. Their presence did not guarantee attention to gender issues, However, in all cases
where training (either formal or informal) in gender issues and analysis occurred, project
team members, both male and female, did subsequently conduct or improve gender analysis.
Though the total number of projects included in the survey was small, the results indicate
The discussion in this section draws heavily on the introduction to Gender and
Agriculture, Volume I. Case Studies by Hilary Feldstein and Susan Poats.
the need for explicitly including training mechanisms in an overall strategy to incorporate
gender issues in project activities.
Increasing attention is being paid today by institutions engaged in development activities
to the need for training in WID/gender analysis. Some deal with the issue by providing
training to their own staff in order that they will in turn incorporate WID/gender issues
in their work with development activities. Others have established courses to train outside
people rather than their own staff. A few have done both. The experiences of a selection
of these institutions are presented in this report.
The remainder of the report is organized into four sections. The first presents brief
vignettes of the experiences of the selected institutions. These are based on interviews and
secondary materials. They are not meant to be a complete study or evaluation of any single
institution, but rather a "snapshot" of WID/gender training. The selected institutions
include United Nations Organizations, bilateral donor agencies, development organizations,
research institutes and some universities. For some institutions, this type of training has
been part of a major commitment and thus the information is quite detailed. In other
cases, efforts may be on a smaller scale or only recently initiated and thus less detailed.
The second section compares the experiences of the various institutions. The set of
questions used to guide the interviews provides the themes for this brief comparative
analysis. The third section pulls out a set of "lessons learned" from the experiences. The
fourth section takes these lessons to formulate recommendations for the FAO. Several
appendices provide further clarification on types of training and examples of training
E. EXPERIENCES FROM SELECTED INSTITUTIONS
1. The World Bank
The World Bank was the first institution to conduct WID/gender issues training for its own
staff. The WID Advisor to the World Bank commissioned James Austin, a well-known case
method trainer at Harvard, to conduct a series of short workshops for World Bank staff in
1980-81. While Austin had the expertise in case method, he was unfamiliar with WID
issues so he brought in three other people with WID experience to create a team to handle
the World Bank request. These people were Catherine Overholt, Mary Anderson and
Kathleen Cloud. They had not worked together previously but through this initial effort,
developed some key training materials and procedures that established a basis for much of
the training done subsequently at other institutions. This team, referred to hereafter in this
document as the "Harvard team," continued to work together and perfect their approach
to WID/gender analysis training as they conducted more training courses for a wide array
of development institutions, donor organizations, and national programs.
The World Bank also commissioned several writers through the training office to develop
a number of case studies dealing with WID/gender issues in World Bank projects. These
cases were largely case histories or detailed descriptions of projects that included analysis
of results and evaluations. Many presented a fairly negative view of the impact of the
project on women, and some were more than 200 pages in length---far too long to be read
in a training session. With permission from the World Bank, the Harvard team subjected
these case histories to a "brutal" editing and developed them into much shorter (20 pages)
teaching cases in the style of those used in the Harvard School of Business.
In the Harvard School of Business, teaching cases are used for training business
management students in analysis and decision making with respect to everything from
factory design and financial management to marketing. A teaching case is different from
case histories or analytical cases which describe, analyze, reach conclusions, and evaluate
a particular project or set of events.
"A teaching case describes a set of events and provides available, relevant data, but leaves
analysis and conclusions to those who read it. Thus the material presented in each case
consists of description and data, often including the opinions of different actors. Each
case is a slice of reality, covering a short amount of time, and using only data which was
available to decision makers when they were deciding next steps" (Feldstein and Poats,
The Harvard team developed an analytical framework to guide trainees or workshop
participants in the analysis of the case studies. The framework uses four interrelated
components: Activity Profile; Access and Control Profile; Analysis of Factors Influencing
Activities, Access and Control; and Project Cycle Analysis (Overholt et al., 1985). They
then constructed a workshop format in which three teaching cases could be studied and
This format is based on directing learning from individual study, to small group discussion,
to large group discussion and analysis. Trainers facilitate discussion by using questions to
guide the analysis of the "data" (written case studies or project information). Repeating the
process of individual to group analysis and discussion with different sets of data but guided
by the same framework trains participants in how to use the framework as a tool in their
work and effectively demonstrates that the framework guiding gender analysis is applicable
to all situations. The resulting data, analysis and, therefore, recommendations for actions
differ. Repeated use of the framework on different project information sets enhances the
skills of the participants in using the framework and will encourage them to use it in their
The format was transposed into an actual workshop that was conducted "off site" in a
location where participants would not be distracted by the demands of their offices.
(Holding training workshops in this residential fashion became a hallmark of the Harvard
team and a criteria from which they rarely deviate.) The workshop would start with an
evening session, usually with an informal reception, where the objectives of the workshop
were presented, case study materials and analytical framework were distributed and some
sort of visual would be shown to "get people in the mood" for looking at gender issues.
Often a film or slide show showing men's and women's roles in various production sectors
is used for this purpose. Three case studies are then covered, one in each morning and
afternoon session. During the final afternoon, the last session would deal with more general
issues of application of the framework and lessons from the cases to job responsibilities of
World Bank staff.
There were 10 to 12 workshops during the year that the Harvard team worked with the
World Bank. Overall, it was only a small proportion of the total World Bank staff. The
workshops gave needed visibility to WID within the World Bank and to the work of the
WID Advisor. But in retrospect, according to the Harvard team, it did not alter actual
World Bank work. However, this assessment might warrant further study due to one
particular feature of the training that was conducted. The first target group of participants
for the workshops were the upper echelon of the World Bank staff, including vice-
presidents. Though many of these same people have moved on to other jobs and
responsibilities, often outside the World Bank, their experience with the framework may be
influencing the current World Bank climate of greater recognition and acceptability of
The World Bank case studies were never published but the Harvard team continues to use
them in other training workshops with permission of the World Bank. Training at the
World Bank on WID/gender analysis did not continue following the end of the Harvard
team's contract. The World Bank has undergone a reorganization since training took place.
There has been a change is leadership for WID and the creation of a WID Division within
the Population and Human Resources Department. The WID Division has produced a
2 In fact, one of the original World Bank case studies has been revised and greatly
shortened by a trainer at UNDP as a "generic case study" --- without specific project or
country reference--for use in the regular UNDP WID/Gender training courses.
number of working papers defining WID issues for specific sectors (cf. Molnar and
Schreiber, 1989; Collier, 1988), conducted a review of selected World Bank projects
benefitting women (Hooper, 1988), and is engaged in several research activities.
The Division has also recently re-initiated training activities with a seminar held off-site
during May 1989 (World Bank, 1989). Participants included twenty-four World Bank staff
members and consultants from a range of sectors and levels. The seminar goal was to help
build operational capacity to include WID in the mainstream of the World Bank's lending
and development assistance. The seminar lasted for one and a half days and included only
World Bank staff and consultants as facilitators and participants. A WID framework for
the World Bank was introduced (Duncan, 1987) and several case histories of development
projects representing three sectors (credit, agricultural extension, and education) were the
subject of small group activities. Evaluations of the seminar were, on the whole, quite
positive but it is too early to measure any direct impact. The Division has plans to continue
with future training activities.
While the World Bank is coming full-circle to conducting training activities on WID/gender,
the style and format of the training is quite different. Today there is little institutional
memory within the Division concerning the training and the materials developed with the
earlier Harvard team and the Division is creating or adapting a new set of materials for
their current efforts.
2. United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Following the World Bank experience, the same Harvard team of trainers felt more work
was needed to perfect the analytical framework and the use of case method training in
WID/gender analysis. This opportunity arose with a request from the WID Office of
USAID in 1983 to conduct a training program for USAID staff similar to the one conducted
at the World Bank. The contract, handled this time through the Harvard Institute for
International Development (HIID), included the development of case studies based on
USAID projects. It also provided support for the improvement of the analytical framework
and the development of several sectoral technical papers to supplement the framework and
cases. The entire package of materials was published in 1985 (Overholt et al.) and has
been widely used outside of USAID. A brief set of teaching notes was also developed to
accompany the cases and was available upon request from the WID office.
As part of the HIID contract, the Harvard team lead a series of short (one and a half days
and two nights) workshops with USAID staff and administration during 1984-85. The
workshops followed the same format as those run at the World Bank and were held off-
site. Participants were primarily USAID personnel based in Washington D.C. with a few
participants from consulting firms and universities handling USAID development project
The workshops received a positive response and evaluation from the majority of the
participants. Following the first round of workshops for Washington-based staff, a series
of regional workshops were planned. There were also plans for a training-of-trainers in
order to expand the number of trainers to work on regional courses. Subsequently, one
regional course was conducted in Asia by a different group of trainers. Apparently, they
were not familiar with case method teaching and the workshop was not successful.
Leadership in the WID office had, by this time, changed and the training workshops came
to a halt while other activities in the WID Office increased.
Between 1984 and 1987, the WID Office did not work directly with training, however, they
did commission the development of several guidelines on gender issues and regional or
sectoral development (White et al., 1986; Anderson, 1986; Otero, 1987; Russo et al., 1988).
Some of the guidelines are used in informal training sessions by individual WID Office
consultants in the course of technical assistance work for the Office.
During 1986-87, a major study of USAID's experience in WID was conducted (Carloni,
1987; Cloud, 1987). While this study did not focus on training issues, it did demonstrate
that the greatest positive impact for women came from those projects where WID/gender
issues were integrated into the entire nature of the project rather than in women's projects
or projects with a women's or WID component. The widely circulated and discussed
findings from this study served to reinforce the critical role that training must play---for all
people engaged in development efforts--if WID/gender issues are to be effectively
integrated into projects at all levels.
Attention to training resumed in the WID Office in 1987 with the addition of a new staff
member to the office with a major responsibility and interest in training. Though some
training was initiated for Washington-based staff, primarily through the inclusion of short
WID/gender issues modules in other training efforts, the primary target became the
regional USAID mission staff. A Gender Information Framework (GIF, 1988) based, in
part, on the earlier analytical framework was developed to assist USAID staff in including
gender considerations in the design of USAID projects. The framework identified where
gender issues should be addressed within specific USAID program and project documents.
Training workshops were resumed in 1987 on a regional or country basis. The first one was
held in Nairobi as an "add-on" to the annual meeting of agricultural and rural development
officers. This training course was the first test for the new GIF and responses from
participants were mixed. Evaluations called for a scaling down of the detail in the GIF and
clearer organization of the material according to the USAID project development process.
This was done and the GIF has continued to evolve in subsequent training workshops. It
has now been summarized in a six-panel brochure that is easily distributed within the
Rather than using the existing case studies based on USAID projects, the WID Office takes
actual current project papers from the region or country where the training is to be held,
summarizes them, and uses them as cases. These are supplemented with work on applying
the GIF to projects managed by USAID staff attending the workshops. In anticipation of
this activity, each participant is asked to come to the workshop with a specific project or
problem they feel needs gender analysis. The experiential learning cycle or experiential
model --- a training approach that is "learner-centered and allows individual trainees to
manage and share responsibility for their own learning with their teachers" (McCaffery,
1988)--- guides the teaching style of the trainers and the use of the various training
The present format used for the training workshops run by the WID Office at present
consists of 10 sessions or modules:
1. Introduction and definition of WID/gender issues and problems.
2. Presentation of key elements of GIF: task allocation; access and control issues;
constraints on beneficiaries, opportunities and expenditures; and inclusion of women.
3. Presentation and reading of USAID project document from the region (usually a project
paper pared down and summarized for training purposes).
4. Group processing of the project document (individual study, small group discussion,
5. Reference and discussion back to the GIF.
6. Presentation on data needs and available information for conducting gender analysis.
Includes short practicum on use of secondary data.
7. Use of the GIF in overall USAID project planning process.
8. Individual and small group work on own projects needing gender focus.
9. Gender issues in non-project assistance (structural adjustment); discussion with small
10. Develop individual workplans, a copy of which is kept by the trainers for follow-up
monitoring and evaluation.
These ten modules or sessions are organized into a compact three-day workshop. The WID
Office has extended the training workshop format to add a fourth day where feasible. This
day, a "field day" is used to visit a field project, as well as national program, and ministerial
leaders. This fourth day was first tested in a southern African regional workshop held in
Botswana in the fall of 1989. This fourth day is also designed to be an opportunity to try
out techniques to gather existing data on gender.
The WID Office has been using the same or nearly the same training team for most of its
recent training activities. While this results in some savings in terms of preparation time
for the trainers and enhances the team building necessary to develop a good training group,
substantial preparation time is still built into each workshop. In the earlier courses, this was
estimated at 8:1 or eight days of preparation for one day of training. The estimate is less
now, but because project documents are adapted for each course, this part of the
preparation does not diminish significantly.
The current training team consists of four members for any given workshop. In addition
to this, there is a logistician and secretarial support provided to the team. A representative
of the WID Office is also present to answer questions directly relating to office operations.
The training team includes male and female members, most have previous USAID project
experience, and the team composition for any given workshop reflects experience in the
region where the workshop is being held. Finally, all of the training team members have
been trained as trainers and had worked in training before becoming involved in
The WID office estimates that the cost for the initial series of three-day regional training
efforts has averaged $150,000, not including the participant travel and lodging. This cost,
however, has included significant time and expertise for designing the training methodology,
training trainers, and developing training materials. Training course costs are likely to be
reduced as their experience increases. For example, the next three-day off-site workshop
will be held in the Washington, D.C. area at a cost of about $75,000. Some workshops have
been professionally evaluated by an external firm at an additional cost of $20,000.
Because USAID has mandated that WID/gender training and technical assistance should
be conducted on an agency-wide basis, a very large project has been designed with a
substantial training component for a projected five year period. The project contract for
approximately US $20 million has been awarded to a group of private sector consulting
firms. Work under the project contract will begin in late 1989 and numerous training
courses and workshops will be conducted under this effort. The goal over the next several
years is to train 5,000 USAID staff, direct hires and foreign service nationals. It remains
to be seen whether the new contractor will follow the same training format that has been
used by USAID in recent years.
3. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Following the initial Washington-based training workshops with USAID, the Harvard team
was hired to conduct a training program for CIDA. The same format was followed as was
done with the World Bank and USAID with two significant changes. First, the program
included a training-of-trainers (TOT) effort. Those persons selected for the TOT were then
paired with Harvard trainers as they gained experience and comfort with case study method
of training. In order to deal with the bi-lingual requirements of CIDA business,
francophone and anglophone trainers were trained. These trainers then took over the
training responsibilities for CIDA. They were not CIDA staff, but consultants hired on a
regular basis for a regularly programmed training program. The second change from the
World Bank and USAID experiences was that case studies were not developed based on
CIDA projects. Rather, the USAID case studies were used in training as well as the
original analytical framework.
An important feature of the CIDA experience is that the president (a woman) mandated
that all staff, headquarters and regional, be trained in gender issues and analysis. The
Harvard team was hired to complete this initial phase. Once all existing staff had been
trained, CIDA instituted an on-going training program to ensure that any new staff to the
institution would receive the same training. The short one and a half day-two night
workshops are continued today, four times per year, using two sets of training consultants,
one working in English and the other in French. The consultants are not employees of
CIDA but contracted for the work and managed by a training officer who is a permanent
CIDA staff member within the training and development division of the Personnel and
Administration Branch. The training itself is handled out of the CIDA training division,
not from within the WID division.
Agency-wide commitment to WID/gender issues has been a key feature of the CIDA
experience. In addition to the mandate by the president for training, CIDA constructed a
five-year plan in 1985 to integrate nine specific WID objectives into the operations of the
institution. The initial WID policy was accepted in 1977. In 1984, senior management
approved a newly articulated WID policy framework in tandem with an implementation
strategy to guide the achievement and application of its policy objectives. The Harvard-
run training was one of the first steps taken to enact the WID policy. Now at the end of
the third year of the plan, WID division is quantifying what has been done, the progress
made, and the needs still to be addressed. They are finding that though only in the third
year, they are coming to the end of the action plan. The objectives have been achieved,
and in many branches of CIDA have gone further than anticipated. The plan worked
because it was flexible and could be adapted as time progressed. Each branch was able to
develop its own plan to meet the larger plan.
Another critical feature of the CIDA experience was the creation of an agency-wide steering
committee with representatives from all divisions that meets four times a year and discusses
WID issues and the action plan, and reports progress on a yearly basis to the president's
committee. The committee was given responsibility for monitoring the agency's steps to
implement the WID plan and it took the job very seriously.
In addition to the above, CIDA job descriptions have WID objectives and annual
evaluations include the level of effort and success in incorporating WID/gender issues. All
of these features create agency-wide responsibility for WID/gender rather than
concentrating it in the hands of the WID division. Rather than resulting in any loss of
control or status, this frees the division to focus on new activities and enhancing existing
programs. It allows and cultivates creativity for the program. This creativity is evidenced
in the new activities currently underway.
A workbook entitled WID and the Project Cycle (CIDA, 1986) has been designed, tested,
and re-designed for use by CIDA staff. The WID division has developed a sourcebook
listing all WID materials developed at CIDA and a selection of outside materials. Finally,
they are at last developing teaching case studies based on CIDA projects to be used for
briefings for project teams and executing agencies.
CIDA has also recognized a serious WID/gender gap in terms of the executing agencies
for their projects. Like USAID, most projects are done by outside agents (institutes, firms,
non-governmental organizations-NGOs, universities). Outside agents receive a very general
WID briefing, and some have attended the regular training courses. The CIDA WID
division is currently beefing up the briefing format and content, and making it so a larger
number of people can use the briefing materials. The group is also integrating WID/gender
analysis into other training courses, such as one on participatory methods in community
social analysis. This will not substitute for the original training course, but is designed to
further the process with training and experience in designing gender issues and analysis into
projects. Finally, greater attention is being focused on WID/gender training for people
attached to country projects who are the counterparts to CIDA staff.
4. United National Development Program (UNDP)
The Harvard team did a training workshop at UNDP headquarters in New York City
shortly after the CIDA experience. While it went well, UNDP did not have a strong
internal WID division to continue the momentum after the training. A new division was
created after the training and a director was appointed at a high level in the organizational
structure. The placement of the WID director at this level allows her access and
involvement in major decisions on policy and program within the UNDP. The combination
of personality, position, and an effectively designed program has greatly increased the level
of WID/gender effort at UNDP over the past three years.
A second training workshop was held in the summer of 1986 with outside trainers (Kate
Cloud, one of the original Harvard team, and Hilary Feldstein who was trained by the
Harvard team and currently co-directs the Gender and Agriculture Project-GAP). Case
method and teaching case studies based on UNDP projects, written by consultants, were
Training continues in UNDP in two ways. The WID division organizes a series of short
presentations and events highlighting WID and gender work and focuses on an on-going
effort of sensitization and programming of WID/gender issues into projects and programs
In parallel yet very complementary fashion, the UNDP training program now incorporates
gender training within its standard training of program staff. One of the writers of one of
the original UNDP cases used at the first workshop was hired by the WID division to
conduct training workshops following the first one. She was subsequently moved into the
regular UNDP training office and holds a staff position with an annually renewable
contract. She has been trained by the program in its regular TOT courses and now
operates a regular three-day training course for UNDP staff. Over 460 persons were
trained in WID/gender issues during 1988.
The WID/gender trainer does not use the USAID case studies, because she says they are
too long and detailed, but the original analytical framework is used (Overholt et al., 1985.)
She has adapted one of the early World Bank cases as a "generic" gender case that is not
specific to any region and uses it to give training participants practice in using the analytical
framework. Very brief (6-7 pages) UNDP cases and staff members' own projects are also
used as the data sets for exercises in gender analysis during the training courses. She
conducts WID/gender training courses either as autonomous three-day training courses or
as a one-day sessions with two days of follow-up within the regular UNDP program training
course. She has recently commenced training courses in the regional UNDP offices, using
consultants and testing materials and methods in both Spanish and French.
One difference in the way the training is conducted at UNDP and the course run by the
Harvard team is that at UNDP, the first morning of the course is focused on a more
lecture-discussion style session on the basic concepts of division of labor, gender
differentiation--all of the basic concepts that underlay gender analysis. This session is
included largely because it results in a thorough understanding of the analytical framework
before participants begin the analysis of the first case study. Another difference is that the
concluding ideas of a session will often be written down for participants to take home with
them. As much as possible, case studies and project documents discussed in case method
fashion are selected from the region of origin of the participants. The trainer finds it very
difficult to use case studies cross-regionally.
The experiential learning approach with individual and small group sessions, facilitator-
guided group analysis, interactive discussion lead by a facilitating trainer, teaching case
studies, and the use of an analytical framework--the core elements of case method training-
--are very much evident in the UNDP training program. The WID trainer is anticipating
a growing focus on the special needs of agricultural program staff concerning gender issues
and analysis and is considering using the new set of training case studies based on farming
systems projects that are in the process of being published by the GAP of the Population
Council (Feldstein and Poats, 1989.)
5. International Development Research Centre, Canada (IDRC)
The WID program at IDRC traces its origins to an advisory group formed in 1983-84 to
address research related to women. The group was formed because of concern that IDRC
would have requests for supporting participation at the UN Decade for Women Conference
in Nairobi in 1985 and the institution would need a strategy to deal with requests. IDRC
put two panels together for Nairobi and a manuscript reporting on these increased the
visibility of WID in IDRC. Despite IDRC's reputation for being on the forefront of
development and agriculture, prior to this, the institute had no context on women.
Following Nairobi, there was some pressure from CIDA and the Ministry for External
Affairs to do something for women but it was a change within IDRC that created the
environment for the new program. In 1986, a new director of Social Sciences, a woman,
was appointed. A new director, formerly with World Health Organization, was also
appointed to the Health Division. Together with the director of Agriculture, Food and
Nutrition, these three began to discuss gender issues and lobbied the concern into the
creation of the WID unit. The current WID coordinator, Eva Rathgeber, credits the change
in leadership for clearing the pathway so that the new unit could operate without
administrative obstruction. This, along with adequate funding, was essential to the early
development of the unit.
The first WID/gender issues training at IDRC took place in September 1988. Two trainers
from the GAP were hired to assist the WID coordinator in running a workshop for all of
the Agriculture, Food and Nutrition staff who were at headquarters for their annual
meeting. The WID coordinator has been running a very effective program of gender
related research for a number of years out of the Social Sciences Division and has provided
training opportunities for many researchers working on projects funded by IDRC to attend
gender training courses at other institutions. Her office has also been instrumental in
establishing several WID/gender training courses within various training or educational
institutions (see below). However, training of IDRC. staff was not a priority until 1988.
The workshop was requested by the agricultural division chief and his entire staff was
required to attend. It was scheduled for an evening and a day within the annual meeting
and thus there was some absenteeism due to conflicting needs, especially among the visiting
regional staff. The workshop had three sections: a case study exercise using one of the
GAP cases, a section on methods of analysis based on lecture and discussion, and finally
a section of analysis using an IDRC project. The format, though abbreviated, worked very
well and has served as the stimulus for initiating the planning for several training activities
among the regional offices that aim to include the national researchers involved in projects
funded by IDRC.
Prior to the September training course, the WID unit did a number of training-related and
informal training activities that indirectly influenced IDRC staff towards WID/gender
issues. An advisory group consisting of members from each IDRC division was set up to
review all WID projects and proposals. The group was responsible for deciding whether
an activity would be housed within the WID unit or within a technical division. The
coordinator preferred the latter because it required more involvement from the technical
staff members and most were channeled in this direction.
In similar fashion, the WID unit funds interns at IDRC from developing countries. These
interns work on proposals and are placed within the technical divisions under the
supervision of a technical staff member. Through the interactions of the intern with the
WID unit the supervising technical person is drawn into the "WID orbit." Interns also give
seminars that are well-attended.
The WID unit has also formed a reading group that meets informally over lunch to discuss
articles on WID/gender issues. The coordinator picks the articles and distributes them;
anyone who attends enters the discussion. This provides an opportunity for those interested
in the topic to further their understanding.
The WID unit has also funded training on WID/gender issues in other institutions. It
supported the creation of the Summer Institute in Gender and Development (SIGAD) with
Delhousie University and St. Mary's University. Half of the participants come from Canada
and the other half are from developing countries. This year the same course will be
established at Lavalle University in Quebec to be run in French. In addition, the unit has
supported a workshop on methods of gender analysis at the East and Southern African
Management Institute (ESAMI) in Tanzania for the past three years. This course is run
by Hilda Tadria, a Ugandan anthropologist. The course has had high male participation
and focuses on how to incorporate gender into research designs. Participants have come
from research institutions and universities. This year, many came from government
institutions. A research network, supported by IDRC, has been one result of the course.
The unit has also supported training in Brazil through the group known as DAWN3 and will
soon support a training workshop in Peru with the organization called Flora Tristan.
6. Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)
Training at the AIDAB was conducted in early 1989 and followed a format similar to
CIDA. Two trainers were involved: Mary Anderson, one of the original Harvard Team,
and Tim Broadhead, who was one of the trainers trained during the CIDA experience. The
training was requested by the Director General of AIDAB. There was also some pressure
'A network of activists, researchers, and policy makers committed to developing
alternive frameworks in methods to attain the goals of economic and social justice, peace,
and development free of all forms of oppression by gender, class, race, and nation.
Secretariat is located in Rio de Janiero in Brazil.
from within Australia for greater attention to WID/gender issues, however, in general the
WID movement and activity in the country are not as strong as it is elsewhere.
At AIDAB, there was a small WID advisory committee and a WID coordinator who were
pressuring for WID training, but there was some misunderstanding as to whether the
training would be a vehicle for improving the status of women in the AIDAB organization
itself or for enhancing the inclusion of third world women in AIDAB-funded development
The training was conducted in three separate workshops for different groups of participants
during a two-week period. The climate for the training was definitely negative. The
trainers estimated that roughly 3% of the staff were enthusiastic (the WID contingent), 7%
were apathetic, not opposed, but not supportive either, and the remaining 90% were
adamantly opposed to the training. The latter group were attending only because it was
mandated by the Director General.
The senior staff was trained in the first one-day workshop. Two teaching case studies were
used. The group was very technical and consisted of 16-17 people. Of the participants, only
one woman currently holding an acting position participated. The response from
participants in general was positive, which was fortunate for the trainers since the Director
General had impressed upon them that if the initial outcome was not successful, no one
would attend the rest of the sessions. The second session included director level and
country program staff and more women participated. Three case studies were used this
time and feedback was quite good. By the time the third workshop was held, there was a
general feeling that the workshops "were not so bad." The third workshop included staff
from various levels, some NGO staff and some trainers. It was followed by a brief TOT
session. AIDAB is now continuing the training on its own.
The training workshops at AIDAB are an example of what might be called the "parachute
style of training." The trainers had very little prior knowledge or experience with the
institution and are brought in just to do the training (dropped in as if by parachute!). The
local WID group was small and inexperienced in terms of training. Though a TOT session
was conducted as part of the overall training effort, there was very little time for follow-
up or co-training with the new trainers. Without additional follow-up, it may be difficult
for the WID group to sustain the momentum created by the initial training courses and thus
it is very difficult to predict the outcome of the training effort.
7. Experiences from the Netherlands
At the International Agriculture Center, Wageningen, Netherlands, short courses dealing
with technical training and extension in agriculture are run on a regular basis. They last
from six weeks to six months and experts often are brought in from other countries to lead
the courses. Two years ago, the Minister of Agriculture called for the integration of gender
issues into the courses taught at the Centre. A person within the Centre was called upon
to lead this effort, but did not have training experience. So, a consultant formerly with the
Population Council and with extensive experience in gender analysis in field-level
agricultural projects was hired to assist in leading a series of short workshops with the
faculty of the Centre and from other universities.
The consultant/trainer, Constantina Saffilios-Rothschild, was quite familiar with case
method, had worked on case studies as part of her previous Population Council work, and
was familiar with both the USAID and the GAP case studies series. Since the first training
workshop, she has adapted case method teaching to her own style, but uses the analytical
framework (Overholt et al., 1985) and has adapted several existing case studies to fit her
needs with Dutch trainees. She has recently been hired on a permanent basis by the
Agricultural University at Wageningen to head a new department of Women in Agricultural
Development and is responsible for teaching and training faculty and students at the
university while continuing to train Dutch project staff and management.
The workshop at the Centre was not a one-shot effort. There were several follow-up
activities. One group that had worked with a case study from Kenya, took the case home
with them to Kenya and collected more information to expand the case. In a second
workshop, several of the men who were participants in the first workshop became resource
persons in the second. Workshop participants numbered about 17 and were based on
discussions, not lectures, with information, methods and lessons drawn as much from
participants' experiences as from the trainers.
Saffilios-Rothschild stressed during the interview that when conducting training for the
faculty and project staff it was essential for the trainer to have an agricultural background
and field experience. Without training, the trainer would not have been able to establish
the "proper credentials" to talk to participants about integrating gender issues in agricultural
Several other Dutch institutions have also conducted WID/gender issues training or are
planning to do so in the near future. Most of the training courses are designed to train
people who come to the institutions rather than training the staff or administration of the
institution itself. Deventer College runs an eight-month course called "Women, Extension
Workers and Agriculture." The course contains both theoretical as well as practical
components with frequent field visits and is designed to address the lack of training for
women in fields other than home economics, nutrition and general health care. It also
offers training for female extension workers to enable them to pay attention to both the
productive tasks of women and their domestic tasks. The course is targeted to third world
women who work in the fields of home economics, nutrition and preventive health care to
give them training in food production and processing in order to enable them to integrate
the latter two into their activities.
The Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam held a training course in 1986 for policy makers
and field workers to raise awareness about gender issues in development work. Though the
course was successful, there was not enough interest within the Institute to continue the
course on a regular basis for Institute staff. Instead, following this initial course, the
Institute developed a training program aimed at fieldworkers and holds two training courses
each year. One is targeted at international development fieldworkers, such as Dutch
technical experts, and lasts for 10 days. The other is targeted at national fieldworkers in
developing countries and lasts for two weeks. Recently, the United National Fund for
Population Assistance (UNFPA) became interested in these courses and has joined the
Institute in the training program. This has resulted in some change and reorientation of
the training course content to reflect the participation of UNFPA sponsored trainees.
The Institute operates the courses using its own staff as well as outside consultants as
trainers. Existing case studies and analytical frameworks, such as those developed recently
for UNFPA by the Collaborative for Development Action, Inc., as well as cases developed
explicitly for the Dutch government are used in the courses. Video materials are also used.
Personal experiences of the participants themselves are the most important training material
used in the courses. Trainers facilitate discussions and comparative analysis of these
experiences and link them back to the case studies.
8. Experiences from the United Kingdom and Sweden
Though there are several courses taught at various institutions in the UK that deal with
WID/gender issues, few are targeted at UK institutional staff. Most are established to
train participants from other institutions, largely in developing countries. Two such courses
are briefly summarized here: "Women, Men and Development" established by Kate Young
at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) in Sussex, and the "Planning with Women for
Urban Development" course initiated by Caroline Moser at the Development Planning Unit
(DPU) of University College, London.
The IDS course was introduced in 1984 and is aimed at intermediary-level government
policy makers and implementors, university researchers, trade unions or women's
organizations, and activists from grassroots organizations (Rao, 1986).' The course is a self-
contained and self-supporting unit and in part because of it its autonomous nature, it has
had limited impact on the rest of the Institute in terms of getting gender issues incorporated
into IDS teaching and short course programme. The course focuses on gender implications
of development theory, practice, policies and programs. Through various teaching methods
and styles, participants are trained in how to conduct gender analysis and how to apply this
analysis to development work and planning. Standard lectures are complemented with
informal discussion groups. Other teaching tools such as films/documentaries, the
"Manomiya Game" (based on the roles of men and women in an African farming system),
field trips to organizations in UK dealing with gender issues in the workplace, and an end-
of-course conference where participants present project proposals to a panel of experts.
The range of activities accommodates the varied learning styles among the course
4 The information on the IDS course is drawn from the summary of the course
presented in Incorporating Gender Issues in Development Training, edited by Arunashree
P. Rao, 1986. The summary is based on the presentation by Kate Young at the Nairobi
Conference in 1985 and thus the information presented in this report covers the course only
up to that time.
One of the aims of the IDS course is to also change the way IDS faculty conduct other
training activities. The course director invited other male IDS faculty to give lectures in
the course and interact with participants as a way of increasing their understanding of
gender issues. While many agree that gender is an important issue, most restrict their
engagement with the concept to the descriptive and superficial. They make women visible
through statistics, but do not use gender as an analytical tool. To do so would require
further study, which they claim not to have time for, and would also, more importantly,
require personal confrontation with their own gender behavior with respect to the women
they interact with in the workplace and at home. The dissonance created by this
confrontation is uncomfortable and thus avoided. Young states that as long as most men
shy away from dealing more fully with the analytical realm of the gender variable, the
burden will remain on women to do the teaching and training on this topic.
In addition to the IDS training course, the Institute has also created a one-year Master's
degree in Gender and Development.
While the IDS course tends to be oriented more to research work or grass-roots
organizations, the course established at the DPU has a different constituency and is
targeted at development planners and practitioners. The DPU course was established in
1983 by Caroline Moser who taught it until 1987. She then left DPU and is now with the
London School of Economics (LSE). With two colleagues, Caren Levy from the DPU and
Sukey Field from the Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO), Moser runs a firm called Gender
and Planning Associates (GAPA). They now carry out a variety of gender planning courses
for other institutions and NGOs. The DPU course is described more fully in Moser, 1986.
It was organized around a conceptual framework of gender planning (see Moser, 1986).5
The original course was structured around three modules. Module one dealt with the
theory of development, urbanization and planning, module two focused on women's needs
in specific sectors, and module three covered the organization of interventions at the policy,
program and project level. The course does not involve "preaching to the converted, but
provides a forum for a fundamental re-examination of previous work practices within the
particular field of each participant's expertise. This clearly shows the relevance and
importance of gender-aware policy and planning as a critical, if new, level of intellectual
and professional concern" (Moser, 1986).
5 While the term gender analysis is becoming more widely used in the United States
among those conducting training courses, gender planning is more frequently used in the
UK and other European countries. A useful discussion of the differences and similarities
between women in development, gender analysis, gender and development and gender
planning was done by Eva Rathgeber at the International Development Research Centre
(1989). Caroline Moser's article entitled "Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting
Practical and Strategic Gender Needs," (1989) is also useful in understanding the
background and meaning of these various terms.
Based on the experience and success of the DPU course, the training team has conducted
a variety of much shorter training courses with other institutions including several United
Kingdom based NGOs such as Oxfam, VSO, and Christian AID. They have also worked
with the Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos (SUMBI) in Lima, Peru through
a project of the Population Council and with UNIFEM and Ford Foundation funding. Most
recently, they have been conducting training programs with the Overseas Development
Administration (ODA), the key UK development assistance agency, and with the Swedish
International Development Agency (SIDA).
These short training courses have been carried out in close collaboration with individuals
within the various organizations who have been charged to continue the training efforts
after the initial development of the training program. The courses are organized into three
stages. The first focuses on gender awareness and the understanding of gender issues as
they relate to different sectoral development efforts. The second stage introduces gender
planning tools which can be used to appraise and evaluate specific sector projects. This
stage of the course includes the analysis of actual projects from the institution where the
training is taking place. Unlike the Harvard team but more similar to the USAID/WID
training efforts, these courses do not rely on previously developed case studies, but rather
use and adapt existing project documents for training purposes. In the third stage of the
training, participants put their new knowledge and practice to work in the redesign of
projects integrating gender planning in the selection, appraisal, implementation and
evaluation of future projects. Though each course is carefully adapted to the intended
audience, all of the courses follow this general three stage format. The on-going training
at ODA and SIDA exemplify the approach used by this training team.
Both the SIDA and ODA programs are being run in stages over several years. The ODA
program began in 1988 while the SIDA training courses were initiated in early 1989. To
date, SIDA has held three, three-day training workshops, and ODA has held 10 workshops
of one-day duration each, but the content of the workshops follows the three stages outlined
above. In the SIDA program, course participants have been carefully selected and
combined staff from headquarters in Stockholm, the heads of country development
programs, and Swedish consultants who work with SIDA projects. The training team is
collaborating intensively with the WID Division of SIDA. Two women from the division
collaborate in the design of the workshops, selection of materials, and most importantly, in
the selection of participants. Moser places great importance on this because outside
consultants lack in-depth familiarity with the institution and should not select participants.
Equal importance is placed on the involvement of the senior staff or management of the
institution. If training is to succeed, the senior people must be committed and involved.
If not, then it is difficult to convince lower level staff that this is indeed an important issue.
The approach taken in both the ODA and SIDA initiatives, as well as with the rest of the
training undertaken by the GAPA training team, is that they work to assist organizations
develop their own plan or strategy for gender planning training. They do not want to be
indispensable, but rather to work themselves out of the picture over time. Their goal is to
see gender planning become part of the normal operating process of an organization, not
just an outside consultant's job. The success of this philosophy is evident in the experience
of working with SUMBI in Peru and with Christian AID, both of which are currently doing
training on their own for other government agencies. GAPA now serves as an advisor to
these activities. In ODA and SIDA, the GAPA trainers will gradually reduce their roles,
becoming first co-trainers and ultimately advisors as the trainers within the organizations
take over the training roles.
9. Other Institutional Experiences
The experiences described in the preceding vignettes are not the only examples of
institutions or organizations that have undertaken WID/gender training. During the course
of the interviews conducted for this study, information was obtained on a number of other
courses. While this information is not complete, it is summarized here in order to provide
a better picture of the extent of WID/gender training.
While many universities in the United States have WID programs or offices, and courses
are often given for students on WID/gender issues, there are a growing number of examples
where university WID programs have trained other faculty or administrators in WID/gender
issues. One example comes from the Women in Agricultural Development (WIAD)
Program at the University of Florida. WIAD organized a workshop to train faculty,
administrators and graduate students in gender analysis applied to agricultural development
and to train trainers in case method training techniques in May 1987. The Harvard trainers
facilitated the course and three teaching case studies were used in the initial part of the
workshop: one from the USAID series, one from the original World Bank set and one
from the GAP (Feldstein and Poats, 1990). All three case studies worked well in the
The fact that the three examples were drawn from different institutional contexts for
agricultural development did not cause any problem since within the university there is no
standard set of procedures for development assistance projects and there is in fact great
interest in different development assistance modes. While the training course received high
marks on the evaluation, no further shortcourse training has taken place on campus. In
part this is due to a shift in leadership and direction of the program, placing more attention
on technical assistance and graduate student research. More recently, the Home
Economics Department of the University of Florida, in collaboration with WIAD and the
Office of International Programs, conducted a shortcourse for faculty at the University
Centre Dschang, Cameroon, on "Curriculum Planning with an Emphasis on Women and
Agricultural Households." Participants included university faculty as well as representatives
from government ministries and research institutions.
Michigan State University has operated a course for university faculty on how to conduct
WID advising and consulting within the university realm of development contracts.6 The
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has conducted several half day workshops on
gender analysis in the project cycle. Case studies and project documents are used as the
primary training materials and the workshops are aimed at faculty and senior graduate
students. Next summer, the University of Illinois will hold a workshop on "Women, Public
6 There are a great number of other U.S. Universities that have WID courses or other
courses related to gender issues. However, these courses are targeted at students, primarily
those in graduate programs, not at faculty or administration. In the agricultural fields of
study there is very little, if any, discussion of gender issues even in courses concerning
agricultural development topics.
Policy and Development" which will focus on the use of the new international comparative
data bases available from the U.N. for use on micro computers.
After completing the series of training courses held at CIDA, two of the trainers from the
original Harvard team, Mary Anderson and Cathy Overholt, created the Collaborative for
Development Action, Inc. (CDA). The firm has conducted gender training courses and
workshops for a variety of other countries and organizations including: the Government
of Pakistan, the Population Council in Thailand, and the Asian Institute of Management
(AIM). At AIM, the participants were already using case method to train managers. They
now incorporate gender case studies in their repertoire of training materials in order to
provide managers with gender analysis as part of their management training. CDA is
currently working with the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR) to develop
WID/gender training workshops. The collaborators at UNHCR are writing their own
gender case studies and CDA will help them conduct training activities in the fall of 1989.
Both Mary Anderson and Cathy Overholt, through another firm, James E. Austin
Associates, also have conducted a series of training workshops and TOT courses for the
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). For this series of training activities, the
analytical framework was adapted for population issues and a workbook with descriptive
cases for self-teaching was produced.
Several training activities have taken place recently in India. CIDA sponsored a gender
analysis workshop for top people of the Administrative Service in India utilizing the USAID
case studies. Two people from the Service have gone to Canada for a TOT workshop and
they are moving ahead with writing and teaching their own case studies. In December 1988,
following a major conference on women in agriculture sponsored by the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research, the Women in Rice Farming Systems Network (WIRFS), of the
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), in collaboration with the Ford Foundation,
held a training course for agricultural researchers on gender issues and analysis. M.S.
University, Baroda, India held a course in July 1989 on "Women, Households and
Development" in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for
senior researchers and faculty. Also in July 1989, two training workshops were held in
Delhi on gender issues using case method. The first, lasting four days and funded by
UNICEF, was held by the NIPCCD, an agency within the Ministry of Women's Affairs that
has responsibility for training with the Ministry of Women's Affairs. The other, lasting
three days, involved several government institutions and was supported by the Ford
Foundation. Kate Cloud, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, was the lead trainer
for both workshops. Several women staff members of the respective institutions
collaborated in organizing and facilitating the workshops. Both workshops were attended
by senior staff from the institutions. The second workshop was also attended by a variety
of consultants and people working with PVOs in India. The Ministry of Women's Affairs
intends to move ahead with a plan to train all of the staff of the Indian Ministries.
WIRFS mentioned above has also held workshops on gender analysis for its representatives
at IRRI in the Philippines (IRRI, 1987). WIRFS' leader, Thelma Paris, collaborated with
the GAP in developing a teaching case study on women in rice production in the
Philippines. This case and one other were used in a training workshop held in May 1988
and other teaching case studies based on projects in the region are being developed. As
part of this effort, an IRRI trainer attended a training-of-trainers sponsored by the GAP
at the FSR/E Symposium, Fayetteville, Arkansas, in October 1988.
The GAP has developed a set of gender case studies based on agricultural research projects
using the farming systems research and extension approach. These have been used in a
number of training courses on gender analysis or in gender analysis training modules within
other training courses and workshops (Feldstein and Poats, 1989). These have been held
in Zambia for the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's (CIMMYT-
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo, Mexico) East and Southern Africa
Economics Program's networkshop household issues in on-farm research, in Philippines as
described above, at IDRC, UNDP, and as part of a number of academic classes, training
courses and conferences held at the University of Florida. The case studies materials will
be available from Kumarian Press in early 1990.
Janice Jiggins surveyed twenty-seven European institutes offering development training to
their own nationals and/or nationals from developing countries in 1984 to elicit information
on how gender issues are handled and with what success. The results are summarized in
Rao, 1986. Jiggins notes that a recurring complaint from female trainers is the
unwillingness or inability of their male colleagues to carry over sensitivity to gender issues
from courses in which these are mentioned explicitly to other development-related courses
which (as yet) do not deal with gender issues. Unless concerned individuals are prepared
to spend time in assisting their colleagues to make the transfer, it rarely seems to happen
spontaneously. Despite this, it is well-recognized that gender issues acquire greater
legitimacy if they are handled by regular course trainers rather than by special experts
called in from the outside, and, when there are both male and female trainers. Outside
experts can, however, function well as "lightning conductors" for particularly sensitive issues
and in bringing in experience which is not available among either participants or regular
course trainers. Jiggins cites cases studies, films and slide shows, games (such as the
Manomiya Game), academic literature, and statistics as the predominant training materials
used in gender training.
This brief discussion of other institutional experiences in training staff in WID/gender
issues and analysis is by no means complete. Many other institutions are in the process of
launching similar training efforts for their staff. However, these examples confirm the
broad range of institutions that are engaging in WID/gender training and demonstrate the
variety of approaches taken to conduct training activities. From the examples it is also
possible to identify a set of emerging common issues in dealing with WID/gender training
at the institutional level. These issues are analysed in the following section.
F. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCES
The purpose of this survey was to present the experiences from various institutions in
dealing with WID/gender issues training and the lessons learned from these experiences.
Before moving on to the lessons, it is useful to compare some of the similarities and
differences among the institutions with respect to some of the key issues involved in
conducting WID/gender training. Though the experiences lend themselves to further
comparative discussion, this section will focus on six key issues: level of institutional
commitment; length and format of training; trainers; training methods and materials; TOT;
and the costs of training. The last issue is treated only summarily as this was not included
originally as a part of this study and was therefore discussed with only a few of the
1. Level of Institutional Commitment
Strong institutional commitment for both WID/gender issues in general and to training in
particular at a high level in the organization is considered by most of those interviewed to
be a very critical factor determining whether training will be successful. Strong commitment
is seen in terms of official mandates and policies at USAID, CIDA, UNDP and IDRC.
Such mandates are also reflected in the current training being initiated at ODA, SIDA and
in the Netherlands. A mandate has existed at the World Bank but only recently has a
division been give the responsibility, authority and resources to carry out the mandate.
The experiences recounted here also demonstrate that the existence of a mandate or policy
alone is not sufficient. Training is increasingly seen as the mechanism for implementing a
WID/gender policy or mandate as the way to encourage integration of the mandate across
the divisions of an organization. Closely linked to the ability to conduct effective training
and the level of institutional commitment is the strength and action of a WID/gender unit
within the institution. A weak, underfunded, poorly staffed unit will not be able to have
sufficient clout to run, backstop or follow-through with training activities, even when well-
qualified outside trainers actually conduct the initial (and most risky) training sessions.
Thus, the level of institutional commitment must be viewed in terms of the policies and
mandate and in terms of the actual unit empowered with promoting WID/gender activities.
Both are linked and essential for being able to conduct effective training.
2. Length and Format of Training Activities
The training courses and workshops covered in the descriptions can be divided into four
groups according to length of time for the training:
- long courses of six weeks to eight months, more typical of the European experiences;
- independent or free-standing short courses from one to three days up to two weeks,
more typical of those given within institutions to their own staff or courses held in field
situations for researchers;
- training modules lasting from one hour to one and one-half days that are inserted into
other training courses or workshops (these can sometimes be as long as a short
briefings lasting one or two hours that are used to quickly sensitize staff on specific
assignments (usually short-term consultants).
Length of a training activity depends on the level of participants to be trained, existing
participant expertise, time available for training, financial resources, availability of trainers,
and the material and skills to be covered. These issues need to be assessed within an
institution in order to determine the length and design of a particular training event. As
seen in the experiences described, no one strategy for training is correct, there is no set or
prescribed recipe for training. Rather, each institution must determine what is appropriate
for itself and be ready to be flexible as redesign and accommodation of change are
necessary. An example of the steps that can be used in developing a training strategy is
presented in Appendix 2.
One note of interest regarding length of training is that many trainers interviewed felt that
at least two days total time is necessary to begin the training. As one trainer said, it is only
on the second or third day that the lesson "comes home" or becomes relevant. Some
trainers describe this as the "aha experience!" or a point in the training when it seems as
if light bulbs turn on in peoples' minds and the term "gender issues" becomes meaningful.
If this is true and there is a minimum of two days needed, then this raises the question of
how effective are sessions shorter than two days?
Generally, four types of training courses or modules in training courses in terms of subject
matter can be discerned from the discussion of the institutional experiences: sensitization
to WID/gender issues and gender analysis, application of WID/gender analysis to
development planning or project processes, developing skills in field methodologies, and
TOT. This typology is discussed further in Appendix 3.
Overall, the examples covered in this study share a similar style of training that moves
decidedly away from the more academic teaching and lecturing format to one that is
experiential. The courses engage participants through highly participatory and hands-on
experiences such as case studies, role plays, games, discussions, project analysis and
redesign, and other interactive experiences. Examples in this study indicate that adults
learn new material better, especially when it involves ideological change, when they are
engaged, participatory, and take responsibility for their own learning.
Trainers are key ingredients to successful training. Since training in WID/gender issues
carries with it considerable innate resistance, especially at the beginning, and participants
are often brutally demonstrative of their resistance, it is very important that the trainers
introducing the concepts initially are very skilled and experienced in doing this sort of
training. It is not wise to engage an inexperienced trainer because a poor outcome can
jeopardize subsequent training efforts. With experience, trainers learn to recognize
potential landminess" that can be effectively detonated before they blow up in the faces of
Trainers must be able to talk the language and vocabulary of the organization in which they
are training. This will shape confidence of participants in the trainers. Also, trainers need
regional and subject matter experience. Training is not all process, so it also requires
content and experience in trainers. Additionally, as Janice Jiggins pointed out, it seems to
be more effective for the training team to include male and female trainers when possible.
Training is best accomplished when a teams of trainers work together on the planning and
delivery. Team training allows for better monitoring of the training process, better
adjustment of activities as they proceed in response to the learning of participants, and
provides needed variation in the leadership and facilitation of the course. It also varies the
style of delivery and reduces "trainer fatigue," both on the part of trainers and participants.
With teams, one can deliver and the other watches and supports the process. This usually
results in better training and in better self-evaluation of the training activity which can lead
to better redesign for future training courses.
When the same team works together on subsequent training courses, there is a great deal
of savings in time and effort (not to mention money) in terms of the preparation for a
course. There is and always must be some preparation in terms of adapting the course and
materials to the needs and level of the participants. The savings occurs in terms of the
team building of the training team and the accumulation of experiences with institutional
concerns and problems in implementing gender sensitive development.
With each course, the training team deepens its base of experience in applying gender and
WID analysis to projects of the institution and this expertise can be translated into better
and better course designs and materials. It can also result in improvements and innovations
in both the training methods as well as the actual methods of gender analysis. While it will
be difficult for an institution to maintain a separate team to just train on WID/gender, it
will be advantageous to work out a long-term arrangement with the training team as
consultants for the life to the initial phase of training so as to obtain maximum utility of the
4. Training Methods and Materials
A majority of the institutions described have used or continue to use case method as a core
training tool. Some, such as the World Bank and USAID, have tried case method and
abandoned it for the time being or modified it substantially. Others rely on other
experiential learning techniques. Case method, as an experiential mode of training that
actively engages participants in dealing with subject matter, has been a particularly
successful training tool for many institutions. Learning to be a skilled case method trainer
requires significant investment in TOT. Because of the limited number of trainers
experienced in this method and the trainer-dependency of case method training, it is wise
for institutions to use a variety of training techniques and methods in their WID/gender
training strategy. No matter what training methods and materials are used, they must be
relevant to the work or activities of the participants. Active engagement in the subject
matter is crucial for integration of the issues into the mainstream of work. No matter what
methods or techniques are used in training, the global objectives of a training strategy
should include the following five criteria:
1. Teach the skills of WID/gender analysis.
2. Create a critical mass within an institution with shared concepts and skills for doing
WID and gender analysis.
3. Create a common language and vocabulary to discuss and deal with WID/gender issues
and analysis and provide realistic, practical experience in using this "language" within the
"safe" environment of a training activity.
4. Provide an opportunity to compare the operation of WID/gender issues across different
cultures and types of projects, and view one's own institution in comparison with others,
again within a "safe" environment.
5. Allow for internalization of the process of conducting WID/gender analysis through
experiencing actual problems of real projects and people similar to those dealt with in
day to day work.
Nearly all of the institutions conducting WID/gender training with case method use either
the analytical framework developed by the Harvard team (Overholt et al., 1985) or one
based on it that has been adapted to a specific institutional project cycle or development
sector. The validity and utility of the analytical framework is evidenced in its wide use.
The original USAID case studies (Overholt et al., 1985) are still widely used and have
served as the model for the development of a range of new cases based either on different
institutional project processes or specific development areas such as agriculture and
The range of case studies available today falls into two types. One type is the project case
which aims at describing how a project is designed and implemented in order to examine
it for gender implications. Examples of these are the USAID and World Bank cases.
These cases are institution-specific because they deal with very different organizational steps
to design and fund projects. The second type is research cases. These are typified by the
GAP case studies which, although couched in institutional settings and funded by different
donors, focused explicitly on agricultural research and extension and provided details and
data as the results of research activities and extension events, not project design elements.
These cases are best used in training researchers and development workers, although they
can be used to train project managers as well. Because the focus is on the results of
projects, they are especially useful in training of methodologies and analytical techniques
and emphasize the cross-cultural applicability of these tools.
While further and more detailed review of available training materials is not possible within
the scope of this study, several examples are included in the appendices and a number of
additional materials are cited in the bibliography.
5. Training of Trainers (TOT)
While informants interviewed placed considerable emphasis on the importance of training
trainers, few provided explicit details on how they train trainers. There are very few
secondary sources that deal specifically with training trainers to do WID/gender training.
However, there are extensive materials and resources available on the generic TOT and
One useful piece on the subject is Chapter One in Volume II of Gender and Agriculture
(Feldstein and Poats, 1989). This chapter describes the process of how to teach a case
study. The teaching notes in this same volume and those developed for the USAID cases
are also useful guides for trainers.
Moser makes it part of her approach to train the trainers in the institution to carry on the
training work after she has completed her contract. This is also true for Anderson and
Overholt. The latter team uses case method itself and teaching case studies developed by
Harvard University to train trainers in the case method.
Having sufficient opportunity to practice training skills and receive constructive critique is
important in training trainers to deal with WID/gender issues. It is also very useful to
intern with another more experienced trainer. This is especially important in learning the
style and tact that works best for dealing with the initially "emotionally loaded" issues in
Despite the emphasis placed on training trainers, the available pool of trainers for this
material is critically small. If the wide range of institutions, organizations, national
programs and educational centers needing this type of training are to obtain it, there will
have to be a great increase in the number of qualified and available trainers. This should
be high priority for donor and international organizations engaged in development activities.
6. Training Costs
As stated above, costs of training were not an original objective of this study and only
limited information on this topic was available. However, the considerable range in costs
and the concern that institutions have over the financial resources needed for effective
training, would suggest the need for further attention to this subject. The following
information is provided to FAO for consideration, but we do not make any attempt to
recommend what a training program or course should cost.
The WID Office at USAID estimated that it costs them between $75,000 and $150,000 for
a three-day training course. Mary Anderson stated that $50,000 is the maximum cost for
a four-day course with two trainers held at a regional level by the CDA. USAID costs
are calculated with three trainers, a resource person from the WID office, and a person to
handle logistics and support. For one of the early courses, a formula of eight preparation
days for one training day was used to calculate training consultant costs. The total estimate
was in reference to a regional course drawing on roughly 10-15 countries at a time. USAID
has also included external evaluators in some of its WID training workshops, adding about
$20,000 to the regular cost of planning and delivery. The CDA usually calculates only one
day of preparation time for each day of training.
Other information on costs was provided by UNDP to FAO and is summarized here.
UNDP budgeted $370,000 for training from their headquarters office. This money was used
for salaries of the full-time trainer, full-time assistant and resource persons as well as
materials and travel for the Director to attend workshops in the regional offices. Each
course is taught by the main trainer and from two to four resource persons. Each regional
office and each country representative pay their own travel, per diem, and any salary costs
as well as the costs for host country officials. Under this budget, a total of about 460
people have been trained.
G. LESSONS LEARNED
Fourteen key lessons on training in WID/gender analysis are drawn from the experiences
of the institutions highlighted in this report.
1. There must be an explicit mandate for WID/gender training from the top of the
organization. This mandate must be clearly articulated to all of the various divisions of
the institution and not only to the WID division. It must be clear that training on
WID/gender analysis is for the whole of the institution and not just for the WID division
or WID representatives. A broad range of people from within an institution need to be
trained in order to assure that WID/gender issues become a normal part of the
operations of the institution. A corollary to this lesson is that the heads and associate
heads of the institution must attend the training. They need not only to learn the
language of WID/gender issues and how to use this language, but they also need to
make a statement by their presence that this training is indeed important to the
institution as a whole.
2. Training can serve as an extremely effective mechanism to integrate WID perspectives
and gender analysis into the operations of an institution. However, training is a process
and requires sufficient time for effectiveness. WID/gender analysis will not be
effectively incorporated if training is conducted as a one-time event. A series of training
courses or activities over a period of time is a better approach and will encourage
greater processing and learning of the skills needed for integration into institutional
operations. An individual should participate in more than one course, starting with
initial sensitization and moving toward learning how to conduct gender analysis.
3. WID/gender training must be managed and backstopped by strong, qualified
professionals within the organization. Experienced professionals need to provide
leadership to the program. Backstopping in all areas of agriculture is necessary for
trainers to be able to field technical questions as related to women and gender. They
need to have recognized research and development experience that will generate respect
for them among their non-WID colleagues. Training others is facilitated when the unit
backstopping the training has demonstrable expertise in the field.
4. Someone from within the institution needs to have full-time responsibility for training.
Training is not an easy task and for successful training to occur, many details need to
come together in concert. Outside consultants are routinely used by institutions to
conduct WID/gender training, however, they need to work with someone from within
the institution as a partner in the activity in order to provide content and continuity to
the training. This partner not only coordinates all the logistical organization but
provides crucial information on institutional culture, procedures and participants to the
outside trainers who need this information to organize the structure and content of the
training event. This partner is known by several titles but is in reality, a "Training
Coordinator." Whether this same person, or another WID division representative is
present during the actual training depends on the nature of the institution. In some
cases, a representative is useful when questions are raised about applying the
WID/gender analysis tools to actual projects pertaining to a WID division. However,
WID staff at CIDA noted that in other situations it can be beneficial not to have a
representative present so that the training is explicitly not conducted only by or for the
WID division but is a part of the institution as a whole. The latter situation can also
force others located outside of a WID unit to take responsibility for WID/gender
because they will not be able to simply turn to an available WID representative to
assume this role.
5. Training is more effective and efficient when the same team or at least a core group of
the same team conducts the training over the initial training period when WID/gender
analysis is being introduced to the institution. This results in savings in terms of
preparation time and in familiarization with the particular institution. In time, trainers
can be identified from within the institution to take over this task in accordance with
the standard training mechanisms within the organization. Because there is often high
ideological resistance to WID/gender analysis when it is first introduced, and because
this resistance is usually expressed quite overtly, it is wise to engage highly qualified,
experienced trainers who have done this kind of training before to conduct or at least
collaborated in the initial training activities. These initial training courses or workshops
have a high risk so selecting highly qualified, experienced trainers is worth the cost and
effort. If inexperienced trainers conduct the training and are not successful, the entire
issue will be setback significantly.
6. TOT is a critical element for achieving long-term integration of WID/gender issues and
analysis in an institution. The lack of a sufficiently large pool of qualified trainers
means that they are not always available to service the initial or on-going needs for
training within an institution. TOT already on the staff of the institution is one
alternative while training consultants who are then contracted over a period time is
another. Both have advantages and drawbacks. The appropriate way to deal with TOT
should be considered in the development of an institutional training strategy.
7. Every training course needs preparation time. While there are savings when the same
team trains repeatedly together, there is still a need to adapt materials and structure to
the specific needs of participants. A formula of three days of preparation for every one
day of training is useful for estimating the time needed to prepare the first time.
However, if new materials need to be developed, this time will be increased
substantially. Subsequently, this can be reduced according to the level of experience of
the trainers and the anticipated difficulties of the participants. However, it is not
advisable to reduce the preparation time to less than one day for each training day for
each of the trainers.
8. Training is not free and costs for a training program must be comprehensive. Costs can
range considerably depending upon the distance the participants have to travel, the
availability and costs of the facilities to hold the training, training materials needs and
the costs for the trainers (salary, preparation time, travel and expenses). Although it
was not the intention of this study to address costs, some estimates were made available.
These range from a low of $30,000 for a four-day course to $150,000 for a three-day
course. Quality of a training course is not correlated with the cost of a course and very
good training can be provided by excellent trainers at a reasonable cost to an institution.
9. Trainers require adequate resources and support personnel. A training course takes on
a life of its own once it begins and must fully engage the trainers. Trainers need good
secretarial and logistics support. Planning for training should take into consideration
the need for special resources and then the budget must include the costs to ensure their
presence and delivery.
10. The case method approach is particularly well-suited to training in WID/gender analysis
because it avoids lecturing to participants, actively engages participants in learning as
individuals and in collective groups, and provides a realistic experience in handling
gender analysis in development efforts. Case method is not the only training technique
in use, but has demonstrated a consistently positive outcome within the institutions
conducting WID/gender training. While use of case method may no longer resemble
exactly the style and approach first assembled and used by the Harvard team, the basic
components are there and the process is the cornerstone for engaging participants in the
use of gender analysis. Other techniques and materials are frequently used in training
and should be considered when initiating a new training program. The important issue
is to choose materials which provide realistic experience that can be applied by
participants in their day-to-day work.
11. It is not necessary to develop new case studies in order to begin training in WID/gender
analysis. Existing gender case studies can be used in initial training activities. Some of
these case studies are in the public domain, others are owned by the author and
permission must be obtained to use them. These can be complemented with project
documents that typify the project process for a particular institution and used as an
additional case study in the training process (for example as the third or fourth case
study). Once a training program is underway or as the use of WID/gender analysis
grows in the institution, it may then be advantageous and worth the time and expense
to develop case studies based on specific experiences of the institution.
12. Selection of participants is crucial to a successful training course or program.
Consideration of who should attend the first training activity, what organization divisions
and levels) they should represent, and how they will be encouraged to attend is one of
the most important steps to organizing training on WID/gender analysis. It is essential
that someone within the institution work carefully in advance with the trainers to identify
participants as part of the overall training strategy.
13. It is essential to provide participants with an analytical framework for WID/gender
issues and analysis. This framework is the tool for analysis of the cases which provides
the learning experience for participants. The framework is what will be taken home and
applied by participants to their own work responsibilities. The framework is not a
checklist or recipe but a tool that enables critical diagnosis and analysis leading to better
project design and implementation. Institutions do not need to develop a new
framework to begin training, but can adapt the existing frameworks to fit their
institutional settings, specific development sectors, or project design procedures.
14. There is no single training strategy that will fit all institutions. There is no unique
model for success. Each institution will need to diagnose the internal situation in order
to design an effective training strategy that will successfully assist in the process of
integrating WID/gender analysis within the institution. These experiences and lessons
in this report will help in the design process, but each situation will require its own
H. APPLICATION OF LESSONS LEARNED TO FAO
While there are institutional specific training needs, the lessons learned by other institutions
as cited in the previous section can be used to assist FAO to efficiently develop the most
appropriate training activities for its own needs. Each of these lessons is cited here, with
specific suggestions and recommendations relevant to FAO.
1. There must be an explicit mandate for WID/gender training from the top of the
organization. FAO has had a mandate to address gender issues in its agricultural
development programs since the UN Decade for Women in 1975 but a specific mandate
to conduct WID and gender training did not formally exist until 1988. The FAO Plan
of Action for Integration of WID (CL 94/13, 1988) addresses the need to increase
awareness of problems and potentials of WID through media and training. The Plan
looks to implement a Staff Training Program on WID for the entire FAO Headquarters
Staff during the period 1990-1991. Chaney's report on strategies to fulfill the
implementation of the Plan of Action (Chaney, 1989) points out that most divisions
have approached their own part of the Plan of Action with seriousness and a willingness
to integrate gender issues into their programs. The problem seems to lie more with the
"how to" aspect of implementation, rather than with the "need to" aspect.
Some divisions, however, seemed to indicate that they felt they had as yet not received
a mandate to incorporate WID into their programs nor that it was possible to do so with
their current level of funding (Chaney, 1989). A reading of both the Plan of Action
(Resolution 1/94) and the Report of the Council of FAO (CL 94/REP) shows that the
Council unanimously approved the Plan of Action and stated that implementation should
be funded from the Regular Programme. Hence, the Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development Service of the Economic and Social Policy Department,
FAO/UN (ESHW) needs to point out this mandate to the few recalcitrant divisions in
order to be able to proceed more smoothly in implementing the training program.
2. Training can serve as an extremely effective mechanism to integrate WID perspectives
and gender analysis into the operations of an institution. As pointed out in a later
lesson and recommendation, a multi-approach training strategy is needed in order to
truly integrate WID perspectives into an institution. Given that FAO has a strong
mandate to do so and a willingness on the part of most staff, training could be received
with enthusiasm with the appropriate approach. A key point is that the upper echelon
must be truly convinced of the need for integration in order for other staff to feel that
they are free to integrate WID issues into their programs. This means that the upper
echelon must participate in the training program.
3. WID/gender training must be managed and backstopped by qualified professionals
within the organization. There is little doubt that in ESHW FAO has the qualified
professionals with experience in WID and gender issues necessary to manage and
backstop gender training. The ESHW can provide the necessary leadership and
experience for other services and divisions to draw upon. The factor of leadership is
crucial. With the mandate to implement training, almost all divisions are looking to
ESHW to show them how to do so.
Despite being highly qualified, however, ESHW is extremely short-handed, particularly
in light of the fact that this extensive training program must be initiated. The Plan of
Action strongly recommends that ESHW fill all of its vacant positions in order to
accomplish all of its tasks. This will enhance ESHW's ability to focus greater attention
4. An individual within the organization must have full-time responsibility for training. As
noted in the above section, ESHW lacks adequate numbers of staff to be able to handle
training requests. The person currently guiding training activities in ESHW has
additional responsibilities on top of the training activities. Coordinating training,
providing content and continuity, responding to needs and requests for training, and
institutionalizing WID/gender issues into FAO is a full-time, not a part-time, job. The
job as Training Coordinator in ESHW should be filled by someone with both WID
experience and training experience. This is the strongest recommendation of this report:
a Training Coordinator must be appointed to oversee training activities. Ideally, this
person should be housed in ESHW but a possible alternative location could be AFPR.
The commitment to training in WID/gender issues can only be fulfilled by a
concomitant financial commitment in the person of a Training Coordinator.
Consultants can, and probably will, continue to be used as needed for gender training
at FAO but a consultant cannot provide the leadership and continuity that a full-time
staff member can. Once a consultant or team of consultants leaves, no one is there to
answer further questions nor to handle any follow-up. The training becomes another
case of an expert parachuted in and leaving before implementation takes place.
5. Training is more effective and efficient when conducted by the same team or at least,
a core group of the same team. Training is costly in terms of time, effort, and money.
When the same team works together, savings occur in all three areas. As a training
team delivers more courses, their understanding of the institution and its needs deepens
and is translated into better training activities and materials for the participants. Rather
than "reinvent the wheel" with each course taught, the team is able to move into better,
more useful, and possibly more innovative courses specific to the needs of the institution.
Because FAO, like most organizations, has financial constraints, there is no core group
of people on staff to handle WID/gender training activities.
Several approaches to training are taken at FAO: training of professional staff has been
handled by AFPR as part of regular professional staff training (e.g., in the project
formulation course); training has been held within some divisions, conducted by their
own staff; or training has been conducted by consultants in response to specific requests.
None of these training courses have had WID/gender components. Thus, the content
is an unknown variable, continuity is likely to be slight, and most importantly, significant
costs can be incurred each time a new course is taught.
The recommendation to have the same training team is problematic for FAO but could
be resolved in several ways. The Training Unit should continue to include WID/gender
issues in its professional staff training courses. Unfortunately, due to large numbers of
staff and budgetary constraint these courses reach only a limited number of staff
annually. The ESHW Training Coordinator could assist in developing a WID/gender
portion for each type of staff training course and ensure that the same person or persons
teaches the course each time.
Some divisions, notably Fisheries, have conducted their own Gender courses related
specifically to their discipline. While such initiatives are to be commended, again the
question of content comes up. There is no right or wrong way to conduct a
WID/gender course but without control over content, it is difficult to ascertain whether
objectives were adequately met. Again, the Training Coordinator could guide the
divisions which have held courses and developed course materials towards producing a
training course which meets not only divisional but also institutional objectives. The
coordination could also serve to facilitate inter-departmental networking on WID
Ideally, of course, is the formation of a training team headed by the Training
Coordinator in ESHW. ESH is currently considering the possibility of forming such a
core group, to consist of 8 10 persons from different divisions to serve as resource
persons (paired with a professional trainer) for the regional and field training. This does
not address the staff training needs in Rome. This could certainly be done for staff
training, especially if the Training Coordinator is available. A likely constraint, however,
would be finding staff with the necessary qualifications and the time to be trainers.
An alternative is to form a training team of approximately 20 trainers, from several
institutions, firms, or countries if necessary, who would be used to conduct training
activities whenever called for. The core group would not be on staff (except for certain
individuals in FAO who have demonstrated WID training skills) but would be on call,
as consultants. A core group of 20 is needed to have an adequate pool from which to
draw the two or three that would be needed for a course. The Training Coordinator
would maintain contact with the training team, informing them of upcoming training
needs, coordinating with them the most suitable times, and exchanging information on
6. TOT is a critical element for achieving long-term integration of WID/gender issues and
analysis in an institution. As part of its overall training program, FAO must, from the
very beginning, include TOT primarily because there are too few trainers in this area.
The sheer number of staff that FAO must train make it imperative that TOT activities
occur early on.
7. Every training course needs preparation time. In Appendix 7 is an example of steps
followed for course preparation and time needed to accomplish each step. Formulae
for preparation time range from 8:1 (i.e., eight days of preparation for each day of the
course) to 3:1 for the first time a course is taught. If the earlier recommendation of
having the same team for training is acceptable, then the preparation time will be
decreased each time the course is offered. It will never be totally reduced as each
course should be individually tailored, but preparation time can be reduced to 1:1 if the
same team or core group are the trainers. Alternatively, the Training Coordinator can
monitor all courses and provide much of the groundwork for each course, thus reducing
the preparation time.
8. Training is not free. With its mandate to integrate WID and gender issues through
training of its professional staff, FAO faces a considerable investment in time and
money. In order to maximize use of these resources, some of the above suggestions
would save money and time. There is no effective, cheap way to hold training courses
but money can be saved by using the same team, for example, so that additional course
require less preparation time. A savings achieved by hiring a group of consultants for
one course is not realized in the long run because the course content cannot be
institutionalized by even the best-intentioned outsiders.
Additionally, there is a strong belief within FAO that training should be tailored in
content, methodology, and strategy to the various levels of audiences; that it should
include administrative and personnel officers, operations assistants and clerks,
professional staff and senior management; that field staff receive training; and so on
(Chaney, 1989). If only a fraction of these people are trained, the costs will be high.
A method to train all of these people would be to hold training-of-trainers courses for
individuals within each division. These trainers could then train people in their own
section with assistance from the Training Coordinator and Core Group. Thus training
could be tailored for each audience and time saved by having an "insider" participate in
the course development.
The question of "who" to train is addressed in a later section. To reiterate, training is
not cheap, whomever it is that is being trained.
9. Trainers work best with adequate resources and support personneL Resources include
secretarial, infrastructural, and logistical support. If a training course is held for FAO
staff at headquarters, logistical problems should be at a minimum. Still, arrangements
of all sorts will have to be made, presumably through ESHW offices. These would
include material production and reproduction, meeting space, lodging, meals, equipment
procurement (slide projector, video cassette recorder, microphone), translation if needed,
and so on. Once a course is held away from headquarters, logistical problems multiply
many-fold. The Training Coordinator will need to work with the travel office, for
example, to coordinate participant travel. It is often a good idea to hire someone
temporarily who is familiar with the country or region to handle many of the associated
problems that arise during a training course. Having a trainer responsible for logistics
is an inefficient and expensive use of their time.
10. The case method is particularly well-suited to WID/gender training. Case studies are
a popular tool for training. Participants tend to internalize and use the information in
case studies because they must take an active, rather than a passive, role in the learning
process. The case studies currently in use are based on actual development projects.
Many institutions have developed their own case studies but doing so is not necessary
to use the case study method. FAO has three options: the portfolio of existing teaching
case studies can be enhanced by using FAO experiences; FAO can develop its own case
studies; and FAO can go through an analytical exercise using specific project documents.
There are several case studies being developed at FAO which could be adapted for
teaching purposes. GIIS is doing a case study of the communication campaign for rural
development which deals mainly with women farmers. AGLW is writing case studies for
five major irrigation schemes around the world involving women. These are in reality
case histories but could be edited as teaching case studies for use in training courses.
A trainer should probably be involved in writing up these case histories for teaching
11. It is not necessary to develop new case studies in order to begin training. To elaborate,
case studies already exist that can be adapted using FAO experiences. For example,
participants in a training course can use their own project experience to analyze a case
study. FAO could also take a generic case study (for example, a road building project
or a small ruminant project) and enhance it with specific details from an FAO project.
Or, as stated above, FAO can use the case histories in progress and develop them into
FAO could also develop its own case studies, but it must be emphasized that this is
costly, time-consuming and not necessary for the first few training courses. In other
words, training should not be delayed while waiting for case studies to be developed.
CIDA, for example, has been using USAID case studies for its training courses for
several years and is just now starting to develop cases specific to their own organization.
However, case studies take a long time to be developed and someone should be assigned
the task of starting work on a few that are specific to FAO. An excellent starting point
would be the materials developed by the Fisheries division.
Finally, for gender analysis, FAO project documents can be used by a training class to
go through all of the steps of a project, from design to implementation to completion.
With the appropriate trainer, this latter analysis could even be developed later into an
FAO specific case study. If the course were planned to include someone who would be
responsible for developing the case study, two goals would be accomplished: getting a
case study written and testing it quickly.
12. Selection of participants is crucial to a successful training course. Given the great
number of staff who must be trained at FAO, the more pertinent question here is "Who
should be trained first?" and the corollary question "Who should participate in the
training-of-trainers courses?" This decision probably needs to be made at a fairly high
level to avoid conflicts. Given that some staff feel strongly that everyone should be
trained (Chaney, 1989) including field staff, it is clearly not possible for one training
team to train "everyone". Furthermore, there are different types of training needs.
Administrative and personnel staff, for example, probably do not need a three- to five-
day training course. By the same token, division chiefs would probably benefit from
an intensive short course of one-half to one day. The point is that there are different
levels and requirements for training of FAO staff. Priorities should be set, as indicated
in Chaney's report, and TOT initiated at the same time that the first courses are taught
so that training activities can diffuse throughout the organization.
13. It is essential to provide participants with an analytical framework for WID/gender
issues and analysis. Participants in some training exercises that have not included
instruction in the use of a framework come away with the idea that the training was all
well and good, quite interesting, but not possible to implement in their everyday
programs. An analytical framework provides the participants with a tool to use in their
job, assists them in asking the pertinent questions relating to WID/gender issues, and
forestalls the excuse for not applying WID/gender analysis to their projects. FAO need
not, at this point, develop an entirely new analytical framework. It can use existing
frameworks and adapt them to their needs.
14. There is no single training strategy that fits all institutions. There are basically four
types of courses: sensitization to WID issues, application of WID/gender analysis to
the FAO project process, methodological skills training in gender analysis, and TOT
(see Appendix 8). Depending on time available these can be combined. FAO, by and
large, does not need to sensitize its current staff although incoming staff would benefit
from an introduction to WID issues in their routine briefings. The other types of
training can be handled in any number of ways, according to who is being trained and
the internal needs of the FAO. As discussed throughout this and other documents, there
are a variety of needs, therefore, there is no single training strategy that will fulfill all
needs within the organization.
Anderson, Mary B. 1986. Gender Issues in Basic Education and Vocational Training.
Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Porgram and Policy Coordination, U.S.
Agency for International Development.
Burfisher, Mary E. and Nadine R. Horenstein. 1985. Sex Roles in the Nigerian Tiv Farm
Household. West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian Press.
Carloni, Alice S. 1987. Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985, Volume
I, Synthesis Paper. U.S. Agency for International Development: A.I.D. Program
Evaluation Report No. 18.
Caye, Virginia. 1988. The Gender Information Framework. Office of Women in
Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for
CIDA. 1986. Women in Development and the Project Cycle: A Workbook. Women in
Development Division, Canadian International Development Agency.
Collier, Paul. 1988. Women in Development: Defining the Issues. Women in
Development Division, Population and Human Resources Department, The World Bank,
Cloud, Kathleen. 1987. Gender Issues in USAID's Agricultural Projects: How Efficient
Are We? A Study of the Lessons Learned in Implementation of USAID's Women in
Development Policy in West and North Africa, the Near East, and Asia. USAID
Working Paper No. 85.
1988. A Teaching Module on Women and Agriculture: Household Level
Analysis. Prepared for the International Workshop Women, Households and
Development: Building a Data Base. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois.
S_1989. Report on the International Conference on Appropriate Technologies
for Farm Women, New Delhi. Arlington, Virginia: Winrock International. Manuscript.
Duncan, Ann. 1987. Economic Guidelines Outline. Women in Development Division,
Population and Human Resources Department, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Feldstein, Hilary and Susan Poats. 1989. Gender and Agriculture. Volume
I. Case Studies. Volume II. Teaching Notes. West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian
Hooper, Emma. 1988. Status Review of Selected World Bank Projects Benefitting Women.
Women in Development Division, Population and Human Resources Department, The
World Bank, Washington, D.C.
IRRI. 1987. Women in Rice Farming Systems: An Operational Reseach and Training
Program. Manila, Philippines: The International Rice Research Institute.
McCaffery, James A. 1986. Independent Effectiveness: A Reconsideration of Cross-
Cultural Orientation and Training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations
Molnar, Augusta and Gotz Schreiber. 1989. Women and Forestry: Operational Issues.
Women in Development, Population and Human Resources Department, The World
Bank, Washington, D.C.
Moser, Caroline. 1989. "Gender Planning in the Third World: Meeting Practical and
Strategic Gender Needs." World Development, Vol. 17, No. 11.
Moser, Caroline. 1986. "Women's Needs in the Urban System: Training Strategies in
Gender Aware Planning" In Learning About Women and Urban Services in Latin
America and the Caribbean. Marianne Schmink, Judith Bruce and Marilyn Kohn, eds.
New York: The Population Council.
Otero, Maria. 1987. Gender Issues in Small Scale Enterprise. Office of Women in
Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for
Overholt, Catherine, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud and James E. Austin. 1985.
Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book. West Hartford, Connecticut:
Palmer, Ingrid. 1985. The Nemow Case. West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian Press.
Poats, Susan, Jean Gearing and Sandra Russo. 1989. Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension: A Survey of Current Projects. Tropical Research and
Development, Inc. Prepared for the Office of Women in Development, Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International Development.
Poats, Susan. 1989. Training as a Mechanism for WID and Gender Issues Integration:
Experiences of Selected Institutions in International Development. Preliminary Report
Submitted to FAO/ESHW.
Poats, Susan, Marianne Schmink and Anita Spring, eds. 1988. Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Rao, Arunashree P., ed. 1986. Incorporating Gender Issues in Development Training.
Bangkok, Thailand: The Population Council Regional Office for South and East Asia.
Rathgeber, Eva. 1989. WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice. Ottawa,
Canada: International Development Research Centre. Manuscript.
Russo, Sandra, Jennifer Bremer-Fox, Susan Poats and Laurene Graig. 1989. Gender Issues
in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management. Office of Women in Development,
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International
White, Karen, Maria Otero, Margaret Lycette and Mayra Buvinic. 1986. Gender Issues
in Latin America and the Caribbean. International Center for Research on Women,
Washington, D.C. Prepared for the Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, U.S.
Agency for International Development.
World Bank. 1989. Women in Development: Seminar Report. Women in Development
Division, Human Resource Development Division. Washington, D.C.
APPENDIX 1 NAMES AND AFFILIATIONS OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED
Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. (CDA)
Royal Tropical Institute, The Netherlands
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Canadian Council for International Cooperation
Consultant, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
London School of Economics (LSE)
United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
Iowa State University
International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
International Agriculture Center, Wageningen
1 J, V
APPENDIX 2 DEVELOPING A WID/GENDER TRAINING STRATEGY
The following notes on the development of a WID/gender training strategy were developed
by Susan Poats as part of a project proposal written for Tropical Research and
Development, Inc. This strategy is directed primarily to two intermediate objectives: 1)
to increase the skills for addressing gender issues and conducting gender analysis, and 2)
to institutionalize systems and procedures for incorporating gender issues in policies,
programs and projects. A complementary four-tiered typology of training courses is
presented in Appendix 3.
Overview of the Training Strategy.
The key to a training strategy is its "structured flexibility." The design and delivery of
individual training activities is flexible so as to reflect the specific needs of the client group.
That is, each course will be tailored to address regional, country or functional differences
and provide directly relevant experiences and skills for participants. Each training activity
should provide opportunities for participants to contribute to the continued development
of training through evaluation and forward planning mechanisms. The incorporation of
lessons learned and participant recommendations to future activities will help to ensure
appropriateness and increase effectiveness of training.
Structured flexibility requires sufficient planning time for assessing the needs and
dimensions for any training activity. Achieving timeliness require close collaboration with
the unit requesting the training and the ready and available collaborative involvement of
specialists with training process expertise and depth and breadth within the WID field. The
process envisioned by the strategy for implementing a training activity includes the following
1. Formulation of a training request.
A request for training may come from any of various levels: internal WID units or
advisors, external WID consultants, senior management, field level offices, project teams,
advisory boards, donors or a combination of these. It is important to determine where
the initiative is coming, why and how it relates to any existing mandate or policy for
WID/gender training. Inconsistency between a training course and a mandate for
WID/gender issues can have a negative impact on a training course. It is also
important, as much as possible to have wide support and constituency for training, even
if only relatively few people participate. Surprise courses rarely encourage institutional
support in the long-run.
2. Participant Selection
The initial designation of participants often will occur simultaneously with a request for
training. It is important to assess the existing level of WID knowledge among the
proposed participants and their functional responsibilities in order to determine the type
and level of training needed. This can be done either through discussions with the
requesting entity (or person), directly with potential participants or through a written
* 4 :1
questionnaire. In some cases, it may be advisable to recommend to the requestor that
a different grouping of participants might be more effective or that other persons should
also participate in order to have a proper mixture and balance of participants.
Participation in any training event, especially those held on a regional basis or those
involving several institutions or organizations, will shift between the time of initial
designation and the actual delivery of the course. The role of the training team is to
anticipate these changes, accommodate as much as possible the last-minute additions,
and provide appropriate advanced materials to prepare participants for the content and
nature of the course.
3. Designation of trainers.
Selection of a cohesive training team is based on the level and type of participants and
the context in which they will incorporate WID issues and apply gender analysis.
Trainer selection should also aim for a mix of expertise in training processes and
content. Appropriate language and local or regional familiarity should also be factored
into the selection of trainers.
4. Preliminary planning and design.
Based on the participants, their work responsibilities, and the institutional, geographic
and cultural context of their work, the training team conducts the preliminary planning
and design of the course. This begins with the designation of the type of training course
needed. Adaptation of the general content of a course will consider the length of time
available against the minimal and optimal amount of time needed to deliver such a
course. A macro-design plan results from this phase which will outline the length of the
course, the division into segments and the major topics or activities to be covered in
each course segment (usually mornings and afternoons with some evening segments).
Course and topic objectives are defined as part of the macro-plan. A site visit as part
of the preliminary planning and design can be very useful in insuring that the course will
meet the expectations of the requestor and also allows the training team to assess
logistical and other needs for the course. Participant assessment can also be greatly
enhanced with a site visit. If the training team is to be entirely responsible for course
logistics then a planning visit is essential.
5. Selection, tailoring and development of appropriate materials.
With completion of the macro-plan and course objectives, the selection of materials
assumes priority. There are now many WID and gender analysis training materials
available including case studies, analytical and design frameworks, methodological
guidelines, training manuals, and other research resources that can be used in training.
These should be selected for appropriate segments of the course. Where necessary, they
should be tailored to fit current participant needs and experiences.
Vi '1 t
6. Final design
Detailed planning of each segment of the course is completed for the final training
design. This includes final development of all materials, appropriate placement and the
allocation of responsibilities among the trainers. In the case of courses devoted to
learning new methodological skills, experiential exercises and field practicums should be
designed in order to provide participants with hands on experience in the collection of
disaggragated data, location and utilization of secondary data on household and gender
research, gender analysis and interpretation and the implications of results for planning,
evaluation, re-assessment, or other project and research activities.
7. On-going redesign
No matter how well a training course is designed, there always will be room and need
for adjustments and improvements. During the delivery of a course, on-going monitoring
and evaluation by the training team will provide information on how well the
participants understand the concepts underlying WID/gender issues and their ability to
utilize the tools of gender analysis. Capturing this information and putting it to good
use means on-going adjustment and redesign of the course while it proceeds. This
requires a team training effort with continuous backup and feedback among the
8. Forward planning
Participation in a WID/gender training course can often be the impetus for determining
further training needs. A training program can capitalize on the tendency for such
momentum by designing into the training courses a time within the schedule for
participants to work with trainers to consider the need for further training activities.
Training course evaluation should be conducted on at least two levels. On-going brief
evaluations of each completed segment of a course should be conducted in order to
determine whether the segment content has been adequately covered or if adjustments
are needed to provide further attention to specific issues. This type of evaluation assists
the team in spotting problems or deficiencies in the course while there is still time to
address them. A final, more complete evaluation instrument should be used at the close
of each training course. These should be analyzed following the course, the results
included in the final report on the training course and used in the redesign of the
specific course if it is delivered again, or in the design of new courses.
10. Reporting and Review
A training report should be prepared at the close of each training course by the training
team. This should consist of the final outline of the course, participant list, final
evaluation results, a narrative summary of the course activities, any new materials
developed specifically for the course, and the results of the forward planning activity.