• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Preface
 Definitions
 Table of Contents
 The idea
 Getting the idea
 The methods
 Participatory assessment
 Participatory baselines
 Participatory monitoring
 Participatory evaluation
 Information analysis
 Presentation of results
 The tools
 The tools and how to use them
 Sources
 Back Cover














Group Title: Community forestry field manual
Title: The community's toolbox
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089950/00001
 Material Information
Title: The community's toolbox the idea, methods and tools for participatory assessment, monitoring and evaluation in community forestry
Series Title: Community forestry field manual
Physical Description: vi, 146 p. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Davis Case, D'Arcy
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1990
Copyright Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: Community forests -- Citizen participation   ( lcsh )
Forestry and community -- Citizen participation   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 144-145).
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by D'Arcy Davis Case ; illustrated by Tony Grove ; design and layout by Carmen Apted.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089950
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 30144053

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Preface
        Page i
        Page ii
    Definitions
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    The idea
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Getting the idea
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The methods
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Participatory assessment
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Participatory baselines
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Participatory monitoring
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Participatory evaluation
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Information analysis
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Presentation of results
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    The tools
        Page 85
        Page 86
    The tools and how to use them
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Sources
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Back Cover
        Page 147
        Page 148
Full Text

KE 1V\&I-A5\
----~ -;c


THE COMMUNITY'S TOOLBOX


aW


THE IDEA, METHODS AND TOOLS FOR
PARTICIPATORY
ASSESSMENT, MONITORING AND
EVALUATION IN
COMMUNITY FORESTRY


Community Forestry Field Manual 2


A-."
~ ..' I


Z2~I


/IERGE
52


, -. .








THE COMMUNITY'S TOOLBOX


THE IDEA, METHODS AND TOOLS FOR
PARTICIPATORY
ASSESSMENT, MONITORING AND
EVALUATION IN
COMMUNITY FORESTRY


Community Forestry Field Manual 2

Prepared by:
D'Arcy Davis Case

Illustrated by:
Tony Grove

Design and Layout by:
Carmen Apted







Printed by:
FAO Regional Wood Energy Development
Programme in Asia, Bangkok, Thailand








Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Rome ,1990























































All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechani-
cal, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purpose and extent of the
reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100
Rome, Italy.


FAO 1990


The designations employed and the presentation of material in this
publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or
area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers
or boundaries.









Preface


In June of 1988, in the small town of Kisumu, on the shore of Lake Victoria in Kenya,
: : a workshop on participatory monitoring and evaluation was held. It was sponsored by the
FAO/SIDA Forests, Trees and People Programme, CARE International and the Ford
Foundation; and was attended by people from many countries. In the year preceding the
workshop, case studies on the information systems of six forestry projects in East Africa
had been done by a team of researchers. The results of the workshop, and the case studies
have been reported in "Proceedings of the National Agroforestry Monitoring and
Evaluation Methodology Project (AFMEMP) Workshop".

The field staff who attended this workshop expressed their concern that although
"participation" was now considered essential for sustainable and successful community/
social forestry, there was little information available to them on "how to do it". As one
workshop participant said: "I'm convinced that participation is necessary, but when I
return to my country and the communities I work with, I don't know where to begin!".

Soon after the workshop, D'Arcy Davis-Case, a forester specializing in grass-roots
participation and a member of the AFMEMP case study team, began putting together a
concept paper on this topic for the FAO/SIDA Forests, Trees and People Programme.
The concept paper is now being followed by this field manual, which has been built on
the needs expressed by field staff at the AFMEMP workshop; and based on field staff
experiences. Many of the traditional monitoring and evaluation methods and tools have
been adapted to be more participatory. The result is "The Community's Toolbox".

The manual is organized into Three Sections. Section One introduces the idea, and
benefits to be gained from a new approach. This section also provides some two-way
communication exercises for field staff. Section Two provides the methods for
determining information needs, and ways that information can be analyzed and presented.
Section Three describes the information collecting tools, and offers some suggestions for
selection of tools.


Toolbox page i









,I Preface


Because the manual will be used by field staff in many countries of the world, the
illustrator has used simple drawings so that differences such as nationality, culture,
dress and race are not a problem. Three distinct categories of people are
characterized in the illustrations.





"Insiders" are those who belong to the
community. They are distinguished
by textured clothing.




"Outsiders" (frequent) are field staff who visit the
communities often. They look the same as insiders
except that they do not have textured clothing.






"Outsiders" (infrequent) are those who
seldom visit the communities. They are
characterized by sunglasses and a clipboard.


New ideas take time to develop. We invite you to be flexible, adaptive, creative and
critical when using this field manual. Share your experiences with others and with
us, so that we can continue to build on this approach.

We hope you enjoy using "The Community's Toolbox", and we look forward to
hearing from you.






Marilyn Hoskins, Senior Community Forestry Officer,
FAO/SIDA Forest, Trees and People Programme
Via delle Terme di Caracalla,
Rome 00100
Italy


Toolbox Page ii









Definitions -


Activities:


Assessment:


Baseline:


Beneficiaries:


Community:


Community
Forestry:

Effects:

Evaluation:


Extension:



Impact:


Information
System:

Inputs:

Insiders:


Indicators:





Method:

Monitoring:


specific tasks within a project or programme. For example, community nurseries, farm
forestry and improved stoves can all be activities.

identification and analysis of the problems and solutions which then form the basis of a
project, a programme or an activity.

information collected in the early stage of activities in order to focus the activities and
describe the starting point against which future change can be measured.

those people who directly benefit from project activities. The term "the community" is
used for those who indirectly and directly benefit

a group of people who live in the same area, and often share common goals, common social
rules and/or family ties.

any forestry activities which are carried out by individuals in the community in order
to increase benefits they value.

the result brought about by a specific activity or set of related activities.

a measure of progress to determine whether original objectives have been achieved and if
they are still relevant.

transfer of ideas and technologies through media or dialogue. Extension generally implies
a one-way transfer of knowledge, from outsider to insider. But in a participatory
approach, extension is defined as a two-way communication of knowledge.

the broad changes (for example in economic and social terms) brought about by the
project or programme.

the organization, collection, analysis and presentation of information.


the resources such as time, labor, materials that are necessary to carry out activities.

those people who identify with and belong to a community and/or have a dependent
relationship with the community.

(Indirect) substitute or proxy for phenomena that cannot be measured directly or
conveniently. For example an indirect indicator of poverty might be whether a house has a
thatch or a tin roof. (Direct) measurement of phenomena that directly relate to question asked.
SFor example a direct indicator of crop productivity would be measurement of crop yields.
(Key) direct or indirect indicators essential to answer the questions being asked.

a way to go about planning, organizing and implementing an activity or group of activities.

systematic recording and periodic analysis of information.


Toolbox Page iii













Objectives
(Overall):


Objectives
(Immediate):


Outputs:

Outsiders:



Participation:



Programme/
Project:


Qualitative:

Quantitative:

Sustainability:


Two-Way
Communication:


1 i Definitions I



what the project or programme hopes to achieve in the long-term. Overall objectives are
often very broad, such as "to increase the quality of rural life".

the particular accomplishments that, when achieved, will result in the overall
objectives being met. Immediate objectives are often more tangible than overall
objectives. For example, "to increase crop production by 25%".

the measurable results of activities.

those people who may be involved in a community for a period of time, but who do not
identify themselves, or are not identified by the community as belonging to that specific
community.

the active involvement of insiders and outsiders in all decisions related to objectives
and activities, as well as the activities themselves. The primary purpose of participation is
to encourage community self-determination and thus foster sustainable development

the organization of material resources, people and labour for specific and stated
purposes. A programme or project can be created and controlled by insiders, or by
insiders and outsiders working together.

information which is descriptive, having to do with quality.

information which is numerical, having to do with quantity.

the continuance, by insiders, of community and forestry development after the majority of
inputs from outsiders have ceased.

interaction between people that allows for both parties to contribute equally.


Toolbox Page iv









STable of Contents



Preface.................................................................................................................... i
Definitions ..................................................................................................... ..... iii
Table of Contents....................................................................................................v



Section One Chapter One: Getting the Idea
The Idea
1. Changes in Community Forestry....................... ................................... 3
2. W hat is PAM E?................................................................................................. 4
3. The principles of PAME........................................ ......... .................. 7
4. The benefits of PAME .......................................... ........ ........................ 8
5. Where will PAME work?................................................... ................. 10
6. When can PAME begin?......................................................................... 11
7. Changing ideas about community development......................... ............ 12
8. PAME builds on two-way communication................................ ........... ... 14


Section Two Chapter Two: Participatory Assessment
The Methods
1. What is Participatory Assessment?................................. ............................. 19
2. The benefits of Participatory Assessment.................................. ........... ... 26
3. Steps to Participatory Assessment ..............................................................26

Chapter Three: Participatory Baselines

1. What is a Participatory Baseline?.....................................................................35
2. The Benefits of Participatory Baselines..................................... .......... .... 36
3. Steps to Participatory Baselines............................................. .............. 37

Chapter Four: Participatory Monitoring

1. What is Participatory Monitoring?...................................................................43
2. The benefits of Participatory Monitoring.....................................................45
3. Monitoring people's participation...............................................................46
4. Steps to Participatory Monitoring.................................. ..... .............. 48

Chapter Five: Participatory Evaluation

1. What is Participatory Evaluation?....................................................................51
2. The benefits of Participatory Evaluation...................................................55
3. Steps to Participatory Evaluation............................................................. 58


Toolbox Page v









--1 Table of Contents


Chapter Six: Information Analysis

1. W hat is analysis?........................................................................................ 63
2. Steps to analysis of i nformation....................................... ....................... 64

Chapter Seven: Presentation of Results

1. The importance of presenting results........................................ ........... .... 69
2. W ho will receive the results?........................................................................... 70
3. W hen and where are results needed?................................... ............. ........... .... 72
4. How will results be presented?........................................... ....................... 72
5. Some guidelines for presentation of results................................ .......... 74
6. W written presentations.................................................................................. 75
7. Visual presentations ...................................................... .......................... 76
8. Oral presentations....................................................................................... 83


Section Three Chapter Eight: The Tools and How to Use Them
The Tools
1. Some guidelines for choosing the most appropriate tool............................. 87
2. An overview of the main characteristics.............................. .................... 88
3. Sampling methods...................................................................................... 89
4. Sample size.................................................................................................. 89

Tool 1 Group Meetings................................................ ............................ 90
Tool 2 Drawing and Discussion............................. ........................................93
Tool 3 Murals and Posters....................................................... .................95
Tool 4 Flannel Boards...................................... ............... ...............................97
Tool 5 Open-ended Stories. ........................................................................99
Tool 6 Unserialized Posters... ...................................................................100
Tool 7 Community Case Studies............................ .................................... 101
Tool 8 Historical Mapping............................................................................. 103
Tool 9 Semi-structured Interviews................................................................. 104
Tool 10 Ranking, Rating and Sorting........................................................... 107
Tool 11 Community Environmental Assessment........................................... 112
Tool 12 Survival Surveys.................................................................................. 116
Tool 13 Participatory Action Research.......................................................... 119
Tool 14 Maps and Mapping....................................................................................122
Tool 15 Farmer's Own Records....................................................................... 124
Tool 16 Nursery Record Books........................................................................ 126
Tool 17 Financial Accounts.............................................................................. 128
Tool 18 S.W .O.L. Analysis.............................................................................. 129
Tool 19 Popular Theatre................................................................................... 132
Tool 20 Puppet Theatre .................................................................................... 135
Tool 21 Community Directed Visual Images................................................. 137
Tool 22 Tape Recordings................................................................................. 139
Tool 23 Participatory Video Evaluation........................................................... 141

Sources .......................................................................................................... 144


Toolbox Page vi








Section One -


The Idea


Participatory Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation (PAME) is an idea whose time has
come. It offers new and promising ideas for sustainable and appropriate community
forestry development

PAME "flips" the traditional "top-down" development approach to a "bottom-up"
approach which encourages, supports and strengthens communities' existing abilities to
identify their own needs, set their own objectives, and monitor and evaluate them.

The PAME approach focuses on the relationship between the beneficiaries and field staff
and the beneficiaries and the community. It builds on two-way communication, clear
messages, and a joint commitment to what "works" for the community.

PAME is a combination of three interlinked parts: the IDEA, the METHODS and the
TOOLS. While it may not always be possible to adopt the whole PAME approach in
every project, it is possible to experiment with some activities to see if PAME works.
Try it, adapt it, play with the ideas presented here, and observe the effects,

Sustainable development can be built on the foundation that PAME sets out, especially
when approached with the sense of adventure and creativity that is called for by new ways
of thinking!









Chapter One =


1. Changes in
Community
Forestry.
In the first stage........


In the past twenty years Community Forestry has gone through two very definite stages,
and is now entering a third stage.


In the second stage........


The outsiders made most of the decisions.
They decided what the problems were, and how to
solve them. They designed the project and set the
project objectives and activities. They provided the
necessary inputs, management, and then monitored
and evaluated, to see that their objectives and
activities had been achieved.

The results were not encouraging.
Community interest often decreased over time.
Very seldom were activities continued by the
community after the outsiders withdrew. It became
clear that sustainabilility was not being achieved.




The outsiders still made most decisions, but they
began to ask insiders more questions.
Overall, the outsiders role was much like that in the
first stage, except that studies of the community
done by outsiders to help them establish the needs
of the community, offered new insights into
community preferences and motivation.

The result was that outsiders began to realize
that insiders knew a great deal.
Insiders could often identify why activities had or
hadn't worked.


Toolbox Page 3


(^ i -0



\ o ^/









I Getting the Idea


In the third stage........


2. What is
PAME?


Based on insiders
point of view


PAME links
information to
decision-making


0~

?C1 I::
i :...
""'
:..
r...


Insiders, with support from outsiders, are
active in decision making.
Insiders identify their problems and the solutions.
They set objectives and activities, monitor and
evaluate progress to see these are being achieved,
and continue to be relevant. Outsiders adopt a
participatory approach, encouraging insiders to
identify their own needs, set their own objectives,
manage, monitor and evaluate the activities.

The results are promising.
The participatory approach has begun to show
encouraging results. With time and experience,
this approach will continue to develop methods
and tools, which hold great potential for
sustainable development.


The Community's Toolbox describes some of the participatory methods and tools which
can help field staff and communities to further develop this third stage.



Participatory Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation (what we will refer to as PAME)
is a creative and adaptive information system which is based primarily on the information
needs of the insiders.

When insiders make decisions, they must have good information available. PAME
encourages and supports an information system that responds to what insiders need to
know. But PAME also assumes that while people are actively trying to cope with their
problems, they cannot have perfect knowledge or understanding of their political,
economic or social situation. Effective development is more than "asking the people
themselves"; it is a process of helping them formulate their own questions.

The PAME approach does not assume that the "insiders points of view" are all going
to be the same, but information from PAME can aid negotiations between conflicting
points of view.

Making good decisions requires timely, relevant, understandable and accurate
information. PAME provides beneficiary and community decision makers with the
information they need. Field staff must also make decisions regarding the community.
The communities' information needs and field staff information needs may be very
similar, especially when both parties objectives are to make changes that will improve
conditions in the community.

Decision makers at the national and international level can also benefit from PAME.
It can provide them with an analysis which reflects the reality of the community.


Toolbox Page 4









Chapter One -


FAME considers
the whole picture


PAME provides the opportunity to analyze both the qualitative and quantitative information,
thus providing more complete information on which to base decisions.

Often, an information system focuses on only numbers (quantitative) information, but
numbers alone produce an incomplete picture of what is really taking place in the community.

In the following example, only the quantitative information was known to evaluators, and
decisions were made on this basis. If the "story behind the numbers" had been available to
them, a different evaluation might have been made.


Toolbox Page 5









I i Getting the Idea ,



PAME is Each community is unique. Different information is required. Different ways of
experimental processing information are needed. There is no blueprint, and no two PAME
information systems are going to look alike.

o Although there are many examples of successful use of the ideas, methods and tools
Ipresented in "The Community's Toolbox", they have not until now been put together.
Nor have participatory methods been tried in all cultures.

When you understand the approach used in "The Community's Toolbox", filter it
r. through your own experiences. Be critical, but constructive. Think about adapting the
ii approach if necessary.
',He .Jft


PAME is made The ideas, the methods and the tools work together to support each other. PAME will
up of three parts not work very well if the new methods and tools are introduced, without the new ideas;
or if the ideas of participation are introduced with methods and tools which do not
encourage participation.



1. New ideas

outsiders encourage insiders to
find their own answers.
/ outsiders are encouraged to respond
Sto the needs identified by the insiders.
outsiders and insiders see themselves
as partners.
insiders are the implementers







insiders and outsiders jointly
determine what information is needed. two-way communication is encouraged.
analysis and feedback is done in a way a range of possible tools ensures that
that encourages insider input and thus tools appropriate to the community can
ensures insider understanding. b- chosen.
deeper understanding of the project is traditional information gathering is
possible because the whole picture considered and/or tried before tools
is considered. are introduced.


Toolbox Page 6







Chapter One


3. The principles
of PAME.


PAME has been built on a number of overall principles which will help you understand
the PAME approach.


Tools chosen to fit community
PAME seeks to find the appropriate
tool for each unique community.

Outsiders help community to focus
on a specific issue
Outsiders facilitate but do not direct

Attitude of partnership
Insiders and outsiders can both
contribute to community development.


Essential information


PAME seeks to identify
information that is "necessary to
know" rather than "nice to know".
This ensures that the information
system is not overloaded with
unnecessary information.


Two way communication and
clear messages
PAME is built on ideas, methods
and tools that support equal and
clear communication between
insiders and outsiders.


0


Information that is useful
rather than perfect
It is often only necessary to have
information that shows trends
rather than statistically exact
information. Information showing
trends and delivered on time is often
more useful to decision makers
than precise information delivered late.

Supports existing community skills
PAME builds on existing community
skills.




The community is the final evaluator
Since it is the community alone who
decides whether or not to continue the
project, they are the final and most
important evaluators.

People who make decisions need
timely, reliable and useful information
The right information at the right time
will facilitate better decisions.


I


Toolbox Page 7


I


a.









- Getting the Idea


4. The benefits of
PAME.


M Empowers insiders


With PAME, people are encouraged and supported to
take control of decisions that affect their environment,
building the courage and commitment to take part in
other decisions. They also develop important contacts
with those outside their community so that they can
seek advice on their own. Sustainability is more likely
to be achieved because insiders develop the skills,
contacts and confidence that are necessary to continue
after outsiders leave.


Provides checks
and balances for
development








Provides timely
information








Provides accurate
and understandable
information


Insiders take the greatest risks, not only because they
give their time and labour, but more importantly,
because they have the most to gain or lose. PAME gives
insiders the opportunity to explore the risks, the costs
and the benefits. In this way they are better prepared to
decide whether the activities provide them with the
development they want.




Information gathering and analysis are done at the
community level and therefore information is available
to the community when decisions are made. When
information is timely, potential problems can be
identified and remedies can be sought early.





With PAME, information is produced and validated by
insiders, who are accountable to one other. This helps
assure that information is accurate and reliable.

Information from PAME is understandable to
community members because they have determined
what information is needed and how it will be analyzed
and presented.


Toolbox Page 8


I I









Chapter One i


Provides
cost effective
information









S Benefits both
the insiders and
the outsiders









Identifies
community
research needs









Provides a direct
line from
community
to outside decision
makers





Provides a new
way to look at
old problems


When outsiders monitor and evaluate activities the costs are
often very high, and the impact of the activities may still not be
well understood. PAME provides the opportunity for insiders to
communicate their analysis of activities to outsiders. Costs are
reduced because only essential information is sought, collected
and analyzed.





Good information is available to both insider and outsider
decision makers. Insiders who hope to gain directly from the
activities are able to clearly see the costs and benefits.
Insiders who may gain or lose indirectly can see the
costs and benefits of their support. Outsiders can respond
more readily to the real needs of the community.





When insiders decide what information is important to them,
their immediate and most important research needs can
be identified. These needs can be addressed by community
research or outside research agencies. Field staff can play an
important role, presenting community identified research
questions to higher research institutions and bringing
research results back to the community.





PAME can present a realistic picture of the community that
includes both quantitative and qualitative information. This
lessens the chance of poor communication between the
community and outside decision makers.






PAME can provide insiders with new analytical skills which
open up new approaches to old problems, shedding light on
new solutions.


Toolbox Page 9









1 3 Getting the Idea


5. Where will
PAME work ?


The focus does not
have to be forestry


PAME will work
differently in
each culture


PAME can be
appropriate to
any community
forestry activity


While PAME has been developed to apply to community forestry, it can be adapted to
work in other fields such as health care, watershed management, irrigation, agriculture,
fisheries, and projects which integrate forestry and nutrition.

The PAME approach will work in most communities, in most countries, and over a
wide range of activities.

Some cultures may have political, religious and cultural systems that lend themselves to
the participatory approach. Introducing PAME in these cultures may be relatively easy.
Other cultures are more "top-down" with strict rules regarding interaction between
individuals or groups. Participatory methods may be more difficult to introduce in
these situations and may require more time and commitment on the part of both insiders
and outsiders. There may also be great variation within cultures. What may be common
to all communities is the wish to influence the process of development, continuing to
improve the situation, with or without the assistance of outsiders.

Communities are seldom harmonious groups of people. They are often characterized by
deep resentment, grudges and open hostilities. While total community agreement is not
always possible, PAME encourages cooperation through focus groups, information
sharing, and open negotiations.

Community forestry can include only one activity or many different activities. The
difference between community forestry and other forestry activities is that the benefits
from forestry stay within the community. These benefits can be gained by individuals or
by the community as a whole.


BOoNDA P L HOO
FLANtNc 7JNc, EF

cONSER1vflTON
9 4ROORE5TRI


Community Forestry can be..........


Toolbox Page 10









Chapter One i


6. When can
PAME begin ?

Field staff need
the support of
their supervisors


PAME can be
introduced at
any time


Everybody wants and benefits from sustainable development. But not everybody agrees
on the ways to achieve it

PAME is introduced to the communities by field staff who must have, or gain the support
of their supervisors. It may take extra time for field staff to learn the PAME approach,
and develop a dialogue with communities. This may conflict with time frames, work
plans and/or targets which are often the responsibility of field staff supervisors. Time
frames, work plans and/or targets may have to be modified to accommodate the PAME
approach.

If you believe that the PAME approach will benefit the communities, discuss it with your
supervisors and try to obtain their support.

Ideally, PAME should be introduced at the early stages of a programme, project or
activities. However, benefits are possible at all stages.


Toolbox Page 11


Time Method used


Introduced at the beginning Assessment
PAME will have the greatest Baseline
Beginning benefit because of the early
participation of insiders in
planning and design.


Introduced midway PAME Assessment
Midway can provide insight on activities Baseline
that are not going well so that Monitoring
they can be changed or discontinued. Evaluation


Introduced towards the end Evaluation
PAME can help the next phase
End or future activities by identifying
the reasons for success or failure
from the insiders point of view.









SGetting the Idea


7. Changing ideas
about community
development.


New ideas
mean change


By trying PAME initially in one community field workers can learn more about the
approach and how to modify or adapt it to suit the community. Additionally the risks
of changing an overall strategy are minimized. If the effects are satisfactory, field staff
and community members will have gained experience, and can pass their experience
on to others.

Be patient! Don't give up if the PAME approach doesn't work in the first week! It has
been found that some communities, especially those who have "top down" cultures or
those who have long term exposure to outsider development programmes have become
dependent on outsiders to do the thinking for them. They may not be interested or
familiar with attempts to involve them.

Accepting or rejecting new ideas usually means going through a personal "sorting out".
We may examine other similar ideas, or our personal experience, and imagine whether or
not the new idea makes sense relative to this. We can react very differently to new ideas.


Changing is not easy. Sometimes it means giving up something that is comfortable,
such as a definite strategy for community development, even when we know it isn't
working very well. Staying with what is comfortable may seem better than risking the
unknown.

Accepting new ideas and changing is what "development" is all about! Risking the
unknown may be as difficult for some communities as it is for us. People in a community
are just like us, comfortable with things the way they are, even if they aren't working well.


Toolbox Page 12









Chapter One i


PAME offers a.
new way to look
at development


Generally, it is thought that communities participate in OUR activities. This is because
in the past outsiders have decided which activities will be conducted. PAME works
with a different perspective. Outsiders participate in the activities that belong to the
community.

Think of the community as a river which flows on and on. It has flowed for generations,
and will continue to flow. As outsiders, we enter the flow of the river (community) at a
certain point, and exit at another point. Hopefully, we leave something positive and
lasting with the community. That is sustainable development!


Participatory
means partnership


The idea behind PAME is that insiders and outsiders see themselves as equal partners
in development, neither one has more control. Insiders and outsiders realize that each
will contribute something unique that the other does not possess. They recognize the
value of each other's contribution, and that together they can accomplish what neither
can do alone.


Toolbox Page 13


I I









I = Getting the Idea


8. PAME builds
on two-way
communication.


Communication
Exercise


In the following pages there are three exercises for you to go through with your
colleagues: a communication exercise, a listening exercise and a self-reflection exercise.
These can help you to improve your two-way communication skills.



Think about your communication training.
Were you trained to have special information that you would then teach others?
How do you share your knowledge?

As trained foresters, agriculturalists, or extensionists we are taught about certain subjects.
We are often expected to teach others, and to do this we are trained in one-way
communication.

Role playing "teacher" and "student" with your colleagues can be a very effective way
of understanding the differences between one-way and two-way communication.

Choose a "teacher" and decide on a subject for the lecture. Try to make it a subject that
is more familiar to the "students" than the "teacher".

During the lecture, the "students" arenot allowed to contribute. After some time
(five or ten minutes) stop the lecture and discuss amongst yourselves what it felt like
to be a "student" with knowledge of a subject but without a chance to contribute.
Discuss what it felt like to be a "teacher", knowing the "students" had something to
contribute but were unable to speak. Then try the role play exercise with the "teacher"
encouraging "students".


Toolbox Page 14









I I Chapter One -



Listening Do you communicate well?
Exercise Are you most comfortable as a listener or as speaker?
Do you ask questions that show you understand what was said, and that you are interested
in more information?

Although we are often trained to speak, we are seldom trained to listen. Listening also
requires training. Using PAME, it is important to be a good listener. How can we train
ourselves to listen and respond in a way that ensures that the other person will come to
their own decisions and gain their own insights?

With your colleagues, choose a topic on which opinions are likely to differ. Write a
strong statement for both sides of the topic. For example:

"I feel women should not work as foresters."
"I feel women foresters are as effective as male foresters."
or.....
"I feel development people from outside the country can never
really understand our situation."
"I feel development people from outside the country
understand our situation better than we do."

Break into groups of three. Two people will discuss the topic. One of these persons
will be a "sender" of the message (Whichever opinion they wish to support), the second
person will be a "receiver", trying only to understand the "sender's" point of view.
The third person will be a "critic", observing the "sender" and the "receiver".
After five minutes, stop the conversation and ask for feedback from the "critic":

Did the responses of the "receiver" criticize the "sender"?
Were the responses supportive of the "sender"?
Did the responses probe for more information?
Did the "receiver" seem bored?

The most effective response is one which communicates to the "sender" that the "receiver"
is interested in the "sender" as a person, has an accurate understanding of what has
been said, and encourages the "sender" to go on, elaborate and further explore the topic.

Change "roles" until everyone has had a turn being a "receiver".


Toolbox Page 15









I =- Getting the Idea


Self Reflection
Exercise


How did you communicate today?
Did you feel people enjoyed talking with you?
Did you talk as much as you listened?
What did you learn?
How could you have communicated better?


Good two-way communication takes some time to develop. It can be nurtured by
continual reflection, by asking yourself and those around you how you are doing
(asking them to be a "critic").

Allow some time during field staff meetings to talk about experiences in communication.
Discuss communication that worked and communication that did not work. We often
learn more from our mistakes, although they are sometimes more difficult to talk about!

At the end of a working day, perhaps on the way home from work, take some time to
think about the conversations you had with people. Do you think they went well? What
could you have done better? If you are working with colleagues, ask them to give you
some feedback. Do the same for them.


Ask community members how you are doing. You could have them do the S.W.O.L.
Analysis (Tool 18) on your performance. This is a good exercise because it recognizes
that there will be BOTH strengths and weaknesses in your performance.

Being aware of different kinds of communication, learning to listen, and being aware of
how you are doing, are the first steps toward two-way communication.


Toolbox Page 16








Section Two


The Methods


A method is a way to go about planning, organizing and carrying out an activity or
group of activities.

In forestry, we are familiar with planting methods, pruning methods, thinning and
harvesting methods. Each of these describes a way to go about performing a certain
activity at a certain time. Each of these activities contributes to the realization of an
established tree, or a whole woodlot.

The methods of PAME are also distinct in what they do, and when they are done.
Each method contributes to the whole information system, just as a thinning method
contributes to the whole woodlot! The methods of PAME are:


Participatory Assessment
Participatory Baselines
Participatory Monitoring
Participatory Evaluation


Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five


Each chapter first describes the method, and its main purposes. Following this, the
benefits of the method are listed. Finally, steps to help organize the information
gathering are described.

It is expected that the methods may need to be modified during the process of field
experimentation, according to the community response and existing community
skills.

Chapters Six and Seven introduce some of the ways to analyze information and
present results.









Chapter Two


1. What is
Participatory
Assessment?


Decisions may
have already been
made by outsiders


Participatory Assessment is a method for determining, from the insiders point
of view: what activities are needed and can be supported; whether insiders accept the
activities proposed by outsiders and; whether the activities are reasonable and practical.

Insiders, facilitated by outsiders, go through a process in which they identify the conditions
that are necessary for successful completion of activities, and gather information
to determine whether or not their community has these conditions or can create them.
An "Assessment Framework" examines each activity in terms of necessary conditions
and eliminates those activities which do not have necessary conditions.

Often the way that activities are planned can mean that some decisions have already
been made without input from the community. It may be:

* that the problems and the solutions to the problems have been established by
outsiders,
* that funding has been decided upon,
* that the national or local governments have negotiated with outsiders or, in some
cases, have initiated the project,
* that the area within a country has been determined and that field staff have been
assigned specific roles.


Toolbox Page 19



























Participatory
Assessment when
activities initiated
by both insiders
and outsiders



Participatory
Assessment when
activities initiated
by insiders


Participatory Assessment I I



One of the decisions often left to field staff is the choice of communities in which to
carry out activities. For example, in a designated area, there may be a great many communi-
ties in which activities could be introduced. But there may be field staff
constraints, such as lack of vehicles and trained field staff, which make serving some
communities difficult Field staff will have to consider their own abilities and
constraints. As well, they will have to consider which communities have both the
problem that the activities address and the physical and community conditions
necessary for success.

If field staff must choose communities, a modification of the Participatory Assessment
method that is described in this chapter can help them decide which communities
to approach.

In community forestry, insiders provide many of the inputs, such as labour, materials,
and management. While the outsiders may have chosen the community as having the
conditions necessary for activities to succeed, the insiders will not always agree;
they will have to decide for themselves.

Participatory Assessment provides a framework for insiders and outsiders to determine
whether or not they want, need, and can support the activities proposed.

When insiders approach outsiders for assistance with activities, a Participatory
Assessment can be very useful. It can confirm to insiders that they have identified the
right problem and the right solutions. It can also help outsiders understand the proposed
activities and why the community has chosen them.


Toolbox Page 20









Chapter Two I


A community is a group of people, often living in the same geographic area and who
identify themselves as belonging to the same group. The people in a community are
often related by blood or marriage. They may all belong to the same religious or
political group, class or caste.

However, though communities can have many things in common, they are still very
complex, and should not be thought of as one homogeneous group. There may be
conflicts.


Women may be thought of as very different from men, and have different rules of
conduct. Communities are often composed of specific groups such as landless and
those with land, rich and poor, new immigrants and old residents. A number of
separate interest groups that belong to one community may be affected by the change
that is introduced..

Often the ways that communities address problems and crises are tied to the
relationships of kinship, religion and politics, and strong ties between community
members have developed over generations. Depending on the issue, a community may
be united or divided in thought and action.


Toolbox Page 21













Participatory
Assessment is
facilitated by
outsiders






Many objectives
are considered


r,1 Participatory Assessment I I



An insider assessment may be something that has not been done before. It may be a
learning experience for everyone!

As facilitators, outsiders openly discuss what they can offer to the community.
This may be material resources that the community does not have, such as seeds or
shovels. It may be technical or organizational advice. Outsiders also communicate to
insiders that the decision to accept, modify or reject proposed activities is a decision
insiders must consider carefully. After all, potentially they have the most to lose if
the activities fail and the most to gain if they succeed.

To ensure, as far as possible, that everyone receives what they want and need, Par-
ticipatory Assessment considers all relevant objectives. The objectives of insiders
who may directly benefit, those of insiders who may indirectly benefit, and those of
outsiders are all identified and considered. Participatory Assessment encourages
discussion of all objectives, thus it can help identify conflicting and complementary
objectives.

Even when the objectives of insiders and outsiders are different, often with slight
changes, everyone objectives can be achieved. In the following example, where
outsiders have proposed community woodlots, there are three "sets" of objectives
that must be considered.


Outsider objectives: To maintain a sustainable fuelwood supply for the landless poor.


Insider objectives:
(people with land)


To reduce soil erosion by wind.
To obtain more fodder for their livestock.


Insider objectives: To continue to collect fuelwood from the surrounding area.
(landless people)


Are these objectives in conflict? If outsiders objectives are met, does this mean that
the objectives of insiders with land will not be achieved? Can something be done so
that all objectives are met to some degree?


Addressing conflicting objectives is possible. One solution might be to change
activities. Instead of community woodlots, landless people could plant coppicing
fuelwood and fodder species on private farmland.


Toolbox Page 22










SChapter Two ,




Modification of the activities would meet the objectives of the insiders with land by
providing windbreaks to reduce soil erosion, and increasing the fodder supply in the
community. The objectives of the landless could be achieved by their planting and
managing the windbreaks by selective cutting, so that the windbreak effects would
always be present, and yet they could obtain a steady supply of fuelwood, as well as
collect and sell the fodder.

P Boe,1C rEuct son1. V ERoL5oAJ
Io FUE SL SUPPLY Fooo0CR "o.
P0oP PooR \ LuFTOCA-

PROVwie us wITH

Even with
different
objectives.......



Cocirluwi r' rMEIRIs
S VTH LANOD LAJODLES5
COrMfi/NtTY' MtErl6
(6ENEF1C2 1IE3)
L otIrs-tvp.







Good communication,
good Information, and
imagination can lead
to successful
negotiations........











So that
everyone can
benefit. o


Toolbox Page 23









S Participatory Assessment


Builds on
existing
community skills





























New skills can
be introduced


Over the years, communities
develop their own unique ways
to deal with problems. For the
most part, these work well.
But sometimes, when new,
unexpected problems present
themselves, or when the
community social structure has
broken down, the community
is unable to cope. It is then that
outsiders can intervene and
introduce a new way to look at
the situation.


















For example, in the past, the
community leader may have
allocated land to individuals
on the condition that they use
it for growing crops, as land
was in short supply. However,
national government policies
have changed, and now land is
sold to individuals. Some of
the new landowners do not
belong to the community.
They do not plant their lands,
and as a result there is a shortage
of food in the community. The
traditional ways of dealing with
this situation no longer work and
new skills and strategies, which
might include approaching the
government with realistic
options, must be explored.


Toolbox Page 24









Chapter Two i


The basis for
negotiation of
conflicts








Necessary conditions
are determined


Necessary conditions
can be created


Participatory Assessment, through discussions of the proposed activities, identifies
potential conflicts which can be dealt with before they become a problem.

For example, one proposed activity might be setting up a community nursery to produce
nitrogen fixing tree species to plant with agricultural crops. These species will benefit only
those who have land. The strategy proposed is that the community supply volunteer labour
to the nursery. However, there is a strong possibility that those without land may be
coerced into providing volunteer labour. Compensation, such as wages and perhaps free
seedlings to plant around homes, must be negotiated from the beginning, or nursery labour
may be withdrawn at a critical time.

Participatory Assessment is built on "necessary conditions", factors which are important
for successful completion of an activity. Using PAME, necessary conditions are discussed
and ranked in order of importance for each specific activity. Information is then gathered
to establish whether necessary conditions are present or possible. This information is used
to eliminate those activities which have the least chance of success.


Necessary conditions are the factors that must be present for a certain activity to
happen. While some factors are more important than others, they must all exist.
For example, the necessary conditions for growing a seedling are soil, water, seed,
and light. Without seed, there can be no seedling, even if everything else is available.


If the necessary conditions are not present in the community, there is the possibility that
they can be created.

If the activity were a community woodlot, the most important necessary condition could
be available communal land. But, if this necessary condition is not present, alternatives
can be explored. Private lands might be leased and the landlord might receive a portion of
the wood produced.


Toolbox Page 25









S, Participatory Assessment


2. Benefits of
Participatory
Assessment.


The beginning of
the participatory
relationship


Involvement of
the community
at an early stage





Recognition of
objectives provides
the basis for
negotiation

SA learning
Experience


5 Information for
future reference
is provided


3. Steps to
Participatory
Assessment.


Participatory Assessment is often the first interaction of
outsiders with the community. It encourages the
beginning of a participatory relationship between insiders
and outsiders. First impressions are important and set the
stage for the future.

Participatory Assessment provides the community with
the opportunity to decide, at the beginning, whether or
not to accept the project as planned by outsiders or
accept it with some modifications. When the
community makes this first decision, there is a greater
chance that they will be committed to what is, in
actuality, their project.

Encourages discussion of all relevant objectives so that
potential conflicts can be identified and negotiated early,
before they hinder success.


Participatory Assessment provides the opportunity for
both insiders and outsiders to better understand the
development process in which they are engaged.

The information from Participatory Assessment can
complement baseline and evaluation information.


Outsiders and insiders (spokespersons for the community) should first discuss the
purpose and benefits of a Participatory Assessment, and plan for the initial meeting if
they decide to proceed.

A Participatory Assessment can begin with a community meeting,
(see Tool 1: Group Meetings). Invite interested community members, the intended
beneficiaries and others that may be affected by the project (such as nomadic herders
or downstream communities).

The time required to do a Participatory Assessment will vary, depending on the
community. It may take a large group meeting to go through the first analysis, another
smaller team to gather information, and then another meeting of the large group to do
a final analysis using the new information. In smaller communities, the people that are
present may supply enough information, and the Participatory Assessment can be done
in one meeting. Take as much time as is needed and try not to rush things.

The format for the Assessment Framework is presented throughout the following steps,
and then completely on the last page of this chapter.


Toolbox Page 26









Chapter Two


Establish insiders and outsiders objectives.

Insider and outsiders share their objectives. Outsiders state clearly what they can and
cannot do.


Insiders may take some time to discuss and determine their problems and solutions to
establish their own objectives. Insiders and outsiders should clearly understand the
responsibilities and inputs that are expected of them.

Whether the activities are initiated by insiders or outsiders, it will be insiders who must
identify their own objectives. Some tools useful to this are:


Toolbox Page 27


Tool 2 Drawing and Discussion

Tool 4: Flannel Boards

Tool 5: Open-ended Stories

Tool 6: Unserialized Posters


M Mi:
W
M








I Participatory Assessment


Describe three categories.

On a large sheet of paper, draw the Assessment Framework and explain the three
categories.


Problem
identification


It is most important that
insiders and outsiders have
identified somewhat the same
problem, that this problem is
of high priority to insiders,
and that the activities address
the problems.

Problem identification is
useful to both insiders and
outsiders. It is the basis for
determining objectives which
are used to negotiate the best
options for all.


Toolbox Page 28


N'1


, J









Chapter Two ,


Some important physical conditions
must be present in order for activities
to be carried out. For example, are
land, water or near-by markets
available to support activities?

It is important that the community
identify physical conditions
necessary for activities.


Consider the necessary socio
economic conditions. Are there
community organizations that can
implement the activities? Is there
strong community leadership? Is
there sufficient community labour
available? What community skills are
required? Are there social, religious,
economic, class/caste, legal, and/or
political conditions that might affect
activities?


If a community organization is -: : ATV 7 /
needed to carry out the activities an ...
existing group may be able to handle
the extra responsibility. If a new .
community structure is required, one :
of the existing successful community r ::
organizations can be used as a model. corM'M IT' CONDITIONS






The community may be divided in such a way (class, caste, politics) that groups will not
cooperate and may even openly oppose the project if they perceive that activities will not
benefit them. Discussions of community constraints may bring up very sensitive issues.
However, sensitive issues do not have to be challenged or resolved. They must only be
recognized so that planning and negotiations take them into account.


Toolbox Page 29


Physical
conditions


Community
conditions










I Participatory Assessment ,

Identify activities within the three categories.

Within each of the three categories, the community will identify activities. These are
written in the left hand column.


uJRLTE POTENT
0 ACT3'4lES it
THE LEFT H#t
c~owMN .

POTGNTCrAL PROBLEM
PCT1VTIeS IDENTIFICATION


r-I


PHYIC 1L. 7WTCOMMJNITY
CON DITION$ S CON!C1TLONS


Identify necessary conditions within each category for each activity.

Discuss and list all the conditions necessary in each category, and for each activity.


Toolbox Page 30


1


rcomrovmp
FLA 1VT1N r,



COnr1VNAL
r-op'vST
MANlAC47MCNT


EITC.










Chapter Two i


Rank necessary conditions.


Have the group discuss and chose the most important (first) necessary condition in each
category for each activity. Then choose the necessary condition next (second) in
importance, then third and so on.

Omit those that the group does not consider important


This kind of a framework should give a focus for discussion and a way to organize
information. However, it may not work in each community. It may be too
complicated, or just not the way some people organize their thoughts.

Field staff can try the framework with each other first If it "works" (assists with
understanding) then they might ask a few people from the community to try it,
and give their feedback.

If the framework goes through these two "screens" it has a better chance of
being useful to a larger group. If it doesn't "work", think of what may work
better.


Toolbox Page 31


I -- - -


0
IN
,x










I -- Participatory Assessment



Identifying information needed.

For each proposed activity, the necessary conditions are examined and the information
required to see if these are present is identified. To do this, Activity Information Sheets,
such as shown below, can be used for each activity proposed.






....................................
... .........................
... oo..........o..
ACTiVITY: STOYE PROOGRA"MME ..:: .I

:cTIYITY: COMPOUND PLANTIH. N. .. ......-.-..


ACTIVITY: COMMUnAL FOREST MANAGEMENT
ORATION NEEDED OUTCCtE
Yes/no/possible ^ |

pRCE IOOImIcATIN C







PHYSICAL













Oet atry
pwaou.^ ^ .*


Toolbox Page 32









I I Chapter Two -



Gather information.

The people at the meeting may have much of the information needed. Individuals can
contribute information, and the validity, or truth, of individual information can be
confirmed by the group.

If further information gathering is needed this can be done by designing teams for each
activity, once the larger group has decided what information is needed.

Depending on the information that is needed, tools that might be helpful are:


Toolbox Page 33


Tool 2 Drawing and Discussion

Tool 4 Flannel Boards

Tool 6 Unserialized Posters

Tool 9 Semi-structured Interviews

Tool 10 Ranking, Rating and Sorting

Tool 15 Maps and Mapping









I Participatory Assessment


Analyze information.

Returning to the larger group, the facilitator uses the Assessment Framework and the
completed Activity Information Sheets to discuss and consider each activity in turn.
The facilitator draws a line from left to right through each activity, indicating OK
when necessary conditions are not present, or can be created, and indicating STOP
when necessary conditions are not present, amd cannot be created. The lines with the
OK right through to the end will be the activities that have all the conditions neces-
sary to make them work.


Toolbox Page 34


The information from Participatory Assessment will be useful in the future, and
should be stored in a safe place.


I I


IN









Chapter Three


1. What is a
Participatory
Baseline?


Main purpose is to
establish criteria to
measure change


A Participatory Baseline provides a description and information, mainly from the insiders
perspective, of a specific situation. It is done so that activities can be focused, and
change can be measured by comparison with similar situations at some future time.
Information is identified and collected to describe the present situation as it specifically
relates to the objectives. For example, if one of the objectives is to increase the supply of
fuelwood to a community, the baseline information required might include:

What is the present fuelwood supply?
What is the source of the present fuelwood supply (local and/or imported)?
What is household fuelwood consumption?

A Participatory Baseline enables insiders to measure and evaluate change in specific
conditions providing a common understanding, from the beginning, of how change will
be measured.


Toolbox Page 35


Suppose you warn to measure change in a family. It could
be decided that this could best be done by measuring the
number and growth of children. Measuring change in a
family might include a photograph of the family at the
beginning, and series of photographs or drawings over
time. The photograph at the
beginning would be a "baseline,"
while the ether photographs would
show change overtime.









1 iParticipatory Baselines


In forestry, if the project objective is to plant trees in a school yard, measurement
might be the number and growth of trees in the school yard. Drawings of the school
yard before any project trees are planted, and each year throughout the activity can
give a measurement of change.


A baseline can provide additional information about a specific topic. For example, a
new activity to collect and sell forest products, might require a market survey.


Community can
readily observe
change

Provides a way to
obtain information
when needed


Complements
baselines by
outsiders



Information is
immediately useful
to insiders and
outsiders



Can identify
research needs


The communities discuss and agree upon ways to
measure and observe change.


When insiders need specific information about an
activity or proposed activity, the baseline method
is a way for them to organize and obtain the
information.

Baseline surveys by outsiders may be costly, and
often the information is difficult to interpret.
Participatory Baselines can complement and enrich
outsider baselines by providing a comparison of the
perceptions of insiders and outsiders.

Because insiders and outsiders are both involved
in the planning and analysis of baselines, it is a
learning experience for both groups. The information
is understandable and can be used for confirmation
of problem identification and solutions, planning
project activities and identifying potential problems.

If it is not known what information is needed,
and/or if information is not available, topics that
need to be researched can be identified. This research
can be done by insiders and outsiders (see Participatory
Action Research Tool #12), or requested of local
research agencies.


Toolbox Page 36


Provides
information needed
to start activities

2. The benefits of
Participatory
Baselines.









Chapter Three ,


3. Steps to
Participatory
Baselines.


.. .


Participatory Baselines can be done with the whole community or with the beneficiary
group. This will depend on the size of the community and their interest. If there is a large
community group, it may be best if responsibilities for baseline are delegated to a few
people, (a baseline team). The baseline team will be directed by the baseline questions
developed by the larger group, and report the results back to them.

The facilitating role of the outsiders should be discussed. Outsiders generally have access
to information from urban markets, libraries, other agencies and government sources
which can be of use to communities.

A baseline framework is used to plan information gathering and analysis. The following
steps describe sections of the framework.

Discuss the purpose of a baseline.

Describe baseline information to the group. Discuss with them the benefits of baseline
information. Will this kind of information be beneficial to them? If they decide to
proceed, what do they want to know? Do they want to measure progress or obtain
information about a specific issue?


Toolbox Page 37








,I Participatory Baselines I



Review objectives and activities.

If baseline is being done for the purpose of being able to measure change at a future
date, then objectives and activities can be reviewed. These may have been
established during a Participatory Assessment If not, the objectives and activities
established by the outsiders can be reviewed and discussed.

If a baseline is being done to obtain specific information for a new activity or
because of a problem, reviewing of the central questions can be useful.


Establish baseline questions.

Once the reason for the baseline has been determined, the group must decide what
information will tell them what they want to know. This can be discussed by the
group, and then later prioritized if there are too many questions. If the group is large,
they may wish at this point, to delegate responsibility to a baseline team.


Toolbox Page 38









Chapter Three ,


Direct and Indirect Indicators

Direct indicators are pieces of information that expressly relate to what is being
measured. For example, if information on crop yields are required then crop yields are
measured.

Indirect indicators are essential pieces of infonfiation chosen from amongst manyy
possible pieces of information to serve as substitutes or proxys to answerquestions
and/or respond to statements that are difficult t6 measure.

For example, instead of the direct indicator of income, indirect indicators of poverty
chosen by insiders might be:

* Persons are poor if they have to hire themselves out as labour,
* Persons are rich if they can hire labour

Key indicators are essential pieces of information that open doors to understanding.
Indicators can be compared to road signs. Road signs give information thaLtell the
traveller how far it is to a certain town. The traveller can then estimate the time it will
take.


Establishing indicators may take some time, but experience shows that this is
time well spent. Three important questions to be answered are:

What do we want to know?
What are the many pieces of information that could tell us this?
What are the few pieces of information' (key indicators) that will tell us this?

Establishing good indicators will reduce the amount of information that needs to be
collected.


Toolbox Page 39








I 1 Participatory Baselines


Choose key indicators.

To establish direct or indirect indicators, for each baseline question think of the indicators
that are possible. Will the indicators answer the questions with the level of accuracy
required? Record indicators for each baseline question.

Identify the information sources and tools for baseline questions.

For each baseline question decide where and how the information can best be
obtained. Some information may be available from a secondary source (such as a recent
agricultural survey), while other information will have to be collected.


It may be that many baseline questions can be answered using the same information
gathering tool. Some of the information gathering tools that can facilitate
participatory monitoring are:


Toolbox Page 40


Tool 2 Drawing and Discussion
Tool 4 Flannel Boards
Tool 5 Open-ended Stories

Tool 9 Semi-structured Interviews

Tool 10 Ranking, Rating and Sorting

Tool 14 Maps and Mapping









I I Chapter Three ,


Decide on skills and labour required to obtain information.

Participatory Baselines may require the assistance of people with specific abilities, such
as interview skills, math skills, artistic skills and/or dramatic skills. It will also require a
certain amount of labour (time) from people.

The group (or small team) must decide which skills and labour (resources) are available
within the community, and what other outside resources are available to them. They
might ask the questions:

What resources do we need?
What resources do we have, or can we develop?
What other resources do we need to get?














Decide when information gathering can be done.

The time for the baseline must be determined taking into account factors such as:
seasonal constraints (planting and harvesting times); religious holidays; field staff
availability; and community labour demands.

For each key indicator, or baseline question the group decides approximately how long
each task will take and when it will be done.












Toolbox Page 41






Toolbox Page 41









, Participatory Baselines


Decide who will gather information.

When the specific dates, the time and the skills required are known, the tasks can then
be delegated to individuals or small working groups.


Decide what to do with the information.

Depending on the purpose of the baseline, the information can be analyzed and stored,
analyzed and presented, or roughly analyzed and stored.


BASELWE FRAMEWORKp


Chapters Seven and Eight describe ways to analyze and present information.



The information from Participatory Baselines will be useful in the future.
Store the information in a safe place.


Toolbox Page 42


I I









Chapter Four


1. What is
Participatory
Monitoring?
Participatory
Monitoring
measures
progress


Participatory Monitoring is the systematic recording and periodic analysis of
information that has been chosen and recorded by insiders with the help of outsiders.


The main purpose of Participatory Monitoring is that it provides information during the
life of the project, so that adjustments and/or modifications can be made if necessary.

Take the example of a bus trip from
one community to the other. When
passengers can see out the windows,
Vr they can monitor progress by
'f observing the passing landscape,
EL reading the road signs, and watching
the movement of the sun across the
sky. Monitoring these kinds of
E information on a bus trip lets them
know whether they are heading in the
we' 1 right direction.
0 Owrr, Iu. WE S

Participatory monitoring is having all
passengers on the bus know their
destination and decide how they will
measure their progress.


But, suppose a rainstorm made it
impossible for passengers to see out
the windows. The bus would be
moving, but passengers would be
unable to know if they were on the
right road, or headed in the right
direction. That is what it would be like
without monitoring. If only the bus
driver of the bus knows where the bus
is going, and measures progress
without discussion with the
passengers, that is like monitoring
without participation.


Toolbox Page 43













Provides
information
for decision
makers


Information is
periodically
analyzed


Agreement on the
objectives and
activities is
necessary

Insiders choose
the terms of
measurement


I I Participatory Monitoring ,



Keeping track of activities by recording information on a daily, weekly, monthly or
seasonal basis, and taking the time to stop and analyze the information monitored can
provide important immediate feedback, and can be used in the future for Participatory
Evaluations.

For example, a community charcoal marketing cooperative might monitor monthly
sales over a year. This might show that sales were low over a three month period. They
would realize that this three month period is the rainy season, when transportation
is a problem. Using this information, the community might decide to transport and store
charcoal close to the market before the rainy season.

Participatory Monitoring is not only keeping records. It is also stopping at set times to
analyze (add up, discuss, integrate) information. The time to stop and analyze will
vary according to the nature and/or seasonality of activities.

For example, projects with small forest based enterprise activities may have daily
recording of cash, and monthly balancing of the records. Reforestation activities may
only require record keeping during nursery production and planting periods, with an
analysis at the end of each planting season.

Before Participatory Monitoring begins, the community must understand why they are
monitoring. Information should keep everyone informed of progress (or lack of progress)
toward planned objectives and activities.


When the terms of measurement, (kilos, grams, guntas, sacks, cans, pounds, bundles, etc.)
are chosen by insiders, the information is better understood. The chances of the
monitoring continuing in the future are more likely.





If this kind of information is
required by outsiders, they
can translate the insiders'
o terms of measurement into
0 o terms that they use. For
Example guntas, bags, and
bundles can be translated
Into kilograms or pounds.


Toolbox Page 44









Chapter Four ,


Broadly examines
progress towards
objectives and
activities


Insiders, given the opportunity, have the ability to combine qualitative (descriptive)
information with quantitative (numbers) information, providing a more complete
analysis.

For example, an objective may be to reduce soil erosion by wind, and the activity to
establish 400 kilometres of windbreaks. Information from monitoring in the first year
might show that, as planned, 100 kilometres of windbreaks have been established
around farmer's fields. This is important and useful information. It shows that
activities are going according to plan. But it is may not be complete information if the
objective of reducing soil erosion is not also considered. Farmers may be experiencing
increased soil erosion in fields outside the windbreak. This information can bring up the
question of whether the windbreaks, as currently planted, are a worthwhile activity or
should be modified in some way. It may call for an early evaluation.


Before another 300 km. of windbreaks
are planted, important questions can be
answered, and the activities and/or
objectives can be modified. A potential
disaster can become a success!


2. The benefits of
Participatory
Monitoring.


Provides an ongoing
picture


Problems are identified and
solutions sought early


Participatory Monitoring provides an
ongoing picture that allows the
community to determine whether
activities are progressing as planned.
It may also show when activities are
not leading to objectives, so that early
adjustments can be made.


Participatory Monitoring provides an
"early warning" which identifies
problems at an early stage. Solutions
can then be sought before the problems
get out of hand. This is especially
important with new technologies that
may have negative effects after
introduction.


Toolbox Page 45









I i Participatory Monitoring


Good standards are
maintained








SResources are used
effectively


Complete picture of
project is produced


SInformation base for
future evaluations


3. Monitoring
people's
participation.
Outsiders monitor
participation


Continuous feedback throughout the life of the activities
ensures that the quality of the activities is sufficient to
provide good results. For example, seedling survival
surveys in the first few months after seedlings are
outplanted can indicate whether the quality of nursery
stock and/or planting and stock handling are good.
Survival surveys done when the most critical limits to
survival of seedlings has passed, can indicate whether
the protection and management are sufficient

Participatory Monitoring can show the resources that are
required to produce a certain effect, or how necessary
resources can be distributed differently to get a better effect.

When insiders are in control of monitoring, the results
are examined relative to past experience. This broader
picture enhances all other benefits of monitoring.

Both insiders and outsiders can benefit from the
information base provided by Participatory Monitoring,
which can provide realistic information while also
showing trends.


Sometimes things will get worse before they get better. Try not to be too hasty
about giving up something that doesn't appear to be working right away!
Sometimes targets have been unrealistic, and will have to be reconsidered.
Remember to think of both short-term and long-term effects.


Both insiders and outsiders can monitor participation, but it may be for very different
reasons. Outsiders may be interested in equal community representation in decision
making, while insiders may be interested in equal distribution of costs and benefits.

Participation is often an outsider objective because they are concerned with equal
representation of all elements and groups in the community. Outsiders may want to
ensure, through monitoring participation, that all involved and affected people in the
community are represented when decisions regarding activities are made.

Because "participation" is a process that emerges and develop as the activities
progress,information needs regarding participation may undergo significant change
over time.

For example, increases and decreases in turnout at community meetings are not
always an effective indicator of participation. There may be enthusiastic turnout at
meetings when the activities are first introduced to the community. However, as
groups and committees take over decision making, the community only has to be
kept informed. Therefore the turnout at meetings may drop off, especially if things
are going well.


Toolbox Page 46









Chapter Four ,


Insiders monitor
participation


Insiders and outsiders
monitor participation
together


Insiders may wish to know who participates in communal activities, so that benefits can
be equitably distributed.

In many instances, community forestry activities will be done using the volunteer labour
of community members. Those who contribute their labour may wish to be acknowledged
in some way. They may also want sanctions taken against those who do not volunteer labour.
For example, those who contribute labour in the tree nursery might receive free seedlings,
while those who do not contribute labour might pay for the seedlings.

Whether monitoring participation is important to insiders or outsiders it makes sense to
have insiders define it and help either measure it (if it is information important to them) or
help outsiders identify indicators. When insiders choose participation indicators, they are
likely to be more locally relevant than indicators chosen by outsiders.

For example, individual participation cannot always be measured in hours. One person may
supply skilled labour for a shorter period of time and still be considered by others to have
equally participated. Communities may choose to evaluate participation based on the skill
and quality of work, rather than the time spent. A carpenter's time contribution may not be
considered equal to an unskilled labourer's time contribution. The community may feel that a
leader who has more obligations should have a larger share of the benefits.


Toolbox Page 47


While Participatory Monitoring can be introduced at any stage of activities, it is best
introduced at the beginning stage, before activities are implementated. At this stage,
preparations are made for how and who will do the data collection, and when the
periodic analysis will take place. After implementation, when the activities have begun
the recording begins. At set periods, which can be either daily, weekly, monthly, or
seasonally, the information that is being recorded is analyzed.

If the activities are already ongoing, there are still many benefits to be had from
introducing Participatory Monitoring. If the current monitoring is not working
well, if the information that is generated is not useful to insiders, or if other PAME
approaches are being tried, introducing Participatory Monitoring may still be
appropriate. It may be useful to compare the kinds of information and the value of
the information before and after participatory monitoring!


I I









r-, Participatory Monitoring


4. Steps to
Participatory
Monitoring.


Take the time to prepare and plan monitoring. It helps everyone know why they are
monitoring, and how it will be done. The first meeting (see Group Meetings Tool 1) to
plan for monitoring can include all those directly involved in the activities as well as
other interested groups. But it will be concentrated on those directly involved or those
selected by the groups who will be responsible for monitoring. Planning for monitoring
can use a framework much like those used for Participatory Baselines and Participatory
Evaluation. This framework is explained in the following steps.

Discuss reasons for monitoring.

Review the benefits and purpose of monitoring, so that insiders can decide for themselves
whether monitoring will help them.

Review objectives and activities.

If PAME has been continually used, the insider objectives and activities will have been
established during the Participatory Assessment. If insiders have not previously been in-
volved, the objectives and activities as established by outsiders can be reviewed and
discussed by insiders. A Participatory Assessment may be necessary if insiders and
outsider objectives are very different.

Develop monitoring questions.

After objectives and activities are reviewed, discuss the information needed to help
know if activities are going well. Focus on the questions "What do we want to know?"
and "What do we monitor that will tell us this?".

The facilitator can write (or draw), on large sheets of paper or a blackboard, monitoring
questions generated around each objective and activity. There should be agreement by
the group on each monitoring question. If many questions are generated they can be
ranked in order of importance.


Toolbox Page 48








Chapter Four ,


Establish direct and indirect indicators.

For each monitoring question, determine direct and/or indirect indicators that will answer
the monitoring questions. Indicators are described in chapter 3.


Decide which information gathering tools are needed.

For each key indicator or monitoring question, the most appropriate information
gathering tool must be chosen. Remember one tool can gather information that
answers many monitoring questions. Some of the information gathering tools useful
in Participatory Monitoring are:


Decide who will do the monitoring.

Monitoring may require people with specific skills such as bookkeeping or
mathematics. It will also require a certain amount of labour (time) from people.
Those with the skills and the time can be identified. There may have to be
compensation for the task of monitoring. It might be part of the the job of a paid
nursery person, or the community members responsible for monitoring might receive
free seedlings from the nursery.


Toolbox Page 49


Tool 11 Community Environmental Assessment

Tool 12 Survival Surveys

Tool 15 Farmer's Own Records

Tool 16 Nursery Record Books

Tool 17 Community Financial Accounts


INON









1 Participatory Monitoring


Analyze and present results.

It is important that information monitored be analyzed at specific times throughout the
activities. The analysis can be discussed at community meetings, posted or put in com-
munity newsletters. The community will then know whether or not activities are pro-
gressing as planned or if changes or modifications are required.


Chapters Six and Seven deal with information analysis and presentation.


Toolbox Page 50









Chapter Five


1. What is
Participatory
Evaluation?
Insiders take the
lead in
participatory
evaluation


A Participatory Evaluation is an opportunity for both outsiders and insiders to stop and
reflect on the past in order to make decisions about the future. Insiders are encouraged
and supported by outsiders to take responsibility and control of:

* planning what is to be evaluated
* how the evaluation will be done
* carrying out the evaluation
* analyzing information and presenting evaluation results.

Insiders already, intuitively and informally evaluate in light of their own individual
and/or group objectives. This is because:

* community forestry activities often require involvement and inputs from insiders
* it is ultimately insiders who reap the benefits and bear many of the costs of the project
* insiders choose whether to continue or discontinue activities when the
outsiders leave.

Thus, it makes sense for outsiders to help insiders conduct an effective
evaluation. With the results of evaluation, insiders may choose to continue activities,
modify all or some, change the strategy, change the objectives, or discontinue activities.


Toolbox Page 51









1 Participatory Evaluation


Outsiders facilitate
Participatory
Evaluations


Information to
guide management
decisions


Outsiders assist insiders in planning and conducting the evaluation. They lead but do
not direct. They can provide the focus, the idea, and some help, intervening when
assistance is required.

Participatory Evaluations are not conducted for the purpose of answering the questions
that outsiders need answered. However, in many instances, insider and outsider
evaluation questions may be the same and both may be answered through
Participatory Evaluation.

Governments and donors may want very specific information, but both will need to
know if the activities are relevant to the problems perceived by insiders and if they
are likely to continue when the outsiders withdraw support.

A Participatory Evaluation should not be thought of as a final judgement on whether
activities are successful or unsuccessful. The information should encourage changes
and adjustments either during the life span of the activities, for future phases of the
activities, or for future new activities.

In a Participatory Evaluation, people learn more about the things that have worked well,
and why they worked. They also learn more about the things that haven't worked well,
and why they didn't When the people involved go through the process of examining, it is
more likely that corrective measures will be implemented in the future because they are
discovered and understood by the community.

For example, a Participatory Evaluation mid-way through the activities might reveal that
fuel efficient stoves were only helpful to those who must pay for fuelwood. This
information might be used in the next phase of activities, to offer those who collect
fuelwood as a free good a less expensive alternative, such as construction of mud walls
around the traditional three stone fire.


Toolbox Page 52









Chapter Five


Both objectives
and activities
are considered


In a Participatory Evaluation, the overall and immediate objectives, their continued
relevance, and the effectiveness of the activities are all taken into account

For example, the overall objective might be to conserve existing forest resources, and
the immediate objective to reduce household fuelwood consumption. The activities
have tried to meet these objectives by introducing fuel efficient stoves. An evaluation can
provide information such as the number of stoves currently being used, and the fuelwood
saved. This information will let people know if their objective, to reduce household
fuelwood consumption, has been achieved.


Toolbox Page 53













Other methods.
contribute to
participatory
evaluation


Participatory Evaluation I I



Much of the information from Participatory Assessments, Participatory Baselines, and
Participatory Monitoring can be used in Participatory Evaluation.

For example, information from Participatory Assessments can be used to identify the
original overall and immediate objectives, re-acquainting the community with their
original analysis of the problems. Information from Participatory Baselines
can provide information (such as average household fuelwood consumption before fuel
efficient stoves were introduced) that is useful for comparison.


Information from Participatory Monitoring will give progressive trends and total
amounts.


Toolbox Page 54









Chapter Five ,


2. The benefits of
Participatory
Evaluation.


Better decision
making by
insiders


Insiders develop
evaluation skills







Outsiders have
better understanding
of insiders


Participatory Evaluations, by examining the
activitities individually and relative to objectives,
give insiders relevant and useful information.
Helping them decide whether the objectives and/or
activities should stay the same or change.


Participatory Evaluation reveals community
skills that were undervalued, and/or develops
analytical skills needed to make good decisions.
It helps insiders better organize and
express their concerns and interests in ways
outsiders can understand. This strengthens
two-way communication.


Outsiders benefit from Participatory Evalution
as it complements and enriches their own
evaluations. This is especially so when the
outsiders objectives are self-help and
sustainability. A Participatory Evaluation will
let them know whether or not the community is
likely to continue the activities when outsiders
have left.

Participatory Evaluations also benefit field staff
by providing support for the participatory
approach. The insider perspective can by-pass
any "filters of self-interest" that might be present
and reach high level decision makers, providing
them with the community's perspective, and
encouraging a deeper understanding of community
development


Toolbox Page 55


I









I Participatory Evaluation


Insider to insider
communication is
strengthened


* Information is
Li useful for ongoing
management of
project




Entry pointfor
the participatory
approach


Participatory Evaluation can be used for local extension,
with results presented to other communities who are
experiencing the same kinds of problems. In this way
insiders learn from insiders.

Information from Participatory Evaluations can be used
by insiders and outsiders to identify strong and weak
points of activities. If activities are to be continued, or
phased over to insiders, information can be used to modify
activities and make them more effectively meet
objectives, and better respond to real community needs
and priorities.

In a community where participation has not been a
feature, Participatory Evaluation may be the beginning of
a participatory approach. It may be that including school
children in the process not only helps the community
gather information, but also helps the children develop
analytical skills and experience


Toolbox Page 56


I I









SChapter Five t




Participatory Evaluation may be done:


Because they have been planned

Participatory Evaluation can be planned for set times through out the life of the
activities. These can be mid-way through theactivities, or after each season of
planting, depending on when the community decides it needs to stop and examine
past performance.

Because there is a crisis

Participatory Evaluation can help to avoid a potential crisis, providing a chance to
discuss important issues. For example, suppose an area of common land had tradition
ally been used by the landless group to collect fuelwood and graze their animals.
Without consulting this landless group, the activities implemented by other
community members have fenced and planted trees on this communal land. The
landless group have vandalized the fence, and allowed their animals to graze,
destroying the newly planted trees. Bringing people together to discuss and mediate a
solution can be done using a Participatory Evaluation.

Because a problem has become apparent

Problems, such as a general lack of community interest in the activities may be
realized. Participatory Monitoring may provide more information that can help
people determine why there is a problem and/or how to remedy it..

If participation is new

A Participatory Evaluation may shed some understanding on why a project isn't
working very well. The results of a Participatory Evaluation may be the entry point for
a more participatory approach. If participation has not been a feature of the project,
outsiders who are experienced in participatory evaluation approaches may be very
useful, as they can sensitize and train field staff in this approach, facilitating the
evaluation.
I/ ,


Toolbox Page 57









I 1 Participatory Evaluation


3. Steps to The time that is taken to carefully prepare and plan a Participatory Evaluation is time
Participatory well spent. It helps everyone know why they are evaluating and how they are going
Evaluation. to do it.
The first meeting to prepare and plan the evaluation should be open to all interested
groups (see Tool 1: Groups Meetings). This meeting could include beneficiaries,
others in the community, as well as groups from outside the community who have an
interest in the project.

If a great number of people are interested in the evaluation, some of the responsibilities
of the evaluation can be delegated to a small group, a community evaluation team. But
the larger interested group, at this first meeting, must first discuss why they are doing an
evaluation and what they wish to know, in order to provide guidance to the community
evaluation team.

Review objectives and activities.

The larger group, as described above, decides why an evaluation is necessary.

The community's long-term and immediate objectives and the activities they have
chosen to meet these objectives can be reviewed at this meeting. If PAME has been
used, the objectives and activities established during the Participatory Assessment
can be reviewed. If the activities have not been participatory, the objectives, as
established by outsiders, can be reviewed.


Toolbox Page 58









SI, Chapter Five



Review reasons for evaluation.

After objectives and activities are reviewed, discussion can focus on
the questions:

"Why are we doing an evaluation?"
"What do we want to know?"
WHY AAE WE DVO1G. AN EVASO ATLON















Develop evaluation questions.

The facilitator can write (or draw), the evaluation questions on large sheets of paper or
a blackboard. The group should agreed on each question. If many questions are
generated around each objective and activity, they can be ranked in order of importance.


Toolbox Page 59








1 i Participatory Evaluation


- - - -


Toolbox Page 60


Decide who will do the evaluation.

In the larger group meeting, decide who will do the evaluation, and who will want to
know the results. It may be decided to include the whole community (especially if it is
small), only the beneficiaries, or delegate the responsibility for the evaluation to an
evaluation team. The composition of the evaluation team should be decided by the larger
group at this first meeting. If it is known that some minority groups will not be
represented, the facilitator may encourage the participation of spokespersons from these
groups on the evaluation team. The evaluation team may include beneficiaries, those
who may be disadvantaged by an activity, community members and other affected
groups.

The larger group also decides who needs the results of evaluation, and when the results
should be ready. This will depend on who needs the information to make decisions, and
when decisions are to be made.




Identify direct and indirect indicators.

Taking the evaluation questions that were generated in the first meeting, direct and
indirect indicators are chosen for evaluation questions.

A description of "direct and indirect indicators" is presented in Chapter 3.




Identify the information sources for evaluation questions.

For each evaluation question and indicator that is chosen, the evaluation team identifies
where information is available, or if it is not available, how it will be obtained. Some
information may be available in an unanalyzed form, and require some effort to analyze.
Other information may not be readily available, and will have to be gathered.

The information that is required may be available from either Participatory Assessment,
Participatory Baselines, and/or Participatory Monitoring.









1 I Chapter Five i



If information is not readily available, it must be decided which information gathering tool
will be used to obtain information. Remember it is possible to use one tool to gather
information for a number of indicators. Some of the information gathering tools useful in
Participatory Evaluations are:


The choice of tools will depend on the kind of information needed. If an information gather-
ing tool has been used before, it may be used again to update the information and show change.




Determine the skills and labour that are required to obtain information.

The assistance of people with specific skills, such as interviewing, mathematics, art and/or
drama, as well as a certain amount of labour (time) will be required.

The evaluation team must decide which skills and resources are available to them.
They might ask the questions:


What resources do we need?
What resources do we have, or can we develop?
What other resources do we need to get?


'aaa2Jft


Toolbox Page 61


Tool 7 Community Case Studies
Tool 9 Semi-structured Interviews
Tool 10 Ranking, Rating and Sorting

Tool 11 Community Environmental Assessment

Tool 12 Survival Surveys

Tool 15 Farmer's Own Records
Tool 16 Nursery Record Books

Tool 17 Community Financial Accounts

Tool 18 S.W.O.L. Analysis












Ngg\ g\q;gg
gpn\
0", M
SO'


EVALVATION Fr-AMEWOR4


Toolbox Page 62


,-i Participatory Evaluation ,


Determine when information gathering and analysis can be done.

It is important to assure that information will be gathered and analyzed within the
time frame that is given to the evaluation team, so that the results can reach decision
makers on time. The timing of the evaluations must take into account factors such
as: seasonal constraints (planting and harvesting times); religious holidays; field
staff availability; and community labour demands.

For each tool that is used, the evaluation team decides approximately how long each
task will take, and when it will be done.

Determine who will gather information.

When the specific dates, the required time and skills are known, then the tasks can
be delegated to individuals or small working groups.

Analyze and present results.

When all the tasks have been completed, it will be necessary to analyze and
synthesize information for presentation. Some of the information may already be
analyzed. It will simply have to be put in its place in the presentation. Many of the
information gathering tools, such as case studies or popular dramas, lend themselves
to certain types of presentation. Analysis and presentation of results is the subject of
Chapters Six and Seven.

The evaluation team can decide what will be the best way to present results, given
the audience for whom the results are intended, the resources and time available.









Chapter Six =


1. What is
analysis?


Analysis is examining information (sorting it out, adding it up, comparing it) in order
to understand the "parts" in relationship to the "whole".


Both insiders and
outsiders contribute

Analysis may
be included in
information
gathering


Insiders and outsiders together plan the analysis. This helps ensure that information is
comprehensive, valid and understood.

Some of the analysis may have already been done, or partially done, depending on
which information gathering tools have been used.

For example, suppose the Ranking, Rating and Sorting Tool (Tool 10) is chosen to
answer the question: "which tree species do farmers prefer to plant with their crops?"
Using this tool, a list of ten species, from most preferred to least preferred, has been
produced. This information is already analyzed. It only needs to be examined along
with other information, such as the species farmers request from the community nursery.



Toolbox Page 63









I Analysis of Information


Partial analysis


If a team has been given responsibility for the analysis and are to present their results to
the larger community group, presenting the information in partly analyzed form can be
very effective.


The benefits of partial analysis are:

* the larger group has an opportunity to contribute to analysis;
* the results are validated by more people and will be more reliable;
* the analysis process is understood by more people.


2. Steps to
analysis of
information


Review the questions.

The questions generated before the information was gathered should be reviewed. Why
was this particular information necessary? What questions was it to answer? What kinds
of decisions are to be made based on this information?


It is common for people to work very hard planning for the information they need and
then, once the information is collected to not look back and renew their understanding of
the central issues and key questions.

Important results that were not anticipated should not, however, be ignored.
Sometimes putting information together will raise important, unforeseen and relevant
questions. These can be noted for future reference and pointed out in the
presentation of results.



Toolbox Page 64










, Chapter Six ,



Organize the information.

The mechanics of organizing information for analysis will vary according to the
thinking processes of different people. Sometimes it is best not to force a certain way
of thinking. On the other hand, there is a certain logic that can be followed.

* Gather together all relevant information that has been collected.

* If necessary, sort information into parts which belong together.

* Some may have already been analyzed. Some may be partly analyzed, and some
may need analysis.


Decide how to analyze information.
17 406
2_6 311
Analysis of parts may be 301 o--3
simply adding up numbers and 25
averaging them or I 1
comparing information to t0
examine the relationship of 3 1
one thing to another, or twb
things together.


Analysis can also take note of
similarities.


SoTH ne Se FRRir
ROW IN JAI. CLIMATES.


It can contrast information by
setting two things in
opposition so as to show the
differences.


ONE FPRU1T IS 1uI W,
THE OTHP. is SOUR.
TH OTHER IS soUR
ONa fUWrr 15 ROUMnD,
"HE 0THE R L.ONr


Toolbox Page 65









I Analysis of Information


It can relate pieces of
information to establish
relationships between them.


[a l TBE ARUIT3.


S'MESE ARE BOTH
10- C71B5LC FRIT.S.

r4iml


Analyze quantitative information.

It is likely that quantitative (numbers) information will be computer by hand, or with the
use of adding machines. Two straightforward ways to analyze information are Tally
Sheets and Summary Sheets.

Tally sheets are useful for summarizing information such as production figures, survival,
figures, and nursery sales. It is especially important to think carefully about the pieces of
information that, when paired, will answer the questions that were originally asked.

The tally sheet is an especially good way to analyze information when literacy is not
high. Sketches and/or symbols can be used to show the columns. When the tally sheet is
prepared at a meeting, or in a group, patterns emerge in a way which everyone can see.


CGET AIER.AGcS BY
ADDICT. HORIZKaVTALLY'
SfTfONS INATEATJEtE ft AND DI1vJ-o BY

PEOPLE 1W 8 3 2.
HOVS EHOLD


LAAJD
FAp EO >5 I 1I 3 1.5 4
LIVl"eSTOCK-,
co 2[-3 3 "- I 0 -
GTOAT 7 15 10 2- 6 3 2S 6
TREES T7AY-,EN
FAom 2 300 '0 160 25 1s 0 Io5 -7
SUR KE RY

INFOPRrAT ON FAMOm EAcH
NAE'/T2EEJ 15 FILLED oJ,/NWARD


V


Toolbox Page 66


Tally sheets


I I









Chapter Six ,


Summary sheets


To show information individually in order to see clearly the differences between
each piece of information, a Summary Sheet can be used. They are especially useful
for analyzing information from interviews.


Analyze qualitative information.

Analysis of qualitative (descriptive) information is a creative and critical process.
The way the information has been gathered will probably determine how it can best
be analyzed.

For example, if drawings of a community have been done at the beginning, middle
and end of the project, can be analyzed by presenting a series of drawings to a
number of individuals and asking them to:





* validate the drawings
(are they truly representative, "" ] T G -
and if not, why not). .."

* rate the difference (very good,
good, not very good). ,


Toolbox Page 67









i Analysis of Information


Integrate the information.

Putting the analyzed parts together in a way that tells the complete story can be done by
the team that has been assigned to gather and analyze information. Partial analysis can be
presented to the larger community group for completion.


Toolbox Page 68









Chapter Seven


1. The importance
of presenting
results.


PAME's focus on the community assures that the community and field staff benefit by
identifying, gathering and analyzing information. But, the job is not done until the results
are delivered to the intended audience, and decisions made.

Too often, valid, reliable, vitally important results are not used. This is not only a waste
of resources (information planning, gathering, and analysis) it also means that important
decisions are made without adequate information.

It is important that decision makers get the relevant information, and that the information
is received on time. It is also important that the results are presented in a way that is
understandable to the people for whom they are meant.


Toolbox Page 69









, Presentation of Results


2. Who will
receive the
results?


(A) Project
beneficiaries


(B) Community










(C) Other
communities








(D) Forestry staff


There are many potential information users. The community must decide who will
receive information.



SIndividuals or groups in the
:' community who have participated
directly in the project


Community members who have not'
directly participated, who may not
directly benefit from activities, but
who may be very interested in
knowing how things are going.






Communities nearby, within the
country or even outside the country
can benefit from the lessons and
experiences of others.






Field staff, project administrators,
country directors and staff from
other sectors will be interested in
the experience of the community.


Toolbox Page 70


, I













(E) National forestry
services


Chapter Seven 3



National forest services are interested
in community forestry development in
their country. They will be interested
in knowing collectively, or even
individually, how forestry activities
are doing.


(F) Donors











(G) General public











(H) Research
organizations


Government agencies,
non-government organizations
(NGOs), individual funders and other
development agencies working in
similar or related activities will be
interested in the results.





People within or outside the country
may be interested in the community's
experiences.









Researchers within or outside the
country will be interested in results
that help to focus their attention on
relevant research.


Toolbox Page 71









1I Presentation of Results


3. When and
where are
the results
needed?

4. How will
results be
presented?


Quantitative/
qualitative
results.




Information
gathering
tools used


The presentation of results can vary according the "users". In some cases it may not be
up to the community to prepare results in any form other than what is useful to them. If
results are required by others, it must be with the consent of the community. If a great deal
of time is required to prepare results for others, the community may have to be
compensated in some way. Whenever results leave the community, this should be done
with respect for the "owners" of the information, and their input should be acknowledged.

If outsiders request information, they should be prepared to provide resources for the
presentation and translate the information into a form that is understandable to them.
For example, the insiders might present results in the form of a popular drama.
If others outside the community also require the results: the drama could be taken to nearby
communities with outsiders supplying the transportation; the drama could be videotaped for
other countries, with outsiders supplying the necessary resources; the drama could be
photographed and tape-recorded to produce a slide/tape show, or video.


There may be time constraints that limit the ways that results can be presented. If results
are needed fairly quickly for a decision making the presentation may not be so elaborate




The way the results are presented will depend on: the kinds of information that have been
collected, (quantitative or qualitative); the information gathering tools that were used;
whether it is results from Participatory Assessment, Baseline, Monitoring or Evaluation;
and the resources that are available.

Quantitative results (numbers) are more easily presented in visual form, such as tables or
graphs, while qualitative results (descriptions) can make use of presentations such as
stories, case studies or dramas. Both types of information can be integrated for
presentation to complement and support each other. Think of a televised news story.
Quantitative information (numbers) are often reported alongside quotes or interviews to
effectively communicate a message.

The way to communicate results may be closely linked with the information gathering tools
that have been used. For example, if a Community Case Study (Tool 7) was done on the
management of a nearby natural forest, the case study could be presented in written form,
read aloud, or acted out for the community and video-taped and edited for distribution to a
wider audience.

If possible, the results should relate to the information gathering tool which has been used.
People are then familiar with it. For example, if Ranking, Rating and Sorting (Tool 10) was
used with picture cards, use these same picture cards when presenting the results.


Toolbox Page 72


I I









Chapter Seven ,


The methods that are used will have a bearing on how the results will be presented.
In some instances, the information may just be roughly analyzed to give immediate
information, and then stored for future use. In other cases, it may be more fully
analyzed and integrated.


Results of Participatory Assessment:


Results of Participatory Baseline:


Results of Participatory Monitoring:



Results of Participatory Evaluation:


are mainly for immediate use, but should be
documented and stored for future use.

may not have to be presented in a final form
until incorporated with evaluation results.

may be presented monthly, seasonally and/or
annually to the community. These may also
be incorporated with evaluation results.

evaluations are generally presented in
complete "story" form, where the "parts" have
been incorporated into the "whole", and
include both qualitative and quantitative
information.


I ~ K7x .Tai -~~~


Y;..
".--~" `'- y.- ~
;^-^" -rL
** ' .; *. *y;:i',^


-. "- -


The skills of the people, the time available to spend on preparing a presentation, and
access to resources such as cameras, tape recorders and paper will all have a bearing
on how the results can be presented.


Toolbox Page 73


Methods used


Resources
available









= Presentation of Results


5. Some guidelines
for presentation
of results.


Results should be
interesting

Results should be
understandable


Results should be
convincing


Results should
be timely


Use a form of communication that catches the attention of the audience.


Communicate in the language of the intended audience. This is not just a question of
Spanish, Swahili, French or Hindi, but also a question of "jargon ". Whenever possible
use common names which everyone understands.

The results should not be the opinions of only a few. It is important to present facts and
information verified by community members who were not involved in the process of
collection or analysis. Have as true a picture as possible.

In order to reach those who make decisions, results should be presented in time to
provide them with information before final decisions are made.


Results should be
participatory



Results should be
presented in aform
appropriate to the
audience


The community should decide what and how to communicate to other interested parties.
It is their story and it will be all the more powerful if they tell it in their own way.
There should, of course, also be room for the story of the project staff.


There are three main ways to present results:


Written Oral Visual


Reports Drama Photographs
Case Studies Tape Recordings Drawings
Community Newsletters Video.......... ....... Video
Slidetape................ Slidetape
Story-telling Cartoons

Graphics ......... ...... Graphics............... Graphics



Toolbox Page 74


I









Chapter Seven ,


6. Written
presentation of
results.


If a written report, case study or community newsletter is chosen to present results,
there are some things to consider. A Community Case Study can be used in the school
programme, or in adult literacy classes. It may be one of the few locally relevant reading
pieces. When presenting written results:

(a) Once you have identified your theme, stick to it.

(b) Identify the audience, then use imaginative language, introduce stories related to
local practice, things that will hold the readers interest.

(c) Identify the communication barriers that might exist between the writer and the
reader and be sensitive to them (language, jargon, sensitive issues).

(d) Include dialogue, quotes from people, illustrations. When people are described, they
should be not merely numbers, but mobile characters who are active decision makers,
people who question, adopt or share innovations. Pictoral reports of activities or
photographs will also add interest to written results.

(e) Be brief and easily readable. Use short sentences and clear writing.


Toolbox Page 75


I









, Presentation of Results


7. Visual
presentation
of results.


Tables


Visuals can present some results clearly and concisely. They can be used for written
reports, newspapers, slides, handouts at meetings, posters, and wall-charts.

Visuals help show information quickly, make written reports more interesting,
enhance important points in a report and present the total picture in a small space.

A number of visual presentations of results are possible: tables, graphs; histograms;
horizontal and vertical bar charts; pie charts; map charts; pictograms; and cartoons.
The choice will depend on the information that is to be presented and the intended
audience.

Choose the best method for the purpose. For example, graphs will show trends better
than a table, while bar charts are effective, when comparing differences between similar
information.

Organizing and listing information in a way which shows the relationships between the
information is called a table. Words and numbers are possible in tables. Plans, activities,
and statements of progress can be presented in a table. Numbers such as survival rates of
seedlings by species are also easily presented in a table. Tables which present only a few
items of information are most effective. Too much information may confuse the reader.


TITLE': SEEDLING

HOUSEHOLDS q- S
FAMl 5 9oo
ScHooLS '300
ComMUNITY 5-0


DISTRI BUTTON 1989 -1988
1985 1986 1987 1988
700 125I0 500 2600
2.340 :32.0 1800 ,05S0
660 72-0o 200 S50
900 z;-So -- 1230


Tables can easily be interpreted by people with low literacy if symbols and/or pictures
are used. This helps people to see, understand and remember the information.


TITLE: 5EELTJNCi DISTRTBUTION 198t 1989
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

0 ZS" -0 (250 5oo 2600


S qoo J30 37Z0 zo 100 o50o


3o0 660 72 200 Soo 5


Rl' to 2SO Pg le7
Tolo x00 o 950 1130



Toolbox Page 76


I J










Chapter Seven


When presenting able: i

1. Give-the table a*f.ilitle.
2. Lalbl -fthalle a*e fW'iPtrb
3. If syJtibols are Via
4. Listinformation. s W ~*asori -neW4
5. Include the day, -j4*p 1 ,sd ; m i.' 'a


Graphs organize items of information visually and draw lines or bars to show
relationships and comparisons. They can represent results clearly and effectively in a
small space. Graphs can show whether changes have occurred and when, so that
trends can be clearly seen.

WhIrBEA SEEDLINGS PLANlTED WTTH CROPS-1983- 11988

a o ooo

PLANTED 0
No oFgo \- /- - -4 -
unl CPOS 0 7T\
100



100
1983 Iq 1 198 asg6 1981 1q88
YEARS PLANTED


Graphs are also used to show different results or sets of information at the same time.



/IVr/BER SEEDLtIG5 PLANTED 1983-1988

1000 -- --T -- -- -
900---
No. OF 8oo
seEPL#&S S \ /.I



*. /*
S-0 0 CW ~S 60- -

to'o '/ / LN



--WOOLOTS t0 -- -
1983 198q 1985s 1986 1487 1989
Y-ARS PLANTED


Toolbox Page 77


Graphs


r I









I Presentation of Results


Limited and precise numerical information can be effectively presented with a histogram.
The horizontal scale shows the particular characteristic being presented, and the vertical
scale shows the frequency with which the characteristic occurs.
scale shows the frequency with which the characteristic occurs.


RISTO06AAI
looO?% ,


moqml4s jr1mmts I PtavH5 7YEARS 3"(ARs
SURVIVAL MEASURED AFTER.....


Results that can be presented in tables or graphs can also be presented in charts. Charts
are visual presentations that compare different items of information at the same time.
They are often easier to read than tables or graphs. There are a number of different charts:
vertical and horizontal, charts, bar charts, pie charts and map charts.


Toolbox Page 78


Histograms


Charts











Chapter Seven ,


Vertical and horizontal bar charts are useful to compare different items of information
at the same time. The length of each bar indicates the quantity that the bar represents.
Unlike histograms, bar charts have spaces between the bars.


VERTICAL BAP CHART


HO&RIOJTAL AR. CHART


Toolbox Page 79


Bar Charts


KOM oo
VAf bsoo.
SALES
of
5X15L : 30S
BASACT


t oo
W0


-24



4 W"

n ~i"Ai


I I









1 Presentation of Results I



To present information for comparison, pie charts are useful as they show the parts in
relation to the whole. A familiar round object such as an orange or fruit which is
easily separated into parts or segments can be used.

PIE CHA PT


To help people to understand fairly complex relationships map charts are useful.
By using different patterns or colours, it is possible to visually compare information.


Toolbox Page 80


Pie charts


Map charts







Chapter Seven


A pictogram is a type of bar chart that uses pictures or symbols to represent the
information. Each symbol may represents an item or a particular unit of information.


PICTOGA M S


/o (306o)T-0%-'evrEOU'WLD5
3/ / '4 OF HOuseHOLDS

/10 (30/4 Koi- sr:6N-os
6/10 -"onieriwi


It can be very effective to present information using cartoons, especially when the
information is descriptive. The audience should be familiar with cartooning.
It generally requires some skill to produce a good cartoon, but it is well worth it as
people often remember something that is interesting and amusing. Humor can also take
the edge off sensitive issues.


-WE HERDERS lwcRG AAGIRqy THAT w-r
HAD FEANceD OFP SOre FoRESr PREA
vJIn ouT FITsT TELLING TH1EM.


Toolbox Page 81


Pictograms


Ot8s


Cartoons


,,ca 15 7D A4 ftZ f9 f96
Lud *^ ^ ^<^ \ff @


IQV~a 6 a 6 6


~I










I -= Presentation of Results


Photographs


Good photographs which pertain to the subject can enhance any presentation.
If photographs were one of the information collection methods, they can be sorted and
labeled to support the message and they can be displayed for a larger audience


WErORE wE weDECAJ OUR WIEE RANTIUA1 WE
HAp ONLY A Fed TIIES ,WHEN WE LOOVIED
DOUJW lArTD THE VALLEY.


WESOLt THEM ISACIK TO OUR59'L.VE3 SO NOWj 4 YEPIRS AFTER WE 1SE6IAAN. WHEN
THAT VE couLO CONTTNVE VPKEEP ori W LOOa DOWUO ovUt VALLEY WV cEE
THE NURSERY. MANY TReS









Photographs can be put in protective albums and provide a visual documentation for the
community. The albums can also be shown to other communities during farmer to farmer
visits.


Toolbox Page 82


I I









Chapter Seven t


8. Oral
presentation
of results.


Drama, puppet theatre, story-telling, songs, and meetings can all be used to present
information in an interesting and understandable way. In a community with low literacy
and/or a story-telling culture, oral presentation with some visuals may be the most
appropriate method of presentation.

Oral presentations can be enhanced by combining them with visuals. For example, a
puppet theatre with the characters explaining the information by using a bar graph!

Written presentation (such as a case study) can be restructured and presented in the form
of a drama or puppet show.


Oral presentations can be tape-recorded and photographed. In this way results can be
presented to other communities (used as extension), or other interested groups. Video
presentations combine both oral and visual and are an effective way to present results.


Toolbox Page 83


I I









I 1 Presentation ofResults


Toolbox Page 84


alts soul W a w tod emaudiea6 inds 4Ol

*useful(^e\ 4 iN I -

. e-a,-S- P m?*- __Ee*_i; g_ t. *


I I









Section Three















SThe Tools


The tools of PAME are the instruments that are used to gather, synthesize, and analyse
information in a way that is appropriate and participatory.

The tools should be approached with an open mind; they may have to be adapted and
re-thought for each situation. Think of them as "ideas" to be developed to respond to
the field reality. Experiment with them to determine what will work, what will be more
participatory. Combine the tools in different ways. For example, use some of the
Ranking, Rating, and Sorting "games" to make Surveys more interesting. Combine a
Case Study with Popular Theatre or a Puppet Show.

Many of the tools work individually to gather and analyse information, while helping
develop communication skills. Drawing and Discussion is one example of such a tool.
Other tools are more specific, such as Survival Surveys.

All of the tools, because they are developed with and for the community, serve also as
extension and learning tools. Be flexible! If one tool is not working well, re-think it or
suggest another one.

Choosing the best tool for a situation is a unique and creative process. To assist in
narrowing the choices of appropriate tools from the wide range of possibilities offered,
some tips on determining which tool the community might find most useful are discussed
in Chapter Eight, along with a list of the main characteristics of tools and some sampling
methods.

Chapter Eight presents the tools in a way which seeks to encourage creativity and
flexibility. The following descriptions are brief, as most are adaptations of tools with
which most field staff are familiar. There are methodological texts for many of these
tools and the following is not a substitute for more detailed instruction on sample
selection, sample size, or research design. This description is focused on how the tools
may be or may have been adapted to strengthen local participation.


Enjoy the tools! PAME should be an exciting, dynamic learning experience for everybody.









Chapter Eight


1. Some guidelines
for choosing the
most appropriate
tool for a
community.


Watch and listen


Observe


Reflect


Become aware of how community members think and communicate information.
This will give clues as to what tools might work best For example, ask a number of
people directions to the nekt village, and observe the ways they relay this information.
People from some cultures may draw a map on the ground. This could mean that
visual tools would work best for them. People from other cultures may give instructions
such as "go 17 kilometers down the road then turn left". These people may be
comfortable with the written tools.

A third culture might respond: "Go to the village market, and when you see the coal
merchant's store, go down the road beside it until you come to a leaning tree with a large
branch hanging down. There are two roads there. Take the one which has two
tracks." People from this community might find the story-telling and drama tools the
most appropriate.

Do they have books and magazines in their homes? Do they have pictures decorating
their homes? Do they use symbols to decorate their implements? These kinds of
observations will give clues as to which communication type (written, oral or visual) is
basic to the community.

Ask how information is relayed around the community. Is it exclusively by
word-of-mouth ? Are there newspapers? Posters?

Think about which extension efforts have worked well (or not so well) in the community
in the past.

Knowing which methods of communication are most commonly used in a community
will help the field worker to "short list" tools that are likely to work in a particular
setting. From this "short list" the community can choose.


Toolbox Page 87









I1 The Tools and How to Use Them ,



The following list shows the main characteristics of tools (visual, oral or written).
Each (.) is the value of the tool within each characteristic. For example, meetings
have value to all characteristics, but mainly in the oral category.



2. An overview
of the tools. Tool Visual Oral Written

1. Group Meetings **** *
2. Drawing/Discussion *** ** *
3. Murals/Posters *****
4. Flannel Boards *** *
5. Open-ended Stories *****
6. Unserialized Posters **** **
7. Community Case Study **** **
8. Historical Mapping *** *0
9. Semi-structured Interviews **** **
10. Ranking, Rating, Sorting **** **
11. Community Environmental ** ** **
Assessment
12. Survival Surveys *** ***
13. Participatory Action Research ** ** **
14. Maps and Mapping *** *
15. Farmer's Own Records *** ***
16. Nursery Record Books *** ***
17. Community Financial.Accounts *** ***
18. S.W.O.L. Analysis **** *
19. Popular Theatre *** **
20. Puppet Theatre *** ***
21. Community Directed **** **
Visual Images

22. Community Directed ******
Tape Recordings
23. Community Directed Video *** ***


Toolbox Page 88












Chapter Eight i


3. Sampling
methods.



Systematic sampling


Simple random
sampling




Stratified random
sampling



Cluster sampling




Multi-stage
random sampling






Quota sampling







4. Sample
size


When collecting some kinds of information it is important to choose the sample
(usually the people from whom you are going to obtain information) that will provide
the most accurate information. If statistically valid information is required, rather than
"a pretty good idea", it is best to get assistance with sampling methods.

Every person/house/seedling, etc. is given a number. Then every fifth, tenth, etc.
person/house/seedling is chosen for the sample, until the required sample size is obtained.

Where records or lists of people/households/seedlings exist, a certain number of them can
be chosen using a random sampling method. Assign each sample a number. Put all
the assigned numbers of the people/households/seedlings in a basket and pick (without
looking!) one by one, from the basket until the desired sample size is obtained. Random
sampling methods are used to reduce bias.

Groups or strata of the population of people/households/seedlings are separated (for
example people with land and landless people/large households and small households/
fruit tree species of seedlings and fuelwood species). Then each group/strata is treated as'
a separate case, and a sample established for each group/strata.

People/households/seedlings are chosen in groups or clusters and not on an individual
basis. For example, a particularly dry area with poor growing conditions might provide
one "cluster", while an area with rich soil and higher rainfall might provide another
"cluster". Within each "cluster" a random sampling method is used.

Samples are selected using simple random sampling, but at different times or stages.
For example, one stage may be 100 farms. A random sample would be chosen from
these 100 (it would be 15). The next stage would be seedlings planted. On these 15
farms there are 15,000 seedlings planted. A sample of seedlings would be 750 (5%),
or 50 seedlings from each of the 15 households. Another sampling method (every 10th
seedling in the field) can be used for each farm surveyed, so that there will be as little
bias as possible in choosing which seedling to "survey".

A certain number of samples (people/households/seedlings) or quota are required.
The person taking the information goes out looking for information, and stops when
the quota is reached. For example, going to the market and questioning people who are
willing to talk until the necessary quota has been completed. This method relies on
personal judgement, such as who is willing to talk and who is at the market
The information can thus be biased.

The following tables can help you to decide the sample size that is needed.


Total Sample Suggested Sample Percentage

100 15 15%
200 20 10%
500 50 10%
1000 50 5%




Toolbox Page 89


I I









Si The Tools and How to Use Them



Group Meetings W ao


Tool 1


Tool description








Purpose of the tool







Major benefits


A meeting is a coming together of people for a specific purpose. The meeting can
involve a large number of people, or a smaller (under 10) number of people who focus
on a specific problem or purpose. Meetings generally have a facilitator who encourages
two-way communication. Smaller focus group meetings can be made up of people with
common concerns (women, herders, people who are poor) and can speak comfortably
together, share common problems and a common purpose. The outputs from focus
group meetings can be presented to larger group meetings, giving a "voice" to those
in the community who are unable to speak up in a larger meeting.

* Give and receive information
* Discuss issues of relevance to the community
* Receive community agreement on an issue
* Help identify problems and solutions
* Plan activities and negotiate conflicts
* Validate evaluation results and formulate recommendations


A large number of people can be reached in a relatively short period of time.


Meetings are usually the first and most consistent exposure of the project
staff to the community as a whole. It may very well be here that the
cohesion and trust of the community is gained.

Community meetings with open invitations can mean that all those who
wish to participate may do so.

Focus groups meetings can bring together those who have a particular
problem; those who cannot speak up at large meetings (such as women or
minority groups) or those who are peripherally involved, such as nomadic
herders.


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