-- )1 ----11~11~%%
A TRAINERS' MANUAL VOLUME I
How to Conduct a Workshop to Integrate Gender
Considerations into Development Programming
This document was prepared by The MayaTech Corporation under Contract Number PDC4O00-C-
009021-00 with the U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Program and Poliqy
Coordination, Oflce of Women in Development. The views and interpretations in this publicto
should not be attributed to the Agency for International Development or to any individual ating o la.
Note: The United States Agency for International Development was reorganized in 1991. The Office of
Women in Development is now in the Bureau for Research and Development (R&D/WID), rather than
in the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination.
Ilr ~r- ~ 1
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A TRAINERS' MANUAL VOLUME I
How to Conduct a Workshop to Integrate Gender
Considerations into Development Planning
The MayaTech Corporation
Silver Spring, MD
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Research and Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
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List of Acronyms
Premises, Manual Overview, Training Organization
Workshop Goal and Objectives
Sample Workshop Schedule and Session Time Summary
WORKSHOP SESSION DESIGNS
Session 1: Workshop Orientation
Session 2: Exploring the Issues
Session 3: Gender Analysis and the Gender Information Framework
Session 4: Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Women's Participation
Session 5: Project Design and the GIF
Session 6: Individual Application
Session 7: Data Gathering
Session 8: Policy and Gender
Session 9: Planning for Action
Session 10: Workshop Summary, Evaluation, and Closure
Workshop Planning and Preparation
Sample Pre-Workshop Package
Sample Workshop Evaluation Forms
r ii eLT I r-l C- C I
A.I.D. was among the first donor agencies to recognize the central role of women in economic and social
development. Its legislation and policy guidance on women in development have served as models to others.
Because development implies change, implementing A.I.D. WID Policy and operationalizing Congressional
mandates involves managing a change process intended to result in sustainable economic and social growth. A
key aspect of this process has been the Office of Women in Development's training program.
The training program is dynamic and evolving; it seeks to increase men's and women's awareness of, knowledge
about and skills and motivation to address gender issues in all A.I.D. policies, programs, and projects. Early
emphasis was placed on the awareness aspect of the training goals, but, because we live in a dynamic world and
because early training efforts have, in a real sense, "succeeded", awareness building is less of an issue today. The
A.I.D. development professional now requires greater technical depth and skill-building.
Another change is taking place. While the primary training "client" group has been and continues to be the
A.I.D. development professional in both Washington, D.C. and in the field, there is a growing need to include
the private sector contractor and, especially, the Host Country Counterpart in training activities. The richness
derived from the inclusion of a mix of people in a training event is accompanied by an increased complexity
(training must be delivered in other languages, for example) and accompanying cost. But without such a change,
the training will be less relevant and, certainly, the results will not be sustainable in the long run.
This said, the trainers' manual presented here is the result of four years of intensive work. The manual falls
somewhere in the middle of a spectrum that begins with pure sensitization or awareness building, and goes all
the way to technical training on incorporating gender considerations in a course for agronomists, soil scientists,
and private enterprise or credit specialists. It seeks to bring the participants into greater awareness about why
gender must be a key variable in their work, provides them with an opportunity to share and gain technical
knowledge about gender and women in development, and allows them to work on some initial skill practice in
gender analysis and strategy design.
The users of the manual are encouraged to cut, paste, toss and redesign to make the contents fit their own needs.
It is our hope that this publication can save some of the effort, time, and money needed to design and deliver
training in Gender Considerations in Development; that users can profit from our struggles, learning and
mistakes; and that the manual be used, as appropriate, to further include people, women, men, boys and girls
as necessary participants in, contributors to, and beneficiaries of sustainable, effective economic and social
Office of Women in Development
This manual reflects the experiences and contributions of many people:
the staff of the Office of Women in Development, who have the mission and mandate to
institutionalize the importance of systematic and equitable inclusion of women in A.I.D.'s
development policies, goals, and processes. Special appreciation is due the PPC/WID staff,
especially Ms. Kay Davies, former Director of PPC/WID, and Mr. Ron Grosz, Project Officer,
who provided continual encouragement, support, and challenge in the development of these
the many A.I.D. staff persons, both in the Washington office and in the Missions outside the
United States, who gave generously of their time, insights, and suggestions.
Women in Development professionals from other agencies, private voluntary organizations
(PVOs), foundations, and independent consultants/trainers who were most helpful in sharing
their experience and vision as we were gathering data in the development of this training manual.
the more than 400 individuals from A.I.D. Regional Bureaus and missions and other
development agencies who participated in A.I.D.- sponsored WID workshops.
the women in developing countries who refuse to be invisible and underutilized in development
strategies and their implementation.
Staff of The MayaTech Corporation prepared this document, which updates a training manual initially developed
by Mr. Al Rollins and Ms. Virginia Hubbs, in collaboration with Mr. Ron Grosz (PPC/WID), under a separate
contract. Ms. Hubbs, Mr. Rollins, and Mr. Grosz provided the technical expertise for this document as well,
with additional assistance from Ms. Barbara Howald. Ms. Cheryle Buggs blended knowledge, styles, and
graphics. Ms. Kettly Paul and her word processing staff skillfully and willingly responded to requests for
additions and changes.
While we are thankful to all who contributed to this manual, responsibility for its accuracy and tenor rests with
The MayaTech Corporation.
Jean-Marie B. Mayas, Ph.D.
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LIST OF ACRONYMS
A.I.D. Agency for International Development
AP Action Plan
CDIE Center for Development Information and Evaluation
CDSS Country Development Strategy Statement
CPSP Country Program Strategic Plan
FSN Foreign Service National
GENESYS Gender in Economic and Social Systems
GIF Gender Information Framework
HCN Host Country National
NGO Non-governmental Organization
PID Project Identification Document
PP Project Paper
PPC Program and Policy Coordination (Bureau for)
PVO Private and Voluntary Organization
RD Research and Development (Bureau for)
WID Women in Development
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This manual is a guide to the design and implementation of workshops on inclusion of gender
issues in U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) projects and programs.
Commissioned by the Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination's Office of Women in
Development (PPC/WID), it describes a workshop that will increase awareness of, information
about, and skills for addressing gender issues in development programming. The manual derives
from more than three years' experience by PPC/WID and its agents supporting development
professionals in following A.I.D.'s Women in Development (WID) policies and Congressional
mandates, and in designing and implementing more effective development programs and projects.
The manual's target audience is the cadre of training specialists working within or for A.I.D. who
need additional knowledge and/or frameworks in order to assist A.I.D. personnel to better
integrate gender considerations in development activities. (A companion manual, Volume II,
is designed to assist development professionals in non-governmental organizations to provide
effective training in the incorporation of gender considerations into their development programs
and projects.) It can also be of assistance to trainers from other organizations. The extensive
information on workshop logistics, introductions to individual sessions, pre-workshop
organization, flip charts, and the other myriad details of a training workshop permits its use by
those with very limited training experience, as well as by trainers with long-term involvement in
training in gender issues.
PREMISES Several premises underlie the development of this manual:
Gender is an important factor for planning and implementing successful development projects
and programs. This statement reflects a shift in PPC/WID's emphasis from incorporating
"women" into development activities to an emphasis on the incorporation of "gender
considerations" issues relating to men's and women's roles and responsibilities into
development programming. The new focus has emerged from research and evaluations which
indicate that A.I.D.'s programs and projects are more likely to achieve both their immediate
purposes and their long-term socio-economic goals if they match resources to men's and women's
roles and responsibilities. (For further discussion, see "What WID is/is Not," listed under PART
THREE: Resource Documents.)
> Training should address both the developmental context and the A.I.D. institutional aspects
of gender. Thus, the training design described in this manual interweaves gender considerations
as a factor in the development situation to be addressed with suggestions and practice on where
gender considerations should be reflected in A.I.D. programming processes and documentation:
in Scopes of Work or Project Papers, for example.
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> Participants bring considerable experience and wisdom to the workshops. The workshop
sessions are designed not to be prescriptive about incorporating gender considerations but rather
as tools for problem-solving. They also assist participants to ask appropriate questions, to check
their assumptions, and to come up with their own answers. This is an experiential training
design, heavily weighted toward participation rather than expert presentation.
P Finally, it should be noted that the workshop described in this manual focuses on increasing
awareness and knowledge of gender issues. This focus reflects the audience for whom the
training was originally designed. However, "the world according to WID" is evolving rapidly, and
PPC/WID is increasingly requested to provide not just awareness and knowledge training, but
skill training, as well. Such training can come about as part of a technical consultation process;
it will be available on a wider scale when the design of an advanced workshop on gender
considerations, now in process, is completed.
The training design in this manual calls for an optimal participant population of 20 and not more
than 40 persons. The training group size enables:
1) the building of an actively involved, participatory
2) individual, small group, and total community exercises
with adequate reporting time and discussion; and
3) individual problem solving and action planning work
with staff consultation.
Adjustments may be made in this number under different goals and objectives and with
appropriate training staff adjustments. Experience has demonstrated that careful needs
assessments of the participants and the organization before the training are necessary for
MANUAL WORKSHOP GOAL AND SCHEDULE At the end of this section, the reader will find
OVERVIEW the workshop goal, a summary schedule, and detailed timing for a three-day
workshop. Detailed timing for each session is also presented within the individual session
INDIVIDUAL SESSION DESCRIPTIONS use the format outlined on the following page. A
common thread through the sessions is the Gender Information Framework (GIF), which was
designed for A.LD. as a tool for addressing gender issues in A.I.D.'s programming. The GIF
includes guidelines for gender analysis and incorporation of gender issues into four major AI.D.
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of the session.
for the entire session. Some sessions feature timing for each
small activity in the session. These are recommendations for an
audience that is primarily native English speaking. Increase the
time if the participants include many non-native English-
speakers. Individual session timing should also take into account
Objectives describe the result of the training what the
participants should be able to do with what the session provides.
The theory underpinning the session, as well as the problems
which make the session necessary, are described here.
In some sessions, an overview will be included in the rationale.
This is a step-by-step description of the content and process to
be followed, with suggested times and specific instructions for
presentation, exercises, visual aids, and handouts.
* Prepared newsprint (such as for group task instructions) is set
off in boxes, labeled "NP."
> Presentation content is included in this section of the session
by trainers: This section will be found at the end of some
session descriptions. It will provide experience-based anecdotes
reflecting factors that affected the success of the session
Variations on sessions will occasionally be presented. Many
workshops have been conducted using the basic framework
presented here; some followed the format rather closely, while
others incorporated many variations in content, timing, and style.
Not all can be described in detail in this manual. However,
alternatives used successfully have been included.
A listing of prepared newsprint, handouts, equipment, and
supplies necessary during the session.
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TRAINING WORKSHOP PLANNING and preparation information, including a task list for
ORGANIZATION planning WID training workshops.
SAMPLE PRE-WORKSHOP PACKAGE Information and brief questionnaire mailed
to participants prior to the workshop. The questionnaire assesses their knowledge and
understanding of gender issues.
WORKSHOP EVALUATION FORMS Sample forms used in a number of different
RESOURCE DOCUMENTS Resources used by trainers in the preparation of sessions;
as background material for case examples; general WID theoretical material; sector
studies; handouts used in the course of the training and materials for a workshop Resource
A Resource Table, which is "fed" daily with reference material appropriate to the day's
sessions, is a popular feature with participants in these workshops. This is perhaps due
to the dearth of readily available material in the field on gender issues and due to
increased interest in gender issues which the workshop creates. The actual choice of
materials should reflect the makeup and experience of the group of participants -
intelligence that the training team needs to gather in the course of pre-workshop visits.
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WORKSHOP GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
To increase awareness of, knowledge about, motivation, and skills for incorporating gender
considerations into every stage of the A.I.D. development process.
OBJECTIVES At the end of the workshop, participants will:
Be able to relate the factors in the Gender Information Framework (GIF) to specific programs
Be able to use the GIF as a resource document to incorporate gender considerations into
development programs and projects;
Be able to identify and use information resources available within the host country and elsewhere
for effective design decisions incorporating gender;
Be aware of and able to apply strategies for incorporating gender considerations for programs
and projects; and
Be aware of types of linkages between gender considerations at the project, country, and
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SAMPLE WORKSHOP SCHEDULE
DAY ONE Session One
DAY TWO Session Four
DAY THREE Session Seven
Orientation (2 hours)
Exploring the Issues (1 hour, 40 minutes)
Gender Analysis and the Gender Information Framework (2 hours, 30
Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Women's Participation in
Development (1 hour, 10 minutes)
Project Design and the GIF (2 hours)
Individual Application (2 hours, 50 minutes)
Data Gathering (1 hour, 10 minutes)
Policy and Gender (2 hours)
Planning for Action (1 hour, 45 minutes)
Workshop Summary, Evaluation and Closure (1 hour, 15 minutes)
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SESSION TIME SUMMARY
EXPLORING THE ISSUES
Small Group Work
Small Group Reports
1 HOUR, 40 MINUTES
GENDER ANALYSIS AND THE GIF
Small Group Practice
Small Group Reports
Summary and Closure
2 HOURS, 30 MINUTES
.. II '-
STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME BARRIERS
PROJECT DESIGN AND THE GIF
Small Group Work 45
Small Group Reports 30
Small Group Task 90
1 HOUR, 10 MINUTES
2 HOURS, 50 MINUTES
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Small Group Exercise
POLICY AND GENDER
Large Group Practice
Small Group Exercise
1 HOUR, 10 MINUTES
PLANNING FOR ACTION
1 HOUR, 45 MINUTES
WORKSHOP SUMMARY, EVALUATION, AND CLOSURE
Workshop Summary 15
Workshop Evaluation 45
Closing Activity 15
TOTAL TIME 1 HOUR, 15 MINUTES
TOTAL WORKSHOP TIME
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18 HOURS, 20 MINUTES
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SESSION 1: WORKSHOP ORIENTATION
TIME 2 hours
OBJECTIVES By the end of the session, participants will be able to:
Describe the workshop goal, rationale, and procedures for working together, and
List their own, as well as organizers' and sponsors' expectations for the workshop. (These
objectives should be listed on newsprint as NP 1-1.)
RATIONALE The workshop begins with an official welcome and opening remarks by a senior USAID staff
person from the host A.I.D. mission. Strong and enthusiastic support from key leadership
assists greatly in setting a positive tone for the training to follow.
It is also important that the participants' expectations or learning goals for the workshop be
identified quickly and checked against the goals and objectives developed by the training staff.
This is especially important when attendance in the workshop may be involuntary and the
participants are unfamiliar with the training methodology. Expectations among participants may
vary considerably. Further, confused or conflicting expectations which are not clarified early in
the training can block or hinder learning.
AcrTIITIES 1. WELCOME (5 minutes) Official representatives of the host agency or country begin the
workshop with opening remarks of welcome. This person should introduce the lead trainer.
2. OPENING COMMENTS (30 minutes) PPC/WID staff (A.I.D./Washington) introduce
themselves and describe their expectations for the workshop. They also initiate the process of
broadening the definition of "women in development" from its historical association as an equity
issue to include the more recent concept of gender as an important factor for project success.
In this process, the PPC/WID representative begins to clarify some of the language and terms
which the participants will be hearing and using in the workshop during the next three days.
3. INTRODUCTIONS (30 minutes) The lead trainer continues by making additional greetings,
adding to the rationale described above, and briefly reviewing the Session Objectives (NP 1-1),
presented above and in the participants' notebooks.
The trainer asks participants to begin introducing themselves (in the large group), with the guide
(NP 1-2), which helps people to not drift and talk too much while introducing themselves.
I ~ I Im I I-al- II IIl III I I II
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NP 1-2 The rest of the trainers and the
> your name participants should introduce
themselves with the aid of the questions
your work (job title) on NP 1-2. It is important to keep
these introductions moving along
P where you work (A.I.D. smoothly and also to gently but firmly
bureau or office, other monitor the time for each person.
institution, country, etc.)
4. EXPECTATIONS (30 minutes) The trainer introduces this activity by noting that the
workshop has been designed using information gathered from a number of the participants'
colleagues, as well as from policies and procedures of A.I.D. in order to assist them in their
work. Note also that we need to check the goals of this workshop against their expectations to
determine which ones are most likely to be realized, and which are not.
Break large group into smaller groups of five people who don't know each other (or don't know
them well). Explain the task shown on NP 1-3.
During the small group discussion, the trainer can keep time for the groups, giving a 5-minute
time check. Call time in 15 minutes, and bring the large group to order. Participants should stay
where they are.
Record (perhaps with assistance from other team member) a couple of answers from each group
in turn on a sheet of newsprint, making sure that participants' exact words are used. Clarify
meaning where necessary. Keep the reporting as brief as possible, asking participants to omit
any expectations given in previous reports.
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Individually, note one or two
pieces of information that you don't want to leave without, or
> things that you want to make sure you're able to do, in order to better
incorporate gender considerations into your work.
In your group.
b Discuss everyone's responses;
w Select one member to be the recorder; make a group list of five
expectations from the discussion.
TIME ALLOTTED: 15 minutes
Continue from group to group until all expectations have been listed. List any additional
expectations not already listed. If necessary, on another sheet of newsprint, keep a running list
of terms which are unfamiliar to the entire group.
Normally, most of the participants' expectations will be met, especially if the invitations and
advance notices have been clear. The trainer should make notes during the reporting of any
expectations which may not be met within the workshop and note these during the next
Tell the groups that you will return to their listing of expectations after a review of the
Workshop Goals, Objectives and methodology. Keep their list clearly visible so that participants
can refer to it during the presentation of the workshop overview.
5. WORKSHOP OVERVIEW (20 minutes) Review with participants Workshop Goal,
Schedule (found at the beginning of this manual, NP 1-4 and NP 1-5, respectively; they should
be put on newsprint) and Workshop Norms (below: NP 1-6) on newsprint. Encourage questions
during this presentation to ensure that the information is clearly understood by the participants.
Questions also allow the trainers to expand on the brief statements on the charts, and to check
them against participants' expectations.
I Ir III
Note any expectations which you think will not be met in this workshop. Participants usually
accept the reality that some expectations will not be met when they are clear about it in the
beginning. Sometimes those expectations can be met outside the normal workshop structure and
schedule during meals, breaks or specially scheduled consultations with staff or other
participants. These should be noted as the participant's responsibility to implement.
METHODS Explain briefly the methodologies to be employed (e.g., presentations and
discussions in plenary sessions, questions and answers, individual and small group work, action
planning, case studies) and that this will be a participatory experience, with the emphasis on
learning by doing.
NORMS Present the list
appearing here (or one which
your team chooses) of workshop
WORKSHOP NORMS norms and add any which the
participants might suggest.
S attendance at all sessions Norms are ways of working and
start and end all sessions on learning together most
time effectively; they describe ways of
> active participation behaving that we can expect of
S one person speaks at a time both staff and participants.
> cooperation and competition
are both essential
S mutual respect, especially with
S have fun while working and
STAFF ROLES The trainer briefly describes staff roles. The trainer/facilitator is responsible
for designing and managing the process for the training activities to meet learners' needs. S/he
is an occasional expert and resource person, one who guides the learning process and sees
learning as learner-centered rather than teacher-centered.
The local coordinator/administrator role is responsible for all workshop logistics, including
liaison with management of the facility housing the participants and staff. All complaints or
suggestions regarding housing, meals, refreshments during breaks, supplies, etc. should be
directed to that support person for action.
LOGISTICS The local coordinator/administrator reviews the necessary logistics with the
participants and answers any questions or concerns they might have.
6. WRAP-UP (5 minutes) The trainer returns to the list of participant expectations as
promised at the beginning of this presentation and checks with the participants to determine if
there are any expectations which they, or the trainers, do not think can be met in this workshop
as described in the Overview. The trainer summarizes the opening Session's activities and
rationale, refers briefly to the next Session's agenda. A break follows.
TIME ALLOTIED TO SESSION Some participants have expressed reluctance to spend this
amount of time on orientation. Others have strongly affirmed the time spent in this session,
particularly if the participants do not know one another well, and especially if the participant
community includes Foreign Service Officers (FSOs, American) and Foreign Service Nationals
(FSNs, Host Country). In many cases, opportunities are limited for these diverse groups to work
together on development issues; therefore, this level of orientation provides the necessary
mechanism for participants to begin to do so.
OBSERVERS Some participants will request to be present as "attendees" or "observers,"
therefore free to come and go as their interest and schedule allow. This practice is disruptive
to the participant community and the workshop norms for learning. Therefore, participants are
urged strongly to come only as full participants, committed to the entire workshop design and
LIAISON WITH MISSION It is very important that the Mission Director meet the training and
support team as soon as feasible after their arrival in country, and that s/he, or a designated
representative, be briefed on the team's expectations for those opening remarks well before the
official opening session. It is also highly recommended that a representative of PPC/WID be
present for each of these training workshops.
NP 1-1 Session Objectives
NP 1-2 Introductions
NP 1-3 Individual/Group Task
NP 1-4 Workshop Goals
NP 1-5 Workshop Schedule
NP 1-6 Workshop Norms
Extra blank newsprint
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1 hour, 40 minutes
EXPLORING THE ISSUES
By the end of the session, participants will be able to:
* Describe A.I.D. policies and procedures for incorporating gender considerations in
development program/project design, implementation, and evaluation;
* Explain how consideration of gender issues affects project/program success and failure;
* Identify implications of gender issues in their own work or the country/sector development
activities in which they are involved. (These objectives should be listed on newsprint as
This session immediately pulls participants into the technical content of the workshop by
highlighting their own knowledge or experience in gender issues. Those participants who have
trouble connecting gender to their work get a chance to hear how it affects their colleagues'
work. The fact that this comes from other participants and not from trainers is important in that
those participants who are at all resistant to the trainers will listen a bit more readily to other
participants those in the trenches.
The second part of the session a presentation (followed by questions and answers) on A.I.D.
legislative and policy context is equally important. A.I.D./Washington mandates are sometimes
viewed skeptically and usually as harbingers of increased paperwork. This, plus the fact that
WID mandates are less well known or understood, makes it crucial that participants hear directly
from the WID Office exactly what the legislation and A.I.D. WID policy are. By the end of the
session, participants should be visibly more relaxed.
The first part of the session should be tailored explicitly to the training situation. Besides the
design included here, which has worked quite successfully, additional ideas can be found in the
VARIATIONS section at the end of this session.
ACTIVrTES 1. INTRODUCTION (5 minutes) In plenary session, the trainer reviews session objectives (NP
2-1) and activities.
2. SMALL GROUP WORK (30 minutes) Trainer helps participants to form small groups of
5 to 6 persons each: again, a mix of persons who know each other least well. Present the
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SMALL GROUP TASK
1) Discuss how gender affects your work
What has been your experience to date with gender
What constrains, and what facilitates your ability to
incorporate gender considerations into your work?
2) Be prepared to present a summary of your group's discussion and
findings in plenary session.
TIME ALLOTTED: 30 minutes
3. SMALL GROUP REPORTS AND DISCUSSION (30 minutes) For these reports, encourage
brief reports consisting of a summary of the groups' discussion and findings. The process of the
groups' explorations and their hearing others' responses to these questions is the important
element of the session. Trainer should help participants to see similarities and differences;
should comment on particularly telling bits of information generally: help the participants see
the connections between what they're saying and what the workshop is all about.
4. PPC/WID PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION (30 minutes) PPC/WID presents
information on WID legislation, as well as a summary of resources available from the WID
Office. Key points of the presentation follow. Some or all of them may be used according to
the objectives and length of the workshop, as well as experience and interest of the participants.
In any case, newsprint should be prepared with the key points to be covered (NP 2-3). The
presentation should be brief, as the discussion after the presentation always tends to be lively.
I I m~ir~a~as~~-~--~-- -~~ l& 1~~811~--~~---s~r CC~ I ~-
PPC/WID KEY POINTS
a How WID Has Changed
a WID Programming
a What WID Is
a Historical Perspective of WID
A 1988 WID Legislation
a PPC/WID Resources
4.1. HOW WID HAS CHANGED Women in Development has expanded from an issue concerned
primarily with equity to one which emphasizes understanding of gender roles and responsibilities as
important to effective development programming.
Women in Development (WID) began as an effort to address concerns that women were not
receiving benefits from development programs.
The emphasis has shifted from this equity approach to one which focuses on incorporating
"gender issues" into programs to increase their success potential. This is supported by a growing
body of literature. A key document is A.I.D.'s Center for Development Information and
Evaluation (CDIE) "Evaluation of AID's Experience with Women in Development: 1973-1985".
Its major finding was that projects matching program resources to men's and women's roles and
responsibilities were more likely to achieve both short- and long-term goals.
4.2. WID PROGRAMMING has changed over time from 1) women-specific projects, to 2) women's
components of larger projects, to 3) mainstream/women-integrated projects.
S Women-specific projects were developed initially to provide resources targeted to their particular
situations. Research, however, suggested that this tended to marginalize women.
S The next step was the design and implementation of women's components in larger projects.
However, still it appeared that women were not included in projects that they would affect and
be affected by, especially agricultural, private sector, and other economic development programs.
(Note, however, that women are perceived as primary beneficiaries of health and welfare
* The two aspects of this situation -- A.I.D.'s own evaluation (CDIE study) showing that gender
is an important consideration in development and the fact that women were still being excluded
from the larger share of development program resources -- pointed to the need to look at the
roles of men and women in all projects. The primary emphasis is now on analysis of gender
roles and responsibilities to ensure appropriate inclusion of women (and men) into mainstream
programs and projects.
4.3. WHAT WID IS Therefore, Women in Development is concerned with:
S Not just women, but people and their gender.
. Women not just as beneficiaries; women and men both need to be perceived as beneficiaries,
participants, and decision-makers.
S WID not as an issue concerned only with the protection of a vulnerable group; rather, WID is
concerned with the use and expansion of women's (and men's) experience, skills, and creativity.
* Women as representatives of half of the population, not a "special interest" group. Currently one
might say that most economic development projects are "men's projects," since women are so
rarely found in them.
4.4. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF WID in AI.D.'s institutional development:
> 1973: Percy Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act, calling for A.I.D. to work toward
increased participation of women in national economies.
' 1974: creation of Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID) in A.I.D.
*, 1982: A.I.D. Policy Paper written describing the agency's commitment and institutional policies
to further integration of women in its development programs. (Note: many of its components
were incorporated into the Foreign Assistance legislation of 1988.)
* 1987: External Evaluation of A.I.D.'s program to institutionalize women in development
considerations into programs. The evaluation found that little work was actually being done and
called for greater emphasis on training.
' 1988: Legislation passed specifying WID requirements for A.I.D. programs and related
documentation. Also, increased funds earmarked specifically for the WID Office.
, 1989: GENESYS contract signed; implementation of 1988 mandate carried out primarily through
HH a I nI U
4.5. 1988 WID LEGISLATION With the passage of this legislation, A.I.D. is required to:
S Collect sex-disaggregated data in all research or data gathering (evaluations, pre-project studies,
> Seek to increase participant training levels for women;
S Develop and implement a WID training program for A.I.D. staff;
b Ensure active involvement of senior level staff in decision-making activities on WID;
S Describe benefits and impediments to women's participation in all development
Report to Congress
4.6. PPC/WID RESOURCES The 1988 WID legislation provided financial incentives for increasing
incorporation of gender issues into programming. It created a matching fund for project design and
adaptation, training, and project-based research in field-related programs. These funds can be accessed
through the GENESYS program. (See "User's Guide," listed in the Resource Documents, for
information on PPC/WID resources and how to access them.)
5. WRAP-UP (5 minutes) Trainer elicits summary reflections from participants, makes transition
to the next session (GIF Session), and closes the session.
MOTIVATION In the earliest stages of this training, the assumption was that some participants
would be very positive about the focus on women's economic roles, which have been essentially
overlooked in the development process, while another significant proportion would be curious
and interested in what A.I.D./Washington (A.I.D./W) and PPC/WID have come up with now.
The remainder would have been told to come to this WID training, and were at best ignorant
about gender differential impacts in their work or worse, negative about the micro-management
from Congress and A.I.D. Washington. This assumption was essentially accurate in the early
stages of training. However, at the present writing, both the awareness of the need to consider
gender issues and more positive expectations for the training have increased noticeably.
Therefore, this session is one which may be shortened or dropped if necessary to fit a reduced
time allowance for Mission personnel.
AWARENESS BUILDING If the training needs assessment indicates limited awareness of
gender issues and/or active resistance to compliance with WID "mandates," this session becomes
1 II I- -- --.. II
more essential. It can provide, in this situation, an opportunity for both awareness-building and
also the expression of any negative feelings about the training content and process to surface.
Some common questions that have been raised in this session are:
What is "gender"? How do you consider gender?
Why do you use gender considerations rather than women in development?
Why do we need to stress the participation of women in the total process of
development planning and implementation?
How can I convince others (bosses, colleagues, host country ministers, contractors,
etc.) that gender considerations are important?
DIALOGUE BETWEEN PPC/WID AND PARTICIPANTS is often lively, resulting in a
tendency to overextend the time for questions and/or challenges. If this situation presents itself,
an intervention by the trainer might be to arrange time following the sessions on the second day
for an open conversation/consultation between the WID representative and interested
participants. This arrangement has proven to be of value to all parties.
VARIATIONS This session lends itself to a variety of approaches, which can be selected according to the
participants' experience and interests, as well as current A.I.D. policies and relevant legislation.
A few alternatives follow.
VARIATION 1: A half-hour slide video presentation (also available as a slide show) "Invisible
Women," developed by Susan Poats, and focusing on women's roles in agriculture around the
world, can be used to introduce gender as a development issue. The plenary or small group
work following can focus on specific factors (e.g., labor, income, access to/control of resources)
in the slide video, or on participant experience with the issues and concerns discussed in the
video. The slide video is available from PPC/WID.
VARIATION 2: For workshops in the field, a panel of host country resource persons describing
significant gender issues has been a very effective way to initiate discussion about gender as a
cross-cutting development issue. These resource persons can be identified by mission staff, by
training staff in their planning visit, and by other development professionals with specific
experience and contacts in the host country. The criteria for their selection are that they be
knowledgeable about development issues in their country and, specifically, the role of women
related to those issues, that they are willing to work with A.I.D. on these issues in the future, and
that they are willing to work with the training staff team in advance of the event. This latter
criterion is essential in integrating their presentation with the goals and objectives of the training,
and in assisting in the development of a supportive staff team. It is important that these resource
persons be approved and invited by the key mission staff in order to encourage full mission
ownership of their presentation, to further the process of their participation in the mission's
development planning and implementation, and to avoid any political or protocol errors.
I LI -- IC-PLC-~CI~~I --~LII~L
VARIATION 3: For groups with more experience in gender issues, the small group discussion
task might be revised to focus on broader issues related to gender in participants' work, while
still beginning with their own experience. For example, groups might be asked to discuss:
Implications for their own work
Relationship of gender to other issues in their work
m Influence of gender on the development process
Impact of gender on policy and project design
The trainer would begin the discussion by asking participants about their experience
incorporating gender considerations in their work, difficulties they have encountered, "successful"
activities and/or results, etc. This would be followed by the small group discussion of the above
It is important in this session to affirm any positive experiences of participants' "successful"
integration of gender concerns in their development activities and, if possible, briefly elicit some
verbal descriptions of key factors in those "successes."
MATERIALS Prepared NewsPrint:
NP 2-1 Session Objectives
NP 2-2 Small Group Task
NP 2-3 Key Points of PPC/WID Presentation
Additional blank newsprint
SESSION 3: GENDER ANALYSIS AND THE
GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK
TIME 2 hours, 30 minutes
OBJECTIVES By the end of the session, participants will be able to:
Use four key exploratory factors to draw conclusions about gender-differentiated
constraints to and opportunities for effective development programming.
Describe how the Gender Information Framework (GIF) can be a resource for
programming. (These objectives should be listed on newsprint as NP 3-1.)
RATIONALE This session lays the groundwork for participant understanding of "gender" as a cross-cutting
issue for all development activities, representing a shift in emphasis away from women in
development as primarily an equity issue. The analysis process presented and practiced in this
session is designed to illustrate how and why gender considerations affect project success.
The analytical framework is part of the larger Gender Information Framework, developed for
PPC/WID to be a guideline for incorporating gender issues into A.I.D.'s work. The Gender
Information Framework describes a process that begins with identification of gender-based
differences in a project/program situation. It then provides guidelines on how to use the results
of the analysis in A.I.D. programming documents. (Much of this information is based on
seminal work by Blumberg (Women and the Wealth and Well-Being of Nations) and Carloni
(Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience).
ACTIVITES 1. INTRODUCTION (5 minutes) Trainer summarizes morning activities and makes transition
to Session Three; reviews session objectives (NP 3-1).
2. TRAINER PRESENTATION (30 minutes) The trainer presents the elements of gender
analysis, using the talking points and examples featured in the following pages. This session
draws on research and trainer experience to describe how analyzing gender differences and
incorporation of conclusions about gender into programming can contribute to achievement of
project goals and objectives. This is a fairly detailed lecture; however, the style of the
presentation should be as participative as possible participants may want to add their own
BRIEF examples to illustrate the factors and key issues presented.
I II L -. ~P~P-s I_,_
2.1. INTRODUCTION TO GENDER ANALYSIS Gender analysis is a way to increase
understanding of the development situation we want to affect. A common assumption in
development planning is that the household is an appropriate unit of analysis, that household
members are undifferentiated in their incentives, abilities, and resources to both participate in
development programs and benefit from them. Researchers describe the household as an
"undifferentiated black box." However, evidence is mounting that this is not an accurate
reflection of the situation; providing project/program resources to the household without knowing
what is going on inside the household may reduce program effectiveness and lead to adverse
impact on some household members. This can be illustrated as below.
VIEWS OF THE HOUSEHOLD
T additional View
+ RESOURCES IMPROVED
With Gender Analysis
to M / F
M / F (and more
The initial research basis for this concept was A.LD.'s Evaluation of Women in Development:
A.I.D.'s Experience from 1973-85, which was conducted by the Center for Development
Information and Evaluation (CDIE, Report Number 18). The evaluation draws from a sample
of A.I.D. "mainstream projects"; that is, not women's projects, but typical projects, from four
sectors: agriculture, private sector development, natural resource management, and education.
The major finding of this CDIE evaluation is shown on NP 3-3 (next page).
This provided the initial impetus for
PPC/WID's emphasis on gender as an
"mainstream projects that ensure
s p t issue of effective development as well
women's participation in
as an issue of equity. On-going
proportion to their roles and
rpoi t thi e research and new project evaluations
responsibilities within the
responsibilities within the reaffirm this conclusion. (For
project's baseline situation are examples of relevant project
more likely to achieve their o
more lie to aiee their evaluations and research, see Resource
immediate purposes and their
immediate roses and eir Table document, "What happens when
broader socio-economic goals WID is/is not considered', which
than are projects that do not."
provides brief vignettes from specific
(Carloni, p. xiv) projects )
2.2. GENDER ANALYSIS: OVERVIEW OF KEY FACTORS Gender analysis is used to
identify the roles and responsibilities of men and women which could affect the design and
implementation of development programs. It is important at all levels of programming: from
people-level projects to overall country strategy development. The process of gender analysis
involves looking at four exploratory factors in the baseline situation (the situation the project
wants to affect). Analysis of these factors leads to conclusions about gender-differentiated
constraints to participation in, contribution to, and benefits from intended development activities.
It also identifies opportunities that gender-based roles and responsibilities provide for improving
project/program design. Important factors to consider in gender analysis are listed on NP 3-4.
FACTORS IN GENDER ANALYSIS
P Labor These factors are not mutually
o Income exclusive; on occasion they will overlap,
w Expenditures and not all will be important for all
Resources (access to and programming. In fact, some will be
control of) significant for specific kinds of projects.
However, it is important that each be
Conclusion-Drawing Factors assessed for its relevance to the project
Constraints under consideration.
- --- --- I Ir
It should also be noted that although gender analysis should be carried out for all levels of
programming, most of the examples used in the following factor descriptions will focus on
household level projects, where gender issues are often most easily identified.
The level of detail in gender analysis depends upon the project purpose. Development resources
are increasingly scarce; therefore, collection of data that are interesting but do not contribute
significantly to an understanding of what factors will affect project success is unwarranted.
2.3. GENDER ANALYSIS: EXPLORATORY FACTORS In this section, the first four factors
the Exploratory Factors are covered in more detail. Key issues to consider about each factor
will be presented, along with some of the research and evaluation results that illustrate why
and/or how this factor is important in project design/adaptation. The trainer should use the
following discussion of each exploratory factor, along with any of the examples provided for each.
A summary table of the four Exploratory Factors and their key issues appears in NP 3-5.
FACTORS KEY ISSUES
LABOR Who does what in
> Household activities
> Family enterprise activity
How does the division of labor change throughout the year
INCOME What are the primary sources of income?
Do the income sources vary during the year?
What inputs (credit, technical assistance, etc.) are used to earn
EXPENDITURES Do men and women have individual financial responsibilities?
Who pays what?
RESOURCES Who has access to and who controls resources such as labor,
income, education, training, credit, etc.?
LI I -LI I~ I II
EXPLORATORY FACTOR: LABOR
KEY ISSUE: Who does what in household activities; agricultural production, family enterprise
activity, extra income-earning activities?
This will often be the starting point of gender analysis: being aware of who does what in the
situation the project will affect. This information is often the first step in identifying the target
audience for a project; it is important to ensure that resources are targeted to the right
persons) to achieve project objectives.
For agricultural and natural resource management projects, planners will want to know the
division of labor among and within specific crops or natural resources: who is responsible for
rice, maize, vegetable production? Within crops, who plows, plants, weeds, fertilizes, stores, etc.?
Who uses the crops and for what purpose? This information will be followed through the
analysis to assess who controls the use of the crop, clarifying the relationship between
responsibility and benefits.
For enterprise development activities, is family labor included in enterprise accounts? Who is
responsible for bookkeeping; for cleaning and repairs; for product finishing and packaging; for
For projects that affect day-to-day activities, who is responsible for household activities? Women
usually have household and family responsibilities including fuel and water collection, food
preparation, child care responsibility, etc. This information needs to be considered, because new
activities for women in the form of "projects" often increase an often already overburdened work
CASE EXAMPLE: Northeast Thailand Rainfed Agricultural Development
The objective of this project was to increase rice production by the introduction
of power tillers and the use of a nitrogen-fixing crop. Individual farms were
to carry out their own trials of new technologies. Men were assumed to be
principal farmers and were trained to carry out crop trials. However, men had
outside income sources and were frequently away from the farm. Women were
not informed about the research even those whose husbands were present.
The project experienced problems: power tillers were not used and the
nitrogen-fixing crop was not planted. Also, some women, whose work would
increase because of the new trials, pressured their husbands to drop out.
i I Ir,----l
EXPLORATORY FACTOR: LABOR
KEY ISSUE: How does the division of labor change throughout the year (seasonality)?
Where male and female labor contributions for their own or community benefit are incorporated
into project design, knowledge of seasonal labor patterns by gender can be critical. This
information will be especially important for agricultural and natural resource management
EXPLORATORY FACTOR: INCOME
KEY ISSUE: What are the primary sources of income?
In most parts of the world, women have traditionally made significant contributions to family
income, either through cash earned, cash savings or self-provisioning, which represents family
income. Women's economic contributions to the household have been underacknowledged for
several reasons. Often coming in small amounts, women's income has sometimes been invisible.
In Peru, for example, early national census surveys identified 25-30% of women as economically
active. More recent surveys showed a sharp decline down to 6% which seemed unlikely in
the face of Peru's recession, inflation, and the need for more cash income.
CASE EXAMPLE: Agri-Business in Bolivia In a project to develop a citrus
canning factory in Latin America, planners discovered too late that women -
on whose labor they were counting for factory jobs worked in citrus groves
harvesting at the same time their labor was needed for processing. They were
unable to work in the canning factory, and the factory was unable to start on
time because of a labor shortage.
CASE EXAMPLE: Soil Conservation in Kenya This project to build soil
terraces to prevent soil erosion relied on women's voluntary labor for terrace
construction. Original project scheduling did not take into account women's
seasonal agricultural labor requirements; it scheduled soil terrace construction
for the traditional harvest time. The resulting labor bottleneck prevented
utilization of women's labor. The project came to a standstill until it was
redesigned to take into account labor availability. Women's labor contribution
to the project after the redesign was valued at over $2 million.
- r 3- I I -- I I
On reflection, researchers reviewed the census questionnaires. In earlier surveys, women had
been asked the question, "What did you do last week, last month, six months ago?" to identify
their occupation. In more recent census surveys, women were asked the question, "What is your
occupation?" Because of cultural norms which give higher status to households where women
do not work outside the home, women listed their occupation as "housewife," despite employment
in food processing, crafts, or other sectors.
Another reason cited for not taking women's income into account is that women are constrained,
often by culture, in their ability to respond to economic incentives. It is sometimes suggested that
efforts to increase men's income can be more cost effective. However, even women with very
strict cultural constraints may provide income to the family.
CASE EXAMPLE: Marketing by Nigerian Women in Seclusion It is
commonly assumed that Muslim Hausa women in Nigeria, many of whom live
in total seclusion, do not earn income. In fact, many women manage grain
distribution and sales networks from their homes using children and male
relatives. It is they who plan sales, design and manage marketing strategies,
keep records, etc.
As well, women are said to be less productive than men, though few studies have examined the
relative productivity rates of men and women. The most frequently cited study in this area was
carried out by Moock in Kenya. He noted that when men's educational, technological, credit,
informational and other advantages were factored out, women farm managers were at least as
productive as men and perhaps more so, having yields as high or higher than men with similar
levels of education and access/use of inputs. Results of a more recent study follow.
CASE EXAMPLE: Road Construction and Marketing in Cameroon In
Southern Cameroon, a road was built that connected a rural village to a larger
one with a bigger market where higher prices for fruits and vegetables could
be obtained. When road usage was evaluated, it was discovered that both men
and women had increased usage (and increased vegetable production).
However, more women already working 60 hours per week than men added
another several hours to their workweek, to carry their vegetables to the more
distant market to get higher prices offered there.
e -r I I
Because of the growing number of female-headed households, the rapid monetization of national
economies that require more cash for survival, and the increasing dependence on women's
income to survive economic adjustment programs, women's income is increasingly acknowledged.
Therefore projects/programs/policies designed to raise incomes need to assess gender differences
in ability to participate in project/program activities and to receive benefits; awareness of gender
considerations in such activities is also needed to avoid adverse impacts on female-headed
households. Consideration of this factor is especially important in private sector development
projects, as well as in agricultural projects.
EXPLORATORY FACTOR: INCOME
KEY ISSUE: Do income sources vary during the year?
Women's and men's incomes are not only derived from different sources, but in many cultures,
women's is more diverse and is earned throughout the year. Women typically obtain income
from handicrafts, processed food, sale of surplus vegetables/grains, seasonal wage labor the
production of which takes place at different times of the year.
Women's earnings are often the only available income during the "hungry" season before harvest,
and because this income is not tied to one source (one cash crop or a full-time job), it often
saves the family in times of drought or recession. Men's income, in contrast, is typically derived
from wage labor, employment, export crop agriculture, livestock, and/or other more formal
More and more women are entering the formal labor market, especially in export processing
zones where they work in fruit and vegetable packing/processing plants, textile factories, and
pharmaceutical firms. However, this kind of employment is still considerably less frequent for
women than men.
Knowledge of men's and women's income sources and how such income is obtained over
seasons is important for planning both macro and micro level strategies to increase incomes;
such knowledge is also important to avoid unintended adverse effects on a family member's
EXPLORATORY FACTOR: INCOME
KEY ISSUE: What inputs are used to earn income?
Input in this sense is not restricted to agricultural inputs such as fertilizer and pesticides; it also
includes credit, technical assistance, and other contributions to earned income.
Women and men generally have different levels of input usage, with women using far less. For
example, women and men generally have different levels of credit (women's credit is typically
in small amounts and obtained through informal networks). In agriculture, women typically use
I 1- ~ C IC ,
few purchased fertilizers, etc. In all economic endeavors, women usually have less access to
technical assistance. Because of this, in part, women's productivity appears to be less than men's.
Agricultural subsidies can have significantly different effects by gender. Subsidies, which are
often provided to promote export crop production, can lead to a decline in food crop production.
Women represent a high proportion of food crop producers. Surpluses are sold, providing a
significant source of income for them and their family -- albeit in small doses throughout the
Policies that promote export crops such as cotton and coffee by providing subsidies on fertilizers
or seeds, extension assistance or other incentives, may result in male household heads taking
away the wife's food producing fields for use in export crop production. This can increase her
labor requirements on his fields while decreasing her production. Ultimately, the woman's
income derived from surplus sales of her crops is decreased. Subsidies, then, need to be planned
with an understanding of potential impact on all family members' income both cash and in the
form of food for consumption. Agricultural research has similar gender considerations.
CASE EXAMPLE: Rice Research: More Rice, Less Income for Women A
rice research project in the Philippines resulted in new varieties that were fast
growing and early producers. Plant breeders did not explore other uses of the
rice plant. The husbands were given the proceeds from the rice crop.
Previously, women had made placemats and other crafts from the rice husks
and stalk With the new varieties, this residue disregarded by the researchers
was no longer useful for crafts, resulting in less off-season income for the
women in the family. While the family may have had more rice and the
husbands (or other male household head) may have had more income, net
family income was not necessarily greater.
EXPLORATORY FACTOR EXPENDITURES
KEY ISSUE: Do men and women have individual financial responsibilities? Who pays what?
Women and men have different expenditure patterns and financial responsibilities. In some
parts of the world, men and women have very separate purses, with each responsible for specific
household expenses. This factor is important in the design of projects that will affect family
income. It provides a broader perspective for the decision on a project or program's target
i I 3L--~L~ ~LIC~ I
Knowledge of family expenditure patterns will be very helpful in checking assumptions that
increasing one family member's income (sometimes at the expense of another member) will
benefit the family overall.
A common division of financial responsibilities is that men are responsible for house
building/repairs, livestock, land purchases, while women provide food (home grown or
purchased), pay school and medical fees: most of the day-to-day expenses. HOWEVER, this
varies widely among and within different cultures.
Research indicates that around the world women contribute a larger proportion of their income
to household expenses than do men. Women typically contribute 90-95% of their income to
family expenses, while men's contribution ranges from 45 to 75% of their income.
CASE EXAMPLE: Contributions to Household Income in South India In a
study of very poor agriculture households in South India, wives earned a
median income that was 55% of their mates'; they contributed an average of
93% of their mates' income to family expenses. This meant that their
contribution equaled 84% of their husbands'.
Increases in women's income have been closely correlated with increases in family well-being,
as measured by nutritional and educational status of children in some countries.
CASE EXAMPLE: Women's Gardens and Child Nutrition in India Another
study in South India found that mothers with gardens or income had better
nourished children than those who did not. The single largest contributor to
the child's nutrition was the presence of a home garden and produce distributed
by the mother. There was no positive increase in child nutrition as paternal
income rose, but increasing maternal income did benefit child nutrition. Data
indicated that resources under the mother's control was the most important
factor in level of child nutrition.
II a ---~11 111 1 -~~
CASE EXAMPLE: Male/Female Wage Increases and Child Nutrition in the
Philippines A longitudinal study of 800 rural Filipino households discovered
that as the wife's estimated wage rate rose, both she and her children did
relatively better in terms of intrahousehold allocation of calories; the male
household head typically had the largest allocation of calories in the household.
An inverse relationship was found between increases in the estimated wage of
a male household head and child nutrition.
An important aspect in gender differences is savings patterns, another form of expenditures.
Women as a rule do not deposit their savings in formal sector institutions, for reasons ranging
from lack of literacy, to deposit and withdrawal conditions, to minimum deposit requirements.
Instead, women tend to rely on savings associations such as tontines, burial societies, and other
forms of savings clubs, the objectives of which are very specific. Projects and programs which
look to mobilize savings (described as considerable) of either rural or urban people need to look
at the savings motivation and mechanism of the men and women savers before making
investment potential projections.
EXPLORATORY FACTOR: RESOURCES
KEY ISSUE: Who has access to and who controls resources needed to improve economic well-
"Resources" include land, labor, capital, information, education, technical assistance, and other
elements that lead to enhanced economic and social well-being.
"Access to" and "Control of resources have very different meanings and implications; access
refers to being able to use something but not establishing parameters for its use -- it can always
be taken away. The difference is in the decision-making power over usage.
Women and men often have different access to resources. This differential access affects their
ability to participate in and benefit from projects in a way that reflects their roles and
responsibilities. In many parts of the world, women do not control their own labor or income;
they are often unable to obtain credit without their husband's or another male family member's
signature. In some countries, women are required to have their husband's permission to obtain
contraception. Lack of access to information, credit, and other resources has limited women's
contribution to economic development on a broad scale and has affected project success.
I I --r L =--- -~CbS cl-LL-L
CASE EXAMPLE: Access to and Control of Project Resources in Guatemala
In Guatemala, three villages were involved in a vegetable contract growing
scheme. In two villages, women were expected to take time away from their
own income- generating and family activities to work on crops their husbands
had contracted to produce. In one village the cooperative coordinating the
project paid "household heads" for all family labor. Women received little of
the proceeds of their work, and yields were much lower than where women
were paid directly.
Women often have less access to education and one of the results is they are less likely to know
the national European languages or other languages spoken in the country. Therefore, extension
agents, credit program promotions, and other development-related activities are less accessible
to women. Men and women often have different channels for receiving information. Family
planning programs increasingly use commercial marketing techniques to match the contraceptive
information and distribution system with gender-based cultural values and channels for receiving
As noted earlier, access to land is often controlled by male household heads. Despite their
responsibility for providing food to the family, women may be allocated fields that are far away
and less fertile.
CASE EXAMPLE: Farming Systems Project in Rwanda In a Farming
Systems project in Rwanda, an agronomist working with farmers was
encouraged to tag soil samples to identify male and female fields. The
agronomist thought this was unnecessary, but finally agreed to do so. The
agronomist was surprised to discover that the women's fields were less fertile,
requiring different fertilizer recommendations from those for their male
-I -- -l-~rl i II I Ir
2.4. GENDER ANALYSIS: CONCLUSION-DRAWING FACTORS Gender analysis provides
the basis for conclusions about constraints to and opportunities for programming that result from
CONCLUSION-DRAWING FACTOR: CONSTRAINTS
KEY ISSUE: How are the constraints to participation in and/or benefits from a particular
project or program different for women than for men?
Based on the analysis of the male/female differences in gender analysis, programmers can draw
conclusions about gender-specific constraints relevant to a specific project or program.
Information from the baseline situation is synthesized and then used in formulating
recommendations for program or project design and adaptation. This process is carried on in
the context of project/program goals and purposes.
For example, in some efforts to provide credit for small businesses, it has been determined from
the assessment of sources of income that both males and females are involved in small-scale
manufacturing or trading. Project designers should, in these cases, review gender-specific
constraints to starting small businesses, such as collateral requirements or lending procedures.
In an attempt to increase food production by increasing land under cultivation, planners would
first identify the target audience for a program by identifying who does what in the situation. If
the primary food producers are female, project designers would then identify constraints specific
to women such as land ownership, access and control of labor, etc. This would enable planners
to design strategies to address those specific constraints.
CONCLUSION-DRAWING FACTOR: OPPORTUNITIES
KEY ISSUE: What opportunities for enhancing development programs are provided by gender-
specic roles and responsibilities?
Gender analysis can reveal information that increases opportunities for more effective project
planning. For example, knowledge of differences in men's and women's savings strategies can
indicate new ways to mobilize savings and thus establish stronger credit programs. Awareness
of how men and women receive information (e.g.,through newspapers, radio, at the health clinic)
can assist in designing effective information dissemination systems for family planning programs.
Knowing differences in constraints to mobility between and within towns can assist in designing
primary school programs that increase both male and female enrollment. Knowledge of intra-
household responsibility for seed selection for next year's planting provides an opportunity for
agricultural researchers to gain greater understanding of the drought-resistant, early maturing,
and disease-resistant characteristics of a particular plant variety.
2.5 SUMMARY OF PRESENTATION The trainer should finish the presentation with a brief
summary. The essential points to be stressed in the summary are:
---rll 11 a13
.......... .......... .....- II l l
S The four "Exploratory Factors" (labor, income, expenditures, resources) represent a
method for identifying at a general level gender-based roles and responsibilities. The
analysis is then used in project design and adaptation to draw conclusions about gender-
based constraints and opportunities in programming.
S Since no generic process can adequately address all situations, it may be necessary to add
a fifth factor, "Other," to this analytical framework.
Finally, note that other very useful frameworks exist for gender analysis. Some are more specific
to agriculture; others may be more helpful to non-governmental organizations. Sample
frameworks are included in the resource material listing (see Resource Documents).
3. SMALL GROUP PRACTICE (45 minutes) Most participants are ready for something active
at this point, and the case example allows them to manipulate the framework presented earlier.
The case used for this exercise should be a synthesis of a project paper, reduced to 2-3 pages and
supplemented with a very brief background piece on men's and women's roles in the country to
be affected by the project. The case should be an example from the country or region of the host
Mission; the project information for the case example is usually provided by PPC/WID and its
usage coordinated with the host mission or bureau.
Go over the small group task shown on NP 3-6 in plenary session, clarifying where necessary.
Trainers should then direct people into small groups of 5 to 6 people (definitely no more than
7 persons). Trainers should make sure that the group is well-mixed, by gender, by work location,
by age, by sector, etc. Group assignments can be made before the session starts, from
registration information, and the names posted with where they are to meet (i.e., which corner;
which break-out room...). Once participants are in their groups, trainers should circulate to
make sure that all participants are quite clear on the task It may take 15 minutes to get down
Remind the groups that they need to select a recorder/reporter. Tell participants not to spend
a lot of time looking for additional information. Note that as they carry out the gender analysis,
they should determine what additional data they would need to fully understand the gender
implications for this project
I I I-C- ' rl
SMALL GROUP TASK
1. Select a group leader and a recorder/reporter.
2. Read the project and background information.
3. Identify the men's and women's roles and responsibilities important to the
project, using the four Exploratory Factors.
4. Draw conclusions about constraints and opportunities for the project design.
5. List missing data.
3.2. SMALL GROUP REPORTS (45 minutes) It is important to hear from each group, though
repetition of the same reports from each of the six groups in plenary session will be
inappropriate, and generally boring. Therefore, the trainer managing this reporting should ask
for each group to report on one variable, along with their conclusions and recommendations.
If there are major differences in the reports made by the groups, explore the reasons in plenary.
Ask for reflections on the task and the information it has provided. Ask the group what specific
learning about the gender analysis process they can note. Finally, make the transition to the
last part of the session, which is the presentation of the Gender Information Framework. Note
that the gender analysis process has been institutionalized, and that there exist guidance materials
on the process.
4. PRESENTATION: THE GENDER INFORMATION FRAMEWORK (20 minutes) The
trainer presents A.LD.'s major tool used in gender analysis and programming: the Gender
Information Framework (GIF). While the GIF is available in three forms (as a book-size
document; in Executive Summary form; and in brochure form the "Pocket GIF"), participants
receive only the Executive Summary and the Pocket GIF. The first should be included in
participant notebooks, and the Pocket GIF should be distributed at the end of this session.
4.1. GIF STRUCTURE The GIF was developed specifically for A.I.D. as a tool for
facilitating the incorporation of gender issues into programming. The underlying premise, as
indicated by the previous exercise, is that gender is important. Sex-disaggregated data and
awareness of gender considerations in a project/program baseline situation are important for
appropriate matching of project resources to the situation to be affected.
I I I I~I I I I IIII I L I IIII I ll
The process outlined in the GIF has three steps the first two have just been practiced in the
.* Analyzing gender roles and responsibilities using the four exploratory factors;
S Drawing conclusions about gender issues in the baseline situation. Both this and the
above element are found in the "Gender Analysis Map" of the GIF.
* Incorporating information from the gender analysis into programs/projects. Guidelines
for how to use this information in programming are presented in the form of "Gender
Considerations" for four of A.I.D.'s programming documents: the Project Identification
Document (PID), Project Paper (PP), Country Development Strategy Statement (CDSS),
and Action Plan (AP).
The GIF also contains a "Summary of Guidelines for Document Review," which lists general
guidelines for incorporating gender in program documents.
4.2. "GENDER CONSIDERATIONS' SECTION OVERVIEW The trainer continues the
presentation of the GIF, moving to the section called "Gender Considerations."
The case example work just completed provided practice on the gender analysis process
described in the Gender Analysis Map. The Gender Considerations section provides information
specific to the process for preparation of A.I.D.'s major documents in the course of a project's
existence. This section was developed to follow A.I.D.'s handbook guidance for preparation of
the Project Identification Document (PID), Project Paper (PP), Country Development Strategy
Statement (CDSS), and Action Plan (AP). The trainer should make it very clear that this was
not designed as a checklist or as a set of requirements; rather that it is a tool designed to
stimulate thinking on gender issues at all stages of a project's life.
It should be noted that A.I.D. handbooks are revised regularly, so the GIF may not follow them
exactly. However, the Gender Considerations section does follow the general layout and issues
covered in programming documents.
The GIF reflects that fact that gender issues need to be considered throughout project
documents. While, historically, a WID paragraph has been incorporated into social analyses in
programming documents, legislation now requires each document to describe how women will
be included as participants, impediments to women's participation, and what steps will be taken
to deal with these impediments.
Finally, note that Therefore, gender is now to be included in the main body of the document
(inputs, outputs, budget, objectives, as appropriate, indicators, etc.), as well as in analytical
4.3. WHEN TO USE THE GIF The trainer should go through the GIF with the participants,
highlighting the following suggestions for each of the processes listed below:
The gender analysis process using the four exploratory and two conclusion-drawing factors should
be incorporated into country level planning, although at a much more general level. For
example, a country strategy should present a sex-disaggregated analysis of the labor force,
including the informal economy, agriculture sector assessments should review both male and
female roles as farm owners and laborers and other important issues for agricultural planning.
Assessments of opportunities for private sector development should supplement macro-economic
information with information on male and female enterprises (source of income) to provide a
more realistic picture of the development situation to be affected.
In terms of expenditures, an assessment of the numbers of female-headed households will deepen
understanding of the economic situation among low-income families.
Country assessments should include information on gender differences in access to and control
of resources such as education, training, or credit programs that A.I.D. assistance affects.
Gender analysis will be more specific at the project design level. Where data are not available,
data collection can be incorporated into pre-design studies or in collection of baseline data.
MONITORING AND EVALUATION
Monitoring and evaluation systems should be set up to collect sex-disaggregated data that will
enable identification of existing/potential areas of gender differences in project participation,
benefits, and unanticipated consequences.
5. SESSION SUMMARY AND CLOSURE (5 minutes) Close this session by asking the entire
group what additional reflections they have on the gender analysis process; what additional
learnings/generalizations they can make about the consideration of gender as an important
variable in the success of development projects and programs; what changes they can see
themselves making already in how they approach gender as a variable to consider. Re-emphasize
the utility of the GIF in every stage and document of the A.I.D. programming process. Check
to see whether objectives have been met, and bridge to the next session (Strategies).
COMMENTS USE OF THE PRESENTATION MATERIAL The examples in the gender analysis section
are just that: examples. It is probably more helpful if trainers can draw from their own
experience and reading to provide examples of how the factors in the gender analysis can affect
This session design has both strengths and weaknesses. First, some participants are interested
in being presented with specific data related to gender issues in development (vs. building from
their own experience). They begin the workshop anticipating a seminar format. However, as
was noted earlier, this workshop is experiential in nature, drawing considerably from participants'
With the presentation, this session provides the technical substance that participants are often
seeking. However, using a fairly long lecturette also presents some problems, because the
session often occurs immediately after lunch, when people are more ready for a nap than a
speech! The trainer may wish to use less of the presentation described here and draw more from
participant experience. This can be an effective way to open the group to their own knowledge
and wisdom. However, it also slows down the pace and may increase the frustration of some
participants at the lack of hard data provided by the workshop. Ultimately, it is a question of
trainer style and comfort and participant knowledge.
SESSION CLOSURE At the close of this Session, the trainer might wish to ask the large group
to list the four exploratory factors and two conclusion-drawing factors in project design, after
covering the newsprint. An oral evaluation would also be appropriate at the close of this session.
Trainer would ask for reflections on the training so far, about the content of the GIF, about the
pace and schedule, what has been most helpful, and suggestions to improve the workshop. One
of the training staff should be assigned to take notes of the evaluative comments for staff
NP 3-1 Session Objectives
NP 3-2 Views of the Household
NP 3-3 Carloni quote: A.I.D. WID Experience
NP 3-4 Factors in Gender Analysis
NP 3-5 Exploratory Factors & Key Issues
NP 3-6 GIF Small Group Task
Case examples for small group work
Pocket GIF Guides
Extra blank newsprint
-- ----I a--- -b -I r.
--- ,, .. . .. IIIIII
SESSION 4: STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME
BARRIERS TO WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION IN
TIME 1 hour, 10 minutes
OBJECTIVES By the end of this session, participants will be able to:
Identify project features that are frequent barriers to women's participation in
development projects; and
Create strategies to adapt mainstream sectoral projects so that key elements of the project
incorporate gender considerations. (These objectives should be listed on newsprint as
RATIONALE The emphasis in the workshop up until this point has been on GENDER, as opposed to
WOMEN; here, though, the focus is directly on WOMEN. Many participants come to the
workshop expecting to learn techniques they can use to get more women involved in their
projects, and this session offers them just such an opportunity. At this point, participants want
to start focusing on solutions, after having spent a relatively long time on analysis. It is a session
to work on how to incorporate women once a gender analysis has been carried out.
This session is based heavily on sections from the A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report, No. 18:
"Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973 1985, Vol. 1 Synthesis Paper," April 1987,
by Alice Stewart Carloni.
ACTIVITIES 1. INTRODUCTION (5 minutes) The trainer introduces the session by bridging from the
previous session on Gender Analysis; reviews the session objectives and activities. Note that the
focus of this session is on the adaptation of mainstream projects in both design and
implementation. The need to identify women-specific strategies (within a mainstream project)
can arise in a couple of ways:
S IN NEW PROJECTS: gender analysis of the baseline situation may indicate that women
will be affected by a project, can contribute to, should be included in project
activities/benefits, and face gender-related constraints. This session will suggest how to
approach constraints and identify strategies others have used successfully.
S IN EXISTING PROJECTS: A project seems to be having difficulty and gender may be
a factor, or monitoring or mid-project evaluations indicate gender issues may have been
. . . . i l l l i i 1 1 1 1 1, i i i ii i
overlooked and are affecting project implementation. This session will suggest how to
approach that situation and identify strategies others have used successfully.
Tell participants that they will be presented with common barriers to women's participation
(those identified in the Carloni paper), and that they will get a chance to work on project design
and adaptations to overcome common barriers.
2. PRESENTATION/DISCUSSION (1 hour) The trainer suggests a way of approaching the
question of appropriate inclusion of women into new or adapted project design. It is to respond
to the question appearing on NP 4-2:
Lack of direct access to intended
DESIGNING / ADAPTING PROJECTS
TO ENSURE WOMEN'S benefits, as seen in the case of
PARTICI ION Guatemala in the GIF session, for
example, can be a disincentive to
Participation in project activities.
Benefits obtained through a male
Household head may be insufficient to
have access to project resources?
encourage participation. Other
Si a examples from the GIF session can be
participate in activities?
recalled for participants, if necessary.
receive intended benefits?
control benefits received?
The trainer presents a list of specific project features to consider to ensure women are
appropriately incorporated into the project. The list is shown on NP 4-3 on the following page.
Information on each project feature follows, which should be supplemented by as many examples
as possible of each feature again, look to the GIF session for examples. Ask participants to
talk about their experiences with how these project features have affected project effectiveness.
Ask participants what strategies they have used to overcome the constraints these project features
may pose. Participants usually have many examples they like to share. (The page numbers after
each project feature on the following pages indicate the page in the Carloni report cited earlier.)
I __r -- I
Nf'^3 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ----- -- ----------------------------
PROJECT FEATURES TO CONSIDER
Choice of promotion strategy
Choice of technical packages
Timing and duration of activities
Location of project activities or services
Nature and distribution of benefits
CHOICE OF PROMOTION STRATEGY (p.51)
Promotion strategies need to take into account communication networks and language
differences. Because of limited mobility and less education, women are less likely to speak a
European or national language that must be learned in school. Women are therefore less able
to take advantage of programs, education, and services. Therefore, language requirements need
to be considered in outreach and training programs.
Women usually have different communication networks. While men may receive information
from newspapers, radios, or at men-only village meetings, women may give and receive
information at the clinic, the well, or alternate sources. To ensure that information about
resources or new technology is adequately disseminated, it is important to identify gender-specific
APPROPRIATENESS OF PROPOSED TECHNICAL PACKAGES (p.43)
Male and female roles and responsibilities frequently require different technical approaches to
development problems. Planners should ask: are technical packages applicable to all households
(both male- and female-headed) or only those with certain types of resources? Are technical
packages targeted for the person responsible for the activity and do they match that person's
resources? Are credit procedures appropriate for both men and women? Do education and
training curricula address productivity issues related to both men's and women's activities? Are
contraceptive packages appropriate to the financial, sanitation, and prevailing cultural norms for
men and women?
TIMING AND DURATION OF ACTIVITIES (p.50)
Women's time constraints differ from those of men because of their dual family and economic
roles and responsibilities, which are often intertwined. Project activities, such as training or
voluntary labor contributions, need to take into account women's daily and seasonal time
constraints. Training held during morning food preparation hours, for example, essentially
precludes the participation of many women.
OUTREACH OF EXISTING DELIVERY SYSTEMS (p.49)
Often women operate outside existing delivery systems. They frequently have less access to
outreach/extension agents. There are a variety of explanations for this situation, ranging from
cultural norms constraining contact between non-family males (extension agents) to lack of
information appropriate to their needs provided by the delivery system.
LOCATION OF PROJECT ACTIVITIES AND SERVICES (p.50)
Cultural norms often restrict the mobility of women. They are less likely to be able to travel
to distant training sites, clinics (including family planning clinics), village meetings to discuss
where water wells and schools should be placed, banks or financial services, and the other myriad
meetings and services development projects often provide.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA (p.42)
Eligibility criteria often preclude women's participation. English language requirements, for
example, can reduce the eligible pool of women candidates for long-term training, since fewer
women have had access to educational institutions where English is taught. Age limits on long-
term training programs may inadvertently restrict women's participation, since often they must
remain at home with their children. Credit programs that require land as collateral essentially
eliminate women's participation in many cultures. In some instances, the criteria are more
stringent than necessary and should be revised. For example, alternative forms of collateral
could be devised. Other options could provide pre-departure training that would enable women
to meet the requirements.
NATURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF BENEFITS (p.42)
Direct access to benefits affects incentives to participate. Where women are expected to
work/participate but receive few benefits, which has occurred in agriculture and natural resource
management projects, they are less likely to participate (no surprise here!).
3. WRAP-UP (5 minutes) Summarize the list of project features, and ask participants some of
the most notable learning of the session. Ask if and how participants can foresee putting any
of the session's learning into practice in their work. Bridge to the next session by noting how
the session just finished will help in the more in-depth view of project design. Distribute the
handout, "Project Design and Implementation Alternatives: Microenterprise, Housing, Vocational
Training and Agriculture."
VARIATIONS VARIATION 1: DISCUSSION (15 minutes) The trainer can select only 2-3 of the barriers
described in the presentation and facilitate a discussion of how such barriers could be overcome.
Encourage the participants to suggest examples from their or others' experience. This short
discussion models a small group task which follows.
SMALL GROUP TASK (30 minutes) The trainer helps participants to form groups of 5 or so
people per group. Present the following task on newsprint (NP 4-4, next page) and answer any
questions needed for clarification. Groups may use any project or activity from their experience:
a current one they have brought to work on; one used in earlier exercises, etc.
I I -
SMALL GROUP TASK
1. Select a recorder/reporter for the group.
2. Select a project/program/activity that has experienced difficulties in
3. Identify one or two barriers or constraints that affected women's participation.
4. Explore the nature of that constraint, and develop a strategy to reduce or
5. Prepare a summary of your group's work in plenary session.
TIME ALLOTTED: 30 minutes
SMALL GROUP REPORTS (15 minutes) With the limited time for reports, the trainer will
urge brief summaries of the groups' work, highlighting the barriers and the proposed strategies.
Continue with the wrap-up of the session as described in the main "Activities" section.
MATERIALS Prepared NewsPrint:
NP 4-1 Session Objectives
NP 4-2 Designing/Adapting Projects to Ensure Women's
NP 4-3 Project Features to Consider
NP 4-4 Small Group Task (for Variation)
Handout: "Project Design and Implementation Alternatives:
Microenterprise, Housing, Vocational Training and Agriculture"
Additional blank newsprint
II rl I II-I I
SESSION 5: PROJECT DESIGN AND THE GIF
TIME 2 hours (depends on participant numbers)
ORBECnTIV By the end of this session, participants will be able to:
Utilize the GIFs Gender Considerations in Design and Key Questions for a Project
Identification Document (PID) or other major A.I.D. project design document.
(This objective should appear on newsprint as NP 5-1.)
RATIONALE Earlier in the workshop, participants were given the chance to practice using the first part of the
GIF the "Gender Analysis Map." Here, participants practice using the "Gender Considerations
in Design" portion of the GIF. There are several A.I.D. documents featured in this portion, but
the Project Identification Document (PID) seems to be a good choice for this practice exercise,
since it begins the project development process in A.I.D.
This PID"...is a project concept paper that defines the problem to be addressed, and presents in
general terms a recommended approach, or potential approaches to the defined problem. It also
lays out the strategy for detailed project design." Further, the PID "...identifies what data are
needed, suggests what issues should be considered, and who should participate in the project
design." (GIF: Guidelines for Incorporating Gender Issues into A.I.D. Programming.) Clearly,
incorporation of gender variables and disaggregated data at this stage is critical for the eventual
project design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.
ACTIVIES 1. INTRODUCTION (5 minutes) The trainer introduces the session by bridging from the
previous session, and by noting that portions of the GIF (if they had not already noticed) had not
been practiced yet: the Gender Considerations in Design. This was because of the need to work
on other skills in the meanwhile. The trainer notes the objectives of the session, which appear
on NP 5-1, and gives an overview of the session's activities.
2. PRESENTATION (30 minutes) Trainer presents the Gender Considerations in Design for
a PID (next page), adding the Key Questions as needed and appropriate for the presentation.
In the course of the presentation, the trainer should check for clarity and understanding, and also
help participants to see how these PID gender considerations translate to project design
strategies for a Project Paper (PP). Also, it should be repeated here that the Gender
Considerations are not a checklist; they are questions and issues to consider in project design.
The trainer can excerpt key portions of the following Gender Considerations for use on newsprint (NP
5-2); or, participants can be asked to follow the presentation in their notebooks.
PROBLEM STATEMENT: Consider how gender affects social and economic
aspects of the problem to be addressed.
STATEMENT OF EXPECTED PROJECT ACHIEVEMENTS: Assess the
feasibility of achievement of objectives, given gender differences in roles and
responsibilities, as well as access to project resources and benefits.
OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT AND HOW IT WILL WORK
> Identify strategies that are appropriate to male and female roles and
responsibilities where the project will affect women's and men's activities.
Identify technical issues in the project design that will be affected by men's and
women's roles and responsibilities.
Review project components for consistency with the social and economic
organization of the activities the project will affect, as well as constraints and
opportunities entailed in that organization.
Include strategies to obtain sex-disaggregated data and feedback from both men
and women in project monitoring and evaluation systems where their activities will
be affected by the project.
FACTORS AFFECTING PROJECT SELECTION AND FURTHER
m Include known information about key gender variables in analysis of factors
affecting project activities.
Consider who benefits from the project and how they benefit.
Identify gender considerations related to ability to participate in project.
Assess differential impact of project by gender.
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS: Examine how proposed approach will affect
men's/women's economic roles and improve family well-being.
TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Assess the technical expertise and experience
of proposed recipient country implementing agency in reaching women; consider
developing such capacity as part of the project, if needed
BUDGET CONSIDERATIONS: Examine budget estimates for consistency with
needs and opportunities described in Social and Economic Consideration sections.
P Summarize sex-disaggregated needs for the PP or pre-PP study.
Indicate how such data will be collected and analyzed.
Recommend PP team composition necessary to ensure that gender issues are
3. SMALL GROUP WORK (45 minutes) The trainer organizes participants into small groups
of no more than six persons each. The task for the groups is to develop answers to the Gender
Considerations in Design's "Key Questions" for a sample PID (an edited version, of course). The
PID case example for the small group work, as well as the "Gender Considerations in Design"
and 'Key Questions' for the PID to follow, should have been distributed and read by participants
prior to the session. The trainer should explain the task while the participants are still in plenary
session, though it will probably be necessary to clarify for them, once they are in their groups.
The task is shown in NP 5-3. Trainers should circulate for consultation to the groups while
participants are working on the task.
SMALL GROUP TASK
1) Select a leader and recorder/reporter.
2) Review the task and review the PID case, if necessary.
3) Focus on Key questions for a PID, #1, 2, 3, 4, 9 and 10. Record the group's
answers on newsprint for later presentation in plenary session.
TIME ALLOTTED: 45 minutes
4. SMALL GROUP REPORTS (30 minutes) For this report-out, it is not necessary to get a
complete report from each group, but it will be important that each group's newsprint is
displayed in the training room where they are all clearly visible for easy comparison: preferably
The trainer should go over the questions in the task one by one, comparing the responses from
each of the groups for similarities and differences. It is important to stress that there are no
correct answers in this exercise. The discussion of similarities and differences in their analyses
and the familiarity with the process of asking the questions about where gender issues intervene
in the project development process in A.I.D. is far more important, especially given the time
limitations. The proposed strategy suggestions which are especially creative should be
highlighted in the discussion.
5. WRAP-UP (10 minutes) Ask participants to list any especially important learning to have
come from the session; follow up those learning by asking them if they can already see how
their own PID (or other project design work) can be improved. Ask for examples. Check for
achievement of session objectives, and close the session.
VARIATIONS VARIATION 1: The session could just as easily be done with PPs, CDSSs, or Action Plans,
since detailed "Gender Considerations in Design" issues and key questions are available. The
important thing is the practice which participants accomplish.
VARIATION 2: A "Clinic" or "Supermarket" approach to this session has also worked nicely,
especially when the group is large and diverse. Trainer preparation time increases, however.
Three of four edited documents of differing types can be prepared, including the CDSS and
others mentioned above, plus any other document type routinely used by any sub-set of
participants. Investment Proposals and Contractor Scopes of Work have been used successfully
in the past. Trainers need to create, if they do not already exist, key issues and questions for
i _--- ----- ------ I I~
geach type of document upon which the small groups can focus. A number of cases equal to the
number of trainers works well: each trainer can be responsible for the editing of one case, and
can work with one small group to clarify key questions and issues.
The cases still need to be handed out prior to the session. Participants can self-select into
groups and pick up the case the night before. Large sign-up sheets (with a finite number of
places, so as not to have too many people in any one group) can be posted alongside a pile of
cases for the group; participants can take a case when they sign up.
NP 5-1 Session Objectives
NP 5-2 PID Gender Considerations
NP 5-3 Small Group Task
GIF: Gender Considerations in Design (complete document)
Case: Sample PID/PP/CDSS
Additional blank newsprint
111 TI I' b ---
I IIIII r - IIIIIIIII I II- III III II3 ~ r
2 hours, 50 minutes
At the end of this session, participants will be able to:
* Describe the gender issues for the materials they have brought; List additional baseline
data needed; and Describe strategies for collecting the data.
* Help colleagues to identify project activities and outputs which should reflect gender
* Define in their own way basic criteria for distinguishing projects or programs which have
adequately considered gender from those which have not.
(These objectives should appear on newsprint as NP 6-1.)
After the previous sessions on gender analysis and incorporating gender into project design and
implementation, we look at the participants' own activities. Before coming to the workshop,
participants were asked to bring along with them something to work on: program materials,
project concept or designs, sections of or whole documents they're working on, anything which
they wished to analyze and adapt, if necessary, to integrate gender considerations more
effectively. The session, then, begins a series of exercises on the application (at a micro level)
of the skills and knowledge seen so far in the workshop.
The use of consultation trios (groups of three people, each one in turn receiving help from two
"consultants") provides a more structured way than just a large discussion to get everyone's issues
ACTIvrIIES 1. INTRODUCTION (15 minutes) Introduce the session using some of the notions in the
RATIONALE, above. Go through the objectives and schedule for the session, and move quickly
to the trio tasks, since this is where participants will take as much time as they can possibly get.
The primary task of the trainers in this session is to provide clear task instructions to the
individual participants and the consultation trios, assist the trios to manage their time carefully,
and provide assistance in gender considerations or other technical expertise when or if requested.
2. SMALL GROUP TASK (1 hour, 30 minutes) Present the task shown on NP 6-2, and clarify
where necessary. Get the task work started as quickly as possible.
APPLICATION: INDIVIDUAL AND TRIO TASKS
PART ONE0 Individually,
1. Clearly define the problem you wish to study;
gender differential issues
> additional baseline data needed
> strategies for accomplishing this
TIME ALLOTTED: 15 minutes
PART TWO: Identify two other persons to work with as your "consultants," and
what help you want from them. Go find a quiet place where you can discuss.
PART T In trios,
1. First person presents his/her analysis of questions 1 & 2 above, and states
the help he/she wants from the consultants. (10 minutes)
2. The two consultants respond, while first person takes appropriate notes
for later reference. (15 minutes)
3. The process gets repeated two more times, so that each person has
received help on his/her materials.
TIME ALLOTTED: 25 minutes EACH = 1 hr. 15 min. TOTAL
,,, L _~_- -I
2. REPORT-OUT OF SMALL GROUP WORK (60 minutes) Though one hour has been
allowed for this reporting time and discussion, it more commonly is reduced by demands for
additional time in the consultation trios. It is impossible, given these time limitations, to hear
from every individual, and it is not really necessary at this point, in any case. While participants
appreciate the chance for the one-on-one (two-on-one?) attention given their work in the trios,
some like and want even more input, which this report-out session provides. Trainers should
manage the discussion in order to keep attention focused not on critiquing individuals' work, but
on extracting the lessons which can be useful for all participants. These plenary sessions provide
yet another level of peer review and assistance which often results in a very rich discussion. This
is particularly true in mission-specific workshops.
3. WRAP-UP (5 minutes) Since the previous discussion revolves around the application of
workshop skills, and probably on some key issues in gender considerations, there is no need for
the trainer to spend a lot of time on generalization and application questions. A couple of
comments can be sought about the process of the session itself, though these should be kept
brief. The trainer should close the session by thanking all participants for the help they've
rendered as consultants; checking for achievement of session objectives; and noting how the next
session will continue in the application vein.
MATERIAS Prepared NewsPrint:
NP 6-1 Session Objectives
NP 6-2 Application: Individual and Trio Tasks
Additional blank newsprint
-I I I --e ----- ~-~---~---s~l
1 hour, 10 minutes
At the end of the session, participants will be able to:
* List methods and sources for gathering sex-disaggregated data needed for project design.
(This objective should be listed on newsprint as NP 7-1.)
This session has been designed to de-mystify the data needs required to incorporate gender issues
into development programs. Since congressionally-mandated requirements to collect sex-
disaggregated data can appear to be formidable,.this session is also designed to allay some of
the fear related to the level of data needed for effective gender analysis. Further, it provides
suggestions on how to identify and access existing data sources. As a short and rather
superficial review of data gathering methods, this session works best for participants with
minimal data analysis/research experience.
The session builds on the project design (PID) session's small group work, in that as part of the
small group exercise, participants were asked to identify additional data needs. That listing is
used as a starting point for the small group exercises in this session. In addition, the groups will
have an opportunity to network and find information sources in their own sector/country.
The primary information resource, in addition to the experience and skills of the trainer
presenting this material and the participants themselves, will be the prepared newsprint visuals
from Rapid. Low-Cost Data Collection Methods for A.I.D., AI.D. Program Design and
Evaluation Methodology Report No. 10, by Krishna Kumar, CDIE/A.LD., December 1987.
AClVITIES 1. INTRODUCTION (5 minutes) The trainer bridges from the last session on the Gender
Information Framework, and reminds participants that several of the groups identified bits of
information that were missing from the case. As is the case in "real life," the data available are
not as complete as one would have it. Introduce the objectives of the session, and note that the
trainers will be presenting a few new ideas for data resources, and that participants are counted
on to add to whatever suggestions the trainers may provide.
2. PRESENTATION (15 minutes) The trainer should touch on some of the remarks made
about data gathering in earlier sessions. The emphasis here will focus on gathering data at an
appropriate level of detail and cost for that stage in the process on which one is working. The
trainer should also emphasize that just because the data gathering process is a rapid one in some
cases, it does not automatically mean that it is less useful or reliable. Draw upon the data needs
identified in the PID session for examples of how each of these data gathering methods might
2.1. RAPID LOW-COST DATA COLLECTION METHODS
RAPID LOW-COST DATA COLLECTION
The trainer reviews each of the five
methods noted on NP 7-2, noting where
1. Key Informant Interviews they are particularly useful and where
they are inappropriate. The trainer can
2. Focus Group Interviews use the data needs identified in the
previous day's case example to
3. Community Interviews illustrate how these methods might
provide the needed data. Participants
4. Direct Observation can add their own experiences with
these kinds of methods.
5. Informal Surveys
KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS
Key informant interviews are most appropriate for gathering information about organizations
and institutions, cultural patterns, values, and beliefs, when general, descriptive information is
sufficient for decision-making. A useful tool for interpretation of quantitative data, they help
to answer the question, "why?', and provide information on motivations and attitudes that guide
people's behavior. Finally, key informant interviews are a mechanism for generating suggestions
and recommendations, as well as developing questions, hypotheses, and propositions for further
testing and refinement.
Skills and knowledge required include:
substantive knowledge of the subject and practical experience in order to frame questions
and have real interactive discussion;
knowledge of qualitative interview procedures;
I I I I III IIII I I
knowledge of local language to avoid loss of information through translation; and
good inter-personal communication skills.
Advantages: key informant interviews provide in-depth information, have the flexibility to enable
pursuit of issues and ideas not originally anticipated in project or survey designs, are relatively
inexpensive, and can be carried out quickly. Interviewer qualifications are also less demanding,
thereby making it easier to find people with the necessary skills.
Limitations: Because key informant interviews do not generate quantitative data, they cannot
be used when such quantitative data are required. The findings can be biased if key informants
are not carefully selected: key informants should include both women and men and people of all
relevant socio-economic and ethnic groupings. Similarly, interviewer biases are possible, and
criteria for selection of interviewers may need to reflect gender and socio-economic
characteristics of the various groups to be interviewed. Also, training of interviewers is key.
w FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS
Focus group interviews are most appropriate for gathering ideas and hypotheses for development
project or program design, including needs and requirements of the local populations,
appropriateness of the project, and potential strategies for implementation. They are useful in
assessing reactions to recommended project/program activities and explaining the responses of
the local populations to project or program activities (e.g., why it is or is not working). Finally,
they can be used to generate recommendations and suggestions for project adaptation.
Skills and knowledge required include
theoretical knowledge and practical experience with the topic to be investigated;
proficiency in the language of interviewees: focus groups cannot be conducted through an
training or experience in conducting group discussions.
Advantages: because they involve groups (vs. individuals), focus groups are a time-saving
information- gathering mechanism. They are also economical because they do not require a
large number of enumerators or lengthy periods in the field. They can reduce individual
inhibitions, providing interviewees security in numbers. As well, group interviews are often the
best way for male researchers to elicit women's opinions, especially in cultures where interaction
between unrelated males and females is restricted. Finally, focus groups generate fresh ideas
and insights because the participants stimulate each other.
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Limitations: as with key-informant interviews, focus group discussions cannot provide quantitative
data and are susceptible to the same kinds of interviewee and interviewer biases. Further,
discussions in focus groups can be dominated by a few participants with a perspective not shared
by others. This can result in a misleading impression about the range of viewpoints and degree
P COMMUNITY INTERVIEWS
Community interviews are most appropriate when village or community level data are needed
about the composition of the population, occupational patterns, and educational, medical, or
other service facilities. They also help to further understanding about community needs,
requirements, and expectations related to proposed development programs. Further, community
interviews are useful for assessing extent of local support for a specific project affecting the
community and for project/program evaluations.
Skills and knowledge required include:
both substantive knowledge of and practical experience in the subject;
S ability to converse in the local language; and
experience in conducting community interviews.
Advantages: community interviews enable direct interaction between project staff or researchers
and a large number of people in the target population, providing a mechanism for information
collection through both verbal responses and non-verbal behaviors. Community interviews can
generate some quantitative data through votes on specific issues and through tabulation of
comments and behaviors during the meeting. As with focus groups and key informant interviews,
representation by men and women and by various socio-economic and ethnic groupings at
community interviews is key to obtaining generalizable data. Because participants tend to
correct each other, community interviews improve the validity of the data. Finally, they are cost-
effective and provide data quickly.
Limitations: Community interviews are easily manipulated; often elites try to use them as a
mechanism for articulating their own perspectives. A few articulate people can monopolize the
discussion. Further, issues that can be discussed in individual interviews may not be pursued in
a community forum because of social and political inhibitions.
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> DIRECT OBSERVATION
Direct observation is most appropriate when trying to understand an ongoing behavior or
unfolding event (e.g., how decisions are made, how the clinic operates), when information about
physical infrastructure is required, when delivery systems or services offered by public and private
agencies are to be examined, and when preliminary, descriptive information is required.
Skills and knowledge required include:
specialized knowledge of the subject from various perspectives (e.g., agronomic,
organizational development, economic, women in development);
skills in field observation, especially for the study of socioeconomic phenomena and
knowledge of the local language, especially for socio-economic studies.
Advantages: direct observation enables the investigator to study a phenomenon in its natural
setting quickly and economically, thereby providing a cost-effective mechanism to increase
understanding of the situation. It can reveal social and economic conditions, problems, and
behavior patterns key informants may be unaware of or unable to adequately describe. For
example, often key informants will state that women are not active in commerce because
traditional culture proscribed such behavior, while direct observation reveals women involved in
street vending or small-scale production activities.
Limitations: direct observation is susceptible to observer bias, especially in the observation of
social and economic (vs. physical) phenomena. For example, outside observers can overlook
both the conditions and potential contributions to development of the poor, women, and other
groupings. Assigning a multi-disciplinary team rather than an individual to carry out the
observation and making investigators aware of the problem are ways to reduce the risk of
observer bias. Incorporating both men and women on the team may also be useful.
Poor selection of observation sites can skew observation results; sites selected should be
representative of the wider population (vs. simply accessible) to avoid developing a misleading
picture of the situation.
It should also be noted that the act of observation can affect the behavior of people and
organizations under observation (the "Hawthorne effect").
I I I
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Informal Surveys are most appropriate when quantitative information on attitudes, beliefs, and
responses of a fairly homogeneous population is needed immediately. Informal surveys are also
useful when it is difficult to construct a probability sample without considerable investment of
time and resources. Finally, they can be used when some quantitative information is already
available but additional data are required to complement it.
Skills and knowledge required include:
in-depth knowledge of the subject to be covered by the informal survey;
formal training and experience in conducting informal surveys; and
knowledge of the local language; if the principal investigator does not speak the local
language, s/he should have a deputy who is a native speaker.
Familiarity with the socioeconomic conditions of the survey area is also desirable.
Advantages: informal surveys can be used when well-designed, sample surveys are difficult or
inadvisable to conduct. The quality of the data tends to be better in informal rather than large
sample surveys, because the small size of the questionnaire results in fewer interview errors,
coding tends to be more accurate when variables are limited, and the investigator is able to work
more closely with staff. Further, informal surveys can be carried out quickly with limited
personnel and economic resources.
Limitations: informal surveys cannot be used when an intensive understanding of a phenomenon
or process is required, because they do not permit free and extended discussions. They are
subject to sampling bias because probability sampling is not used. If respondents are not
representative of the population, conclusions may be flawed and recommendations unjustified.
(It is for this reason that disaggregation of data by sex is such a critical issue in all data
Finally, complex statistical data analysis is not always feasible in informal surveys because of the
small sample size. For example, if out of 50 respondents only 8 are female farmers, the
investigator may not be able to perform a comparative study of male and female farmers.
However, the use of quota sampling can solve this problem. In addition, because there are only
a few variables, the use of control variables in statistical analysis is restricted and sample errors
cannot be computed.
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The trainer should finish the presentation by summarizing these methods, using the chart below
as a guide (NP 7-3). Copies should be distributed to participants.
Close this review by asking participants to share a few creative and effective methods from their
experience for gathering sex-disaggregated data.
2.2. SMALL GROUP EXERCISE (35 minutes) The trainer should point out that often
significant sex-disaggregated data sets DO exist in the host country. Other donors, universities,
non-governmental organizations, both national and expatriate, and government ministries often
collect information that can be used for new project design. Often other projects within the
USAID Mission have information that can be useful. A problem is that the consultants who do
much of A.I.D.'s planning and design do not have contacts or time, or are not instructed to seek
out existing sources. Therefore, such data sets are ignored, and new projects carry out large new
This small group exercise is designed to illustrate the general point that data often exist, while
it helps individuals to identify specific data sources by programming sector.
Survey When Most Skills Advan- Limita-
Method Appropriate Required tages tions
Prior to the session, designate and label areas of the room for specific sectors (e.g., agriculture,
health, private sector). As the exercise begins, present participants with the task which appears
on NP 7-4:
This session design works best when the mix of participants includes many from outside of A.I.D.
For a regional workshop, participants can begin by seeking information sources for/from their
When participants have finished, or when no more time is available, bring participants back to
the plenary session. Ask participants for reflections on the process, as well as significant
learning. Ask for a few participants who have identified data sets that might have application
to several sectors, to present them.
3. WRAP-UP (15 minutes) Review main points of the session. Note that for new projects:
where data are not available for gender analysis, data can be obtained in pre-project studies or
during baseline studies. If obtained as part of the project start-up process (and after project
SMALL GROUP TASK
Part I (15 minutes)
> Spend 15 minutes thinking about data sources that you are aware of which are accessible,
and how they could be useful to others;
' List each resource, according to the following format: a) sector, b) the kind of
information available, c) the form of the data, d) when it was collected, e) where to find
the data, and f) a contact name and number, where possible. Write legibly, since others
will read it during this exercise.
EXAMPLE: Agricultural credit; survey of loan
recipients 1990; National Cooperative Union;
John Smith, Tel. 456-7980.
Part I (20 minutes)
0 Move to the area of the room where your sector is; pass around your listings of
information sources; ask questions. When you have finished, move on to other sectors.
If you haven't had enough time, make plans to meet later.
TIME ALLOTTED: 35 minutes
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design), decision points should be built into the project so that changes can be made to
incorporate the new data.
All new projects should include collection of sex-disaggregated data in monitoring and evaluation
systems. For existing projects, evaluations should also collect sex-disaggregated data. While this
will not affect the project being completed, it can provide valuable information to guide future
Ask participants for final reflections and suggestions on how this session will be useful to them.
Check for attainment of session's objectives, and bridge to the next session: "Policy and Gender."
VARIATION 1: Have participants return to their small groups from the previous day. They
review the list of data needs identified for that project, then select 1-2 and discuss how they
would obtain the needed data. Specifically, they should discuss what data collection methods
would be most cost effective, what kind of financial and human resources would be needed, what
problems could be anticipated in data collection, and what strategies could be used to overcome
them. The small group work would be followed by a brief report back to the total community.
VARIATION 2: Convene a panel of local resource persons to talk about their experiences and
data sources. This is another effective way to address this issue in a mission-specific workshop.
The suggestions provided in Session 2 for organizing a donor panel would be appropriate for this
session as well.
VARIATION 3: Identify experts within the mission or in the country on one particular data
collection method. The expert presents a "How To" session on that method. The trainer should
work with the guest lecturer to prepare him/her for the presentation. The presentation could be
followed with an adaptation of the small group work used above.
NP 7-1 Session Objectives
NP 7-2 Rapid Low-Cost Data Collection
NP 7-3 Data Collection Methods Chart
NP 7-4 Small Group Exercise
Handout: Data Collection Methods Chart
Additional blank newsprint
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POLICY AND GENDER
By the end of this session, participants will be able to:
* Describe the relationship of A.I.D.'s world-wide mission statement to the design of gender-
sensitive projects; and
* Define gender issues cutting across AI.D.'s world-wide mission statement, through the
country goals, to program and project design (for any given situation).
(These objectives should appear on newsprint as NP 8-1.)
The relevance of gender as a significant issue in the achievement of many project goals and
purposes may not always be automatically clear. This is most often true in projects and
programs that do not work directly with people, as in financial sector reform, or the development
of major grain storage facilities. It is when the larger development objectives of the country or
of U.S. development assistance are considered that the reason for taking gender issues into
account becomes apparent.
This session uses A.I.D.'s world-wide mission statement as a vehicle for considering how gender
cuts across the various levels of development programming. The session also refers to the
structure of the Logical Framework (logframe), which is A.I.D.-specific, but can be easily
adapted to the project or program design process of other organizations.
ACTIITIES 1. INTRODUCTION (5 minutes) The trainer bridges from preceding sessions by noting that
for many people it is relatively easier to identify gender issues at the PROJECT level than at
the POLICY or PROGRAM level. The Exploratory and Conclusion-Drawing Factors seem at
first glance to be more appropriate for baseline documentation at the household level. Check
for participant experience in this regard. Explain that in this session, the policy level gets its
share of scrutiny for gender issues. Although wider level A.I.D. documents (e.g., CDSS) may
have limited people-level content, planning in the absence of understanding what people do -
including gender roles and responsibilities -- will constrain the effectiveness of development
programs. The trainer should present the objectives and review the activities for this session.
2.1. REVIEW OF A.LD.'s PROGRAMMING SIRUCIURE PRESENTATION (25 minutes)
Key points of the presentation follow. A.I.D.'s programming incorporates a hierarchy of
objectives. That is, objectives are very specific at the project level and become more global as
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they address the development needs of a wider and wider audience. At the base, there is a
project with specific purposes to be achieved ("increased grain production," for example). The
project's purpose points to a larger goal to be achieved over a longer period of time (usually
something like "improved economic and social well-being").
The GOAL is defined as a high level aspiration, above purpose. This distinction between goal
and purpose is carried through the entire programming process. The broadest statements of
goals is at the A.I.D. world-wide level. Goals are also defined at the country strategy level and
are met through specific projects and programs that themselves have goals and purposes. Use
NP 8-2 to illustrate this point.
A.I.D. PROGRAMMING STRUCTURE
A.I.D. World-Wide Mission Statement
Country Strategy Statement Goals
(long- and medium-term goals)
Goal and Purpose
(medium- and short-term goals: short-term purpose)
Goals and purposes at the various levels of programming are complementary, with each project
contributing to achievement of goals at the larger country and world-wide levels. Further, this
process is continually evolving with backward and forward "linkages" between the various levels.
Mission goals are revised as the situation in the country evolves, and as projects and programs
achieve their goals and purposes. Of course, while A.I.D.'s mission statement changes with
social, economic, and.political changes in the United States, the overall mission of helping low-
income people remains.
This hierarchy of objectives has a parallel in non-governmental organizations and host country
government operations. Most organizations have some form of mission statement, from which
flow country strategies. Conversely, country strategies both shape and are adjusted by specific
2.2. LINKAGES BETWEEN LEVELS OF PROGRAMMING AND GENDER ISSUES
A.I.D.'s world-wide mission statement is presented below (NP 8-3.)
A.I.D. WORLD-WIDE MISSION STATEMENT (EXCERPT)
"A.I.D. assists developing countries to realize their full national potential
through the development of open and democratic societies, and the dynamism of
free markets and individual initiative. A.I.D. assists nations throughout the
world to improve the quality of human life and to expand the range of individual
opportunities by reducing poverty, ignorance and malnutrition."
Where does gender figure here? The mission statement does not indicate that efforts to improve
the quality of life should be restricted to one sex. And research is clear that project benefits to
a household do not necessarily accrue to all members in the household. Further, world-wide, one
sex may represent the group requiring the most assistance: women are disproportionately
represented among the poor, the uneducated or undereducated, and malnourished. And finally,
not taking advantage of half the human resource base is an inefficient development strategy.
2.2.1. A.LD.'s world-wide goal is reflected in USAID mission country goals. The trainer should
present statistics here from the country or region hosting the workshop (e.g., number of female-
headed households, per capital income, education levels, etc.) to illustrate the proportion of men
and women in the categories above.
Present 1 or 2 goals from the country strategy or similar document from the same mission.
Quickly review the goal statement and its connection between its goals and A.I.D.'s world-wide
goals. Ask participants to identify ways that gender considerations could be important in this
2.2.2. A.LD.'s world-wide goal is reflected in specific project and program goals. The trainer
reviews different kinds of projects to illustrate how they operationalize A.I.D. mission and world-
wide goal statements. Ask for examples from participants or provide your own. Health,
agriculture, and natural resource management projects that have clear people level impact would
be appropriate as the first example. The second example should draw from projects that work
at an intermediate level, such as loan guarantee programs. In this case, the gender issues might
not be immediately obvious. Illustrative project activities include mobilization of domestic
savings, easing of government credit regulations, and training for mid- and upper-level managers
in credit institutions.
II I-- II II I-
While the gender issues here may initially be obscure, there is indeed a connection with A.I.D.'s
world-wide mission statement. Given the disproportionate numbers of women among the poor,
the redesign of credit systems to increase women's access needs to be considered. Increasing the
awareness of constraints to women's access to credit, and designing appropriate measures to
overcome these constraints may be affected by numbers of women at management levels of the
In terms of opportunities provided by gender differences, men and women commonly have
different savings patterns, with women saving (and borrowing) primarily through informal
networks. Mobilizing those savings within the formal banking system to increase bank
capitalization considerably strengthens the entire system.
3. LARGE GROUP PRACTICE (15 minutes) The trainer works through an illustration of the
linkages between country goals, policies, programs, and projects with the participants. Note that
some policies may be in conflict with each other. Use NP 8-4.
ILLUSTRATION OF LINKAGES
COUNTRY GOAL: Increase food security.
SUPPORTING POLICY REFORM: Eliminate government marketing boards that buy
all grain produced.
SUPPORTING PROGRAM: Stimulate private sector activity in grain marketing and
POSSIBLE PROJECIS: Training to strengthen financial institutions providing
agricultural credit; technical assistance to local/regional/district planning units to
strengthen local markets; guarantee funds to agricultural credit institutions which
broaden lending to include transport network ventures.
Trainer leads discussion of how gender cuts across each of these levels of development
programming. Assure them that there is no "right" answer; only considerations of how gender
could cut across development programming. The trainer could bring out the following ideas to
stimulate discussion, if participants are having trouble:
P Is the food security issue the same for both males and females?
b What are gender-based differences in food production, purchase, storage, transport, or sale
from the household to the national levels?
e Is financial responsibility for purchase and ability to buy the same for males and females?
SUPPORTING POLICY REFORM
o What has been the difference in access to marketing board resources, both in the purchase and
sale of the grain?
> Who has been selling to the marketing board groups, individuals? b Who belongs to the
How do individual men and women relate to these groups? (This may differ by region, class
or ethnicity, as well as by gender, too.)
P Who has benefitted, and how will elimination of the marketing board affect groups
o If men and women both produce and sell grains, how will the decision to implement the policy
by stimulating entrepreneurial activity in marketing affect them differentially?
' How will this decision lead to increased food availability?
' Is the measure helpful to both male and female producers?
- Credit: if women are producers, will credit programs enable individual or groups of women
to obtain funding so they can market their own crops?
- Does the A.I.D. mission statement say it will only help the male half of the population to
realize individual initiative?
Ask participants what new insights they have gained from the preceding discussions and exercises
on the cross-cutting nature of gender. Note that most participants have had at least some
experience with either preparing or following the directives of a CDSS. Lead into the next small
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4. SMALL GROUP EXERCISE (45 minutes) Hand out a synopsis of a CDSS. This should
include a one-paragraph (maximum) description of each of the following: one mission objective,
relevant policy reforms, and programs and projects. Review these with the participants.
(Depending on time, include one or more policies, projects, and programs.) Present the task
appearing on NP &-5.
SMALL GROUP TASK
1. Review the Country Goal listed. Identify at least 3 possible gender
considerations related to the achievement of that goal. The Exploratory and
Conclusion-Drawing Factors are resources for this exercise.
2. Using the three gender considerations at the Goal level, identify at least one
way in which those gender considerations could affect the Goal's supporting
policies, programs, and projects.
TIME ALLOTTED: 45 minutes
5. SMALL GROUP REPORTS (25 minutes) It is not necessary to get a complete report from
each group for this task. Many similarities are likely to occur. The trainer should go over the
questions in the task one by one, comparing selected responses from each of the groups for
similarities and differences. Again, it is important to stress that there are no correct answers
in this exercise. More important is the discussion of how gender fits in the vertical linkage
between specific projects through programs and policies at the national level to A.I.D.'s world-
6. WRAP-UP (5 minutes) Ask participants to list any especially important learning to have
come from the session. Ask for examples. Check for achievement of session objectives, and
close the session.
Participants have often expressed much support for this session, because it reviews for them
A.I.D.'s world-wide goal, and provides an opportunity for them to "talk development." This kind
of a discussion really is a luxury to many participants who often discover that they are more
involved in administration than in development issues.
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- - - - - - - - -
VARIATION 1: Trainers can do much more with the LogFrame, if participants are so inclined.
(Trainers should not, however, allow this session to become an initial training in LogFrame -
that's another course altogether.)
NP 8-1 Session Objectives
NP 8-2 A.I.D. Programming Structure
NP 8-3 AI.D. World-Wide Mission Statement Excerpt
NP 8-4 Illustration of Linkages
NP 8-5 Small Group Task
CDSS Case Example with country background information
Additional blank newsprint
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SESSION 9: PLANNING FOR ACTION
TIME 1 hour, 45 minutes
OBJECTIVEs By the end of this session, participants will have:
An action plan for incorporating gender considerations into a component of their work;
A list of resources for implementing the action plan.
(These objectives should be listed on newsprint as NP 9-1.)
RATIONALE Training which does not contain a distinct application portion is an incomplete training session -
it neglects to address the "so what?" of the effort which has been expended to acquire new skills,
knowledge, or awareness. This session is devoted entirely to letting participants plan a strategy
to incorporate gender considerations into some aspect of their work.
In previous workshops, some participants have rated this session as the most valuable and
potentially useful perhaps in part because participants get a chance to put it all together and
because they finally have the time and the tools to organize their disparate ideas on what to "do
ACTIVITIES 1. INTRODUCTION (10 minutes) The trainer introduces the session by noting that the
presentation of new material and the practice sessions have finished, and that participants are
probably anxious to get on with putting the training to use. The trainer may also want to use
notions from the RATIONALE section (above).
Trainer notes that each person has his or her own preferred planning models and techniques.
Some use simple lists, some use electronic PERT-like programs, some use models akin to the
Logical Framework and some use techniques such as Force-Field analysis to assist their decision-
making. Most successful action-planning processes feature at the very least: 1) the definition of
the problem, 2) the goal or objective, and 3) the actions or steps necessary to arrive at the goal.
Ask participants to briefly describe some of the Action Planning systems which they use. The
trainer should then present a simple Action Planning model (such as in NP 9-2, below) for
participants to use, if they wish, for the exercise to follow.
- I I --~ 41 IslLII -L_ ~ - --- I
Objective Action By whom By when Resources
2. INDIVIDUAL / DYAD / SMALL GROUP WORK (60 minutes) The trainer explains the
procedure and the timetable, which appears on NP 9-3, next page. Participants can work alone,
in pairs or small groups (not too big) to develop a strategy for applying the workshop learning.
The content for individual work depends on which of the "problems" of incorporating gender
considerations the participants choose to work. "Problems" of writing concept papers and
preparing evaluations have been the most common ones addressed during this session. Other
"problems" have been drafting a WID Action Plan; preparing Statements of Work which
incorporate gender considerations and gender-disaggregated data; and WID Officers having to
develop a strategy to assist their colleagues to institutionalize gender considerations.
Note that participants may do part of their work on newsprint, or may do it all on regular paper.
This will depend on whether they work as a group; whether they think they will want to show
their plan later in plenary session; or simply whether they work better on newsprint.
II -~n ~13 dr I I __ I-
ACTION PLANNING TASK
1. Discuss and list the problem or challenge facing you in incorporating gender;
2. List the goal or objectives you need to set in order to correct the problem or
meet the challenge; and
3. List the action steps needed, along with who, when, and the resources needed.
Using a planning model of your own choosing, develop an Action Plan to
increase the incorporation of gender considerations in your work or in a specific
TIME ALLOTTED: 1 HOUR
Make sure that all participants have carbons for making one copy of their Action Plans. As the
participants finish, collect the carbons and the sealed envelopes with their Action Plan copies.
Participants keep one copy for their reference. After one hour, call time (those not finished
should do so, or at least hand in the Action Plans before leaving). Remind them that the copies
of their Action Plans will be mailed to them in six months for a status check, along with other
follow-up communications. (Note: mailback of Action Plans has not followed every workshop;
however, where it has occurred, verbal feedback from participants indicates this has been helpful
to them in refocusing on gender issues in their work.)
3. REPORT-OUT AND DISCUSSION (30 minutes) The trainer should invite a few volunteers
to share draft strategies with the large group, in order to get other participants' and trainers'
comments and suggestions. While it would not be possible, or appropriate, to ask all
participants to publicize their action plans, reports on the process of planning itself are as
valuable as the specifics of the action plan. In any case, reports by willing (enthusiastic?)
volunteers may provide valuable insights for the entire group and inspire prolonged discussion,
in turn leading to more ideas for participants' action plans.
4. WRAP-UP (5 minutes) The trainer comments in general on the quality of Action Plans
heard so far, encourages participants to continue to discuss the Action Plans with colleagues, and
to share suggestions for information and other resources. Check for achievement of session
objectives, and bridge to the final session of the workshop: the evaluation and closure.
II II I III
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MATERIALS Prepared NewsPrint:
NP 9-1 Session Objectives
NP 9-2 Planning Model Grid
NP 9-3 Action Planning Task
Additional blank newsprint
Carbon paper (or other copy facility in-room)
Envelopes: business letter size
Perhaps the most difficult part of this exercise is to assist the participants to identify "solvable
problems," in order to maximize the probability that the Action Plan will be implemented.
The primary task of the trainers is to clarify the objectives of the session, to provide the
appropriate data analysis and action planning models, and to clarify the task assignment.
Trainers may certainly serve as process and technical consultants in gender considerations and
the action planning process for the participants. Additional clarifications and support from
trainers may also be appropriate, though it seems that this is a good opportunity for participants
to count on their colleagues as both technical and process consultants.
VARIATION 1: Often, if the workshop is Mission- or Bureau-specific, there will be a distinct
task facing the participants, such as the preparation of a WID Action Plan, the preparation of
a CDSS or Sector Assessments. When the objectives of the group as a whole are this clear, the
design of this action-planning session becomes much more focused. Session products can be
document preparation workplans, a workplan for the establishment of a workgroup, or a
workplan for further workshops for counterparts, for example. In these cases, such products need
to be worked out before the final design of the workshop, so that the training team can tailor
all the other sessions (to the extent possible) to the creation of whatever products are required.
SESSION 10: WORKSHOP SUMMARY,
EVALUATION, AND CLOSURE
TIME 1 hour, 15 minutes
OBRJICrtsV At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to:
Summarize the workshop content and process;
Evaluate the effectiveness and utility of the workshop; and
List ways of applying the training content.
(These objectives should appear on newsprint as NP 10-1.)
RATIONALE The close of a workshop is as important as its beginning. Participants and trainers have been
together for several full days, and need a decompression a chance to make a few last
comments, finish the chapter, and close the book, as it were.
The summary is important in that it helps participants to remember all of the elements of the
workshop, its objectives, and its activities. Even if there have been daily evaluations of the
workshop, an overall final evaluation allows participants a bit of perspective. (A daily summary
and informal oral evaluation has proved not only to be appreciated by participants, but helps
participants to consolidate the day's learning better than if no summary/evaluation had been
ACTIVITIES 1. WORKSHOP SUMMARY (15 miantes) The trainer opens this session by reviewing what
will happen in the course of it, and some adaptation of the Rationale above. This should be
followed by a very brief review of the Workshop Objectives (NP 1-4) and Summary Schedule
(NP 1-5), using the newsprint prepared for Session One as visual aids. The trainer may also want
to touch on memorable moments during the workshop, be they humorous or difficult.
2. WORKSHOP EVALUATION (45 minutes) This portion of the session may take less time
than has been allocated here, since each day's session will have been orally evaluated at the end
of the day. The trainer should emphasize the value and use of the written evaluation and
encourage the participants to be as candid and specific as possible in their feedback. Note that
the evaluations will be seen only by the training staff, the evaluation team (if different from the
training team), and the staff of PPC/WID. Pass out evaluation forms; note how much time
participants have to complete the form; where to turn the forms in; and what will follow to close
out the workshop.
3. CLOSING ACTIVITY (15 minutes) Trainers may want to note some of the ways
participants have said that they will be applying the learning of the training, so as to finish the
workshop with APPLICATION on the minds of the participants.
Trainers should express appreciation to the participants, local hosts, local coordinators, sponsors
of the workshop, and to any guest speakers or other contributors. Invite participants to express
appreciations, as well. The trainers should then invite participants to make any last remarks (not
just appreciations) before the workshop is officially closed.
Local authorities or the workshop hosts most likely it is they who opened the workshop should
at this point make closing comments/remarks, though of a briefer nature than the opening
VARIATION 1: If trainers want to give people a last chance to express their opinions other
than what they have said on their evaluation forms, trainers may invite them to write their
comments on some large pieces of newsprint taped to the wall. (A trainer once taped large
pieces of paper to all participants' backs so that they could give their comments directly to fellow
participants the "ultimate feedback..")
MATIERALS Prepared NewsPrint:
NP 10-1 Session Objectives
NP 1-4 Workshop Objectives
NP 1-5 Workshop Schedule
Workshop Evaluation Forms
I--..--I .1 I I C--~"-""- " ~~~"~"~~~"""1~~`-rr-- 1111"'~' 1 ~91Y-
WORKSHOP PLANNING AND PREPARATION
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~BP~Lllb31*r~I ---- '1 41 '-e~b It
Workshop Planning and Preparation
WORKSHOP PLANNING AND PREPARATION
A. Pre-Workshop Needs Assessment, Orientation, and Readings
Pre-workshop planning for this training model minimally would include:
1. a basic needs assessment instrument for participants;
2. communication and orientation with senior staff; and
3. readings and informational materials to participants well before the training event.
A basic needs assessment instrument, or framework for interviews, would include at least the following:
1. name, title and role(s) of the participant;
2. feelings as they anticipate the training;
3. what they want to learn in this training;
4. what concerns or problems they anticipate; and
5. any other comments or suggestions.
It is also helpful if senior staff receive an orientation to the goals, structure, and format of the training,
preferably before participants have been identified or selected. This will assist in the identification of specific
training needs as viewed by the organization, aid the process of selection, secure commitment and support from
key staff persons, and increase the rewards for attendance and full participation. Senior staff persons will be
essential in suggesting, and perhaps even in recruiting and authorizing appropriate individuals to serve as local
training workshop coordinators/administrators, and also local resource persons who could provide technical
expertise in the presentation and educational methodology for topics such as Gender Issues in Non-Project
With the amount of technical material involved in this training, it is essential that participants have the
opportunity to read and internalize some of this substantive material before the training sessions. Minimally,
these readings will include some selected portions of the Gender Information Framework (GIF), highlights and
summaries of A.I.D. policy statements and guidelines, evaluation summaries, and other relevant reports or
papers focusing on gender issues in development Active response to these pre-workshop materials from
participants should also be included in the needs assessment instrument and returned to the training staff. These
data will assist the staff to fine-tune the basic design to fit more closely with the expressed needs of the
participants of any particular workshop, and to begin to know the participants and their specific development
B. Local Workshop Coordinator
A local coordinator can be very important to successful workshop implementation, particularly if the training
workshop is to be held in a country or location other than that of the training staff. All administrative
Workshop Planning and Preparation
and logistical matters affecting the workshop and participants are part of their responsibility; for example, the
training site and spacess, lodging, transportation, meals, material requirements of the participants and training
staff, registration and ongoing logistical and administrative support during and following the training. Make sure
that all of these duties and functions are carefully and specifically negotiated very early in the workshop
planning process. If the persons) selected for this role and responsibilities is not very familiar with an
experiential learning workshop and its requirements, an explicit set of instructions, given and negotiated carefully
and well in advance, will be most helpful.
C Training Staff Team
Following the institutional development strategies of A.I.D./W and PPC/WID, it is recommended that the
training team include:
one trainer for each eight to ten participants,
a mix of gender, race, and age, if at all possible,
a mix of individuals who are intimately familiar with the USAID development processes, with the
sector and sub-sector technical specifics, and with the regional context,
individuals who have wide experience in the participatory, problem-solving, adult education
training model which undergirds this design and manual.
This kind of staff team is driven by the learning needs of participants, as well as by the assumptions and values
of the educational model. Of necessity, in this kind of "hands on", experiential education, participants will often
be working in small groups. It is important that one staff person be present in each of these small groups for
both task and group maintenance consultative support. The desire for a mix of female and male training staff
comes both from the desire to model the values espoused in the development program and project processes,
and also to provide the differing styles and experiences of each. The criterion for having staff persons familiar
with the A.I.D. development context deserves special attention. It is based on the premise that participants who
are working on the intricacies of incorporating gender variables, in an already complicated and technical process
and set of policies and procedures, will learn new behaviors and attitudes most easily when they know that the
constraints under which they function are thoroughly understood and appreciated.
A Lead Trainer is important for coordination and leadership in the staff planning and administration-an integral
and ongoing process. Equally important is the Materials Development Specialist who provides the materials
required for specific regional and sectoral training needs.
D. On-Site Preparation
One of the most important steps in preparing for the workshop is staff team building. Since the staff may be
traveling to the training site, plan on arriving two days early at a minimum. An early meeting with the local
coordinator is a priority to check the training site and space, the conference materials needed, any materials
which were sent ahead, and any audio-visual equipment requested--to make certain that they are available and/or
II IIIL L ~ I i, --- p
Workshop Planning and Preparation
working properly. It is also important to determine whether all the administrative and logistic details are clear
and being managed.
The total staff will need to go through the entire workshop design session-by-session, particularly if the training
is new to anyone. Specific assignments must be made for each session. Given adequate time, practice sessions
of lectures and task assignments with feedback from the total staff are very valuable. If the time is more limited,
focus on the early sessions and the most difficult ones. The Lead Trainer has the responsibility for managing
the staff team-building process and the overall workshop implementation and evaluation.
Visuals should be prepared a day, or at least the evening before the presentations. Keep visuals simple, clear,
neat, and colorful, and print in large letters so that they are clearly visible from the back of the training room.
If you are using overhead projections, check their visibility from the back of the room also.
Staff responsible for each session have the responsibility to make certain that all of the handouts, newsprint and
other visuals, and materials needed for their session are available in sufficient numbers.
E. Materials Required
The following general list of materials required for this training workshop should be shared with the local
coordinator/administrator well in advance of the workshop dates. If they are available locally at reasonable costs,
purchase there will facilitate staff travel and minimize excess baggage costs.
Newsprint (Flip Chart Paper) is needed for each session's objectives and schedule, lecture highlights, task
assignments, small group work reports, etc. In the U.S., newsprint sheets measure approximately 27 x 32 inches.
Easels: If easels are not readily available at the training site, they can be constructed quite easily with local
wood supplies following a simple pattern. However, if there is adequate black-board or wall space in the
training site, newsprint can be taped to those surfaces. It is quite important that there be adequate wall space
for posting newsprint around the room, for some sheets will be on display throughout the training workshop.
Instruct the local coordinator/administrator to check the local training site's capability for this requirement
carefully, for tape may harm wall finish, paint, or paper.
Felt-tipped markers: Water color markers are the most effective type markers, though these are usually
unavailable or quite expensive in many countries outside the U.S. Three boxes of 12 variously colored markers
should be sufficient for most workshops, and they can be purchased and carried by the staff.
Masking tape: Three rolls of 1/2 inch masking tape will suffice, and if they are not available at the training site,
they can be purchased in the U.S. and transported easily by staff.
Notebooks: Participants' Workbooks are provided to organize the materials and handouts. These materials can
be produced and collated in the U.S., boxed securely, and carried as excess baggage.
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Workshop Planning and Preparation
Paper punch: The paper punch must match the notebook ring spacing and is usually available locally. If most
of the paper resources for the participants' manuals are produced in the U.S. and either shipped or carried with
staff, remember to match paper hole punch and notebooks.
Note paper and pencils for participants should be provided. Blank pages in the notebooks are often most helpful
F. Training Workshop Site
The site for an event like this one is an important element in supporting an effective learning environment. The
facility should have sufficient lodging and meal capabilities in an informal setting, with sufficient space for
plenary sessions for all participants and staff, and with enough rooms for small group meetings of no more than
eight persons each. It is helpful if the facility is away from the distractions of any local agency's office and the
pulls of normal business demands. It is also very desirable that there be recreational opportunities at the site
for participants' enjoyment during free times.
G. Set-Up of the Training Room
Before participants arrive, staff should instruct the local coordinator how to arrange the training room and the
reception area in preparation for arrivals. The tables and chairs should be arranged in a fan or sunrise
configuration pointing toward the space in the room for the easels or for newsprint visuals. Care should be
taken to make certain each person will be able to see any visuals in the front of the room. If there are no staff
of the conference facility to assist in setting this arrangement, then all training staff not engaged in other
preparations should pitch in to help the coordinator.
H. Registration and Greeting of Participant Arrival
The local coordinator/administrator and available training staff should be on hand to register arrivals and assist
them to get settled-in easily. Some kind of welcoming refreshments and informal greetings from staff and other
participants eases their entry into the workshop setting. A large, brightly colored sign of welcome on newsprint
can set a favorable tone for the opening session.
Workshop Planning and Preparation
L Dinner and Special Event
A working dinner during a three-day workshop provides an opportunity for continued learning in a relaxed
atmosphere, while strengthening the connection between participants and the training staff. If funds and
planning time permit, this event is strongly recommended. It can be organized as follows:
This event works best if it "belongs" to the host country Mission or to participants. To date, the presentations
have typically focused on "best practices" of the presenters in addressing gender issues. Examples of
presentations from 2-3 Mission representatives (for regional workshops);
audio-visual presentation by a host country organization, such as a women's cooperative, on their
activities, problems, and best practices;
panel presentation by host country NGOs;
panel presentation by other donor agencies; and
presentation by host country government minister.
The "work" of the evening can also be combined with a social event, such as a play by a local theatre group
during the refreshments. This was very successful in one workshop and was organized by the host Mission.
The working dinner can be scheduled following the first full day of the workshop. Careful and specific
preparation with the presenters well in advance of the event is essential. Identification of the guest speakers may
be done collaboratively by PPC/WID, host country, or regional bureau A.I.D. staff. The program should run
for about one hour following dinner.
The content of the presentation optimally would include a description of the problem or problems addressed by
the project or program, the project/program concept and design, and some strengths and areas for improvement
in implementation. If barriers or constraints have been reduced or removed, what strategies were employed;
what was the result of the activity, and what next steps are planned?
At the end of an intense day of training and a banquet meal, it is important that the presentation be as engaging
and even entertaining as possible.
1 I I= I-, I- L II1I 11
1. Start-up and workplan design
rkshop Planning and Preparation
1.1 Design workplan
1.1.1 List tasks to be accomplished
1.1.2 Design time phasing of tasks
1.1.3 Allocate responsibility for all tasks
1.2.1 Confirm trainers
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Workshop Planning and Preparation
. .. .. ... . .. .. I l ll l ll l ll ll l ll I Il l I I I I
1.2.2 Prepare trainers' contracts
1.2.3 Organize trainer orientation
18.104.22.168 Identify resource documents
(A.I.D., non-A.I.D) for trainer
briefing on regional, sector,
mission and gender issues
22.214.171.124 Identify PPC/WID, regional bureau
personnel to provide briefings,
meet trainers, provide input
126.96.36.199 Prepare agenda, including norm
setting, briefings, training design
review, task assignment process,
188.8.131.52 Prepare trainers' notebooks (GIF,
Trainers' Manual, basic resource
documents, PPC/WID strategic
documents, etc.) for distribution at
Trainers' Orientation Meeting
184.108.40.206 Mail any information needed by
trainers prior to meeting