• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of appendices
 Purpose and objectives of...
 Background of study
 Study methodology
 A rationale for WID/gender analysis...
 Experiences from selected...
 Brief analysis of institutional...
 Lessons learned
 Application of lessons learned...
 Bibliography
 Appendices
 Appendix 1. Names and affiliations...
 Appendix 2. Women in development:...
 Appendix 3. Economic guideline...
 Appendix 4. The gender information...
 Appendix 5. UNPD training notes,...
 Appendix 6. Proposal for ODA staff...
 Appendix 7. Developing a WID/Gender...
 Appendix 8. Typology of WID/Gender...
 Appendix 9. Gender analysis and...














Title: Training in WIDgender analysis in agricultural development
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089957/00001
 Material Information
Title: Training in WIDgender analysis in agricultural development a review of experiences and lessons
Physical Description: 42, 6 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poats, Susan V
Russo, Sandra L., 1948-
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Tropical Research and Development, Inc.,
Tropical Research and Development, Inc.
Place of Publication: Gainesville Florida
Publication Date: 1989
Copyright Date: 1989
 Subjects
Subject: Women in agriculture -- Training of   ( lcsh )
Women in development -- Training of   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by Susan V. Poats and Sandra L. Russo.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 35-37).
General Note: At head of title: Prepared for: The Women in Agricultual Production and Rural Development Service of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
General Note: "Author Contract Number 7-21123."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089957
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 61211000

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement 1
        Acknowledgement 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    List of appendices
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Purpose and objectives of study
        Page 1
    Background of study
        Page 1
    Study methodology
        Page 1
        Page 2
    A rationale for WID/gender analysis training in agriculture
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Experiences from selected institutions
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Brief analysis of institutional experiences
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Lessons learned
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Application of lessons learned to FAO
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Bibliography
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Appendices
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Appendix 1. Names and affiliations of persons interviewed
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Appendix 2. Women in development: A framework for project analysis
        Page 43
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    Appendix 3. Economic guidelines
        Page 57
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    Appendix 4. The gender information framework: Gender considerations in design
        Page 69
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    Appendix 5. UNPD training notes, 1989
        Page 171
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    Appendix 6. Proposal for ODA staff training in "Women in development"
        Page 173
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    Appendix 7. Developing a WID/Gender training strategy
        Page 177
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    Appendix 8. Typology of WID/Gender training courses
        Page 181
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    Appendix 9. Gender analysis and farming systems research and extension conceptual framework and worksheets
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Full Text

MERGE
340


Prepared for:

The Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
of the
FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS



Author Contract Number 7-21123


July 1989






Tropical Research and Development, Inc.
519 N.W. 60th Street, Suite D
Gainesville, Florida 32607
Tel. (904)331-1886 FAX (904)331-3284


TRAINING IN WID/GENDER ANALYSIS IN
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW OF
EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS

Prepared by:

Susan V. Poats, Ph.D. and
Sandra L. Russo, Ph.D.







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We would like to thank the many people who kindly agreed to participate in this
study. We appreciate both the time they gave to us and the wealth of information they
provided. We would like to thank Mary Anderson in particular for the help she provided
in conceptualizing the study and in developing the themes for the set of discussion
questions. Her insights and experience in training were critical to the development of this
report. We would also like to thank Paula Goddard and Kathleen Cloud for their
comments on the interim results of the study and ideas about follow-up activities. We also
appreciate the comments from Hilary Feldstein who reviewed the interim report on the
study and provided additional information about several training courses. Letty Ozuna
and Kristina Gaidry, Tropical Research and Development Inc., are to be commended for
their excellent assistance with the design and production of the report. Finally, we are very
grateful to Lisette Walecka of Tropical Research and Development, Inc. who managed this
project and provided critical review of the report in its various stages. We are especially
thankful for her input on the sections dealing with lessons and recommendations and
recognize that without her positive enforcement of our many deadlines, this report would
not have been completed.

While we recognize the input and support of many people in conducting this study,
the authors accept full responsibility for the analysis and interpretation of the information
contained in the report.







TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF APPENDICES ............................................ iii

A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY ....................... 1

B. BACKGROUND OF STUDY ................................... 1

C. STUDY METHODOLOGY .................................... 1

D. A RATIONALE FOR WID/GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING IN
AGRICULTURE ........................................... 3

E. EXPERIENCES FROM SELECTED INSTITUTIONS ................ 5
1. The W orld Bank ....................................... 5
2. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) ..... 7
3. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) ............ 10
4. Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB) 11
5. United National Development Program (UNDP) ............... 12
6. University of Florida (UF) ............................... 14
7. Experiences from the Netherlands .......................... 14
8. International Development Research Centre, Canada (IDRC) ...... 15
9. Experiences from the United Kingdom ....................... 17
10. Other Institutional Experiences ............................ 19

F. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCES ............ 21
1. Level of Institutional Commitment .......................... 21
2. Length and Format of Training Activities ..................... 21
3. Trainers ............................................. 23
4. Training Methods and Materials ............................ 23
5. Training of Trainers .................................... 25
6. Training Costs ........................................ 25

G. LESSONS LEARNED ....................................... 26

H. APPLICATION OF LESSONS LEARNED TO FAO ................. 29

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................ 36









Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4


Appendix 5

Appendix 6

Appendix 7

Appendix 8

Appendix 9


LIST OF APPENDICES

Names and Affiliations of Persons Interviewed

Women in Development: A Framework for Project Analysis

Economic Guidelines

The Gender Information Framework: Gender Considerations in
Design

UNDP Training Notes, 1989

Proposal for ODA Staff Training in "Women in Development"

Developing a WID/Gender Training Strategy

Typology of WID/Gender Training Courses

Gender Analysis and Farming Systems Research and Extension
Conceptual Framework and Worksheets








A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY


The purpose of this study is to survey, assess and compare the experiences of
selected institutions in training their staff to be WID/gender sensitive and to employ gender
issues and analysis in the design, monitoring and evaluation of research and/or development
projects. The explicit objectives of the study are:

1. To identify the most relevant training experiences and materials concerning
WID and gender analysis in agricultural research and development.

2. To identify the lessons learned from these experiences and the "gaps" in the
training area particularly related to development of new materials.


B. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The idea for this study originated from a request by the Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development Service, FAO, to Tropical Research and Development,
Inc. (TRD) for assistance in developing and delivering one or more training courses for the
staff of FAO. TRD proposed that before training courses or a strategy for a training
program be designed to train all of the FAO staff in WID/gender issues and analysis as
applied to the problems of agricultural development, FAO should carefully consider the
experiences and lessons learned from similar institutions that have taken on the same task.
In doing so, FAO would be able to enhance its own training strategy while avoiding
problems that have occurred elsewhere. FAO commissioned the study in March 1989.


C. STUDY METHODOLOGY

The study relied on two sources of information. The first came from interviews with
persons involved in training in WID/Gender analysis. The second was from selected
secondary sources dealing either with training programs or training materials.

In conducting the interviews, the first step was to compile a list of institutions that
fund, support or are otherwise involved in agricultural research and development that have
undertaken WID/gender issues and analysis training activities for their own staff in order
to cultivate and integrate gender issues and analysis within their project activities. It should
be emphasized that the institutions selected represent only a sample of the total universe
of organizations that have engaged in WID/Gender analysis training for staff members.
Individuals who were involved in the planning and/or delivery of the training activities were
identified and interviews scheduled. In some instances, only one person was interviewed
from an institution; in others, several people were interviewed in order to gain various
perspectives on the training program. Several of the people interviewed have conducted
WID/Gender training in more than one institution as consultants.








A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY


The purpose of this study is to survey, assess and compare the experiences of
selected institutions in training their staff to be WID/gender sensitive and to employ gender
issues and analysis in the design, monitoring and evaluation of research and/or development
projects. The explicit objectives of the study are:

1. To identify the most relevant training experiences and materials concerning
WID and gender analysis in agricultural research and development.

2. To identify the lessons learned from these experiences and the "gaps" in the
training area particularly related to development of new materials.


B. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The idea for this study originated from a request by the Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development Service, FAO, to Tropical Research and Development,
Inc. (TRD) for assistance in developing and delivering one or more training courses for the
staff of FAO. TRD proposed that before training courses or a strategy for a training
program be designed to train all of the FAO staff in WID/gender issues and analysis as
applied to the problems of agricultural development, FAO should carefully consider the
experiences and lessons learned from similar institutions that have taken on the same task.
In doing so, FAO would be able to enhance its own training strategy while avoiding
problems that have occurred elsewhere. FAO commissioned the study in March 1989.


C. STUDY METHODOLOGY

The study relied on two sources of information. The first came from interviews with
persons involved in training in WID/Gender analysis. The second was from selected
secondary sources dealing either with training programs or training materials.

In conducting the interviews, the first step was to compile a list of institutions that
fund, support or are otherwise involved in agricultural research and development that have
undertaken WID/gender issues and analysis training activities for their own staff in order
to cultivate and integrate gender issues and analysis within their project activities. It should
be emphasized that the institutions selected represent only a sample of the total universe
of organizations that have engaged in WID/Gender analysis training for staff members.
Individuals who were involved in the planning and/or delivery of the training activities were
identified and interviews scheduled. In some instances, only one person was interviewed
from an institution; in others, several people were interviewed in order to gain various
perspectives on the training program. Several of the people interviewed have conducted
WID/Gender training in more than one institution as consultants.








A. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY


The purpose of this study is to survey, assess and compare the experiences of
selected institutions in training their staff to be WID/gender sensitive and to employ gender
issues and analysis in the design, monitoring and evaluation of research and/or development
projects. The explicit objectives of the study are:

1. To identify the most relevant training experiences and materials concerning
WID and gender analysis in agricultural research and development.

2. To identify the lessons learned from these experiences and the "gaps" in the
training area particularly related to development of new materials.


B. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The idea for this study originated from a request by the Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development Service, FAO, to Tropical Research and Development,
Inc. (TRD) for assistance in developing and delivering one or more training courses for the
staff of FAO. TRD proposed that before training courses or a strategy for a training
program be designed to train all of the FAO staff in WID/gender issues and analysis as
applied to the problems of agricultural development, FAO should carefully consider the
experiences and lessons learned from similar institutions that have taken on the same task.
In doing so, FAO would be able to enhance its own training strategy while avoiding
problems that have occurred elsewhere. FAO commissioned the study in March 1989.


C. STUDY METHODOLOGY

The study relied on two sources of information. The first came from interviews with
persons involved in training in WID/Gender analysis. The second was from selected
secondary sources dealing either with training programs or training materials.

In conducting the interviews, the first step was to compile a list of institutions that
fund, support or are otherwise involved in agricultural research and development that have
undertaken WID/gender issues and analysis training activities for their own staff in order
to cultivate and integrate gender issues and analysis within their project activities. It should
be emphasized that the institutions selected represent only a sample of the total universe
of organizations that have engaged in WID/Gender analysis training for staff members.
Individuals who were involved in the planning and/or delivery of the training activities were
identified and interviews scheduled. In some instances, only one person was interviewed
from an institution; in others, several people were interviewed in order to gain various
perspectives on the training program. Several of the people interviewed have conducted
WID/Gender training in more than one institution as consultants.







While many of the institutions included in the study are also engaged in development
activities outside of the agricultural sector, institutions were only included if they are
engaged in agricultural development work in order to ensure greater relevance to the work
of the FAO. A complete list of the persons interviewed and their institutional affiliations
can be found in Appendix 1.

Interviews lasted between one and two hours. Most were conducted by telephone.
The interviews were conducted in an informal manner in the style of an open discussion.
A set of open-ended questions listed below were developed to guide the subjects of
discussion.

1. How was the training effort initiated? By whom? Were there any "guardian angels"
or persons in high authority who mandated or protected the training in its initial or
subsequent stages? What was the institutional setting and "climate" for WID or
gender analysis at the time the training was done?

2. What was the purpose and role of the training activities? Were these held in
common or were there varying roles and purposes? Were there any hidden or not
so hidden "other" agendas?

3. What was (is) the structure and format of the training activities? (i.e., length and
organization of training courses or workshops, leaders/trainers, sequencing,
evaluation, follow-up, materials used, training techniques). Has this altered since the
effort first began? How? Why?

4. Have there been any training of trainer activities? Are there people within the
institution to continue the training if outside trainers conducted the initial training
efforts?

5. Who were (are) the participants and how were they selected?

6. What was(is) the outcome of the training? What did it actually achieve? What are
the future plans?

7. What is the current level of integration of WID/gender issues in the institution? Is
it directly attributable to the training that was conducted?

While the terms of reference for this study did not explicitly include surveying
participants in WID/gender issues and analysis training courses or workshop, an interim
report on the study (Poats 1989) indicated that some participants would be interviewed.
Subsequent to the interim report it was determined that an objective assessment of
participant reactions to and utilization of the information and skills presented in training
would require a more thorough and rigorous survey than possible within this study.
Nonetheless, anecdotal information was obtained from some participants and, where
relevant, is included in this report.







In addition to the interviews, several secondary sources of information were used to
develop this report. The following resources were particularly useful with respect to
training issues. Full references can be found in the bibliography.

Incorporating Gender Issues in Development Training, edited by Arunashree P. Rao

A Teaching Module on Women and Agriculture: Household Level Analysis, by
Kathleen Cloud

Women in Development and the Project Cycle: A Workbook, compiled by the
Women in Development Division, Canadian International Development Agency
(CIDA).

Learning About Women and Urban Services in Latin America and the Caribbean,
edited by Marianne Schmink, Judith Bruce and Marilyn Kohn, Population Council

Gender Roles in Development Projects, edited by Catherine Overholt, Mary
Anderson, Kathleen Cloud and James Austin

Gender Issues in Farming Systems Research and Extension: A Survey of Current
Projects, by Susan Poats, Jean Gearing and Sandra Russo, Tropical Research and
Development, Inc.

A Casebook on Gender and Agriculture, Volumes I and II, by Hilary Feldstein and
Susan Poats


D. A RATIONALE FOR WID/GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING IN
AGRICULTURE'

Women are critical to agricultural production but access to resources and effective
technologies is often constrained by gender barriers that lead to negative effects on the
design and implementation of effective agricultural development programs (Feldstein and
Poats, 1989). Recognition of this fact is growing rapidly within the agricultural research and
development community. A number of projects now actively seek ways to include women
in the process of agricultural development. Incorporation of gender as an analytical
variable in agriculture is becoming a necessity. Achieving this goal requires agricultural
professionals to acquire "a new set of conceptual and analytical perspectives and skills in
order to deal explicitly, effectively and efficiently with women-related issues in the spectrum
of projects in which they become involved" (Overholt et al. 1985:xii).

The analysis implied in the above discussion does not involve just understanding what
women do, rather it entails an understanding of the cross-culturally variable social roles of


SThe discussion in this section draws heavily on the introduction to Volume I of A
Casebook on Gender and Agriculture by Hilary Feldstein and Susan Poats.







men and women. Such analysis requires more than endless checklists of questions or
guidelines for data collection and it requires the use of analytical frameworks designed
specifically to deal with gender issues (see analytical framework in Overholt et al 1985 and
the conceptual framework in Feldstein and Poats, 1989). Creation of such frameworks has
been part of a shift away from the WID focus on women's equity and involvement to a
"gender and development trend...[that]...analyses the nature of women's contribution inside
and outside the household...sees women as agents of change rather than as passive
recipients of development assistance...question[s] the underlying assumptions of current
social, economic and political structures...[and] leads not only to the design of interventions
and affirmative action strategies which will ensure that women are better integrated into
on-going development efforts...[but]...to a fundamental re-examination of social structures
and institutions" (Rathgeber 1989). Recognition of the importance of the WID history and
issues while moving to a focus on gender analysis is captured in the term WID/Gender
analysis which is used throughout this volume to refer to the large set of issues and
analytical frameworks.

The incorporation of WID/Gender analysis frameworks into the way projects are
designed and implemented is intimately linked to training. A major finding by a recent
survey of projects using the Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR/E) approach
to agricultural development was that training is crucial to the effective integration of gender
issues and analysis in research decisions (Poats et al, 1989). While there was a correlation
between having women and/or social scientists on teams and whether or not gender analysis
was conducted, not all women nor social scientists conducted gender analysis as part of their
work. Their presence did not guarantee attention to gender issues, However, in all cases
where training (either formal or informal) in gender issues and analysis occurred, those
projects did subsequently conduct or improve gender analysis. Though the total number of
projects included in the survey was small, the results indicate the need for explicitly
including training mechanisms in an overall strategy to incorporate gender issues in project
activities.

Increasing attention is being paid today by institutions engaged in development
activities to the need for training in WID/Gender analysis. Some deal with the issue by
providing training to their own staff in order that they will in turn incorporate WID/Gender
issues in their work with development activities. Others have established courses to train
people from outside rather than their own staff. A few have done both. The experiences
of a selection of these institutions are presented in this report.

The remainder of the report is organized into four sections. The first presents brief
vignettes of the experiences of the selected institutions. These are based on interviews and
secondary materials. They are not meant to be a complete study or evaluation of any single
institution, but rather a "snapshot" of WID/Gender training. The second section compares
the experiences of the various institutions. The set of questions used to guide the interviews
provides the themes for this brief comparative analysis. The third section pulls out a set
of "lessons learned" from the experiences. The fourth section takes these lessons to
formulate recommendations for the FAO. Several appendices provide further clarification
on types of training and examples of training materials.







E. EXPERIENCES FROM SELECTED INSTITUTIONS


1. The World Bank

The World Bank was the first institution to conduct WID/gender issues training for
its own staff. The WID Advisor to the World Bank commissioned James Austin, a well-
known case method trainer at Harvard, to conduct a series of short workshops for Bank
staff in 1980-81. While Austin had the expertise in case method, he was unfamiliar with
WID issues so he brought in three other people with WID experience to create a team to
handle the World Bank request. These people were Catherine Overholt, Mary Anderson
and Kathleen Cloud. They had not worked together previously but through this initial effort,
developed some key training materials and procedures that established a basis for much of
the training done subsequently at other institutions. This team, referred to hereafter in this
document as the "Harvard team", continued to work together and perfect their approach
to WID/Gender Analysis training as they conducted more training courses for a wide array
of development institutions, donor organizations, and national programs.

The World Bank also commissioned several writers through the training office to
develop a number of case studies dealing with WID/Gender issues in World Bank projects.
These cases were largely case histories or detailed descriptions of projects that included
analysis of results and evaluations. Many presented a fairly negative view of the impact of
the project on women, and some were over 200 pages in length---far too long to be read
in a training session. With permission from the World Bank, the Harvard team subjected
these case histories to a "brutal" editing and developed them into much shorter (20 pages)
teaching cases in the style of those used in the Harvard Business School.

In the Harvard Business School, teaching cases are used for training business
management students in analysis and decision making with respect to everything from
factory design and financial management to marketing. A teaching case is different from
case histories or analytical cases which describe, analyze, reach conclusions and evaluate a
particular project or set of events.

"A teaching case describes a set of events and provides available, relevant data, but
leaves analysis and conclusions to those who read it. Thus the material presented in each
case consists of description and data, including often the opinions of different actors. Each
case is a slice of reality, covering a short amount of time, and using only data which was
available to decision makers when they were deciding next steps" (Feldstein and Poats
1989).

The Harvard team developed an analytical framework to guide trainees or workshop
participants in the analysis of the case studies (see Appendix 2.) The framework uses four
interrelated components: Activity Profile; Access and Control Profile; Analysis of Factors
Influencing Activities, Access and Control; and Project Cycle Analysis (Overholt et al 1985).
They then constructed a workshop format in which three teaching cases could be studied
and discussed.







This format is based on directing learning from individual study, to small group
discussion, to large group discussion and analysis. Trainers facilitate discussion by using
questions to guide the analysis of the "data" (written case studies or project information).
Repeating the process of individual to group analysis and discussion with different sets of
data but guided by the same framework trains participants in how to use the framework
as a tool in their work and effectively demonstrates that the framework guiding gender
analysis is applicable to all situations. The resulting data, analysis and therefore,
recommendations for actions differ. Repeated use of the framework on different project
information sets enhances the skills of the participants in using the framework and will
encourage them to use it in their day to day work.

The format was transposed into an actual workshop that was conducted "off site" in
a location where participants would not be distracted by the demands of their offices.
(Holding training workshops in this residential fashion became a hallmark of the Harvard
team and a criteria from which they rarely deviate.) The workshop would start with an
evening session, usually with an informal reception, where the objectives of the workshop
were presented, case study materials and analytical framework were distributed and some
sort of visual would be shown to "get people in the mood" for looking at gender issues.
Often a film or slide show showing men's and women's roles in various production sectors
is used for this purpose. Three case studies are then covered, one in each morning and
afternoon session. During the final afternoon, the last session would deal with more general
issues of application of the framework and lessons from the cases to job responsibilities of
Bank staff.

There were a total of 10 to 12 workshops during the year that the Harvard team
worked with the World Bank. Overall, it was only a small proportion of the total Bank
staff. The workshops gave needed visibility to WID within the Bank and to the work of the
WID Advisor. But in retrospect, according to the Harvard team, it did not alter actual
Bank work. However, this assessment might warrant further study due to one particular
feature of the training that was conducted. The first target group of participants for the
workshops were the upper echelon of the Bank staff, including vice-presidents. Though
many of these same people have moved on to other jobs and responsibilities, often outside
the Bank, their experience with the framework may be influencing the current Bank climate
of greater recognition and acceptability of WID/Gender issues.

The World Bank case studies were never published but the Harvard team continues
to use them in other training workshops with permission of the Bank. Training at the Bank
on WID/Gender analysis did not continue following the end of the Harvard team's contract.
The Bank has undergone a reorganization since training took place. There has been a
change is leadership for WID and the creation of a WID Division within the Population and
Human Resources Department. The WID Division has produced a number of working
papers defining WID issues for specific sectors (cf. Molnar and Schreiber, 1989; Collier,
1988), conducted a review of selected Bank projects benefitting women (Hooper, 1988), and
is engaged in several research activities.

The Division has also recently re-initiated training activities with a seminar held off-
site during May 1989 (World Bank, 1989). Participants included 24 Bank staff members







and consultants from a range of sectors and levels. The seminar goal was to help build
operational capacity to include WID in the mainstream of the Bank's ESW and lending
assistance. The seminar lasted for 12 days and included only Bank staff and consultants as
facilitators and participants because WID "is a field in an early stage of development. We
all know how to work with each other, and we can help each other to actually come up with
proposals that work in the Bank" (Barbara Herz, Chief, WID Division, in introduction to
seminar.) A WID framework for the Bank was introduced (Duncan, 1987, see Appendix
3) and several country case studies (histories, analytical) representing three sectors (credit,
agricultural extension and education) were the subject of small group workshops.
Evaluations of the seminar were on the whole quite positive but it is too early to measure
any direct impact. The Division has plans to continue with future training activities.

While the Bank is coming full-circle back to conducting training activities,
WID/Gender, style and format of the training is quite different. Today there is little
institutional memory within the Division concerning the training and the materials
developed with the earlier Harvard team and the Division is creating or adapting a new set
of materials for their current efforts.


2. United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

Following the World Bank experience, the same Harvard team of trainers felt more
work was needed to perfect the analytical framework and the use of case method training
in WID/Gender analysis. This opportunity arose with a request from the Women in
Development Office of USAID in 1983 to conduct a training program for USAID staff
similar to the one conducted at the World Bank. The contract, handled this time through
the Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID), included the development of
case studies based on USAID projects. It also provided support for the improvement of the
analytical framework and the development of several sectoral technical papers to
supplement the framework and cases. The entire package of materials was published in
1985 (Overholt et al.) and have been widely used outside of USAID. A brief set of
teaching notes were also developed to accompany the cases and were available upon
request from the WID office.

As part of the HIID contract, the Harvard team lead a series of short (1V days and
2 nights) workshops with USAID staff and administration during 1984-85. The workshops
followed the same format as those run at the World Bank and were held off-site.
Participants were primarily USAID personnel based in Washington D.C. with a few
participants from consulting firms and universities handling USAID development project
contracts.

The workshops received a positive response and evaluation from the majority of the
participants. Following the first round of workshops for Washington-based staff, a series
of regional workshops were planned. There were also plans for a training-of-trainers in
order to expand the number of trainers to work on regional courses. Subsequently, one
regional course was conducted in Asia by a different group of trainers. Apparently, they
were not familiar with case method teaching and the workshop was not successful.
Leadership in the WID office had by this time changed and the training workshops came
to a halt while other activities in the WID Office increased.








Between 1984 and 1987, the WID Office did not work directly with training,
however, they did commission the development of several guidelines on gender issues and
regional or sectoral development (see The Gender Manual Series, USAID/PPC/WID.)
Some of the guidelines were used in informal training sessions by individual WID Office
consultants in the course of technical assistance work for the Office.

During 1986-87, a major study of USAID's experience in Women in Development
was conducted (Carloni 1987; Cloud, 1987). While this study did not focus on training
issues, it did demonstrate that the greatest positive impact for women came from those
projects where WID/Gender Issues were integrated into the entire nature of the project
rather than in women's projects or projects with a women's or WID component. The widely
circulated and discussed findings from this study served to reinforce the critical role that
training must play---for all people engaged in development efforts---if WID/Gender issues
are to be effectively integrated into projects at all levels.

Attention to training resumed in the WID Office in 1987 with the addition of a new
staff member to the office with a major responsibility and interest in training. Though some
training was initiated for Washington-based staff, primarily through the inclusion of short
WID/Gender issues modules in other training efforts, the primary target became the
regional USAID mission staff. A Gender Information Framework (GIF 1988), based in
part on the earlier analytical framework, was developed to assist USAID staff in including
gender considerations in the design of USAID projects (see Appendix 4.) The framework
keys data needs to the specific project design sequence used by USAID.

Training workshops were resumed in 1987 on a regional or country basis. The first
one was held in Nairobi as an "add-on" to the annual meeting of agricultural and rural
development officers. This training course was the first test for the new GIF and responses
from participants were mixed. Evaluations called for a scaling down of the detail in the
GIF and clearer organization of the material according to the USAID project development
process. This was done and the GIF was further tested in other training workshops. At
present, the GIF is being summarized for a 6-panel brochure that can be easily distributed
within the Agency.

Rather than using the existing case studies based on USAID projects, the WID
Office takes actual current project papers from the region or country where the training is
to be held, summarizes them, and uses them as cases. These are supplemented with work
on applying the GIF to projects managed by USAID staff attending the workshops. In
anticipation of this activity, each participant is asked to come to the workshop with a
specific project or problem they feel needs gender analysis. The Experiential Learning
Cycle (ELC) (McCaffery, 1988) is used to guide the processing of the case information
according to the GIF.

The present format used for the training workshops run by the WID Office at
present consists of 10 sessions or modules:

1. Introduction and definition of WID and Gender issues and problems.







2. Presentation of key elements of GIF: task allocation; access and control issues;
constraints on beneficiaries, opportunities and expenditures; and inclusion of women.
3. Presentation and reading of USAID project document (usually a project paper) from
the region (pared down and summarized for training purposes).
4. Group processing of the project document (individual study, small group discussion,
plenary discussion.)
5. Reference and discussion back to the GIF.
6. Presentation on data needs and available information for conducting gender analysis.
Includes short practicum on use of secondary data.
7. Use of the GIF in overall USAID project planning process.
8. Individual and small group work on own projects needing gender focus.
9. Gender issues in non-project assistance (structural adjustment); discussion with small
group activity.
10. Develop individual workplans, a copy of which is kept by the trainers for follow-up
monitoring and evaluation.

These ten modules or sessions are organized into a compact three-day workshop.
At present, the WID Office plans to extend the training workshop format to add a fourth
day which will be used to visit a field project as well as national program and ministerial
leaders. This fourth day will be first tested in a southern African regional workshop to be
held in Botswana in the fall of 1989. This fourth day is also designed to be an opportunity
to try out techniques to gather existing data on gender.

The WID Office has been using the same or nearly the same training team for most
of its recent training activities. While this results in some savings in terms of preparation
time for the trainers and enhances the team building necessary to develop a good training
group, substantial preparation time is still built into each workshop. In the earlier courses,
this was estimated at 8:1 or eight days of preparation for one day of training. The estimate
is less now, but because project documents are adapted for each course, this part of the
preparation does not diminish significantly.

The current training team consists of four members for any given workshop. In
addition to this, there is a logistician and secretarial support provided to the team. A
representative of the WID Office is also present to answer questions directly relating to
office operations. The training team includes male and female members, most have
previous USAID project experience, and the team composition for any given workshop
reflects experience in the region where the workshop is being held. Finally, all of the
training team members have been trained as trainers and had worked in training before
becoming involved in WID/Gender training.

Costs for the training efforts are estimated by the director of the WID Office at
roughly $150,000 for each regional training workshop lasting 3 days. Some workshops have
been evaluated by an external firm at an additional cost of $20,000.

Because USAID has mandated that WID/Gender training and technical assistance
should be conducted on an agency-wide basis, a very large project has been designed with








a substantial training component for a projected five year period. The project contract for
US $10,637,774 has been awarded to a group of private sector consulting firms. Work
under the project contract should begin in late 1989 and it is anticipated that numerous
training courses and workshops will be conducted under this effort. The goal over the next
several years is to train 5,000 USAID staff. It remains to be seen whether the new
contractor will follow the same training format that has been used by USAID in recent
years.


3. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

Following the initial Washington-based training workshops with USAID, the Harvard
team was hired to conduct a training program for CIDA. The same format was followed
as was done with the World Bank and USAID with two significant changes. First, the
program included a training-of-trainers (TOT) effort. Those persons selected for the TOT
were then paired with Harvard trainers as they gained experience and comfort with case
study method of training. In order to deal with the bi-lingual requirements of CIDA
business, francophone and anglophone trainers were trained. These trainers then took over
the training responsibilities for CIDA. They were not CIDA staff, but consultants hired on
a regular basis for a regularly programmed training program. The second change from the
World Bank and USAID experiences was that case studies were not developed based on
CIDA projects. Rather the USAID case studies were used in training as well as the original
analytical framework.

An important feature of the CIDA experience is that the Director General (a
woman) mandated that all staff, headquarters and regional, be trained in gender issues and
analysis. The Harvard team was hired to complete this initial phase. Once all existing staff
had been trained, CIDA instituted an on-going training program to ensure that any new
staff to the institution would receive the same training. The short 1 day 2 night
workshops are continued today, four times per year, using two sets of training consultants,
one working in English and the other in French. The consultants are not employees of
CIDA but contracted for the work and managed by a WID director who is a permanent
CIDA staff member. The training itself is handled out of the CIDA training division, not
from within the WID division. There has been one change in the WID director position
during this time.

Agency-wide commitment to WID/Gender issues has been a key feature of the
CIDA experience. In addition to the mandate by the Director General for training, CIDA
constructed a five year plan three years ago to integrate nine specific WID operational
objectives into the policy of the institution. The initial WID policy was accepted in 1983
and the Harvard-run training was the first step of the plan to enact the WID policy. Now
at the end of the third year of the plan, WID division is quantifying what has been done,
the progress made, and the needs to still be addressed. They are finding that though only
in the third year, they are coming to the end of the action plan. The objectives have been
achieved, and in many branches of CIDA have gone further than anticipated. The plan
worked because it was flexible and could be adapted as time progressed. Each branch
was able to develop its own plan to meet the larger plan.








Another critical feature of the CIDA experience was the creation of an agency-wide
steering committee with representatives from all divisions that meet a few times a year and
discuss WID issues, the action plan, and reports progress on a yearly basis to the president's
committee. The committee was given responsibility for monitoring the agency's steps to
implement the WID plan and it took the job very seriously.

In addition to the above, CIDA job descriptions have WID objectives and annual
evaluations include the level of effort and success in incorporating WID/Gender issues. All
of these features create agency-wide responsibility for WID/Gender rather than
concentrating it in the hands of the WID division. Rather than resulting in any loss of
control or status, this frees the division to focus on new activities and enhancing existing
programs. It allows and cultivates creativity for the program. This creativity is evidenced
in the new activities currently underway.

The WID division is now developing a new course on gender analysis. This will not
substitute for the original training course, but is designed to further the process with
training and experience in designing gender issues and analysis into projects. A workbook
has been designed, tested and re-designed for this course in order to help participants focus
on the CIDA projects development process (CIDA 1986.) The WID division has developed
a sourcebook listing all WID materials developed at CIDA and a selection of outside
materials. Finally, they are at last developing teaching case studies based on CIDA projects
to complement the USAID case studies. This is because many of the people wanted to see
how the process would operate under their own design conditions which differs somewhat
from USAID's.

CIDA has also recognized a serious WID/Gender gap in terms of the executing
agencies for their projects. Like USAID, most projects are done by outside agents
(institutes, firms, NGO's, universities). Outside agents receive a very general WID briefing,
and some have attended the regular training courses. The CIDA WID division is currently
beefing up the briefing format and content, and making it so a larger number of people
can use the briefing materials. The group is also integrating WID/Gender analysis into
other training courses, such as one on participatory methods in community social analysis.
Finally, greater attention is also being focused on WID/Gender training for people attached
to country projects. At this level, participants are the counterparts to CIDA staff. CIDA-
based case studies will be particularly useful for this group of training course participants.


4. Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)

Training at the AIDAB was conducted in early 1989 and followed a format similar
to CIDA. Two trainers were involved: Mary Anderson, one of the original Harvard Team,
and Tim Broadhead, who was one of the trainers trained during the CIDA experience. The
training was requested by the Director General of AIDAB. There was also some pressure
from within Australia for greater attention to WD/Gender issues, however, in general the
WID movement and activity in the country are not as strong as it is elsewhere.








There was a small WID advisory committee and a WID coordinator who were
pressuring for WID training, but there was some misunderstanding as to whether the
training would be a vehicle for improving the status of women in the organization or the
inclusion of women in AIDAB efforts.

The training was conducted in three separate workshops for different groups of
participants over a two week period. The climate for the training was definitely negative.
Roughly 3% of the staff were enthusiastic (the WID contingent), 7% were apathetic, not
opposed, but not supportive either, and the remaining 90% were adamantly opposed to the
training. They were attending because it was required, but their arms were twisted behind
their backs.

The senior staff were trained in the first workshop, of one day duration. Two
teaching case studies were used. The group was very technical, 16-17 people, but only one
woman, currently holding an acting position participated. The response from participants
in general was positive, which was fortunate for the trainers since the Director General had
impressed upon them that if it bombed initially, no one would attend the rest of the
sessions. The second session included director level and country program staff and more
women participated. Three case studies were used this time and feedback was quite good.
By the time the third workshop was held, there was a general feeling the workshops "were
not so bad and no one was going to beat them over the head." The third workshop
included staff from various levels, some NGO staff and some trainers. It was followed by
a brief training of trainers session. To date, AIDAB has not continued the training on its
own.

The training workshops at AIDAB are an example of "parachuting." The trainers
have very little prior information and are brought in just to do the training. The local WID
group is small and inexperienced and not yet capable of continuing the initiative or
momentum created by the training events. While a TOT was conducted, there was very
little time for follow-up or co-training with the new trainers. In sum, it is very difficult to
predict the outcome of the training effort.


5. United National Development Program (UNDP)

The Harvard team did a training workshop at UNDP headquarters in New York City
shortly after the CIDA experience. While it went well, at that time UNDP did not have
a strong internal WID division to continue the momentum after the training. A new
division was created after the training and a director was appointed at a high level in the
organizational structure. The placement of the WID director at this level allows her access
and involvement in major decisions on policy and program within the UNDP. The
combination of personality, position, and an effectively designed program has greatly
increased the level of WID/Gender effort at UNDP over the past three years.

A second training workshop was held in the summer of 1986 with outside trainers
(Kate Cloud, one of the original Harvard team, and Hilary Feldstein who was trained by







the Harvard team and currently co-directs the Gender and Agriculture Project). Case study
method and case studies based on UNDP projects, written by consultants, were used.

Training continues in UNDP in two ways. The WID division organizes a series of
short presentations and events highlighting WID and gender work and focuses on an on-
going effort of sensitization and programming of WID/Gender issues into projects and
programs at UNDP.

In parallel yet very complementary fashion, the UNDP training program now
incorporates gender training within its standard training of program staff. One of the
writers of one of the original UNDP cases used at the first workshop was hired by the WID
division to conduct training workshops following the first one. She was subsequently moved
into the regular UNDP training office and holds a staff position with an annually renewable
contract. She has been trained by the program in its regular training of trainers courses and
now operates a regular 3-day training course for UNDP staff (see UNDP Training Notes
in Appendix 4.) Over 460 persons were trained in WID/Gender issues during 1988.

The WID/Gender trainer does not use the USAID case studies, because she feels
they are too long and detailed, but the original analytical framework is used (Overholt et
al, 1985.) She has adapted one of the early World Bank cases as a "generic" gender case
that is not specific to any region and uses it to give training participants practice in using
the analytical framework. Very brief (6-7 pages) UNDP cases and staff members' own
projects serve as the remaining "data" sets for exercises in gender analysis during the
training courses. She runs this as a stand-alone for 3 days or as a one-day session with two
days of follow-up within the regular program training course. She has recently begun
running training courses in the regional UNDP offices, using consultants and testing
materials and methods in both Spanish and French.

One difference in the way the training is conducted at UNDP and the course run by
the Harvard team is that at UNDP, the first morning of the course is focused on a more
lecture-discussion style session on the basic concepts of division of labor, gender
differentiation---all of the basic concepts that underlay gender analysis. This session is
included largely because it results in a thorough understanding of the analytical framework
before participants begin the analysis of the first case study. Another difference is that the
concluding ideas of a session will often be written down for participants to take home with
them. As much as possible, case studies and project documents discussed in case method
fashion are selected from the region of origin of the participants. The trainer finds it very
difficult to use case studies cross-regionally.

The process of individual to group analysis, interactive discussion lead by a
facilitating trainer, teaching case studies, and the use of an analytical framework---the core
elements of case method training--- are very much evident in the UNDP training program.
The WID trainer is anticipating a growing focus on the special needs of agricultural
program staff concerning gender issues and analysis and is considering using the new set of
training case studies based on farming systems projects that are in the process of being
published by the Gender and Agriculture Project of the Population Council (Feldstein and
Poats, 1989.)









6. University of Florida (UF)


While many universities have Women in Development programs or offices, and
courses are often given for students on WID/Gender issues, there are a growing number
of examples where university WID programs have trained other faculty or administrators
in WID/Gender issues. One example comes from the Women in Agricultural Development
(WIAD) Program at the University of Florida. WIAD organized a workshop to train
faculty, administrators and graduate students in gender analysis applied to agricultural
development and to train trainers in case method training techniques in May 1987. Two
of the Harvard team and one new trainer from the CIDA course were the trainers for the
workshop. Three teaching case studies were used in the initial part of the workshop: one
from the USAID series, one from the World Bank set and one from the Gender and
Agriculture Project (GAP). All three worked well in the university environment.

The fact that the three examples were drawn from different institutional contexts for
agricultural development did not cause any problem since within the university there is no
standard set of procedures for development assistance projects and there is in fact great
interest in different development assistance modes. While the training course received high
marks on the evaluation, no further shortcourse training has taken place. In part this is due
to a shift in leadership and direction of the program, placing more attention on technical
assistance and graduate student research. Attention has also been shifted towards an
assessment of the existing agricultural curriculum and the opportunities for inserting gender
issues within these courses. A graduate-level seminar was also organized for one year on
the subject of gender and agricultural research and extension. Case method was not used
in these courses.


7. Experiences from the Netherlands

At the International Agriculture Center, Wageningen, Netherlands, short courses
dealing with technical training and extension in agriculture are run on a regular basis. They
last from 6 weeks to 6 months and experts often are brought in from other countries to lead
the courses. Two years ago the Minister of Agriculture called for the integration of gender
issues into the courses taught at the Centre. A person within the Centre was called on the
lead this effort, but did not have training experience. So a consultant formerly with the
Population Council and with extensive experience in gender analysis in field-level
agricultural projects was hired to assist in leading a series of short workshops with the
faculty of the Centre and from other universities.

The consultant, Constantina Saffilios-Rothschild, was quite familiar with case method,
had worked on case studies as part of her previous Population Council work, and was
familiar with both the USAID and the GAP case studies series. Since the first training
workshop, she has adapted case method teaching to her own style, but uses the analytical
framework and has adapted several existing case studies to fit her needs with Dutch
trainees. She has recently been hired on a permanent basis by the Agricultural University







at Wageningen to head a new department of Women in Agricultural Development and is
responsible for teaching and training faculty and students at the university while continuing
to train Dutch project staff and management.

The workshop at the Centre was not a one-shot effort. There were several follow-
up activities. One group that had worked with a case study from Kenya, took the case
home with them to Kenya and collected more information to expand the case. In a second
workshop, several of the men who were participants in the first workshop became resource
persons in the second. Workshop participants numbered about 17 and were based on
discussions, not lectures, with information, methods and lessons drawn as much from
participants' experiences as from the trainers.

Saffilios-Rothschild stressed during the interview that when conducting training for
the faculty and project staff it was essential for the trainer to have an agricultural
background and field experience. Without training, the trainer would not have been able
to establish the "proper credentials" to talk to participants about integrating gender issues
in agricultural development.

Several other Dutch institutions have also conducted WID/Gender issues training
or are planning to do so in the near future. Most of the training courses are designed to
train people who come to the institutions rather than training the staff or administration
of the institution itself. Deventer College runs an eight-month course called "Women,
Extension Workers and Agriculture". The course contains both theoretical as well as
practical components with frequent field visits. The course is designed to address the lack
of training for women in fields other than home economics, nutrition and general health
care. The course offers training for female extension workers to enable them to pay
attention to both the productive tasks of women and their domestic tasks. The course is
targeted to women holding middle management positions in the fields of home economics,
nutrition and preventive health care to give them training in food production and processing
in order to enable them to integrate the latter two into their activities.

The Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, has recently held a course for women from
Africa who work with women's projects funded by the Dutch. Some Dutch technical experts
and university faculty attended, but the course was not aimed at the Royal Tropical Institute
staff itself.


8. International Development Research Centre, Canada (IDRC)

The WID program at IDRC traces its origins to an advisory group formed in 1983-
84 to address research related to women. The group was formed because of concern that
IDRC would have requests for supporting participation at the UN Decade for Women
Conference in Nairobi in 1985 and the institution would need a strategy to deal with
requests. IDRC did put two panels together for Nairobi and a manuscript reporting on
these increased the visibility of WID in IDRC. However, prior to this, despite IDRC's
reputation for being on the forefront of development and agriculture, the institute had no
context on women. Following Nairobi, there was some pressure from CIDA and the







Ministry for External Affairs to do something for women but it was a change within IDRC
that created the environment for the new program. In 1986, a new director of Social
Sciences, a woman, was appointed. A new director, formerly with World Health
Organization, was also appointed to the Health Division. Together with the director of
Agriculture, Food and Nutrition these three began to discuss gender issues and lobbied the
concern into the creation of the WID unit. The current WID coordinator, Eva Rathgeber,
credits the change in leadership for clearing the pathway so that the new unit could operate
without administrative obstruction. This, along with adequate funding, was essential to the
early development of the unit.

The first WID/Gender issues training at IDRC took place in September 1988. Two
trainers from the Gender and Agriculture Project (GAP) were hired to assist the WID
coordinator in running a workshop for all of the Agriculture, Food and Nutrition staff who
were at headquarters for their annual meeting. The WID coordinator has been running a
very effective program of gender related research for a number of years out of the Social
Sciences Division and has provided training opportunities for many researchers working on
projects funded by IDRC to attend gender training courses at other institutions. Her office
has also been instrumental in establishing several WID/Gender training courses within
various training or educational institutions (see below). However, until 1988, training of
IDRC staff was not a priority.

The workshop was requested by the agricultural division chief and all of his staff
were required to attend. It was scheduled for an evening and a day within the annual
meeting and thus there was some absenteeism due to conflicting needs, especially among
the visiting regional staff. The workshop had three sections: a case study exercise using
one of the GAP cases, a section on methods of analysis based on lecture and discussion,
and finally a section of analysis using an IDRC project. The format, though abbreviated,
worked very well and has served as the stimulus for initiating the planning for several
training activities among the regional offices that aim to include the national researchers
involved in projects funded by IDRC.

Prior to the September training course, the WID unit did a number of training-
related and informal training activities that indirectly influenced IDRC staff towards
WID/Gender issues. An advisory group consisting of members from each IDRC division
was set up to review all WID projects and proposals. The group was responsible for
deciding whether an activity would be housed within the WID unit or within a technical
division. The coordinator preferred the latter because it required more involvement from
the technical staff members and most were channeled in this direction.

In similar fashion, the WID unit funds interns at IDRC from developing countries.
These interns work on proposals and are placed within the technical divisions under the
supervision of a technical staff member. Through the interactions of the intern with the
WID unit the supervising technical person is drawn into the "WID orbit." Interns also give
seminars that are well-attended.

The WID unit has also formed a reading group that meets informally over lunch to
discuss articles on WID/Gender issues. The coordinator picks the articles and distributes







them and anyone who comes enters the discussion. This provides an opportunity for those
interested in the topic to further their understanding.

The WID unit has also funded training on WID/Gender issues in other institutions.
It supported the creation of the Summer Institute in Gender and Development (SIGAD)
with Delhousie Univ. and St. Mary's University. Half of the participants come from Canada
and the other half are from developing countries. This year the same course will be
established at Lavalle University in Quebec to be run in French. In addition, the unit has
supported over the past three years a workshop on methods of gender analysis at ESAMI
in Tanzania. This course is run by Hilda Tadria, a Ugandan anthropologist. The course
has had high male participation and focuses on how to incorporate gender into research
designs. Participants have come from research institutions and universities. This year, many
came from government institutions. A research network, supported by IDRC, has been one
result of the course. The unit has also supported training in Brazil through the group
known as DAWN and will soon support a training workshop in Peru with the organization
called Flora Tristan.


9. Experiences from the United Kingdom

Though there are several courses taught at various institutions in the UK that deal
with WID/Gender issues, few are targeted at UK institutional staff. Most are established
to train participants from other institutions, largely in developing countries. Two such
courses are briefly summarized here: "Women, Men and Development" established by Kate
Young at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) in Sussex, and the "Planning with
Women for Urban Development" course initiated by Caroline Moser at the Development
Planning Unit (DPU) of University College, London.

The IDS course was introduced in 1984 and is aimed at intermediary-level
government policy makers and implementors, university researchers, trade unions or
women's organizations, and activists from grassroots organizations (Rao, 1986).2 The course
is a self-contained and self-supporting unit and in part because of it its autonomous nature,
it has had limited impact on the rest of the Institute in terms of getting gender issues fully
incorporated into IDS teaching and short course programme. The course focuses on gender
implications of development theory, practice, policies and programs. Through various
teaching methods and styles, participants are trained in how to conduct gender analysis and
how to apply this analysis to development work and planning. Standard lectures are
complemented with informal discussion groups. Other teaching tools such as
films/documentaries, the Manomiya game (based on the roles of men and women in an


2 The information on the IDS course is drawn from the summary of the course
presented in Incorporating Gender Issues in Development Training, edited by Arunashree
P. Rao, 1986. The summary is based onn the presentation by Kate Young at the Nairobi
Conference in 1985 and thus the information presented in this report covers the course only
up to that time. Regretably, it was not possible to interview Kate Young during the survey
for this report.







African farming system), field trips to organizations in UK dealing with gender issues in the
workplace, and an end-of-course conference where participants present project proposals
to a panel of experts. The range of activities accommodates the varied learning styles
among the course participants.

One of the aims of the IDS course is to also change the way IDS faculty conduct
other training activities. The course director invited other male IDS faculty to give lectures
in the course and interact with participants as a way of increasing their understanding of
gender issues. While many agree that gender is an important issue, most restrict their
engagement with the concept to the descriptive and superficial. They make women visible
through statistics, but do not use gender as an analytical tool. To do so would require
further study, which they claim not to have time for, and would also, more importantly,
require personal confrontation with their own gender behavior with respect to the women
they interact with in the workplace and at home. The dissonance created by this
confrontation is uncomfortable and thus avoided. Young states that as long as most men
shy away from dealing more fully with the analytical realm of the gender variable, the
burden will remain on women to do the teaching and training on this topic.

The DPU course was established in 1984 by Caroline Moser who ran it for 4 years.
She then left DPU and is now with the London School of Economics (LSE). With her
colleagues from the DPU course, she runs a firm called Gender and Planning Associates
(GAPA) and they now run a variety of WID/Gender courses for other institutions and
NGOs either from GAPA or from the LSE. The DPU course is described more fully in
Moser (1986). The course is organized around a conceptual framework of gender-aware
planning (see Moser 1986). Three modules provide the course structure: module one on
the theory of development, urbanization and planning, module two on women's needs in
specific sectors, and module three on the organization of interventions at the policy,
program and project level. The course does not involve "preaching to the converted, but
provides a forum for a fundamental reexamination of previous work practices within the
particular field of each participant's expertise. This clearly shows the relevance and
importance of gender-aware policy and planning as a critical, if new, level of intellectual
and professional concern" (Moser, 1986).

Experience with the DPU course lead Moser to identify three areas of critical
concern for future training: the need for better and more applicable resource and training
materials, the need to train trainers in developing countries to continue this work internally,
and lack of available funding for women to obtain training in this area because they tend
to be lower status in organizations and thus not top candidates for limited training resources
or because they work outside the government in a range of institutions dealing with
women's issues where they are excluded from normal avenues of funding for training.

Based on the experience and success of the DPU course, the training team has
conducted a variety of training courses with other institutions including OXFAM, VSO, the
Servicios Urbanos y Mujeres de Bajos Ingresos (SUMBI) in Lima, Peru (through Population
Council and with Ford Foundation funding), Christian AID, and various aid Ministries in
the UK. Most recently, they have initiated training programs with ODA in the UK and
with the swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). (The ODA course is







summarized in Appendix 5.) The SIDA course is being run in stages. The first 3-day
workshop in early 1989 was for senior staff. The second one, in August 1989, will focus on
project managers both at headquarters and from in-country projects. The training team is
collaborating intensively with the WID Division of SIDA. Two women from the division
collaborate in the design of the workshops, selection of materials, and most importantly, in
the selection of participants. Moser places great importance on this because outside
consultants lack in-depth familiarity with the institution and should not select participants.
Equal importance is placed on the involvement of the senior staff or management of the
institution. If training is to succeed, the senior people must be committed and involved.
If not, then it is difficult to convince lower level staff that this is indeed an important issue.
The approach taken in both the ODA and SIDA initiatives, as well as with the rest of the
training undertaken by the GAPA, is that they work to assist organizations develop their
own plan or strategy. They do not want to be indispensable, but rather to work themselves
out of the picture over time. Their goal is to see WID/Gender issues and analysis become
a process within the organization, not just a consultant's job.


10. Other Institutional Experiences

The experiences described in the preceding pages are not the only examples of
institutions or organizations that have undertaken WID/Gender training. During the course
of the interviews conducted for this study, information was obtained on a number of other
courses. This is summarized here in order to provide a picture of the extent of
WID/Gender training around the world.

Following the experiences of the Harvard team at CIDA, two of the trainers, Mary
Anderson and Cathy Overholt created the Collaborative for Development Action,
Inc.(CDA). The firm has conducted gender training courses and workshops for a variety
of other countries and organizations including: the Government of Pakistan, the Population
Council in Thailand, and the Asian Institute of Management (AIM). At AIM, the
participants were already using case method to train managers. They now incorporate
gender case studies in their repertoire of training materials in order to provide managers
with gender analysis as part of their management training. CDA is currently working with
the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees (UNHCR) to develop WID/Gender training
workshops. The collaborators at UNHCR are writing their own gender case studies and
CDA will help them conduct training activities in the fall of 1989) Both Mary Anderson
and Kathy Overholt, through another firm, James E. Austin Assoc., also conducted a series
of training workshops and training of trainers courses for another U.N. organization, the
UNFPA. For this series of training activities, the analytical framework was adapted for
population issues and a workbook with descriptive cases for self-teaching was produced.

Michigan State University has operated a course for university faculty on how to
conduct WID advising and consulting within the university realm of development contracts.

CIDA sponsored a gender analysis workshop for top people of the Indian
Administrative Service utilizing the USAID case studies. Two of their people have gone


"There are a number of other U.S. Universities that do WID/Gender training, but at
the suggestion of ESHW/FAO they were not included in this study.








to Canada for a training of trainers workshop and they are moving ahead with writing and
teaching with their own case studies. M.S. University, Baroda, India is holding a course
using case method in July 1989 on Women, Households and Development in collaboration
with the University of Illinois (UIUC).

The Women in Rice Farming Systems Network of the Asian Rice Farming Systems
Research Network of IRRI in the Philippines has held a training workshop on gender
analysis for its representatives and collaborated with the Gender and Agriculture Project
in developing a teaching case study on women in rice production in the Philippines (IRRI,
1987). This case and one other were included in the training workshop held in May 1988
and other teaching case studies based on projects in the region are being developed. As
part of this effort, an IRRI trainer attended a recent training-of-trainers sponsored by the
GAP at the FSR/E Symposium, Fayetteville, Arkansas, in October.

The Gender and Agriculture Project has been involved in developing gender case
studies based on FSR/E project experiences. The project has run training courses on
gender analysis using the case studies and has also used the cases to organize gender
analysis training modules within other training courses and workshops (Feldstein and Poats,
1989). These have been held in Zambia for the CIMMYT East and Southern Africa
Economics Program's networkshop household issues in on-farm research, in Philippines as
described above, at IDRC, UNDP, and as part of a number of academic classes, training
courses and conferences held at the University of Florida.

Janice Jiggins surveyed twenty-seven European institutes offering development
training to their own nationals and/or nationals from developing countries in 1984 to elicit
information on how gender issues are handled and with what success. The results are
summarized in Rao (1986). Jiggins notes that a recurring complaint from female trainers
is the unwillingness or inability of their male colleagues to carry over sensitivity to gender
issues from courses in which these are mentioned explicitly to other development-related
courses which (as yet) do not deal with gender issues. Unless concerned individuals are
prepared to spend time in assisting their colleagues to make the transfer, it rarely seems
to happen spontaneously. Despite this, it is well-recognized that gender issues acquire
greater legitimacy if they are handled by regular course trainers rather than special experts
called in from the outside, and, when there are both male and female trainers. Outside
experts can, however, function well as "lightning conductors" for particularly sensitive issues
and in bringing in experience which is not available among either participants or regular
course trainers. Jiggins cites cases studies, films and slide shows, games (such as
Manomiya), academic literature, and statistics as the predominant training materials used
in gender training.


F. BRIEF ANALYSIS OF INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCES

The purpose of this survey was to present the experiences from various institutions
in dealing with WID/Gender issues training and the lessons learned from these experiences.
Before moving on to the lessons, it is useful to compare some of the similarities and
differences among the institutions with respect to some of the key issues involved in







conducting WID/Gender training. Though the experiences lend themselves to further
comparative discussion, this section will focus on six key issues: level of institutional
commitment; length and format of training; trainers; training methods and materials;
training of trainers; and the costs of training. The last issue is treated only summarily as
this was not included originally as a part of this study and was therefore discussed with only
a few of the informants.


1. Level of Institutional Commitment

Strong institutional commitment for both WID/Gender issues in general and to
training in particular at a high level in the organization is considered by most of those
interviewed to be a very critical factor determining whether training will be successful.
Strong commitment is seen in terms of official mandates and policies at USAID, CIDA,
UNDP and IDRC. Such mandates are also reflected in the current training being initiated
at ODA, SIDA and in the Netherlands. A mandate has existed at the World Bank but only
recently has a division been give the responsibility, authority and resources to carry out the
mandate. AIDAB and UF are examples where training has occurred as a single event,
without follow-up to date, and where an explicit and articulated mandate is lacking.

The experiences recounted here also demonstrate that the existence of a mandate
or policy alone is not sufficient. Training is increasingly seen as the mechanism for
implementing a WID/Gender policy or mandate as the way to encourage integration of the
mandate across the divisions of an organization. Closely linked to the ability to conduct
effective training and the level of institutional commitment is the strength and action of a
WID/Gender unit within the institution. A weak, underfunded, poorly staffed unit will not
be able to have sufficient clout to run, backstop or follow-through with training activities,
even when well-qualified outside trainers actually conduct the initial (and most risky)
training sessions. Thus, the level of institutional commitment must be viewed in terms of
the policies and mandate and in terms of the actual unit empowered with promoting
WID/Gender activities. Both are linked and essential for being able to conduct effective
training.


2. Length and Format of Training Activities

The training courses and workshops covered in the descriptions can be divided into
four groups according to length of time for the training:

long courses of six weeks to eight months, more typical of the European
experiences;

short courses of 2V 3 days to two weeks, more typical of those given within
institutions to their own staff or courses held in field situations for
researchers;







training modules lasting 1 hour to a day that are inserted into other training
courses or workshops (these can sometimes be as long as a short shortcourse);

briefings lasting one or two hours that are used to briefly sensitize staff on
specific assignments (usually short term consultants).

Length of a training activity depends on the level of participants to be trained,
existing participant expertise, time available for training, financial resources, availability of
trainers, and the material and skills to be covered. These issues need to be assessed within
an institution in order to determine the length and design of a particular training event.
As seen in the experienced described, no one strategy for training is correct, there is no set
or prescribed recipe for training. Rather, each institution must determine what is
appropriate for itself and be ready to be flexible as redesign and accommodation of change
are necessary. An example of the steps that can be used in developing a training strategy
is presented in Appendix 7.

One note of interest regarding length of training is that many trainers interviewed
felt that at least 2 days total time is necessary to begin the training. As one trainer said,
it is only on the 2nd or 3rd day that the lesson comes home, that one observes the "a ha
experience!" If so, this raises question of how effective are sessions shorter than two days?

Generally, four types of training courses or modules in training courses in terms of
subject matter can be discerned from the discussion of the institutional experiences:
sensitization to WID/Gender issues and gender analysis, application of WID/Gender
analysis to development planning or project processes, developing skills in field
methodologies, and training of trainers. This typology is discussed further in Appendix 8.

Overall, the examples covered in this study share a similar style of training that
moves decidedly away from the more academic teaching and lecturing format to one that
is experiential. The courses engage participants through highly participatory and hands-on
experiences such as case studies, role plays, games, discussions, and other interactive
experiences. Adults learn new material better, especially when it involves ideological
change, when they are engaged, participatory, and take responsibility for their own learning
is evidenced by the examples in this study.


3. Trainers

Trainers are key ingredients to successful training. Since training in WID/Gender
issues carries with it considerable innate resistance, especially at the beginning, and
participants are often brutally demonstrative of their resistance, it is very important that the
trainers introducing the concepts initially are very skilled and experienced in doing this sort
of training. It is not wise to engage an inexperienced trainer because a poor outcome can
jeopardize subsequent training efforts. With experience, trainers learn to recognize
potential landminess" which can be effectively detonated before they blow up in the faces
of the trainers.







Trainers must be able to talk the lingo of the organization in which they are training.
This will shape confidence of participants in the trainers. Also, trainers need regional and
subject matter experience. Training is not all process, so it also requires content and
experience in trainers. Additionally, as Janice Jiggins pointed out, it seems to be more
effective for the training team to include male and female trainers when possible.

Training is best accomplished when a teams of trainers work together on the
planning and delivery. Team training allows for better monitoring of the training process,
better adjustment of activities as they proceed in response to the learning of participants,
and provides needed variation in the leadership and facilitation of the course. It also varies
the style of delivery and reduces "trainer fatigue," both on the part of trainers and
participants. With teams, one can deliver and the other watches and supports the process.
When training alone, the burden of delivery and monitoring is heavy and monitoring usually
falls apart.

When the same team works together on subsequent training courses, there is a great
deal of savings in time and effort (not to mention money) in terms of the preparation for
a course. There is and always must be some preparation in terms of adapting the course
and materials to the needs and level of the participants. The savings occurs in terms of the
team building of the training team and the accumulation of experiences with institutional
concerns and problems in implementing gender sensitive development.

With each course, the training team deepens its base of experience in applying
gender and WID analysis to projects of the institution and this expertise can be translated
into better and better course designs and materials. It can also result in improvements and
innovations in both the training methods as well as the actual methods of gender analysis.
While it will be difficult for an institution to maintain a separate team to just train on
WID/Gender, it will be advantageous to work out a long-term arrangement with the
training team as consultants for the life to the initial phase of training so as to obtain
maximum utility of the training experience.


4. Training Methods and Materials

A majority of the institutions described have used or continue to use case method
as a core training tool. Some, such as the World Bank and USAID, have tried case method
and abandoned it for the time being or modified it substantially. Others rely on other
experiential learning techniques. Case method, as an experiential mode of training that
actively engages participants in dealing with subject matter, has been a particularly
successful training tool for many institutions. Learning to be a skilled case method trainer
requires significant investment in training of trainers. Because of the limited number of
trainers experienced in this method and the trainer-dependency of case method training, it
is wise for institutions to use a variety of training techniques and methods in their
WID/Gender training strategy. No matter what training methods and materials are used,
they must be relevant to the work or activities of the participants. Active engagement in
the subject matter is crucial for integration of the issues into the mainstream of work. No







matter what methods or techniques are used in training, the global objectives of a training
strategy should include the following five criteria:

1. To teach the skills of WID/Gender analysis.

2. To create a critical mass within an institution with shared concepts and skills
for doing WID and gender analysis.

3. To create a common language and vocabulary to discuss and deal with
WID/Gender issues and analysis and provide realistic, practical experience
in using this "language" within the "safe" environment of a training activity.

4. To provide an opportunity to compare the operation of WID/Gender issues
across different cultures and types of projects, and to view one's own
institution in comparison with others, again within a "safe" environment.

5. To allow for internalization of the process of conducting WID/Gender
analysis through experiencing actual problems of real projects and people
similar to those dealt with in day to day work.

All of the institutions conducting training with case method use either the analytical
framework developed by the Harvard team or one based on it which is more applicable to
a specific institutional project cycle or development sector (See Appendices 4 aand 9 for
example). The validity and utility of the analytical framework is evidenced in its wide use.

The original USAID case studies are still widely used and have served as the model
for the development of a range of new cases based either on different institutional project
processes or specific development areas such as agriculture and population.

The range of case studies available today fall into two types. One type is the project
case which aims at describing how a project is designed and implemented in order to
examine it for gender implications. Examples of these are the USAID and World Bank
cases. These cases are institution-specific because they deal with very different
organizational steps to design and fund projects. The second type are research cases.
These are typified by the GAP case studies which, although couched in institutional settings
and funded by different donors, focus explicitly on agricultural research and extension and
provide details and data as the results of research activities and extension events, not
project design elements. These cases are best used in training researchers and development
workers, although they can be used to train project managers as well. Because the focus
is on the results of projects, they are especially useful in training in methodologies and
analytical techniques and emphasize the cross-cultural applicability of these tools.

While further and more detailed review of available training materials is not possible
within the scope of this study, several examples are included in the appendices and a
number of additional materials are cited in the bibliography.







5. Training of Trainers


While considerable emphasis was placed by informants interviewed on the
importance of training trainers, few provided explicit details on how they train trainers and
the secondary materials dealing specifically with training trainers to do WID/Gender
training are deficient. However, there are extensive materials and resources available on
the generic training of trainers and facilitators.

One useful piece on the subject is Chapter One in Volume II of the Casebook on
Gender and Agriculture (Feldstein and Poats 1989) that deals with how to teach a case
study. The teaching notes for the USAID cases are also useful guides for trainers.

Caroline Moser makes it part of her approach to train the trainers in the institution
to carry on the training work after she has completed her contract. This is also true for
Mary Anderson and Cathy Overholt. The latter team uses case method itself and teaching
case studies developed by Harvard University to train trainers in case method training.

Having sufficient opportunity to practice training skills and receive constructive
critique is important in training trainers to deal with WID/Gender issues. It is also very
useful to intern with another more experienced trainer. This is especially important in
learning the style and tact that works best for dealing with the initially "emotionally loaded"
issues in WID/Gender analysis.

Despite the emphasis placed on training trainers, the available pool of trainers for
this material is critically small. If the wide range of institutions, organizations, national
programs and educational centers needing this type of training are to obtain it, there will
have to be a great increase in the number of qualified and available trainers. This should
be high priority for donor and international organizations engaged in development activities.


6. Training Costs

As stated above, costs of training was not an original objective of this study and only
limited information on this topic was available. However, the considerable range in costs
and the concern that institutions have over the financial resources needed for effective
training, would suggest the need for further attention to this subject. The following
information is provided to FAO for consideration but we do not make any attempt to
recommend what a training program or course should cost.

The director of the WID Office at USAID estimated that it costs them $150,000 for
a 3-day training course. Mary Anderson stated that $50,000 is the maximum cost for a 4-
day course with two trainers held at a regional level by the Collaborative for Development
Action (CDA). USAID costs are calculated with three trainers, a resource person from the
WID office, and a person to handle logistics and support. For one of the early courses, a
formula of 8 preparation days for 1 training day was used to calculate training consultant
costs. The total estimate was in reference to a regional course drawing on roughly 10-15
countries at a time. USAID has also included external evaluators in some of its WID







training workshops, adding about $20,000 to the regular cost of planning and delivery. The
CDA usually calculates only one day of preparation time for each day of training.

Other information on costs was provided by UNDP to FAO and is summarized here.
UNDP budgeted $370,000 for training from their headquarters office. This money was used
for salaries of the full time trainer, full time assistant and resource persons as well as
materials and travel for the Director to attend workshops in the regional offices. Each
course is taught by the main trainer and 2-4 resource persons. Each regional office and
each country representative pay their own travel, DSA, and any salary costs as well as the
costs for host country officials. Under this budget, a total of about 500 people have been
trained.


G. LESSONS LEARNED

Fourteen key lessons on training in WID/Gender analysis are drawn from the experiences
of the institutions highlighted in this report.


1. There must be an explicit mandate for WID/Gender training from the top of the
organization. This mandate must be clearly articulated to all of the various divisions
of the institution and not just to the WID division. It must be clear that training on
WID/Gender analysis not just for the WID division or WID representatives but is
for the whole of the institution. A broad range of people from within an institution
need to be trained in order to assure that WID/Gender issues become a normal part
of the operations of the institution. A corollary to this lesson is that the heads and
associate heads of the institution must attend the training. They need not only to
learn the language of WID/Gender issues and how to use this language, but they
also need to make a statement by their presence that this training is indeed
important to the institution as a whole.

2. Training can serve as an extremely effective mechanism to integrate WID
perspectives and gender analysis into the operations of an institution. However,
training is a process and requires sufficient time for effectiveness. WID/Gender
analysis will not be effectively incorporated if training is conducted as a one-time
event. A series of training courses or activities over a period of time is a better
approach and will encourage greater processing and learning of the skills needed for
integration into institutional operations.

3. WID/Gender training must be managed and backstopped by strong, qualified
professionals within the organization. Experienced professionals need to provide
leadership to the program. They need to have recognized research and development
experience that will generate respect for them among their non-WID colleagues.
Training others is facilitated when the unit backstopping the training has
demonstrable expertise in the field.

4. Someone from within the institution needs to have full-time responsibility for
training. Training is not an easy task and for successful training to occur, many
details need to come together in concert. Outside consultants are routinely used by







institutions to conduct WID/Gender training, however, they need to work with
someone from within the institution as a partner in the activity in order to provide
content and continuity to the training. This partner not only coordinates all the
logistical organization but provides crucial information on institutional culture,
procedures and participants to the outside trainers who need this information to
organize the structure and content of the training event. Whether this same person,
or another WID division representative is present during the actual training depends
on the nature of the institution. In some cases, a representative is useful when
questions are raised about applying the WID/Gender analysis tools to actual projects
pertaining to a WID division. In other situations it can be beneficial not to have a
representative present in order that the training is explicitly "given away" from the
WID division and to the institution as a whole.

5. Training is more effective and efficient when the same team or at least a core group
of the same team conducts the training over the initial training period when
WID/Gender analysis is being introduced to the institution. This results in savings
in terms of preparation time and in familiarization with the particular institution.
In time, trainers can be identified from within the institution to take over this task
in accordance with the standard training mechanisms within the organization.
Because there is often high ideological resistance to WID/Gender analysis when it
is first introduced, and because this resistance is usually expressed quite overtly, it
is wise to engage highly qualified, experienced trainers who have "been through the
fire before" to conduct the training. These initial training courses or workshops have
a high risk so selecting highly qualified, experienced trainers is worth the cost and
effort. If inexperienced trainers conduct the training and are not successful, the
entire issue will be setback significantly.

6. Training of trainers (TOT) is a critical element for achieving long term integration
of WID/Gender issues and analysis in an institution. The lack of a sufficiently large
pool of qualified trainers means that they are not always available to service the
initial nor on-going needs for training within an institution. Training of trainers
already on the staff of the institution is one alternative while training consultants who
are then contracted over a period time is another. Both have advantages and
drawbacks. The appropriate way to deal with training of trainers should be
considered in the development of an institutional training strategy.

7. Every training course needs preparation time. While there are savings when the
same team trains repeatedly together, there is still a need to adapt materials and
structure to the specific needs of participants. A formula of three days of
preparation for every one day of training is useful for estimating the time needed to
prepare the first time. Subsequently, this can be reduced according to the level of
experience of the trainers and the anticipated difficulties of the participants.
However, it is not advisable to reduce the preparation time to less than one day for
each training day for each of the trainers.

8. Training is not free. Costs can range considerably depending upon the distance the
participants have to travel, the availability and costs of the facilities to hold the







training, training materials needs and the costs for the trainers (salary, preparation
time, travel and expenses). Although it was not the intention of this study to address
costs, some estimates were made available. These range from a low of $30,000 for
a four-day course to $150,000 for a three-day course. Quality of a training course
is not correlated with the cost of a course and very good training can be provided
by excellent trainers at a reasonable cost to an institution.

9. Trainers work best with adequate resources and support personnel. A training
course takes on a life of its own once it begins and must fully engage the trainers.
Trainers need good secretarial and logistics support. Planning for training needs to
take into consideration the need for special resources and then the budget must
include the costs to assure their presence and delivery.

10. The case method approach is particularly well-suited to training in WID/Gender
analysis because it avoids lecturing to participants, actively engages participants in
learning as individuals and in collective groups, and provides a realistic experience
in handling gender analysis in development efforts. Case method is not the only
training technique in use, but has demonstrated a consistently positive outcome
within the institutions conducting WID/Gender training. While use of case method
may no longer resemble exactly the style and approach first assembled and used by
the Harvard team, the basic components are there and the process is the cornerstone
for engaging participants in the use of gender analysis. Other techniques and
materials are frequently used in training and should be considered when initiating
a new training program. The important issue is to choose materials that provide
realistic experience that can be applied by participants in their day to day work.

11. It is not necessary to develop new case studies in order to begin training in
WID/Gender analysis. Existing gender case studies can be used in initial training
activities. These can be complemented with project documents that typify the project
process for a particular institution and used as an additional case study in the
training process (for example as the third or fourth case study). Once a training
program is underway or as the use of WID/Gender analysis grows in the institution,
it may then be advantageous and worth the time and expense to develop case studies
based on specific experiences of the institution.

12. Selection of participants is crucial to a successful training course or program.
Consideration of who should attend the first training activity, what organization
divisions and levels) they should represent, and how they will be encouraged to
attend is one of the most important steps to organizing training on WID/Gender
analysis. It is essential that someone within the institution work carefully in advance
with the trainers to identify participants as part of the overall training strategy.

13. It is essential to provide participants with an analytical framework for WID/Gender
issues and analysis. This framework is the tool for analysis of the cases which
provides the learning experience for participants. The framework is what will be
taken home and applied by participants to their own work responsibilities. The
framework is not a checklist or recipe but a tool that enables critical diagnosis and







analysis leading to better project design and implementation. Institutions do not
need to develop a new framework to begin training, but can adapt the existing
frameworks to fit their institutional settings, specific development sectors, or project
design procedures.

14. There is no single training strategy that will fit all institutions. There is no unique
model for success. Each institution will need to diagnose the internal situation in
order to design an effective training strategy that will successfully assist in the process
of integrating WID/Gender analysis within the institution. These experiences and
lessons in this report will help in the design process, but each situation will require
its own particular solution.


H. APPLICATION OF LESSONS LEARNED TO FAO

While there are institutional specific training needs, the lessons learned by other
institutions as cited in the previous section can be used to assist FAO to efficiently develop
the most appropriate training activities for their own needs. Each of these lessons are cited
here, with specific suggestions and recommendations relevant to FAO.

1. There must be an explicit mandate for WID/Gender training from the top of the
organization. FAO has had a mandate to address gender issues in its agricultural
development programs since the UN Decade for Women in 1975 but a specific
mandate to conduct WID and gender training did not formally exist until 1988. The
FAO Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development (CL 94/13, 1988)
addresses the need to increase awareness of problems and potentials of WID through
media and training. The Plan looks to implement a Staff Training Program on WID
for the entire FAO Headquarters Staff during the period 1990-1991. Chaney's report
on strategies to fulfill the implementation of the Plan of Action (Chaney, 1989)
points out that most divisions have approached their own part of the Plan of Action
with seriousness and a willingness to integrate gender issues into their programs.
The problem seems to lie more with the "how to" aspect of implementation, rather
than with the "need to" aspect.

Some divisions, however, seemed to indicate that they felt they had as yet not
received a mandate to incorporate WID into their programs nor that it was possible
to do so with their current level of funding (Chaney, 1989). A reading of both the
Plan of Action (Resolution 1/94) and the Report of the Council of FAO (CL
94/REP) shows that the Council unanimously approved the Plan of Action and
stated that implementation should be funded from the Regular Programme. Hence,
the ESHW needs to point out this mandate to the few recalcitrant divisions in order
to be able to proceed more smoothly in implementing the training program.

2. Training can serve as an extremely effective mechanism to integrate WID
perspectives and gender analysis into the operations of an institution. As pointed
out in a later lesson and recommendation, a multi-approach training strategy is
needed in order to truly integrate WID perspectives into an institution. Given that







FAO has a strong mandate to do so and a willingness on the part of most staff,
training could be received with enthusiasm with the appropriate approach. A key
point is that the upper echelon must be truly convinced of the need for integration
in order for other staff to feel that they are free to integrate WID issues into their
programs. This means that the upper echelon must participate in the training
program.

3. WID/Gender training must be managed and backstopped by qualified professionals
within the organization. There is little doubt that in ESHW FAO has the qualified
professionals with experience in WID and gender issues necessary to manage and
backstop gender training. The ESHW can provide the necessary leadership and
experience for other services and divisions to draw upon. The factor of leadership
is crucial. With the mandate to implement training, almost all divisions are looking
to ESHW to show them how to do so.

Despite being highly qualified, however, ESHW is extremely short-handed,
particularly in light of the fact that this extensive training program must be initiated.
The Plan of Action strongly recommends that ESHW fill all of its vacant positions
in order to accomplish all of its tasks. This will enhance ESHW's ability to focus
greater attention on training.

4. An individual within the organization must have full-time responsibility for training.
As noted in the above section, ESHW lacks adequate numbers of staff to be able
to handle training requests. The person currently guiding training activities in
ESHW has additional responsibilities on top of the training activities. Coordinating
training, providing content and continuity, responding to needs and requests for
training, and institutionalizing WID/Gender issues into FAO is a full-time, not a
part-time, job. The job as Training Coordinator in ESHW should be filled by
someone with both WID experience and training experience. This is the strongest
recommendation of this report: a Training Coordinator must be appointed to oversee
training activities. Ideally, this person should be housed in ESHW but a possible
alternative location could be AFPR.

Consultants can, and probably will, continue to be used as needed for gender training
at FAO but a consultant cannot provide the leadership and continuity that a full-
time staff member can. Once a consultant or team of consultants leaves, no one is
there to answer further questions nor to handle any follow-up. The training becomes
another case of an expert parachuted in and leaving before implementation takes
place.

5. Training is more effective and efficient when conducted by the same team or at
least, a core group of the same team. Training is costly in terms of time, effort, and
money. When the same team works together, savings occur in all three areas. As
a training team delivers more courses, their understanding of the institution and its
needs deepens and is translated into better training activities and materials for the
participants. Rather than "reinvent the wheel" with each course taught, the team is
able to move into better, more useful, and possibly more innovative courses specific







to the needs of the institution. Because FAO, like most organizations, has financial
constraints, there is no core group of people on staff to handle WID/Gender training
activities.

Several approaches to training have been taken at FAO: training of professional
staff has been handled by AFPR as part of regular professional staff training (e.g.,
in the project formulation course); training has been held within some divisions,
conducted by their own staff; or training has been conducted by consultants in
response to specific requests. All of these training course have had WID/Gender
components but have not been conducted by the same team. Thus, the content is
an unknown variable, the continuity is likely to be slight, and most importantly,
significant costs are incurred each time a new course is taught.

The recommendation to have the same training team is problematic for FAO but
could be resolved in several ways. The Training Unit can and should continue to
include WID/Gender issues in its professional staff training courses. Unfortunately,
due to large numbers of staff and budgetary constraint these courses reach only a
limited number of staff annually. The ESHW Training Coordinator could assist in
developing a WID/Gender portion for each type of staff training course and ensure
that the same person or persons teaches the course each time.

Some divisions, notably Fisheries, have conducted their own Gender courses related
specifically to their discipline. While such initiatives are to be commended, again
the question of content comes up. There is no right or wrong way to conduct a
WID/Gender course but without control over content, it is difficult to ascertain
whether objectives were adequately met. Again, the Training Coordinator could
guide the divisions which have held courses and developed course materials towards
producing a training course which meets not only divisional but also institutional
objectives. The coordination could also serve to facilitate inter-departmental
networking on WID training.

Ideally, of course, is the formation of a training team headed by the Training
Coordinator in ESHW. ESH is currently considering the possibility of forming such
a core group, to consist of 8 10 persons from different divisions to serve as resource
persons (paired with a professional trainer) for the regional and field training. This
does not address the staff training needs in Rome. This could certainly be done for
staff training, especially if the Training Coordinator is available. A likely constraint,
however, would be finding staff with the necessary qualifications and the time to be
trainers.

An alternative is to form a core group of approximately 20 trainers, from several
institutions, firms, or countries if necessary, who would be used to conduct training
activities whenever called for. The core group would not be on staff (except for
certain individuals in FAO who have demonstrated WID training skills) but would
be on call, as consultants. A core group of 20 is needed to have an adequate pool
from which to draw the two or three that would be needed for a course. The
Training Coordinator would maintain contact with the core group, informing them








of upcoming training needs, coordinating with them the most suitable times, and
exchanging information on relevant issues.

6. Training of trainers (TOT) is a critical element for achieving long-term integration
of WID/Gender issues and analysis in an institution. As part of its overall training
program, FAO must, from the very beginning, include TOT primarily because there
are too few trainers in this area. The sheer number of staff that FAO must train
make it imperative that TOT activities occur early on.

7. Every training course needs preparation time. In Appendix 7 is an example of steps
followed for course preparation and time needed to accomplish each step. Formulae
for preparation time range from 8:1 (i.e., eight days of preparation for each day of
the course) to 3:1 for the first time a course is taught. If the earlier recommendation
of having the same team for training is acceptable, then the preparation time will
be decreased each time the course is offered. It will never be totally reduced as
each course should be individually tailored, but preparation time can be reduced to
1:1 if the same team or core group are the trainers. Alternatively, the Training
Coordinator can monitor all courses and provide much of the groundwork for each
course, thus reducing the preparation time.

8. Training is not free. With its mandate to integrate WID and gender issues through
training of its professional staff, FAO faces a considerable investment in time and
money. In order to maximize use of these resources, some of the above suggestions
would save money and time. There is no effective, cheap way to hold training
courses but money can be saved by using the same team, for example, so that
additional course require less preparation time. A savings achieved by hiring a group
of consultants for one course is not realized in the long run because the course
content cannot be institutionalized by even the best-intentioned outsiders.

Additionally, there is a strong belief within FAO that training should be tailored in
content, methodology, and strategy to the various levels of audiences; that it should
include administrative and personnel officers, operations assistants and clerks,
professional staff and senior management; that field staff receive training; and so on
(Chaney, 1989). If only a fraction of these people are trained, the costs will be high.
A method to train all of these people would be to hold training-of-trainers courses
for individuals within each division. These trainers could then train people in their
own section with assistance from the Training Coordinator and Core Group. Thus
training could be tailored for each audience and time saved by having an "insider"
participate in the course development.

The question of "who" to train is addressed in a later section. To reiterate, training
is not cheap, whomever it is that is being trained.

9. Trainers work best with adequate resources and support personneL Resources
include secretarial, infrastructural, and logistical support. If a training course is held
for FAO staff at headquarters, logistical problems should be at a minimum. Still,
arrangements of all sorts will have to be made, presumably through ESHW offices.








These would include material production and reproduction, meeting space, lodging,
meals, equipment procurement (slide projector, video cassette recorder, microphone),
translation if needed, and so on. Once a course is held away from headquarters,
logistical problems multiply many-fold. The Training Coordinator will need to work
with the travel office, for example, to coordinate participant travel. It is often a good
idea to hire someone temporarily who is familiar with the country or region to
handle many of the associated problems that arise during a training course. Having
a trainer responsible for logistics is an inefficient and expensive use of their time.

10. The case method is particularly well-suited to WID/Gender training. Case studies
are a popular tool for training. Participants tend to internalize and use the
information in case studies because they must take an active, rather than a passive,
role in the learning process. The case studies currently in use are based on actual
development projects. Many institutions have developed their own case studies but
doing so is not necessary to use the case study method. FAO has three options: the
portfolio of existing teaching case studies can be enhanced by using FAO
experiences; FAO can develop its own case studies; and FAO can go through an
analytical exercise using specific project documents. There are several case studies
being developed at FAO which could be adapted for teaching purposes. GIIS is
doing a case study of the communication campaign for rural development which
deals mainly with women farmers. AGLW is writing case studies for five major
irrigation schemes around the world involving women. These are in reality case
histories but could be edited as teaching case studies for use in training courses.

11. It is not necessary to develop new case studies in order to begin training. To
elaborate, case studies already exist that can be adapted using FAO experiences. For
example, participants in a training course can use their own project experience to
analyze a case study. FAO could also take a generic case study (for example, a road
building project or a small ruminant project) and enhance it with specific details
from an FAO project. Or, as stated above, FAO can use the case histories in
progress and develop them into teaching cases.

FAO could also develop its own case studies, but it must be emphasized that this is
costly, time-consuming and not necessary for the first few training courses. In other
words, training should not be delayed while waiting for case studies to be developed.
CIDA, for example, has been using U.S.A.I.D. case studies for its training courses
for several years and is just now starting to develop cases specific to their own
organization. However, case studies take a long time to be developed and someone
should be assigned the task of starting work on a few that are specific to FAO. An
excellent starting point would be the materials developed by the Fisheries division.

Finally, for gender analysis, FAO project documents can be used by a training class
to go through all of the steps of a project, from design to implementation to
completion. With the appropriate trainer, this latter analysis could even be
developed later into an FAO specific case study. If the course were planned to
include someone who would be responsible for developing the case study, two goals
would be accomplished: getting a case study written and testing it quickly.








12. Selection of participants is crucial to a successful training course. Given the great
number of staff who must be trained at FAO, the more pertinent question here is
"Who should be trained first?" and the corollary question "Who should participate
in the training-of-trainers courses?" Given that some staff feel strongly that everyone
should be trained (Chaney, 1989) including field staff, it is clearly not possible for
one training team to train "everyone". Furthermore, there are different types of
training needs. Administrative and personnel staff, for example, probably do not
need a 3 5 day training course. By the same token, division chiefs would probably
benefit from an intensive short course of V2 1 day. The point is that there are
different levels and requirements for training of FAO staff. Priorities should be
set, as indicated in Chaney's report, and TOT initiated at the same time that the first
courses are taught so that training activities can diffuse throughout the organization.

13. It is essential to provide participants with an analytical framework for WID/Gender
issues and analysis. Participants in some training exercises that have not included
instruction in the use of a framework come away with the idea that the training was
all well and good, quite interesting, but not possible to implement in their everyday
programs. An analytical framework provides the participants with a tool to use in
their job, assists them in asking the pertinent questions relating to WID/Gender
issues, and forestalls the excuse for not applying WID/Gender analysis to their
projects. FAO need not, at this point, develop an entirely new analytical framework.
It can use existing frameworks and adapt them to their needs.

14. There is no single training strategy that fits all institutions. There are basically four
types of courses: sensitization to WID issues, application of WID/Gender analysis
to the FAO project process, methodological skills training in gender analysis, and
training of trainers.(see Appendix 8) Depending on time available these can be
combined. FAO, by and large, does not need to sensitize its current staff although
incoming staff would benefit from an introduction to WID issues in their routine
briefings. The other types of training can be handled in any number of ways,
according to who is being trained and the internal needs of the FAO. As discussed
throughout this and other documents, there are a variety of needs, therefore, there
is no single training strategy that will fulfill all needs within the organization.








BIBLIOGRAPHY


Burfisher, Mary E. and Nadine R. Horenstein. 1985. Sex Roles in the Nigerian Tiv Farm
Household. West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian Press.

Carloni, Alice S. 1987. Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985, Volume
I, Synthesis Paper. U.S. Agency for International Development: A.I.D. Program
Evaluation Report No. 18.

Caye, Virginia. 1988. The Gender Information Framework. Office of Women in
Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for
International Development.

CIDA. 1986. Women in Development and the Project Cycle: A Workbook. Women in
Development Division, Canadian International Development Agency.

Collier, Paul. 1988. Women in Development: Defining the Issues. Women in
Development Division, Population and Human Resources Department, The World
Bank, Washington, D.C.

Cloud, Kathleen. 1987. Gender Issues in USAID's Agricultural Projects: How Efficient
Are We? A Study of the Lessons Learned in Implementation of USAID's Women
in Development Policy in West and North Africa, the Near East, and Asia. USAID
Working Paper No. 85.

1988. A Teaching Module on Women and Agriculture: Household Level
Analysis. Prepared for the International Workshop Women, Households and
Development: Building a Data Base. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois.
Manuscript.

1989. Report on the International Conference on Appropriate Technologies
for Farm Women, New Delhi. Arlington, Virginia: Winrock International. Manuscript.

Duncan, Ann. 1987. Economic Guidelines Outline. Women in Development Division,
Population and Human Resources Department, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Manuscript.

Feldstein, Hilary and Susan Poats. 1989. A Casebook on Gender and Agriculture.
Volume I. Case Studies. Volume II. Teaching Notes. West Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press.

Hooper, Emma. 1988. Status Review of Selected World Bank Projects Benefitting Women.
Women in Development Division, Population and Human Resources Department,
The World Bank, Washington, D.C.








IRRI. 1987. Women in Rice Farming Systems: An Operational Reseach and Training
Program. Manila, Philippines: The International Rice Research Institute.

McCaffery, James A. 1986. Independent Effectiveness: A Reconsideration of Cross-
Cultural Orientation and Training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations
10:159-178.

Molnar, Augusta and Gotz Schreiber. 1989. Women and Forestry: Operational Issues.
Women in Development, Population and Human Resources Department, The World
Bank, Washington, D.C.

Moser, Caroline. 1986. "Women's Needs in the Urban System: Training Strategies in
Gender Aware Planning" In Learning About Women and Urban Services in Latin
America and the Caribbean. Marianne Schmink, Judith Bruce and Marilyn Kohn,
eds. New York: The Population Council.

Overholt, Catherine, Mary B. Anderson, Kathleen Cloud and James E. Austin. 1985.
Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book. West Hartford, Connecticut:
Kumarian Press.

Palmer, Ingrid. 1985. The Nemow Case. West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian Press.

Poats, Susan, Jean Gearing and Sandra Russo. 1989. Gender Issues in Farming Systems
Research and Extension: A Survey of Current Projects. Tropical Research and
Development, Inc. Prepared for the Office of Women in Development, Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination, U.S. Agency for International Development.

Poats, Susan. 1989. Training as a Mechanism for WID and Gender Issues Integration:
Experiences of Selected Institutions in International Development. Preliminary
Report Submitted to FAO/ESHW.

Poats, Susan, Marianne Schmink and Anita Spring, eds. 1988. Gender Issues in Farming
Systems Research and Extension. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Rao, Arunashree P., ed. 1986. Incorporating Gender Issues in Development Training.
Bangkok, Thailand: The Population Council Regional Office for South and East
Asia.

Rathgeber, Eva. 1989. WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice. Ottawa,
Canada: International Development Research Centre. Manuscript.

Russo, Sandra, Jennifer Bremer-Fox, Susan Poats and Laurene Graig. 1988. Gender Issues
in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management: Guidelines for Project Design.
Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination,
U.S.Agency for International Development.







White, Karen, Maria Otero, Margaret Lycette and Mayra Buvinic. 1986. Integrating
Women into Development Programs: A Guide for Implementation for Latin
America and the Caribbean. International Center for Research on Women,
Washington, D.C. Prepared for the Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean,
U.S. Agency for International Development.

World Bank. 1989. Women in Development: Seminar Report. Women in Development
Division, Human Resource Development Division. Washington, D.C.












APPENDICES




APPENDIX 1


NAMES AND AFFILIATIONS OF PERSONS INTERVIEWED


Mary Anderson
(Harvard team)
Collaborative for Development Action, Inc. (CDA)

Nancy Axinn
Michigan State University

Lucie Bazinet
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

Tim Broadhead
Canadian Council for International Cooperation

Virginia Caye
Consultant, U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

Kathleen Cloud
University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana

Kay Davies
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

Paula Goddard
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)

Nadine Horenstein
World Bank

Caroline Moser
London School of Economics (LSE)

Sarah Murison
United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

Rosalie Norem
Iowa State University

Michael Paolisso
International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)

Eva Rathgeber
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)

Constantina Saffilios-Rothschild
International Agriculture Center, Wageningen
41
Katrine Saito
World Bank






APPENDIX 2

From: Gender Roles in Development Projects, Edited by Catherine Overholt,
,?.F r'. 9Er^ Kathleen Cloud, James E. Austin. Kumarian Press, 1985'-



Women in Development:

A Framework For

Project Analysis




Prepared by Catherine Overholt, Kathleen Cloud, Mary B. Anderson and James E.
Austin.
Development planning has failed to recognize fully or system-
aticallv women's contribution to the development process or, in turn,
the effect of this process on them. This failure has limited development
efforts and effects. Economic growth, project efficiency, and social
justice call for a new approach to development which systematically
includes women.
In her seminal work of 1970, Ester Boserup plainly articulated the
state of neglect: "In the vast and ever-growing literature on economic
development, reflections on the particular problems of women are few
and far between."i Over the last decade, the issues regarding the
integral involvement of women in national development processes
have slowly crept onto the agendas of national and international
development agencies. By 1980, many countries and international
agencies had explicitly incorporated women's issues into their develop-
ment plans and had set up special bureaus, offices, or even ministries
as the organizational focal point of these new concerns. Furthermore,
the barren literature fields observed by Boserup had begun to produce
intellectual harvests. By 1981, articles and books in the women in
development area were appearing at a rapid rate.
i Although there has been much activity, development planning efforts
still fail to recognize fully women's actual and potential contribution to
the development process or the effect of the development process on
them. The imperatives for rectifying these inadequacies are based on
both economic and equity concerns. Women are key actors in the
economic system, yet their neglect in development plans has left
untaped a potentially large economic contribution. Women represent
the majority of the population, but they are concentrated at the
3 i


r ~--- I I ---- -~ -~Cli~ -------Bl~iJ~ti------~z~,sec~~C~-









Gender Roles in Development Projects


bottom of the ladder in terms of employment, education, income and
status. Both economic growth and social justice call for increased
attention to the integration of women into the development process.
This paper proceeds from the basis that equity and economic growth
are compatible objectives and must be pursued simultaneously.
Projects are among the primary vehicles used by governments and
international agencies to channel resources in the development process.2
One of the barriers to translating research activity about women into
effective and beneficial development programming has been the absence
of an adequate analytical framework for integrating women into
project analysis. Such integration of women is essential for transform-
ing policy concerns into practical realities.4 The purpose of this paper is
to present an analytical framework which will facilitate this process.


ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK

What women do will have an impact on most projects whether
or not'women are considered explicitly in their design and implemen-
tation. Similarly, most projects will have an effect on women's lives.
The framework we propose can improve the definition of general
project objectives, assess how these relate to women's involvement
with a project, and anticipate the effect of the project on women. The
analysis which we introduce here is not intended to be limited in its
application to projects which are directed only to women. This analysis
is equally applicable, and probably more important, precisely for projects
where women's roles and responsibilities have not been explicitly
noted but are implicitly assumed in project design and implementation.
Development projects are vehicles for generating change. Project
design and implementation, therefore, require an adequate data base.
"Visibility" is the starting point for integrating women into develop-
ment projects and visibility also comes through data. Thus, the corner-
stone of the proposed framework is an adequate data base which
considers what women do and why. The key challenge, however, is
how to organize and present this information so as to facilitate its
translation into project terms. The framework we propose uses four
interrelated components: Activity Profile; Access and Control Profile;
Analysis of Factors Influencing Activities, Access, and Control; and
Project Cycle Analysis.
The first component, the Activity Profile, is based on the concept of
a gender-based division of labor. The Activity Profile will delineate the
economic activities of the population in the project area first by age
and gender and then by ethnicity, social class, or other important
44







Women in Development


distinguishing characteristics. In addition, it will indicate the amount
of time spent by individuals to accomplish these activities. The second
component, the Access and Control Profile, will identify what resources
individuals can command to carry out their activities and the benefits
which they derive from them.
Analysis of Factors Influencing Activities, Access, and Control focuses
on the underlying factors which determine the gender division of labor
and gender-related control over resources and benefits. These analyses
identify the factors which- create differential opportunities or con-
straints for men's and women's participation in and benefits from
projects. Because the work that men and women carry out shifts over
time in response to the processes of change, an understanding of the
underlying trends within the broader economic and cultural environ-
ment must be incorporated into this analysis.
The final component of the analytic framework, Project Cycle
Analysis, consists of examining a project in light of the foregoing basic
data and the trends that are likely to affect it and/or be generated by it.
Together, these four components provide a sufficient basis for design-
ing and implementing projects which can best benefit women and
benefit by women's participation.

ACTIVITY PROFILE

To assess the interaction between women and projects, it is
important to know what women do. How one categorizes activities
conceptually is important. We suggest the following categories:

1) Production of Goods and Services


Too often planners have failed to recognize women's roles as
producers. Specific productive activities carried out for all goods and
services by men or women should be identified. It is not sufficient to
identify only female activities. Male activities must also be specified,
because the interrelationships can affect or be affected by the project.
Since general typologies can be very misleading, specific delineation
of activities is needed for each country and project setting. Huntington's
critique of the early Boserup work emphasized the difficulties of
generalizing: ". . even if the classification and causal relationships of
Boserup's conceptualization are pertinent to African societies, they do
not hold elsewhere."s The work of Deere and Leon in Andean areas
reinforces the problem with generalization . "Boserup's propositions
. hold only for the middle and rich states of the peasantry . ."6









Gender Roles in Development Projects


The degree of specificity of the activity listing should depend on the
nature of the project. Those areas most directly associated with a
project should carry the greatest detail. For example, if the project
concerns a new agricultural production technology, then the gender
division of labor for each agricultural productive activity should be
delineated, e.g. land clearance, preparation, seeding, weeding, proces-
sing, etc.

2) Reproduction and Maintenance of the Human Resources


Activities that are carried out to produce and care for the
family members need to be specified according to who does them.
They might include but are not limited to fuel and water collection,
food preparation, birthing, child care, education, health care, and
laundry. These activities are often viewed as noneconomic, generally
carry no pecuniary remuneration, and usually are excluded from the
national income accounts. In fact, these household maintenance tasks
are essential economic functions which ensure the development and
preservation of the human capital for the family and the nation.
Galbraith observed . "what is not counted is usually not noticed."7 In
project analyses, not noticing a major activity can lead to defective
project design.
Giving explicit attention to these functions is critical. Women's
project involvement can depend on whether or how a project affects
reproduction and maintenance activities, the production of goods and
services, andlor the interrelationship between these activities. The
scarcest resource for most low-income women is time. The design of
projects which increase time requirements for particular activities
must consider these requirements in relation to the time required for
other necessary activities.
The activities listed in the above categories need to be further
classified to increase their utility for the subsequent project analysis.
Three parameters are suggested for describing the activities:

(a) Gender and Age Denomination identifies whether women,
men, their children, or the elderly carry out an activity; reveals
gender patterns in the work activities; and is the key to identify-
ing subsequent gender effects.
(b) Time Allocation specifies what percentage of time is allocated
to each activity and whether it is seasonal or daily.








Women in Development


(c) Activity Locus specifies where the activity is being performed
-in the home, in the family field or shop or in the outside
community; reveals female mobility; and carries implications for
project delivery systems.
Table 1 provides an example of how information on activities can be
summarized.
Most projects are not targeted to homogeneous population groups.
The gender-based division of labor as well as the access to and control
over resources and benefits are likely to differ, often quite substantially,
according to socio-economic class or ethnic affiliation. Therefore, it is
essential to develop the activity profiles separately for each of the
distinct population groups to whom the project is targeted.

ACCESS AND CONTROL PROFILE

Identifying the gender-specific activities in production, repro-
duction, and maintenance is a necessary, but not sufficient, step in the
data preparation for project design and implementation. The flow of
resources and benefits is a fundamental concept in the analysis of how
projects will affect and be affected by women. Of particular concern is
the access that individuals have to resources for carrying out their
activities and the command they have over the benefits that derive
from these activities. Table 2 illustrates how this information can be
usefully summarized.
Two points are important here. First, it is essential to differentiate
between access and control. Access to resources does not necessary
imply the power to control them. To control a situation is to impose
one's own definition upon the other actors in that situation.8 In other
words, access can be determined by others, but control implies that
one is the determining force.
Second, it is also important to differentiate between access to and
control over the use of resources, on the one hand, and access to and
control over the benefits derived from the mobilization of resources.
Even where women have unrestrained use of resources, they are not
always able to realize the gains from their use. Huntington's obser-
vation on female-dominated African agriculture illustrates this situ-
ation. Men have power and control over the fruits of women's labor
because "tradition gives men a position of authority over women ....
Men get their wealth, their livelihood and their leisure from women's
labor."9 By focusing on both resources and benefits, one obtains an
accurate assessment of the relative power of members of a society or
economy and can utilize this knowledge to analyze the probable
interaction of women with a project and its likely effect on them.








Gender Roles In Development Projects


ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING ACTIVITIES,
ACCESS, AND CONTROL

The factors which determine who does what in any population
subgroup and what access and control individuals will have to resources
and benefits are broad and interrelated. They could be categorized in
numerous ways. We suggest the following:
(a) general economic conditions, such as poverty levels, inflation
rates, income distribution, international terms of trade, infra-
structure;
(b) institutional structures, including the nature of government bureau-
cracies and arrangement for the generation and dissemi ation of
knowledge, technology, and skills;
(c) demographic factors;
(d) socio-cultural factors;
(e) community norms, such as familial norms and religious beliefs;
(f) legal parameters;
(g) training and education;
(h) political events, both internal and external.

The reason for specifying these determining factors is to identify
which can facilitate or constrain a project. Some factors, if not most,
will not be amenable to change by a project. Therefore, the task for
project design and implementation is to assess the above factors in
terms of whether and how they will have an effect on or be affected
by a project.
In addition, it is important to identify the exogenous trends or
dynamic forces which are already affecting change on what men and
women actually do. Projects are not implemented and carried out
within the static environment implied by the Activity and Access and
Control Profiles. Dynamic forces-political, social, environmental, or
physical-can either enhance the accomplishment of a project's objec-
tives or seriously impede it.
The consideration of exogeneous trends and dynamic forces, while
always important, is even more so in relation to women. There are a
number of forces affecting women on a world-wide basis. Life-expec-
tancy is rising, particularly for women. Availability of birth control
information and techniques combined with declining infant mortality
rates have the potential to change a fundamental determinant of
48






Wto'men in L:.Prne1:


women's ac:;vities; women may have fewer births and/or raise the
same number or fewer children. Women are taking up productive
activities previously undertaken by men as men migrate to cities or as
women assume responsibilities as heads of their households. Women
are increasingly entering wage labor occupations in order to survive or
to maintain a standard of living. Women are gaining increasing access
to permanent wage labor in some areas.
In many areas, the number of women-headed households is increas-
ing, although there tends to be a cultural lag in acknowledging this
fact. Bangladesh provides an important case in point. The number of
women who were left destitute, widowed, or abandoned after the war
has had a significant effect on the Bangladesh cultural norm that all
women should be under the care and protection of a man. Decreasing
land availability is also challenging the norm that children are an asset.
Children now cannot be absorbed onto family land, but must be
educated in order to earn a living. Costs of education raise the costs of
childrearing significantly. Decreasing land/human ratios also mean
that it is more difficult for a man to support all the dependent female
family members. The trend is towards an abdication of this traditional
responsibility. While these forces have direct and important effects on
women's lives and the activities they perform, they are part of a much
larger dynamic process. The status of women and their involvement in
work external to the household is changing in Bangladesh without
anyone's having designed this process. Project design and implemen-
tation for Bangladesh must take these forces into account in order to
understand the context in which a project will be working and the
forces which will affect it.
While Bangladesh provides an example of broader national trends
that influence projects, there are also a number of international trends
which affect local circumstances. World-wide inflation, international
transfers of labor, the impact of technologies, international tensions
including the Cold War, all change over time and can affect project
outcomes. Events within a project may be better understood when
these larger forces are explicitly noted and considered in project
planning, implementation and evaulation.

PROJECT CYCLE ANALYSIS

The remainder of the analytical framework consists of ex-
amining a project in light of the foregoing basic data. The process is to
ask which activities the project will affect and how the issues of access
and control relate to these activities. The factors which determine who
undertakes particular activities and with what access and control are


I I _ __ _ ___









Gender Roies in Development Projects


critical because they act as mediators for the project's effects on
women. The analysis will help pinpoint areas of a project which have
to be adjusted in order to achieve the desired outcome.
At the project identification stage, questions which relate to women
as project clientele need to be addressed. This includes defining project
objectives in terms of women, identifying the opportunities andlor
constraints for women's project involvement, and, finally, identifying
possible negative effects on women. In the design stage of the project,
questions related to the impact on women's activities, access and
control of resources and benefits need to be raised. For project
implementation, questions regarding the relationship of women in the
project area to project personnel, organizational structures, operations,
logistics, etc. need to be considered. Finally, data requirements for
evaluating the project's effects on women must be addressed. Specific
questions related to project cycle analysis are detailed in Annex 1.
The activity analysis and the access and control analysis applied to
the project cycle analysis provide the basis for good project develop-
ment. They guide project identification by revealing where women are
and what they are doing. They assist project design by highlighting the
problem areas and their causes. The challenge is to find ways to deal
with the problem areas either by removing them, by-passing them, or
adjusting project expectations within them. Project implementation
has to be considered in the design process and can benefit from the
analytical data, too. It is important to recognize that no standard
project design is possible. Each country's situation is unique and will
require specific responses.

CROSS-CULTURAL USES OF THE
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK

The analytical framework which we have provided here is a
useful device for understanding the roles of men and women in a
society and the external forces which may affect project planning The
analysis is generalizable in every context in that it is relevant to
determine the gender-based division of labor and to understand the
forces which act as constraints on this division or which act to change
it.
In applying any generalized analysis across projects and across
cultures, it is important to bear in mind its precise use and its clear
limits. When activity analysis shows that women are involved in
certain productive tasks in one area and that these tasks have certain
implications for the division of resources and of power in that context,
it is unlikely that even this same division of labor will have exactly the

50








Vorne 1* in Deve!opment


same implications for the division of power in any other culture or
projectt location. Traditions, customs, and political processes interact
vith economic and social activities differently in different settings.
Transference of conclusions and interpretations across projects and
:ultures is unlikely to be accurate. Nonetheless, there may be simi-
arities in the mode of analysis which may be applied to understand
these interactions. While the analytical framework suggested here
-aises questions that are applicable in all settings insofar as it is
designed to gather critically relevant information for project design,
)ne must apply it to specific project settings. Good project design
requires actual data on what work women do and in what context,
Dgether with clear specification of the issues of prestige, power,
access and control.
A decade has passed since the Percy Amendment required that U.S.
ilateral assistance programs
"be administered so as to give particular attention to those
programs, projects and activities which tend to integrate
women into the national economies of foreign countries,
thus improving their status and assisting the total develop-
ment effort."10

his legislative mandate requires that women be cast as contributors
.nd agents of economic development as well as its beneficiaries.
!anners, therefore, must guard against the negative effects of their
projects on women and focus on the need to enhance women's produc-
vity, raise their income, and promote their access to economically
productive resources as a means to achieving overall national economic
rowth.

CONCLUSION

The foregoing framework should be viewed as a flexible
'strument rather than a rigid format for accomplishing this objective.
does not pretend to be a definitive work, but rather one upon which
:hers can build. Only in that spirit can we continue to learn together,
-id that collective process is essential to the progress we pursue.









12 Gender Roles in Development Projects


TABLES

Table 1 Activity Profile
Gender/Age1
Socioeconomir Activity FA MA FC MC FE ME TIME: LOCUS3 st.
1. Production of Goods and Services
a. Product/Services
1. Functional Activity
2. Functional Activity
3. Functional Activity
b. Product/Services
1. Functional Activity
2. Functional Activity
3. Functional Activity
2. Reproduction & Maintenance
of Human Resources
a. Product/Services
1. Functional Activity
2. Functional Activity
3. Functional Activity
b. Product/Services
1. Functional Activity
2. Functional Activity
3. Functional Activity
1. Functional Activity
1. Functional Activity
Code:l/ FA = Female Adult; MA = Male Adult: FC = Female Child; MC = Male Child; FE
= Female Elder; ME = Male Elder
2/ Percentage of time allocated to each activity; seasonal; daily
31 Within home; family, field or shop; local community; beyond community

Table 2 Access and Control Profile


Access Control
Resources IM/FI (M/F)
Land
Equipment
Labor
Production
Reproduction
Capital
EducationiTraining
Access Control
Benefits [M/F) IM/FI
Outside Income
Assets Ownership
In-Kind goods.
(Food, clothing, shelter, etc.)
Education
Political Power/Prestige
Other


r







i





t









Women in Deveiopment


ANNEXES
Annex 1

The following sets of questions are the key ones for each of the four main
stages in the project cycle: identification, design, implementation, evaluation.
WOMEN'S DIMENSION IN PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
A. Assessing Women's Needs
1. What needs and opportunities exist for increasing women's productivity
andlor production?
2. What needs and opportunities exist for increasing women's access to and
control of resources?
3. What needs and opportunities exist for increasing women's access to and
control of benefits?
4. How do these needs and opportunities relate to the country's other general
and sectoral development needs and opportunities?
5. Have women been directly consulted in identifying such needs and oppor-
tunities?
B. Defining General Project Objectives
1. Are project objectives explicit related to women's needs?
2. Do these objectives adequately reflect women's needs?
3. Have women participated in setting those objectives?
4. Have there been any earlier efforts?
5. How has present proposal built on earlier activity?
C. Identifying Possible Negative Effects
1. Might the project reduce women's access to or control of resources and
benefits?
2. Might it adversely affect women's situation in some other way?
3. What will be the effects on women in the short and longer run?
WOMEN'S DIMENSION IN PROJECT DESIGN
A. Project Impact on Women's Activities
1. Which of these activities (production, reproduction & maintenance, socio-
political) does the project affect?
2. Is the planned component consistent with the current gender denomination
for the activity?
3. If it plans to change the women's performance of that activity, (i.e., locus of
activity, remunerative mode. technology, mode of activity) is this feasible,
and what positive or negative effects would it have on women?
4. If it does not change it, is this a missed opportunity for women's roles in the
development process?
5. How can the project design be adjusted to increase the above-mentioned
positive effects, and reduce or eliminate the negative ones?
B. Project Impact on Women's Access and Control
1. How will each of the project components affect women's access to and
control of the resources and benefits engaged in and stemming from the
production of goods and services?
2. How will each of the project components affect women's access to and
control of the resources and benefits engaged in and stemming from the
reproduction and maintenance of the human resources?









14 Gender Roles in Development Projects


3. How will each of the project components affect women's access to and
control of the resources and benefits engaged in and stemming from the
sociopolitical functions?
4. What forces have been set into motion to induce further exploration of
constraints and possible improvements?
5. How can the project design be adjusted to increase women's access to and
control of resources and benefits?

WOMEN'S DIMENSION IN PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
A. Personnel
1. Are project personnel sufficiently aware of and sympathetic toward women's
needs?
2. Are women used to deliver the goods or services to women beneficiaries?
3. Do personnel have the necessary skills to provide any special inputs required
by women?
4. What training techniques will be used to develop delivery systems?
5. Are there appropriate opportunities for women to participate in project
management positions?
B. Organizational Structures
1. Does the organizational form enhance women's access to resources?
2. Does the organization have adequate power to obtain resources needed by
women from other organizations?
3. Does the organization have the institutional capability to support and
protect women during the change process?
C. Operations and Logistics
1. Are the organization's delivery channels accessible to women in terms of
personnel, location and timing?
2. Do control procedures exist to ensure dependable delivery of the goods and
services?
3. Are there mechanisms to ensure that the project resources or benefits are
not usurped by males?
D. Finances
1. Do funding mechanisms exist to ensure program continuity?
2. Are funding levels adequate for proposed tasks?
3. Is preferential access to resources by males avoided?
4. Is it possible to trace funds for women from allocation to delivery with a fair
degree of accuracy?
E. Flexibility
1. Does the project have a management information system which will allow it
to detect the effects of the operation on women?
2. Does the organization have enough flexibility to adapt its structures and
operations to meet the changing or new-found situations of women?

WOMEN'S DIMENSION IN PROJECT EVALUATION
A. Data Requirements
1. Does the project's monitoring and evaluation system explicit measure the
project's effects on women?
2. Does it also collect data to update the Activity Analysis and the Women's
Access and Control Analysis?
3. Are women involved in designating the data requirements?







W: Vjm;: in Dee::'eimenr


B. Data Collection and Analysis
1. Are the data collected with sufficient frequency so that necessary project
adjustments could be made during the project?
2. Are the data fed back to project personnel and beneficiaries in an understand-
able form and on a timely basis to allow project adjustments?
3. Are women involved in the collection and interpretation of data?
4. Are data analyzed so as to provide guidance to the design of other projects?
5. Are key areas for WID research identified?


NOTES


1. Ester Boserup, Women's Role in E:onomic Development (London: George Allen and Unwin
Ltd., 1970).
2. This focus on "projects" rather than processes, institutions, and policies can inhibit
rather than promote development if not managed appropriately. See David C. Korten,
'Community Organization and Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach,"
Public Administration Review 40, (1980), pp. 480-503. Our attention to projects does not
:arry a normative judgment on this approach but rather reflects a concern to improve
:he existing modalities.
3. The perceptions or biases of "planners" concerning women constitute another barrier.
See Barbara Rogers, The Domestication of Women: Discrimination in Developing Societies (London:
Tavistock Publications, 1980).
4. See Gloria Scott, The Invisible Woman (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1980).
5. Sue Ellen Huntington, "Issues in Women's Role in Economic Development: Critique
and Alternatives," Journal of Marriage and the Family (November 1975), p. 104.
5. C. Deere, and M. Leon de Leal, Women in Andean Agriculture: Peasant Production and Rural
Manage Employment in Columbia and Peru (Geneva: ILO, 1982).
-. Kenneth Calbraith, "The Economics of the American Housewife," Atlantic Monthly
August 1973,) p. 79.
. Alan Dawe, "The Two Sociologies." The British Journal of Sociology 21 (1970) p. 207; also
:ited in Rogers, op. cit.
1. Huntington. op. cit.
. U.S. Congress Foreign Assistance Act of 1973, Sections 103-107.









AnnDuncan: ra APPENDIX 3
July 9, 1987

ECONOMIC GUIDELINES

OUTLINE


1. Structure of the economy: macro-economic problems and future
direction.

2. Position of women in the economy:

a) in which sectors are they engaged/employed and to what extent?
rough measure of returns to their work.

i. x% of female population (representing y% of total labor
force in agriculture) engaged in agriculture (which
crops) land-owners or laborers?) Average income of
women in agriculture.

ii. % of female population (- y % of total labor
force) engaged in industry:

-list industries (with %)
what type of work do they do?
average income (vs. men)

iii. % of women engaged in the informal sector:

% urban main activities
%rural "


b) Representation among the poor

c) Representation in rural vs. urban population

d) etc.


3. Resource misallocation: Their "unequal" position in the economy
(implying both under-utilized economic potential and social injustice)
is the result of their unequal access to productive resources and
services that would allow them to invest in their human capital.

a) Productive resources

i. land describe problems with women's land tenure and
existing pattern.

ii. labor labor market segmentation




- 3-


Extent of discriminatory policies in:

hiring
conditions of employment ( including those related
to maternity and child-care)
security of employment
firing
wage/salary level

iii. credit effective discrimination in credit policies
(applies to formal and informal sector, urban and
rural):

extent of discrimination, mainly related to
requirements for collateral.

Impact of these on women's use of credit.

iv. information % of women farmers receiving agricultural
extension services vs. that for men.

v. markets extent to which women are restricted from
selling their own produce in the market (relevant for
purdah countries)

b) Investment in human capital

i. access to education and training e.g., enrollment of
girls vs. that of boys primary, secondary and tertiary
levels, as well as in vocational and non-formal
programs)

ii. access to health services adequacy of these set
against women's needs (c.f. with men if possible, but
tricky because of women's extra needs related to
pregnancy and birth)


4. Economic and social consequences of this resource misallocation

a) Macro-economy:

i. output (build-up from disaggregated "output loss"
estimates (roughly ) by sector (see Sector
Guidelines), e.g., in agriculture, women produce x% less
than men of similar socio-economic description, for
example, with same education and land endowments, but
differential access to extension and credit).
Methodology needs to be developed here (both a sound one




- 4 -


and a "short-cut" method), including how to take into
account the dynamic effects of "releasing potential" in
sectors where women not currently engaged.

ii. balance-of-payments: may or may not be identifiable
effect, and likely to be small, if not negligible.
However, probably worth investigating: an obvious
example is that restrictions in female labor force
participation in Pakistan result in the importation of
female domestic labor from Sri Lanka, methodology would
need to be developed.

b) General and social effects

i. population: population growth rate (through result of
excessive fertility when women have inadequate income-
earning opportunities).

ii. environment: environmental degradation resulting from
women under severe economic pressure having to "mine"
soil and forests.

iii. women's life and death:

describe women's life expectancy vs. men's in this
country (AK Sen's "missing women" concept). Also
women's mobility and female infant mortality.

female literacy (vs. that of men).


5. Policy Implications

A. Efficiency

a) Principal problem is that women are not able to be as
productive as they could be. Emphasis should therefore be on
sectoral policies to improve their access to productive and
investible resources (e.g., in agriculture, improve women's
access to extension and credit; in education, improve women's
enrollment and completion, etc.). See Sectoral Guidelines for
detailed recommendations.

b) Broad policies. However, there are also broad cross-sectoral
policies where discrimination could be removed by changes in
policy:

i. labor market policies all forms of discrimination
should be removed (make specific recommendations for the
particular economy). Training programs for women should
be increased (again, specific recommendations).




- 5 -


ii. credit policies innovative ways of handling women's
general lack of land-ownership (and therefore if
collateral) e.g., Graneen Bank type. Conclusions to
be drawn from "Credit Guidelines" and applied to this
economy for specific policy recommendations.

B. Eauitv

c. Macro-economic policies: these can be designed so that the
burden of structural adjustment does not fall
disproportionately on women. The main reason for this is
equity, but there are also efficiency arguments, or
"externalities": it seems (document from literature for
country or region specifically true in sub-Saharan Africa,
that income controlled by women is used more for children's
food, education, and clothing, as well as for "productive
purposes" (e.g. savings for new business) than men's, where a
higher proportion i spent on pure consumption (often alcohol).
For example, a common phenomenon in Africa has been, during a
period of structural adjustment when incentives are revised
for export crops (usually the equivalent of "cash crops"),
that husbands demand more of their wives' labor in order to
expand the cash crops production: the woman has not then been
able to grow her food crops, and has lost her income. The man
does not pay her for her labor. The result is decrease in
family nutritional and educational standards, which of course
has other social and economic ramifications.

The options then are:

i. to change custom men's vs. women's, concerning control
of crops and labor (probably impossible in the short-
run)

ii. to give greater weight to the production of the crops
that the woman controls, even if they are "non-
tradeables", because of the externalities involved.

The following macro-economic policy design issues could be
considered, then, to ensure that the cost of adjustment does
not fall disproportionately on women:

i. Trade liberation. In those industries which are likely
to contract following a liberalization, and where women
are heavily employed, the pace of liberalization could
be showed, and accompanied by re-training programs.

ii. Devaluation. If the women's crops are adversely
affected (e.g., if they are non-tradeables, like coarse




- 6 -


grains), the first option should be to assess whether in
this country the loss in benefits for the family
(discussed above) are such as to warrant special income-
maintenance programs. If so, then either the price of
the women's crop could be maintained in relative terms;
or targeted income-generation/welfare programs could be
introduced (e.g., food-for-work type programs for women;
or the inputs from women's crops (or livestock) could be
subsidized; etc.

iii. Fiscal policies. The benefits of public expenditure
should be shared equitably between the sexes (e.g.,
public expenditure on education, health, and
transport.

Revenue. Avoid expenditure or consumption taxes,
which are regressive (since women are
disproportionately represented among the poor).

iv. Agricultural pricing policies. If these have the same
effect on women's crops as the devaluation discussed
above, then similar programs could be considered.


In general, in order then to take account of women's position
and potential, adjustment policies can be re-oriented or
designed in one or a combination of the following ways:

a) re-orient public expenditures;

b) cross-subsidize (e.g., within education, to the kind of
education girls use more, such as primary education);

c) targeted subsidies (e.g., FWP, input subsidies for women's
crops);

d) slow down the pace of adjustment (e.g., in trade
liberalization);

e) training programs to enhance women's flexibility in the labor
market;

f) re-orientation of various kinds of agricultural pricing
policy, to give more weight to women's crops (because of the
externalityy" of the family benefits).








A Framework for Analysing Women's Issues


Women's Status/Well-Being


Women's Income
From Own Activities


Women's Control
Over Total Household
Income and Fertility


omen's Par c cipalion in Market vs. Non-Market Activities
.-clruding Choice of Formal or Informal Secttr-.,
Women's Participation in Decisions Regarding Fertility


Women's Productivity In Self-Employment
(Agriculture "is. NeoAgrinullure) ,,,,,


Women's Wages in Formal Sector


Women's Access to Productive Inputs 4. Women's Investment in Human Capital iscrim tion in
(Extension, Credit, etc.) (Education, lHeallh, Family Planning, etc) Labor Market(,.tl.e .&i-.e
Lw. o.,,.',


Supply Factors
* Quality: Design of Programs
* Quantity: Distribution and Total
Quantity of Services


Demand Factors
* Women's Socio-Economic Position
* Opportunity Cost ol Women's Time
* Cash Cost of Services


Development Goals
* Economic Growth
* Lower Population Growth
* Environment
- F - f


Family Well Being
* Children's Education
* Health
e. fz-l KU7 f,


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(AL)


A FRAHEWORK FOR ANAI.YSIHG WOHEH'S ISSUES


Development Goals
- economic efficiency and growth
- equity
- lower population growth
- environment


Family well-being
(e.g. children's education,
health, etc.)--especially
for female-headed households


Women's income

Market




^ "Hon-Harket"
actlvlties


Women's productivity in ae]
employment (Agriculture a
non-Agriculture)


Women's access to product
(Extension, Credit, etc.)


a own activities


tus/vell-being

Women's control over total
household Income and fertility


Reproduction
(chilld-bearKlr)


f women's vwaes in formal sector


nd' ... 'N

we inputs |Woman's investment In human Discrimination in labor
capital (Education, Health, market (incentives)
ff Family Planning, etc.)


Supply factors
-- Qualt: Design of programs (e.g.
women teacheral new types of collateral, etc.)

--- Quantity: Distribution and total quantity of
services (women's physical access to them):
e.g.


- distance to the nearest schoollclinic|
- frequency of visits by extension agents
- total supply of funds available for credits


) I.


Demand factors
--- Women's socla-economic position (this affects
returns to investment of women's time in consuming
these services, which affects demand by women
and their families for women's access to these
services -- e.g. education).
--- Opportunity cost of women's times
fertlllty/responslbility for children and
the household
intensity of women's time and location
constraints (e.g. female-headed households)
--- Pricing policy (e.g of crops or cash cost of
services, etc.)


\




Legal and cultural
Issues (e.g. legal
rights, asset ovner-
ship, etc.)

/


'-AO


OBJECTIVES L.
1. Reach development goals faster and better
mole economic arovth (by removing distortions, e.g.
in factor markets)
grater equity
-lower population growth
better use of environment
2. Raise women's (and therefore family's) Income (including
in-kind).
3. Improve family's and women's e'tll-beins" (longevity,


FAMILY DECISIONS
(about resources and time)-
based ons
1. Incentive (e.g. for women to work in
agriculture vs. the hoame to send the girl
to school atet.)
2. Supply response capacity (e.g. does the
woman have access to extension and credits
access to schools, etc.)
3. Social expectations (e.g. segregation) which


POLICY LEVER (for Cover.ruent/lWrid Ba.,k)
1. Provision of productive srlvilcs, anI
Lnputi (Extension, Credit, etc.).
2. Provision of access to human capital
Investment (Education, Health. etc.)
3. General policies to influence incentives
(Credit, Labor Market. Pricing, Land
Tenure, etc.)


A. Duncan


1 health, fertility, education levels, etc.) limits roles and access. 05/11/9s
4. Enhance women's socio-cultural status (e.g. legal

I" i as ers scts kingi rol


I.


C,


S/ "-


I


I


- . . .. .


- I


--


I


L












SUPPLY FACTORS


* QUALITY: Design of Programs
e.g.
Women Teachers
New Types of Collateral
Etc.

* QUANTITY: Distribution and Total Quantity of
Services including Women's Physical
Access to Them
e.g.
Distance to the Nearest School/Clinic
Frequency of Visits by Extension Agent
Total Supply of Funds Available for Credit









DEMAND FACTORS


* WOMEN'S SOCIO-ECONOMIC POSITION
(This affects returns to investment of women's
time in consuming these services, which affects
demand by women and their families for women's
access to these services -- e.g. education.)

* OPPORTUNITY COST OF WOMEN'S TIME
Fertility/Responsibility for Children and Household
Intensity of Women's Time and Location Constraints
(e.g. female-headed households)


* CASH COST OF SERVICES









OBJECTIVES


1. Reach DEVELOPMENT GOALS Faster and Better
More Economic Growth
(by removing distortionse.g. in factor markets)
Lower Population Growth
Better Use of Environment

2. Raise Women's INCOME (including in-kind)
3. Improve Women's "WELL-BEING"
Longevity
Health
Fertility
Education Levels, etc.
4. Enhance Women's Socio-Cultural STATUS
Legal Rights
Asset Ownership
Decision-Making
Control Over Income, etc.









POLICY LEVERS
(for Government/World Bank)

1. PROVISION OF PRODUCTIVE SERVICES
AND INPUTS
Extension
Credit, etc.
2. PROVISION OF ACCESS TO
HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENTS
Education
Health, etc.
3. GENERAL POLICIES
Credit
Labor Market
Land Tenure, etc.











APPENDIX 4


T~iT GENDER ICM-4TSON~?IAPT~ WON ~ G ON S CONS:: AT. o : DESI:

























Presented to:
The fic oe Wc04 DeveDcvment
Ut,4-d. StateS A~e~cy of Ilter-atr naJ DeveAOement
69


by:
Viri,.a ~4 Caye





THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK: GENDER CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGN

TABLE OF CONTENTS


1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose of the Gender Information Framework
(GIF)
1.2 How the GIF was Developed
1.3 Women and Gender
1.4 Why Gender Considerations are Important

2. Rationale of the Gender Information Framework

2.1 What This Section Is About
2.2 Key Assumptions Undergirding the GIF
2.3 Design Process in the GIF
2.4 Data Needs
2.5 Design Features

3. Gender Variable Matrix

3.1 Description of the Matrix
3.2 Format of the Matrix
3.3 How to Use the Matrix

4. Gender Considerations in Design

4.1 Description of the Gender Considerations
in Design
4.2 Format of the Gender Considerations Charts
4.3 How to Use the Gender Considerations Charts

5. Summary of Guidelines for Document Review

6. Incorporating Gender Considerations: An Overview

7. Country Development Strategy Statement

7.1 Description of the CDSS
7.2 Why Gender Considerations are
Important to the CDSS
7.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender
Considerations into the CDSS

8. Action Plan

8.1 Description of the Action Plan
8.2 Why Gender Considerations Are
Important to the Action Plan
8.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender
Considerations into te Action Plan








TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)


9. Project Identification Document (PID)

9.1 Description of the PID
9.2 Why Gender Considerations are
Important to the PID
9.3 Steps for Incorporating Gender
Into the PID

10. Project Paper (PP)

10.1 Description of the PP
10.2 Why Gender Considerations are
Important to the PP
10.3 Steps to Incorporate Gender
Into the PP


Tables

Table I: Sample Analysis of Gender Variables
Among One Ethnic Group in
Southern Africa

Table II: Identification of Gender Variables
at CDSS/AP Level (Africa)


Appendices

I. Bibliography

II. Additional Information on Gender Variable
Identification

II-A Small Scale Enterprise Projects
II-B Farming Systems Research and Extension
Projects

III. Information on Data Collection Methods

IV. Project Adaptation

V. Constraint-Strategy Matrix







THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


The Gender Information Framework is a set of tools, information,
and guidelines developed to assist A.I.D. to incorporate gender
considerations more fully into program and project design,
adaptation, evaluation, and review. Developed as a reference
work and training resource, the Gender Information Framework
includes both "generic" guidance for development programming and
also information for programming in specific sectors.


Gender Variable Matrix: an analytical tool for
identifying where gender might intervene at the
household level in the development situation to be
addressed. The gender variable identification process
will point to how and where gender is a factor in
Mission projects while indicating where additional
information is needed. It will also clarify the
linkage between national policies and their impact at
the household level.

Gender Considerations in Design: a series of charts
developed for specific programming documents; the
charts and accompanying guidelines map out the steps to
incorporating gender issues into A.I.D.'s process of
development design from the Country Development
Strategy Statement through the Project Paper. The
charts have been designed to follow A.I.D. Handbook and
guidance cable instructions on document preparation.
The headings for the Gender Considerations in the
charts refer to the recommended format in the document
reviewed.

Summary of Guidelines for Document Review: a two-page
summary of how and where to include gender
considerations in AID's documents.

Sector-specific components of the GIF include information on
incorporating gender considerations into agriculture and private
sector development programs.

Note: The GIF is not presented as a requirement for A.I.D.
programming. Rather it illustrates analytical and planning
processes for incorporating gender considerations into projects
and programs. It is a resource guide to addressing gender
issues.








THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK:
GUIDELINES FOR INCORPORATING GENDER INTO A.I.D. PROGRAMMING


1. INTRODUCTION

The Gender Information Framework is a set of tools,
information and guidelines to assist AID in incorporating
gender considerations into program and project design,
adaptation, evaluation and review. The Gender Information
Framework (GIF) contains three components:


Gender Variable Matrix, an analytical tool for
identifying where gender might intervene at the
household level;

Gender Considerations in Design, a series of
charts developed for specific programming
documents. The charts map out the steps to
incorporating gender considerations into AID's
process of development design; and

Summary of Guidelines for Document Review, a
two-page summary of how and where to include
gender issues in AID's documents.

The Gender Information Framework has been designed to
accompany a training program on gender issues and will serve
as a post-training resource guide.

Since passage of the Percy Amendment in 1973, when "women in
development" entered AID's programming vocabulary,
considerable progress has been made in addressing gender
issues. However, much remains to be done.

1.1 Puroose of the Gender Information Framework

The purpose of the Gender Information Framework
is:

to strengthen the analysis of development issues
in such a way that gender becomes an automatic
consideration in the programming process, and

to provide tools that assist AID to incorporate
information yielded by analysis into program
design, adaptation, evaluation, and review.






At first glance the GIF may appear to separate men and
women. Highlighting gender differences is a necessary and
temporary step as one identifies how gender affects the
situation to be addressed. The issue of gender is then
factored back into the development equation as an important
variable in project and program design and adaptation.


1.2 How the GIF Was Develoned

The idea of a Gender Information Framework was first
conceived as a way to provide guidelines for
incorporating gender into the key stages of AID's
programming process. The initial form of the GIF was
presented at a training workshop held in Nairobi in
September, 1987, for USAID Agricultural Development
Officers and Project Officers working in sub-Saharan
Africa.

Since that workshop, the GIF has evolved through
several different forms. This process has involved
extensive discussions concerning gender issues and
review of the GIF by AID personnel, representatives of
other international donor agencies, academic
institutions, and private voluntary organizations, as
well as knowledgeable individuals from the United
States and developing nations.

The GIF has strong links with the efforts of the many
individuals and organizations who have contributed to
the work of the Office of Women in Development to
increase awareness of and skills in dealing with gender
issues. Ideas and methodologies from The International
Center for Research on Women, AID 's Center for
Development Information and Evaluation and other
offices, the Harvard Institute of International
Development, the University of Arizona, the Farming
Systems Support Project at the University of Florida,
and other institutions have been incorporated into the
GIF.

Finally, it should be noted that the GIF is a "dynamic
document", in that it will continue to evolve as the
body of knowledge about gender considerations grows.
Thus the GIF is, in many respects, still a "draft"; it
is hoped, however, that it will be a "working draft".






1.3 Women and Gender


Initially "Women in Development" efforts focused on
achieving equity for women in access to and control of
project resources and benefits. This was the result of
early literature which documented the adverse impact of
many development projects on women. However, as
evidence has accumulated demonstrating that
gender-related differences, (i.e., differences in
roles, responsibilities and opportunities of men and
women) affect the achievement of project purposes and
goals, the term "gender" has begun to replace "women in
development."

In Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-
1985, Volume I, Synthesis Parer, the Center for
Development Information and Evaluation notes "Gender is
a broader analytical concept which not only encompasses
concern with women but also highlights women's roles
and responsibilities in relation to those of men."
(1987:4) It combines effectiveness with equity.

"Gender variable", then, in the GIF, is used to denote
relevant aspects of social organization that "vary"
because of the roles, responsibilities and opportunity
differences attributable to gender.

1.4 Why Gender Considerations are Important

Much has been written about why gender considerations
are important in development programming. A few points
will be cited here, and further information can be
found in the publications listed in the bibliography.

The previously cited report on AID's experience
with women in development (1987) found that
projects are more likely to achieve their purpose
and/or long-term goal when gender variables are
taken into account. Incorporation of gender
considerations contributes to effective
development.

* AID's official policy has for some time
acknowledged the need for incorporating gender
issues into programming. The Women in Development
Policy Paper published in 1982 describes official
policy, which includes the following for all AID
program and project documents: disaggregation of
data by gender, gender distinctions in
terminology, inclusion of explicit strategies to
involve women, and use of gender disaggregated
benchmarks in monitoring and evaluation.

* Most AID project 76cals relate to improving the






economic and/or social well-being of families.
Research to date suggests that in many areas women
contribute a larger percentage (nearly all) of
their income to family welfare than men. Research
also suggests that increases in men's incomes are
less likely to translate into improved family
welfare for women and children than increases to
women's income. Thus, activities to increase
women's productivity and income have a very
positive and direct impact on family welfare.

Congressional scrutiny of AID's activities to
incorporate women into programming is
intensifying. Legislation is pending that would
increase funding for Women in Development (WID)
activities and place more strict requirements on
AID related to women.

Summarizing the above, the reasons for fully
incorporating gender issues into AID programming relate
to programmatic success, concern for equity, alignment
of AID activities with official policy, and legislative
influences.

2. RATIONALE OF THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK

2.1 What This Section is About

This section will look at important aspects of the
rationale that guided the development of the GIF,
including underlying assumptions about the process of
development and project design. It will then discuss
data needs and describe key features of the GIF.

It should be noted here that design in the GIF refers
to the generic process of conceptualizing and
implementing development programs. Viewing design from
this perspective, it encompasses the development
process from design of a Mission strategy through the
design of a project including all of its components.

2.2 Key Assumptions Underairding the GIF

Several important assumptions about development design
undergird the Gender Information Framework.

Gender is a variable in the development equation,
because gender differences in roles and
responsibilities affect ability and incentive to
participate in development projects. This affects
project effectiveness. Gender is also a factor in
project impact, which may be different for men and
women because of their roles and responsibilities.
77









GENDER IS A VARIABLE

are key words for this document.


* Understanding development issues from both the
macro and micro levels is important for effective
programming. Program and project analyses need to
balance information at the sectoral, regional or
national level with information from the household
level to define problems, identify solutions, and
assess impact.

Sustainable development is more likely to occur
when a balance is achieved in consideration of
socio-cultural and economic factors in project and
program planning.

Inclusion of the men and women who benefit from
and participate in development programming, from
problem definition through evaluation, contributes
to sustainable development.

2.3 Design Process In The GIF

The GIF is based roughly on the process for
incorporating gender considerations into programming
recommended in the CDIE Synthesis Paper cited earlier.
Summarizing those recommendations, the process
involves:

identifying gender variables: clarifying how male
and female roles and responsibilities. might affect
development activities to be undertaken;

* identifying programming .opportunities and
constraints resulting from gender-based
differences;

* incorporating information about gender-
considerations into program/project design and
adaptation; and

* monitoring and evaluation systems that provide
gender disaggregated data to assess project impact
and inform the development process.

Building on this process, the three components of the
GIF -- the Gender Variable Matrix, the Gender
Considerations char-s, 7&nd the Summary of Guidelines






for Document Review -- provide a step by step approach
to incorporating gender considerations into AID
programming. The Matrix shows how to identify where
gender might be a variable in the situation to be
addressed; the Gender Considerations charts show how to
factor that information into the macro level analysis
to design or adapt development activities. The Summary
of Guidelines can then be used for a quick review of
the programming document.

2.4 Data Needs

A word on the data needs in the GIF is in order. It
may appear that extensive data collection is required
to address gender issues effectively. However, the data
recommendations in the GIF are indicators of data
needs rather than requirements. They suggest the kinds
of information that will strengthen the design process.
Data needs are project and program specific; not all
those listed in the GIF will be appropriate for all
situations.

In addition, although information may appear to be
unavailable, it often can be found in project
documents, consultants' reports, and anthropological
studies within the Mission. Other sources are national
university sociology departments, government women's
bureaus and national women's organizations that
frequently have "fugitive literature", literature that
is not publicly distributed but very useful. Host
country national Mission staff can be a valuable
resource as well.

Finally, because gender-disaggregated information is
needed for effective development, projects and programs
should build in the capability to collect it from the
start to save time and expense.

2.5 Design Features

The Gender Information Framework was designed to
synthesize AID's methodologies for effective
development planning with tools to expand the awareness
of gender concerns.

The GIF:

* is based on AID's programming cycle, from the
Country Development Strategy Statement through the
Project Paper;

* presents guidelines for program documents that
follow AID handbook and guidance cable
instructions whoever possible;






* addresses both analytical and action aspects in
the process of effective development; and

* provides the basis for a common understanding
between program designers and reviewers about
gender issues.






3. GENDER VARIABLE MATRIX


3.1 Description of the Matrix

Incorporating gender considerations into development
program design begins with knowing where gender
intervenes in the situation to be affected. The Matrix
is designed as a graphic representation of the
analytical process for clarifying gender roles and
responsibilities at the household/farm level. It also
identifies the constraints and opportunities these
roles present for programming.

The Matrix supplements macro level data and helps to
make the linage between national policies and their
impact at the household level. It also points to
additional data collection needs.

Identifying where gender intervenes is important at
every stage in the programming process. Although
typically identification of gender variables happens
only in project design, it is important in the Mission
overall program level as well. At that level,
understanding gender roles enables the Mission to
refine its process of setting objectives and targeting
resources. The Matrix has been designed to identify
gender variables in both the overall program and also
the project development process. Finally, it provides
some information about the baseline situation that can
be used to measure program and project impact.

3.2 Format of the Matrix

The Matrix begins at the top with a statement of
purpose and brief comments on when and how it can be
used. There is also space to write the name of the
ethnic group to which it applies. It has three
columns.







Colunn 1 Column 2 Column 3
Lists key factors Presents key ques- Provides
where gender might tions whether & space for
be a variable: how gender affects the user
the factors listed to chart
-allocation of lab- Column 1. These information
or questions guide from the
-sources of income the analytical pro- analysis.
cess identifying (Optional)
-expenditures where differences
that might affect a
-access/control of program or project
resources might occur.

-constraints to
participation in
development

-opportunities
provided by
gender roles

The factors listed in Column 1 of the Matrix are not
considered to be an inclusive or conclusive summary of
development; all the issues of women in development are not
condensed within them. Rather they suggest where planners
should look first to see if gender is an issue. It should
also be noted that the Matrix is not a checklist to be
filled out. It is a visual presentation of an analytical
process for identifying where gender intervenes in
development situations.


3.3 How To Use The Matrix

3.3.1 Introduction

To identify gender variables using the Matrix,
consider the "Key Questions" in Column 2 for each
of the factors in. Column 1. Use the Matrix to
identify gender variables individually by ethnic
group and economic class or other important
population substrata, where appropriate. For
agricultural and natural resource management
activities, identify gender variables by major
crops and/or livestock. For small scale
enterprise projects, gender differences in use of
technical assistance, credit,. purchased raw
materials, and other inputs, as well as markets,
will be especially important. Less information
related to the division of labor is likely to be
key to the analysis in private sector projects.









GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK; GENDER VARIABLES HATRIX


To identify where gender might intervene in social and economic production systems to be affected by
development activities.


flow to Use:


To identify how factors in Column 1 are affected by gender, consider questions in
women. The space in Column 3 can be used to chart information (optional).


Column 2 for both men and


Cn.IIi4n 1


I


COIlMiNI 2


--Col .. I I


___FACTOR

1. Allocation of labor
household activities


- agricultural production


__________KaQutin ____

Who is responsible for which aspects of household maintenance
(fuel/water provision, building maintenance, child care,
food preparation, etc.)? What is time allocation ty gender and
age? low do time and labor allocations vary with economic c)ass
or position in household?


What are the
agricultural
by livestock
shared labor


activities of household members that contribute to
and livestock production? (Analyze by crop and/or
animal.) Hlow do these activities vary by season? Is
available; if yes, on what basis?


2. Sources of income What income or food is generated from crops, livestock, and
Oofarm crop/livestock by-products (e.g. milk, manure)? Ilow much and in
J what season? To what extent are inputs and technical assistance
available and utilized? How and where are foods marketed?

non farm In what kinds of non-farm small scale enterprises (SSE) are
men and women engaged (e.g., clothing production, sale of
prepared foods, trading?) Who uses tech. assistance, credit,
purchased raw material and to what extent? low and where are SSE
goods and avcs. marketed? What income Is derived from wage labor
(manufact., contract labor, etc.) What ia total income from non-
farm employ't? flow do male/female incomes vary by season?

1. Expenditures Who as responsible for which elements of family expenses and
provisioning (e.g., staple grains, vegetables, school fees,
medical care, clothing, ceremonies?)


1. Access/control
of resources


Constraints to
participation
in development


i. Opportunities to
use/expand
productivity


What are the resources (e.g., labor, land, credit, technical
assistance) required for current productive activities? What is
the extent of control over resources and how does that affect
ability to increase economic productivity?


What are the key constraints to the participation of men and
women in the major areas of A.I.D. programming? (e.g, labor,
access to credit) for major productive activities?


Co011[1N .


Activities/llesponsibilities
--. t1Hal___. Fvuaalo___


What are the special skills and knowledge resulting from gender
differences in roles and responsibilities (e.g.,apecialized
agricultural knowledge, marketing skills) that can be used or
enhanced to increase economic productivity?


Purpose:


I-----------------


-







The Matrix can be used to analyze how gender
intervenes in one production situation or to
provide an overview of the general patterns of
living. Not all factors will be included in all
analyses. For example, where the Matrix is used
to analyze how gender affects production of one
crop the "expenditure" factor in the Matrix would
apply only to expenses for that crop. The Matrix
can be used for a more general analysis as well.

The level of analysis -- the amount of data to be
considered, the depth of inquiry about the
factors, the number of ethnic groups to be
considered, etc. -- depends on the stage of the
programming process. At the CDSS level, a limited
analysis would be sufficient to provide the broad
overview of living patterns needed to anchor the
macroeconomic data usually found in a CDSS.

At the project level, data needs are more
extensive. Because consideration of the factors
listed in the Matrix may not provide the level of
detail appropriate for design of some projects,
additional information on identifying gender
variables for agriculture and small scale
enterprise projects has been provided in Appendix
II. These materials were developed by-the Farming
Systems Support Project at the University of
Florida and the Harvard Institute for
International Development.

Further explanation of the issues represented in
the Key Questions concerning how gender affects
the factors in Column 1 follows.

3.3.2 Factor: Labor

In many countries, the division of labor between
men and women on tasks to maintain the family unit
is very sharp. Women usually carry a double load
of both domestic and economically productive
activities.

Men's and women's agricultural and other
productive labor tasks may be interchangeable but
often are not. Rather there is a complementarity
between gender roles. Increasing one member's
work affects his/her ability to fulfill
traditional responsibilities.

Seasonality and its relationship to gender-based
division of labor is important to consider in
agriculture and natural resource management
projects. Project4 that have injected additional






labor requirements at a time when there is already
a labor bottleneck have resulted in decreased
productivity from both the traditional and project
tasks.

EXAMPLE

In the Kenya Arid and Semi-Arid Lands project,
women's self-help labor was expected for soil and
water conservation work. The women in the area
are the principal farmers because of male
migration and would not be available during the
peak agricultural season. "The original project
design ignored the recommendation [of the Social
Soundness Analysis regarding labor bottlenecks].
Targets were set on the assumption that work could
be carried on throughout the entire year.
Ultimately... project management... suspended work
during the peak season so that women could finish
their ploughing and planting. (AID, CDIE;
1987:17)


Agri-business and agricultural policy efforts that
promote expansion of production of non-traditional
export crops can also affect the division of
labor. In many instances, these projects and/or
policy interventions are targeted at a male
household head, who will respond to incentives for
non-traditional crops. with both his own labor and
that of his spouse. The spouse must still meet
traditional responsibilities for food production.
Such potential changes in the division of labor--
and -the ultimate effect on family well-being--
need to be factored into the decisionmaking
process.

3.3.3 Factor: Income

Key aspects of income in which gender can be
important are the sources (farm, non- or off-farm,
and wage labor) diversity of sources, and
seasonality. Where women and men are involved in
small scale enterprises, information on factors
affecting the enterprise such as use of purchased
inputs or raw materials, technical assistance, and
credit should also be considered in the
identification of gender variables.

Income (cash, in kind, consumable items provided
by family food provisioning, and transfers) in
most developing countries is provided to the
family by both men and women. Among the very
poor, female incgne is as important as male income







and is not supplemental. Similarly, in areas of
heavy male migration, women's income meets daily
subsistence needs.

Wage labor is a significant source of cash income
for more than two thirds of the women in
developing nations. However, typically, women's
incomes are derived from multiple sources
including wage labor, trading, agricultural
production, sales of prepared foods, and craft
production.

Women's income is by virtue of its diversity often
generated throughout the year. And because it is
derived from many sources, it may be less subject
to crises (e.g., drought, blight, currency
devaluation, etc.) Diversity also means that it
is sometimes the only family income available
during the pre-harvest "hungry" season.

Men and women may derive their incomes from the
same resources. Knowledge of the various uses of
resources is important to avoid disrupting an
income source. For example, livestock may provide
income or a source of savings to men while milk
from the same animals may provide income to women.
In a related example, men and women may use the
same field for different crops during the year;
the field thus provides income to different
household members in different seasons.

For program designers, this indicates the need to
be aware of sources of income both to identify
ways to increase productivity and also to- avoid
adverse impacts by changing the use or form of
existing resources.

3.3.4 Factor: Expenditures/provisioning
responsibilities

Awareness of patterns of expenditure and
provisioning responsibilities within the family --
who is responsible for which expenses -- is
necessary to understand the importance of
individual members' incomes to family well- being.

Men and women may have different financial
responsibilities in supporting the family. For
example, men may be responsible for providing
staple grains, while women provide vegetables.
Men may undertake or pay for building maintenance
while women's income pays for school fees, health
care, and/or clothing. Each person's income is
important to maintaining the totality of family






welfare.


Studies in Asia, Latin America and Africa suggest
women are more likely to spend a larger share of
the income under their control on food, especially
their children's nutrition and well being, than
men. These studies indicate men spend larger
portions of their income on personal consumption
items -- watches, guns, entertainment (Blumberg,
forthcoming:4).


EXAMPLE

In India a study of the very poor showed that as
women's incomes increased, child nutrition
improved. Where mothers were not working but the
father's income increased, child nutrition did not
improve (ibid.:9).


Differential spending habits may be especially
important for programs in Africa, where women are
heavily involved in food production -- in some
cases the primary farmer.

In planning projects that will affect income
distribution, development practitioners should
consider how gender affects the utilization of
that income -- the consumption and expenditure
patterns.

3.3.5 Factor: Access to and Control of
Resources

Degree of access and control of key resources
(e.g., land, labor, income, credit) vary
significantly within and among societies, but in
most instances women's access and control are
limited.

Knowledge of access to and control of resources
will indicate what the stakes are in different
development activities and how they differ for men
and women. Analyzing resource access and control
will also suggest how men and women might respond
to incentives to participate in projects and the
extent to which they can benefit from development
activities.

For example, incomes may be kept separate or
pooled; where pooled, often the male head of
household controls both incomes. Where women do
not control th4er income, they mF.y be less willing







to provide labor to projects for any length of
time.


EXAMPLE

An evaluation report of AID projects describes a
contract vegetable growing scheme in three
villages in Guatemala where each village had
different levels of participation from women, as
well as different forms of wage payment. In one
village, women did not participate. In a second,
women provided labor but payment was made by check
exclusively to the husband. In the third, women
worked in the fields and were paid in cash
directly. Production was highest in the third
village. When other factors were held constant, it
appears that the form of payment was a key factor
in determining method and level of production
(AID, CDI2, 1987: 32-33).


In some countries, women's access to credit is
restricted because they are legally minors. They
may also be unable to inherit land or own cattle,
thus eliminating standard forms of collateral for
loans.

Access to information and information networks is
often limited for women because of restricted
mobility, social mores that restrict interaction
between unmarried or unrelated men and women, and
because they do not have time to participate in
these networks.


3.3.6


Factor: Constraints to Participation in
Development Programming


It is important to know in the areas of AID
programming, from the CDSS to specific projects,
how constraints to improving a situation vary by
gender. Constraints can affect project
implementation and result in differential impacts
on men and women.






EXAMPLE

In a West African village, project researchers
worked with male household heads to inventory all
the livestock in the village in preparation for a
vaccination campaign. When the researchers
initiated the campaign, they realized they had
missed a significant number of animals. After
considerable questioning of project participants,
they discovered that women owned the missing
livestock, and unaware of the vaccination program,
had already moved their animals to another
pasture. Because women's information networks were
not included in the information dissemination
process, additional time and expense were spent
finding the unvaccinated animals.


Key constraints include lack of access to credit,
land, education, information, and labor. Men and
women both experience these constraints but gender
roles and responsibilities affect the nature and
extent of the constraint. For example, men will
experience labor shortages on their own crops, but
as household heads, they can call upon the labor
of their spouses) and other family members to
assist. Women usually cannot and so the
constraint is more significant for them.

It should be noted that causal links between
access and control of resources and constraints
are difficult to establish, but relational
patterns do exist. Appendix IV provides some
suggestions on project adaptations to deal with
common constraints. Appendix V presents some
potential strategies also, in a matrix form. And
finally, an extensive list of problems and
solutions pertaining specifically to agriculture
is found in Russo et al., (see Appendix I,
Bibliography).








Factor: Opportunities


Gender roles affecting factors of labor, income,
expenditures, access and control of resources, and
constraints can present opportunities for more
effective development.

Knowledge of who is responsible for specific tasks
such as planting, maintaining, and cutting trees,
for example, would permit very direct targeting of
research and action program resources. Women
often know which trees burn the longest, provide
best fodder for livestock, and stimulate growth of
the plants around them (e.g.,provide nitrogen or
other nutrients to the soil.) Their knowledge can
be a significant resource for forestry and/or
agroforestry projects.

Using the opportunities presented by gender
variables can lead to more effective programs.


Reminder: the Matrix is NOT intended as a
checklist, nor is it expected to be completed
factor by factor. Rather, it provides a guide to
considering gender issues by identifying patterns
of labor, income sources, expenditures, access and
control of resources, constraints and
opportunities in development programming.

An example of the kinds of information the Matrix would
yield in a pre-project analysis of gender
considerations in sorghum production follows in Table
1. Note that this use of the Matrix is to identify
gender variables related specifically to sorghum
production.

Information to be gleaned from this very brief analysis
includes:

* Women and men both produce sorghum; men work their
own fields, while women work in both the family
and their own individual fields.

* Women and men both receive income from sorghum
production, men from sales and ultimately from
livestock grazing on harvested fields. Women's
income from sorghum production is derived from
brewing beer, wage labor in transforming the
sorghum, and sale of the surplus from their own
fields. It appears that both produce for family


3.3.7




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