Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Why integrate gender considerations...
 General tips and guidelines
 Integrating gender considerations...
 Choosing consultants and project...
 Questions to answer when investigating...
 Bibliography/Case projects

Title: Integrating gender considerations into FAO forestry projects
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089942/00001
 Material Information
Title: Integrating gender considerations into FAO forestry projects
Alternate Title: Gender considerations
Physical Description: v, 47 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rojas, Mary, 1940-
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1993
Copyright Date: 1993
Subject: Forestry projects -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women in development -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women in rural development -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 44-46).
Statement of Responsibility: by Mary Rojas.
General Note: Author from label on t.p.
General Note: On cover: Guidelines.
General Note: "I/T1855E/1/1.94/1500"--Back cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089942
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 154180533

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Why integrate gender considerations into forestry projects?
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    General tips and guidelines
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Choosing consultants and project staff
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Questions to answer when investigating gender issues
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Bibliography/Case projects
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
Full Text





Mary Rojas

ROME 1993

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, ortransmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior
permission of the copyright owner. Applications for such permission, with a statement of the purposeand
extent of the reproduction, should be addressed to the Director, Publications Division, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100, Rome, Italy
FAO 1993

The designations employed and the presentation of
material in this publication do not imply the expression of
any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concern-
ing the legal status of any country, territory, city or area
or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.


THE FORESTRY DEPARTMENT ofthe Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ofthe
United Nations has worked continually to integrate the concerns and interests of
project participants into projects. FAO has underscored this commitment in
various ways.
The FAO mandate is to find ways "to eliminate the hunger and poverty
affecting millions ofpeople in developing countries. FAO constantly presents the
problems and interests of the world's farmers, particularly the smallest and
poorest among them".' Additionally, in 1980, the FAO Committee on Forestry
Development Strategy reoriented FAO forestry programmes "to transform for-
estry-based activities into more efficient agents of socio-economic change" and
"to ensure that forestry activities are better adapted to the requirements of rural
development with an increased emphasis on the objectives of eradicating poverty
and increasing rural self-reliance"."
Concurrent with FAO's drive to better focus its work on people, the Organi-
zation has begun to increase the attention it pays to the potentially differing needs
ofmen and women in project design, planning and appraisal. FAO's commitment
to that end has also become apparent in Plans of Action and Committee reports.
The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development
(WCARRD) initially framed the issue for all United Nations Agencies in 1979.
While the basic principles and objectives it enunciated focused on "the eradication
ofpoverty, hunger and malnutrition", two ofthe six WCARRD programme areas
of action explicitly demand "people's participation" and "the integration of
women in rural development".3
In 1990, the FAO Women in Agricultural Development (WID) Plan of Action
structured guidelines "to ensure the incorporation of concerns for women into all
its activities".4 And the FAO Committee on Forestry's Women in Development
Strategy stated in 1990 that "the FAO Forestry Department has been working to
increase understanding of the role and dependence of women in forestry and to
address women's needs".5
It is acknowledged that part of any Forestry Department effort to focus
programmes on the intended beneficiaries must involve the operationalization of
channels for integration and monitoring of local people's situations and interests.
Yet a review of project documentation in the Forestry Department revealed that
while a great deal of information about project activities was available, almost no
information about participants could be found. What projects did and how they did


it, was reported. An indication ofwho participated and how they benefited was not
formally traced. The individuals backstopping projects needed more people-
oriented information. Those evaluating projects needed more opportunity to report
on participants.6
A consultancy, "Monitoring People in Forestry Projects", was initiated to help
design a technique that would allow greater reporting from the field on the people
and gender-related aspects offorestry projects. Among otherthings, the consultancy
recommended that guidelines be created to indicate how projects could be
designed, monitored and evaluated to focus on the various needs and interests of
the different groups of intended beneficiaries.
This document presents guidelines that help better focus the project cycle on
local people's concerns. More specifically, it begins with the assumption that local
people's concerns are relevant and highlights the ways in which gender-based
considerations need to be continually examined and can affect project operation,
approach, success or failure. The approach was developed by Mary Rojas and
synthesizes both a large body of literature and several agencies' experiences with
participatory development, the use ofsocio-economic indicators andgender issues
in development.

1. FAO, What it is, what it does Rome, 1988
2. FAO, Committee on Forestry, "Women in agricultural development". Rome, 1980
3. FAO, World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development ten years of
follow-up. Guidelines on socio-economic indicatorsfor monitoringagrarian reform and
rural development. Rome, 1988
4. FAO, Plan faction, women in agricultural development. Rome, 1990
5. FAO, Committee on Forestry tenth session: women in forestry. Rome, 1990


Preface iii
Introduction 1
I Why integrate gender considerations into forestry projects? 3
II General tips and guidelines 6

III Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle 9
1. Pre-identification 11
2. Project identification, formulation and appraisal 13
Project identification: gathering information 14
Research: existing information and new studies 14
The project formulation framework document 17
Project formulation 21
The project document 21
Project appraisal 24
3. Implementation, monitoring and evaluation 25
Implementation 25
The inception report 25
Semi-annual and annual reports 26
Monitoring and evaluation 27
The beneficiaries: asking the questions 28
The tripartite review 29
The terminal report 29
IV Choosing consultants and project staff 31
1. Identification/formulation team 32
Drafting terms of reference 32
Composing the teams 32
The team leader 33
The team 35
Including a gender analysis expert 35
2. Terms of reference for project personnel
and consultants 37
Chief technical advisor 37
Other personnel 38
Annex 1: Questions to answer when investigating gender issues 39
Bibliography 44
Case projects 47

Variables in the socio-economic context

---- --


THESE GUIDELINES FACILITATE a people-focused approach to forestry projects. They
help project personnel consider the potentially distinct interests and concerns of
male and female beneficiaries. While the guidelines begin to highlight some ofthe
ways participants need to be disaggregated if projects are to be designed and
implemented considering the full range ofbeneficiary concerns, it does not present
all the relevant people-related issues that need attention. The guidelines focus on
gender-based distinctions, one of several social dimensions that distinguish
different sub-groups within any community. The full range of interdependent
socio-cultural variables that influence different community member needs and
priorities is broader (see diagram at left). Hence, even disaggregation by gender
will group very heterogeneous sets of people together.
The assumption of the guidelines is that the needs, interests and concerns of
intended participants are centrally relevant at every stage in the project cycle. The
guidelines provide a means by which gender considerations can be integrated into
V Who participants are intended to be, who they are
/ What they do
V What constraints they face
V Which resources they have available to them
V Which resources they have access to, which they control
V How their participation can be monitored
V How the project's impact on beneficiaries can be determined
They show when participant-related information is going to be relevant and how
that information can be gathered.
The implementation and operation of activities will naturally be more people-
focused, take into consideration the relevant gender-related issues and lead to more
effective and successful forestry projects if:
V local people are involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of
V "people-related" considerations are consistently the focus of the steps leading
to implementation;
V monitoring and evaluation emphasize the need to look at people, including
gender-related aspects of the project; and,
V the terms ofreference forproject personnel and consultants emphasize the need
to consider and focus on people and gender-related issues.

I Why integrate gender


into forestry projects?

The call to consider men and women independently when examining
development activities has become virtually universal Yet frequently the
need for such disaggregation is justified on the basis of past and continuing
inequity Development experts should however feel compelled to think
about men and women independently, primarily because independent
consideration increases the potential for the design implementation and
management of effective, sustainable development activities
Men and women frequently have very distinct rights and responsibili-
ties They often control and have access to different resources, complete
different jobs for the household, earn income in different ways, allocate
time differently, have different legal and traditional rights, and possess
different information regarding the structure of their community and the
natural resources that surround them As a result of these far-reaching
distinctions women and men will frequently have different priorities and
goals Similarly, their ability to participate in forestry activities may vary
depending upon the way projects are designed and implemented
Consideration of the profound distinctions between men and women
can improve the potential effectiveness of forestry projects in a number of

Lelt Hj iii t 'iI i i 111 ElhiriftLi

Why integrate gender considerations into forestry projects?

1. Net economic benefit

IN ORDER TO MAXIMIZE the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of forestry activities,
projects need to be targeted to meet local needs. Frequently, however, real task
distribution is not accurately assessed prior to the development of programmes.
The net economic benefits accrued by both FAO and the community increase when
a thorough analysis of the community is used to develop projects and target
subgroups of beneficiaries.
Both women and men are involved in different elements of the household's
subsistence and income-earning agricultural activities. Their tasks are comple-
mentary, but distinct. Yet few training and extension programmes, for example,
accurately and specifically target programmes based on local distribution of time
and labour. As a result, the training and information services are sometimes, at
best, conveyed secondarily to the person who actually completes the related task,
decreasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the effort.

2. Sustainability

SUSTAINABILITY IS A CRUCIAL CONSIDERATION in any development activity to what
extent can the project-recommended approach to natural resource management
continue to be used beneficially without external support.
Throughout the world, both men and women are heavily involved in natural
resource management and use. Their influence on the environment can differ
greatly because their roles differ. Men are often more involved in clearing fields,
hunting and tilling the soil, while women frequently do most ofthe fuel and water
collecting, cooking and weeding. By virtue of their tasks, their influence on and
role in environmental management varies.

3. Achievement of development

FAO's OVER-ARCHING GOAL is to eliminate hunger and poverty throughout the
world, particularly by workingwith the poorest and least represented. To understand
and assist the weakest society members, attention needs to be paid to exactly who

Why integrate gender considerations into forestry projects?

the poorest are and what they do. Studies have shown that households headed by
women compose a significant percentage of the population and are frequently
among the poorest of the poor. In Africa, the percentage of households headed by
women can be as great as 65% in areas where there is a high level ofmale migration
(Commission of European Communities 1991). In order to understand and effec-
tively work with these poor families, their special needs, rights and restrictions
need to be understood and used in planning activities.
Similarly, if hunger and poverty are to be eliminated, beneficiaries must be
carefully targeted based on their role in the family and the way they use their
income. Women's and men's activities often differentially affect family wealth
and nutrition. A study indicates that in Burkina Faso men spend 33% of their
income on food and family needs while women spend 84% of their income on the
family (Commission of European Communities 1991). By considering differ-
ences in spending and income earning activities, a more effective attempt to
specifically work to eliminate poverty and hunger can be made.

4. Enthusiasm and participation

WHEN COMMUNITY MEMBERS feel that they "own" a project, the quality of the effort
often increases enormously. The involvement ofall those who may be affected by
the project can increase the chances for success and investment on the part of local
participants. For example, a government-sponsored reforestation effort in Peru
suffered because women passively and actively resisted establishment of planta-
tions even after the community assembly voted for their creation. Women were
accustomed to influencing decision-making in the all-male assembly by speaking
with their husbands privately prior to meetings. However the assembly to discuss
the plantations had been called without enough prior notice to enable women to
discuss the agenda with their husbands at home. Therefore, they felt excluded from
decision-making and were disadvantaged by the final results.

II General tips

and guidelines

1. Clearly define the ultimate beneficiaries in all project documents. A
more specific definition of beneficiaries makes participants more tangible and
increasesthe likelihood of successful project design and monitoring. An explicit
description of beneficiaries highlights the relevant parties, helps in the design
of an appropriate approach and facilitates monitoring. It becomes more
obvious if important beneficiaries have been left out and need to be added.

2. Link specific project activities to specific beneficiaries. Reports often
neglect completely the link between activities and recipients. Project docu-
ments frequently define groups of beneficiaries vaguely and with little refer-
ence to the specific ways in which they will benefit. Indicating how different
groups will benefit differently can highlight the ways in which the project works
for specific groups. For example, the project objective, "Increase the timber
products yield", begs the question "to do what for whom ?"

3. See beneficiaries as participants, not passive recipients. Projects should
be viewed as collaborative activities that bring together the efforts of benefici-
aries and outsiders to improve upon the status quo. The biggest obstacle to
genuine participation is an approach in which development is seen as a
process and the beneficiaries are thought of as objects and not actors.

4. Use gender-neutral terminology in project documents. Gender-neutral
terminology can help prevent the creation of a sense of exclusion. Using the
male form of a word to mean both men and women (i.e. "A Forest Economist
is needed. He will be expected to...") can be confusing and does not indicate
the importance FAO places on working with everyone. The "he" can prove to
be self-fulfilling or misrepresentative.

5. Collect socio-economic information to identify project beneficiaries.
Socio-economic information can help determine who actual beneficiaries will

be in the various social strata or resource dependent groups men and/or
women. Such information can also help reveal in advance the unintended
potentially negative and positive impacts of a project on different groups within
the project area.

6. Ensure that national counterparts, co-workers and staff support a
people-focused approach to development. Project objectives become more
persuasive when the goals of FAO and actual projects reflect those of local
people Try to give both women and men input into project design and decision-
making. Make sure that national counterparts know the groups that the project
intends to serve. Try to work with counterparts who already work with the
various beneficiary groups

7. When possible, integrate both women and men into the central
activities of projects. It is generally more effective to involve both women and
men in achievement of primary project objectives If it is possible women and
men should work together, although a "women-only' project may be required
V there are strong taboos against unrelated males and females working
" the effects of past discrimination need to be overcome
/ many or most households are headed by women
" women specialize in tasks that could be made more productive with outside
V women request a measure of self-reliance to avoid conflict or competition
with men (Dixon-Mueller 1988)

8. Disaggregate data by gender in reporting. Disaggregation of data
highlights the importance of serving both men and women It can also
facilitate monitoring and reveal potential benefits or problems related to the
gender of participants. For example.' Results those trained, men 15, women
34. Total 49

9. Maintain a file that documents the impact of the project on benefici-
aries. When projects maintain a file that tracks different beneficiary groups
based on gender, it helps re-emphasize the importance of both men and
women as beneficiaries It can also make monitoring and evaluation easier A
project s internal reporting system should be efficient so that external reporting
is adequate

II Integrating gender


into the project cycle

This section outlines the ways that gender considerations need to be
integrated into the project cycle in its various stages. The different sections
highlight the particularly stage-related issues that need to be confronted
The successful integration of people-centred considerations in the
creation, implementation and operation of a project will depend most on
who participates in decision-making. The involvement of the communities
as partners in the development process will help guarantee that forestry
activities are designed to fit local circumstances. Similarly, the use of
consultants and staff members who are aware of and have terms of
reference (see chapter entitled "Choosing consultants and project staff )
that emphasize the importance of people-related concerns will further
reinforce the relevance of gender issues to each element of forestry efforts
For all project cycle stages, the information that will aid incorporation of
gender-related considerations into the project cycle will be consistently of
the same nature. The depth and type of analysis will, however, change as
design progresses. In-depth analysis will not need to take place in every
stage of the project cycle.
The gender analysis framework overleaf outlines the basic questions
that are relevant in the integration of gender considerations. Those
questions should guide the entire project cycle. Depending on the country,
the sector, the institutions, and other contextual factors, the answers to the
questions in the framework can produce very different profiles.

Left: A reforestation project in Tunisia

Gender analysis framework: basic questions

1. Who does what? What is the actual (as opposed to the idealized) division of
labour between men and women in the project area. For example, in many parts
ofrural Honduras the division oflabourbetween men and women is clear. The men
plant (siembran) the corn and the women grind (muelen) the corn. It can also be
important to consider who provides "informal" assistance related to given tasks.
In Honduras, although cultural prescriptions clearly divide labour by gender, the
whole family helps in the fields when the corn needs to be harvested or the men
leave the farm to work in sugar cane fields or pick coffee.

2. Who has what? Who has access to and control over private resources in the
project area? In Honduras, for example, women in particular often have access to
and control over land surrounding the house (solares). Those areas often have trees
and vegetation that provide both food and income for the family.

3. What influences arrangements related to resource access and control ?
What cultural and religious prescriptions, laws, economic and political policies
influence gender-differentiable rights ofaccess and control. Are an, ofthe gender-
based distinctions flexible? In what ways are rules changing. if at all" In Kenn a.
because 60% ofrural households arenow headed or managed b %\ omen. their ha\ e
begun to take on jobs that were traditional I done b\ men The cultural prescrip-
tions have evolved through necessity.

4. How are public resources distributed and who gels what? \ hat institu-
tional structures are involved; dothey 'function equitable and efficiently I low can
institutional responsiveness to all community members be insured? For e\am ple.
until recently in Honduras little attention was given to the land ad agriculture
which women controlled. Extension services focused primarily on coin gi oi ng
(and therefore men). Women are now being trained to use fuel efficient soves and
to grow vegetables.

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

1. Pre-identification

IN PRE-IDENTIFICATION, it is most important to
discuss explicitly the project beneficiaries and
highlight gender considerations. Starting the
'. t process by enunciating the relevant considera-
'-. .i tions and focusing attention on the intended
beneficiaries implicitly sets the tone for both
li '- : future documentation and the project itself.
The idea for a project can come from a range
Sof different sources donors, governments,
-- rural communities and multilateral organiza-
tions among others. Generally, pre-identification
presents a social, economic or political oppor-
Stunity or problem in a geographic area with a
proposal for how to respond. Needs and op-
A wood vendor in Nepal .
A wood vendor in Nepal portunities can vary greatly -fuelwood, income
from non-timber forest products, access to forest foods, trained forestry personnel,
for example. Regardless ofthe target issue, answering the following five questions
can lay the foundation for a project that focuses on the beneficiaries:
v Which sectors, institutional personnel and community groups and individuals
will be involved?
V Who, around the world, is working on similar problems?
V Who is working on similar problems in the targeted geographic region?
V Who is examining the impact ofsimilartypes ofproblems on local people, both
men and women?
V What women's and men's groups, both inside and outside the proposed project
area, can be consulted?
By considering each ofthese questions, the pre-identification statement can be
written in an informed manner that adds both substance and credibility. The
questions also help immediately focus the project on participants, both men and
women. The pre-identification can be short while still responding to the questions.

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

Pre-identification: an example from Indonesia

Indonesia's Directorate General ofForest Utilization and Ministry ofForestry
and several communities in East Kalimantan, along with FAO's Community
Forestry Unit and Forest Products Marketing and Non-wood Forest Products
Branches, are interested in promoting the development of non-timber forest
products processing capability for income generation in East Kalimantan.
Forest products help support the livelihood ofmore than 100,000 Indone-
sians. Many studies of forest products in Asiahave examined the significance
ofawide range offorestproducts, from traditional medicines and forest foods
to tools and othergoods for household use and sale (FAO 1991, Peluso 1993).
In East Kalimantan, rattan collection and trade are an extremely important
activity for both male and female peasants and off-farm labourers. The rattan
from that region comprises approximately 50% of Indonesian rattan exports,
valued at some $150 million annually. Much ofthe rattan is sold unprocessed,
removing much of the value-added production from the source of collection.
Given the importance of rattan to regional income, a project to increase local
male and female rattan processing capacity might be advisable.
The Community Forestry Unit within FAO has published many relevant
documents including Community Forestry Case Study 4, entitled Case
studies in forest-based small scale enterprises in Asia: rattan, matchmaking
and handicrafts. The Government of Indonesia is increasingly aware of the
important role women and men play in natural resource management and
forestry. For example, it has sponsored a series of studies on rattan harvesting,
processing and grading
East Kalimantan residents are aware of the income earning potential of
processing. Two Dayak brothers, for example, have established a first stage
processing centre. This centre employs both men and women wxho are
primarily producers and has led to the construction of a school and dormitory
for workers' children (FAO 1990). In order to explore the potential for a
project that promotes non-timber forest production and processing in the East
Kalimantan region of Indonesia, preparation ofa preliminary project descrip-
tion and appointment ofa project formulation team are recommended
NB: It is easy to draft a pre-identification statement that does not focus
on participants. The above example could have focused on forest products,
saying little about i ho relies on them or could benefit from promotional

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

2. Project identification,

formulation and appraisal

1 Daboutthe community andproject circumstances
S. is gathered and then confirmed in the project
f identification, formulation and appraisal stages.
The final output is the project document
which contains a statement of the goals, objec-
tives, activities and approach for the project.
Theoretically, identification, formulation and
appraisal have distinct purposes and approaches:
V The project identification phase is used to
gather the information that is needed to analyse
and assess the project situation. Project identi-
fication research is extensive and fairly general.
e During project formulation the relevant
Settlers in Brazilforest country technical, economic and social considerations
are investigated in detail. The formulation stage leads to production ofthe project
V Project appraisal validates the data and conclusions from formulation while
also reviewing the soundness ofthe project document on the policy, technical and
financial levels.
Frequently identification, formulation and appraisal are done simultaneously
or by a single team of people. As noted in the descriptions, the type and depth of
research and analysis will differ. However, in each of the three phases the
overriding principle is to ensure focus on:
V people and the effect the project will have on individuals; and,
V how the different activities, rights, needs and requirements of men and women
can be considered in project activities.
First, it is important to get an idea of the community. The local approach to
division of labour, and the rights, responsibilities, restrictions and benefits accrued
by different subgroups, particularly women and men, need to be understood if the

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

project is to be constructed truly considering all the relevant information. An
analysis of local rules, regulations and customs can help the team become aware
of the motives for and constraints to participation by different community
members. It can also help the team to identify positive and negative effects of
participation on different community members. Simply looking and knowing
what to look for can provide a new view of men's and women's roles in the
community and, therefore, indicate how the project may need to be adjusted given
the site. Driving, walking orriding through part ofthe project site with the project's
beneficiaries, objectives and some pertinent questions in mind can yield a great
deal of information about beneficiaries.

Project identification: gathering information

In order to ensure that beneficiaries and the opportunities for and constraints to
their involvement are properly considered in project identification, social and
socio-economic considerations must be examined to learn how proposed ben-
eficiaries live and work. The basic framework identified in Table 1 provides the
questions necessary for gathering the information that is needed at this stage.
Several methods can be used in information collection: research, observation and
consultation and discussion.


* Existing information
A review of literature is a good first step in project identification. The literature
search should be used to find out about the project area, the project objectives, the
people living in area and similar projects elsewhere. The literature that is used
should not be limited to external reports. When possible, it should combine
international, national and local documentation.
In order to carry out a literature review that emphasizes the relevant people-
related considerations, several particular subjects and types of institutions should
be consulted in different venues:
[] At FAO Rome headquarters. Publications available include:
V Restoring the balance, the FAO Forestry Department policy paper on women
and forest resources;
V Women in communityforestry: afield guide for project design and implemen-
tation, the FAO Forestry Department guidelines;
V the forestry-specific literature on participatory development and gender, land
tenure and farming systems research;

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

v the literature available from the FAO Women's Service, Agricultural Produc-
tion and Rural Development Service, the People's Participation Programme
Through the above resources, other possible information sources will become
apparent. Non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations, multi-
lateral organizations and universities are all potentially useful. For example,
women's organizations such as Kenya's Green Belt Movement, FINNIDA,
UNIFEM, the World Bank, non-governmental organizations and university social
sciences and women's studies departments are all sources of information regarding
relevant socio-economic issues including those relating to gender. Some have
published guidelines related to the integration of gender and women's issues in
O Within thepartner country. A review ofpartner country literature will help the
team understand the social or socio-economic issues: household characteristics,
land tenure considerations, population and migration, labour supply and employ-
ment, income levels, social welfare policy and social organization-when possible
all disaggregated by gender.
At national level, review government documents dealing with social or socio-
economic and gender issues and literature from universities, non-governmental
organizations and women's groups.
At local level, review any literature from women's groups, municipal govern-
ment agencies, cooperatives, extension offices, non-governmental organizations.

New studies
A full socio-economic study of the project area is not appropriate during identi-
fication. Until the project is formulated such surveys cannot be properly designed.
Socio-economic surveys on a variety of subjects (the specific topics will depend
on the foreseen activities) will be needed later to provide baseline data for
participatory project planning, monitoring and evaluation.
Rapid rural appraisal or participatory rural appraisal of the project area might
be advisable during identification. There are many approaches to appraisals and
the degree to which participants are actively involved varies. The gender analysis
framework in Table 1 provides the basic questions for a rapid appraisal. A more
detailed outline ofthe relevant questions is provided in Annex 1. Formore in-depth
consideration of the rapid appraisal approach to information gathering see
Community Forestry Notes 3 and 5, Rapid appraisal and Rapid appraisal oftree
and land tenure which are available in the FAO Forestry Department.
l Consultation and discussion. Consultation and discussion should also be used
to gather information. A range of different people can often give relevant

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

information from various perspectives and help ensure that relevant socio-
economic and gender-related issues are being considered. For example:
V Discuss the issues with villagers, both men and women, local organizations,
extension personnel, leaders of cooperatives and heads of municipal agencies
within the geographic boundaries of the project.
V Speak with the FAO Community Forestry Unit and Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development Service at FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy.
V Interview the heads of the governmental agencies within the partner country
that deal with women's concerns and with concerns of ethnic groups or the poor
in the country.
V Interview university department faculty who deal with gender issues in the
partner country. Ifthey are to be partners in the development process, consultations
with future project participants will be particularly important. Their early col-
laboration helps ensure that the project is developed with local circumstances
in mind.
[ Observation. Direct observation can help quickly gather information about a
potential project site. There are many ways to systematically observe a commu-
nity. Walk around the area at different times throughout the day and observe who
is doing which tasks.
In observing, the following people-related questions should be kept in mind.
In the town or village:
V Who are the people?
" Who looks prosperous and who less prosperous?
V What are women, men and children doing?
V Which institutions such as schools, religious buildings, health facilities and
markets are visible?
V Who works in these institutions men or women a- and who uses them?
Along back roads:
V Who are the people?
V Who is in the various types of fields?
V What are the women doing?
V What are the men doing?
V What natural resources are visible?
V What trees, bushes, plants and flowers are present; which of them seem to be
close to the homestead?
Before beginning to gather information with the community, the team needs to
introduce itself and explain why it has come and what it will do. Initial introduc-
tions can be done through a village meeting, radio announcements, or meetings
with village leaders who disseminate the information throughout the community.

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

The best approach will vary based upon the culture of the involved communities.
One quick way to assess a community through observation is the community
profile. Beginning at a predetermined point, members of the team walk in a
straight line through the project site, noting what they see. Each team member
is assigned a particular factor to observe: housing, trees, people, soils, etc. The
members each walk with a community member/guide, asking questions about
their observations.
Another way of observing is to randomly select several households in the
community to visit and solicit help in touring both the community and the
household's fields, trees, vegetation. When using this approach it is important to
have both the woman and man of the house show a team member around
independently. Separate tours often provide different insights.
Observation can also be done by a single member of the team wandering
through the community asking questions along the way.
In some locations it may be possible to spend at least one night with a local
family. Requesting such a stay can sometimes be made via a village head. This is
perhaps the best way to learn about many ofthe social and socio-economic factors
influencing the community. It can also provide a better opportunity to speak with
women as they are frequently most available in the late evening.

The project formulation frameworkdocument

The "project formulation framework document" is the output of the identification
process. It is a precursor to the project document.
The FAO Guidelines for the project formulation framework state that "dis-
cussion, debate and negotiations about the shape and content of the proposed
project are to centre on the ideas presented in the formulation Framework rather
than on the wording of a draft project document." Therefore, the project formu-
lation framework document must focus on the factors that will influence people's
access to project benefits. By doing so, the project design will naturally focus on
participants, and their needs and concerns.
Several particularly important concepts need to be explored and integrated into
the formulation framework document. By considering these issues, the proper in-
depth analysis will take place in formulation:
v The differential role and impact ofeconomic incentives (positive and negative)
v How and when to involve different beneficiary groups in various project
V The influence and importance of differential access to resources;
V How the organization and distribution of authority within a project can

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

influence success and the degree of participation;
/ How gender considerations can influence participation and project impact.
In each of these areas there are several factors that are known to be relevant to
the integration of gender considerations and the maintenance of a focus on people
in a project. Keeping these issues central to discussion of project design can help
ensure that activities will be more efficaciously structured.

The differential role and impact of economic incentives
O Depending on the forestry activities that are selected and who is involved in
their selection, participation or enthusiasm for a project willfrequently vary by
gender. The production of timber, poles and pulp tends to be the man's domain.
Therefore, unless women are consciously included in project activities, men tend
to be more involved in and benefit from this type of project. Similarly, home
gardens are often managed by the woman. Programmes to promote their use or
diversification will frequently be more likely to involve women.
z Forestry projects can have different economic impacts on men and women.
Forestry activities can inadvertently affect important income-earning opportuni-
ties for both participants and non-participants. Forestry projects sometimes
produce unanticipated employment for community as nursery workers, "budders
and grafters", or seedlings salespeople. Projects can also provide the opportunity
for people to sell food to project workers. Conversely, projects can inadvertently
limit job availability by reducing supplies of raw materials used in small-scale
enterprises. Men and women frequently have completely different tasks, income-
earning opportunities, and time schedules. As a result, the two groups are
frequently affected differently by forestry projects.
[ Income generation should not be automatically assumed to be of greater
importance than community fuelwood, medicine, forest foods and household
forest product needs. Often men and women have different priorities. All need to
be considered before objectives and activities can be selected.
O Women andmen are both interestedin cash returns. The large number ofwomen-
headed households (one in three worldwide) indicates that involving women in
commercially-oriented projects is extremely important. Sometimes involving
both women and men in projects requires special arrangements such as multiple
production sites, trainers and/or work schedules. By noting the particular needs of
different groups in the project formulation framework document, potential barri-
ers to full participation by both men and women can be foreseen and averted.
D Men and women often spend their income differently. Women, for example,
often spend a higher percentage of their money than men do on household needs.
In planning project activities, the possibly different effects of increases in

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

women's and men's incomes should be considered so that the potential unintended
effects of projects can be foreseen.

* Involving beneficiary groups in various project stages
- Local people often possess knowledge and insights that cannot be found
elsewhere. Projects that are designed without asking local men and women what
they know, what they want, what they can and cannot do, what they cannot do and
when they are available to do it, frequently exclude men or women defacto because
they are not designed to fit into work schedules or function within the cultural
setting. In Niger, a "successful" windbreak project succeeded in raising crops
between the rows of newly planted trees, but women's income actually fell as a
result. Only later was it realized that in the off-season women had kept small
ruminants in the agricultural fields; they had given up the practice after being fined
for allowing their animals to stray into the newly planted areas (FAO 1987).
O Women and men often possess different kinds ofknowledge. Men and women
can frequently identify community needs, risks and opportunities that may be
created by proposed activities; by doing so they can better determine the groups
that will benefit or suffer, and ensure that intended beneficiaries actually gain.
D Different groups often discuss their concerns and knowledge more fully among
themselves. Independently consulting different groups can help project planners
work with complete and clear information.
n Community priorities are not always apparent, nor universal. Though com-
munities may suffer evident shortages of fuel or fodder, their highest forest and
tree-related priorities may differ. Assumptions about different beneficiary groups'
priorities can also vary. Women are often believed to be most concerned about
fuelwood. Increasingly, however, it is found thatthis may not be their first priority.
O Both men and women work with trees, though the nature of the work may be
different and they may only be aware of the tree-related jobs their gender
performs. One anecdote relates the story ofa village man strenuously denying that
women grew trees despite the fact that the courtyard of his home was filled with
fruit trees planted by his wife and daughters.
O Formal monitoring and evaluation structures need to be placed in every
project. It is important to establish a system that can help determine the extent to
which different groups, disaggregated by gender within the community, are
involved in and benefit from various project activities.

* The influence and importance of differential access to resources
D Ownership ofandaccess to landoften differ by gender. In many societies women
do not possess land; they work their husband's or father's land. In both the Gambia

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

and Kenya, land has been legally allocated by the government to male heads of
household and male relatives, leaving women with responsibility for, but no legal
rights to the land. Often, even if women own land, the products from the land are
either in the name of or controlled by the senior male relative of the family.
O Women and men often control different areas and have different land use
preferences. Women often plant trees around the homestead; in most places this
area is considered women's domain. They usually plant multipurpose species.
w In some cultures tree planting signifies land ownership. General community
tree planting can sometimes face strong resistance from those with land tenure.
E Male and female differential time availability must be considered when
designing projects. Labour availability often varies by gender as well as time of
the day and season. The labour demands of forestry activities need to be assessed
along with a knowledge of men's and women's workloads and peak, critical
workload periods.
] Limitations on access to capital can limit project participation. Women, in
particular, often have little collateral to secure credit and are considered credit
risks. Sometimes they simply are not allowed access to credit. It should be noted
and emphasized that women frequently have proven better credit risks than men.
- In areas where there are many women-headed households, the cultural
barriers for women's participation in forestry seem to be breaking down. This is
rendering it easier to include them as participants in projects that focus on
traditionally male activities.
w Forestry activities sometimes pay women less than men for the same work. An
effort needs to be made to indicate men's and women's equal status in projects
even if pay is determined by output rather than time.

* How the organization and distribution of authority within a project can
influence success and the degree of participation
D Women sometimes have difficultyfullyparticipating in projects because they
have less education and less direct representation in community decision-making
bodies. Efforts to involve women as both direct participants and beneficiaries can
help them gain status within and outside the project context.
O Simply because a forester is a woman does not necessarily mean she will
support women's programmes. Gender sensitivity training is useful for both men
and women. Including women professionals on ateam can sometimes increase the
likelihood that more attention is paid to women beneficiaries or that women
beneficiaries are willing to participate and discuss their interests. It is crucial, in
any circumstance, that the obligation to consider gender issues is explicit in the
consultant's terms of reference.

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

r Projects should work to include the more and less powerful members of a
community. If projects work to involve groups and individuals that are not
traditional community heads they can often (i) gather information they might not
have learned otherwise, (ii) better target a variety of beneficiary groups, (iii)
narrow the gap between richer and poorer, and (iv) help broaden the circle of
project participants.

* How gender considerations influence participation and project impact
l Project design can sometimes be influencedbyfaultyculturalassumptions and
social attitudes; try not to exclude groups from projects on the basis ofmisconcep-
tions. In one region ofIndia, for example, training project to improve lacquerware
production, a non-timber forest product, taught men and not women to use electric
powered lathes because it was erroneously felt that women were not capable of
using them. As a result, the speed and quality of women's production was lower
and women consistently earned less than men did fortheir lacquerware (Campbell
O Training can often impart both a skill and a sense of self-worth. In Nepal, an
impact evaluation ten years after a literacy project showed that few women could
still read. It also found, however, that through the classes, women had gained self-
confidence; some had become community leaders (Hocking 1990).

Project formulation

Socio-economic studies oftheproject region and people, disaggregated by gender,
need to be conducted during project formulation. The studies that are completed
during the formulation stage are used to obtain answers to the more detailed
questions related to beneficiaries (see Annex 1). These studies provide the
foundation for beneficiary identification and monitoring participation. The in-
depth analysis in formulation culminates in development ofthe project document.

The project document

The project document must continue to emphasize the focus on people. Different
parts of the document need to highlight alternative elements of a beneficiary-
focused approach.
The project document includes statements of:
" the project's rationale;
V the development objectivess;
/ the project's immediate objectives, outputs and activities;

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

V the risks;
V the project reporting scheme and a schedule for review and evaluation.
Each element of the document must be described to focus on the participants:
V how beneficiaries can be identified;
V how participation can be monitored;
V how the project's impact on various beneficiary groups can be monitored;
V how costs and benefits as they relate to different beneficiary groups can be
compared and assessed.

* The project's rationale
The project rationale explains why the project is needed, outliningthe location and
resource opportunity and constraints. In order to properly focus on people, this part
ofthe project document should centre analysis ofthe need for a project on the status
and expressed needs ofproposed participants. For example, the project's rationale
might first state: "The decline in Rabat forestt economy andthe resultingnegative
effect on agriculture have most directly affected the rural poor in the Northeast.
In that region the rural poor are primarily subsistence-level cultivators that farm
steeply-sloping marginal land. "
Following this participant-focused description, the rationale could go on to
describe the site's latitude, agriculture, climate, vegetation and technical assist-
ance needs.

* The development objective
The development objective describes the over-arching long-term project goal. It
should present the goal as it relates to intended beneficiaries. By communicating
the objective in a detailed, participant-oriented manner, consideration of benefi-
ciary-related factors is promoted. Rather than stating the objective "to develop and
introduce sustainable land utilisation system involving intercropping oftrees and
plants", it could be specified to read:
"to develop an environmentally advantageous, productive land utilisation system
that renders rural communities 'farming systems sustainable, especially those of
the women and men ofthe poorer strata as identified by low nutritional status."

* The immediate objectives
The project document's explanation of the immediate objectives, outputs and
activities would:
" identify the intended beneficiaries,
V design activities,
V explain why beneficiaries would indeed benefit, and

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

/ encourage built-in monitoring of participation.
The statement ofimmediate objectives could build on the statement ofthe rationale
and development objectives:
"to promote participatory agroforestry development on steep-sloping farm land,
especially considering the differential effect of customary land tenure on women
and men."

* Determining outputs and activities
In order to select activities and outline outputs, opportunities and risks, formula-
tion team research would need to include analyses ofpeople/gender-related issues.
For example, the potential feasibility ofthe project might be studied by examining
land use rules to determine division of labour and land use/ownership rights.
The statement of outputs and activities would build on that foundation to
ensure involvement of beneficiaries and activities to answer questions that would
uncover participant-related risks. The activities might include:
"Establish an extension station which encourages agroforestry on steep-sloping
farm land by both male and female farmers. "
Built into the selection ofactivities would need to be mechanisms to ensure that
the project was designed and implemented to consider the differences between
women and men as they regard the following questions:
V participant activities: Who plants? Who weeds? Who harvests? Do theserights
vary based on location?
V access to and control of resources: Who has access to trees? Who controls the
forest harvest?
V constraints they face: Do women and men face different constraints? Do ethnic
groups have differential access to resources?
V time availability: During which times of the day/which seasons are men and
women available to work with extensionists ?
V local customs: Can men and women work together?

* The opportunities and risks
A statement ofthe opportunities and risks highlights potential problems that may
be encountered. Proper research and activity design can decrease risks. No project
can, however, hope to eliminate them completely. Problems can relate to a variety
offactors. As projects begin to consider and incorporate socio-economic concerns
earlier in the process of design, risks can be minimized and better defined.
A programme to encourage home gardens might, for example, identify two
risks: (1) the relative regularity of drought; (2) thatthe project may suffer from low
male participation because home gardens are traditionally a woman's activity.

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

* Project reporting, review and evaluation
The specifics for reporting, review and evaluation need to incorporate mechanisms
to monitor and evaluate participation by and the impact of the project on different
beneficiary groups. The methods that are recommended do not need to be complex.
They do, however, need to ensure awareness of the potentially different impact of
the project on different groups within the community. For example:
V use a chart that identifies the inputs (i.e. seedlings, training) and tracks
recipients by gender, ethnic group, age, social status.
V track how project field personnel's time is distributed among various benefi-
ciary groups differential time allocation can serve as an indicator of varying
levels of participation.
Analyse extension and outreach services:
V with whom are personnel in contact; with whom do they interact?
V are there women extension agents to work with local women?
V are field personnel working with the full spectrum of intended beneficiaries?

Project appraisal

Project appraisal should, in addition to checkingthe soundness ofthe technical and
financial foundations ofa project, examine the extent to which beneficiary-related
considerations have been adequately assessed and used in design. By using the
relevant issues that were identified in the last chapter as a guide, the appraisal team
can ensure that men's and women's specific needs have been considered and
integrated into planning.

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

3. Implementation, monitoring and


continuously monitored and evaluated. This
section outlines the proper way to consider
women's and men's interests in each of these
stages. It also provides guidelines for comple-
tion of the following:
V The inception report
'/ Semi-annual and annual reports
SV The tripartite review
V The terminal report.


Preparing seedlings in Peru It is, ofcourse, easier to implement a project that
considers the needs and demands ofbeneficiar-
ies when the project design process has maintained the focus on participants; the
project document is presumably written on the basis of the requisite analytical
findings. Frequently, however, the project has not been formulated with an
adequate knowledge of men's and women's needs and, hence, activities are
improperly conceived. In these circumstances, the first project activity needs to be
completion of the requisite people-focused analyses so that activities can be
adapted prior to implementation. An outline of the issues these studies need to
confront is provided in the chapter "Integrating gender considerations into the
project cycle".

The inception report

The inception report revises the plans contained in the project document based
upon the reality ofthe project site and lays out the work plan. The inception report
should make sure to note any participant-related factors that influenced develop-

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

meant ofthe project and its work plan. For example, ifthe timing oftraining sessions
was governed by an assessment of task distribution and time availability, the
analysis that was completed should be briefly described.

Semi-annual and annual reports

Semi-annual reports are required of FAO Trust Fund projects. They are written
using the "Project progress report: Trust Fund Programme" form. Annual reports
are required of United Nations Development Programme projects. They are
written using the "Project performance evaluation report: United Nations Devel-
opment Programme."
By adding the following information to the sections noted for each relevant
form, reporting can more accurately include an assessment of participation
disaggregated by gender.

* Semi-annual report: "The project progress report Trust Fund Programme"
In completing the project progress report Form consider the following:
m Title ofproject. Unless the project title or objectives explicitly include the
words "women" or "woman", the FAO computerized data system will not know
if women are a part of the project activities. These data are essential in
implementing the FAO's Women in Development policy. By adding an indica-
tion of the beneficiaries to the title, a concrete record of the intended benefici-
aries is created.
O Section A -progress andoutputs. Currently the form reads: "Recall briefly the
immediate objectives and describe progress towards their achievement and in
particular the outputs produced during the reporting period as outlined in plan of
operation/work plan under all headings and sub-headings." Include a description
of the beneficiaries and the impact of the outputs on the ultimate beneficiaries,
identifying any differences in impact on different beneficiary groups.
O Section B Inputs. Currently the form reads: "l. List national and international
professional staff assigned to the project during the reporting period. Names and
Functions." List the gender of the staff people as well. The form also says: "2.
Report training activities during the reporting period, viz: fellowships, study tours,
field days, local workshops, etc. Please list how many trainees were involved in
each activity." Disaggregate the numbers trained by gender ... For example: 47
trained, 30 women, 17 men.
O After Section C, "Problems encountered and actions taken or requested to
resolve them ". Add a new section: "By whom are the project outputs being used?"
Be as specific as possible about the beneficiaries, using specific characteristics,

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

including the proportion of women.
O Section E "Work plan and expected outputs for the next reporting period".
Include a description of the specific characteristics of the expected beneficiaries
with a breakdown by gender.

* Annual report: "Project performance evaluation report- UNDP."
n Title of project. Once again, unless the project title or objectives include the
words "women" or "woman" the FAO computerized data system will not record
that women are a part of the project activities. These data are essential in
implementing the FAO women in development policy. In the Section "Summary
of conclusions", include a description of the immediate beneficiaries and the
ultimate beneficiaries.
O Section 4. Currently the form reads: "Ifproduced, to what extent and by whom
is the output being used?" Include information on the gender and socio-economic
status of the recipients/participants.
O Section IV.6. Currently the form reads: "Has the project had any significant
unforeseen effects either positive or negative?" Include an analysis of the specific
affect on beneficiaries, disaggregated as necessary to show differential effects on
different groups.
O Section 7 (b). Currently the form reads: "What action do you recommend to be
undertaken by any of the three parties involved (Government, executing agency,
UNDP) to improve the effectiveness of the project?" Consider adding recommen-
dations related to how participatory the project is and/or the extent to which socio-
economic considerations were adequately assessed. Additionally, think about
including some recommendations for community/participant action.
O The status ofactivities form. The "comments" column can be used to list the
beneficiary group for each activity.
O Report annexes. An annex could be added to discuss the socio-economic
effects of the project, the level of participation by different beneficiary groups and
the potential for men and women to independently benefit from the project.

Monitoring and evaluation

Any project monitoring and evaluation system should integrate the local people's
perspectives on the project as well as that of project staff and national forestry
officers. The evaluation process should include different groups of local people's
responses to the major evaluation questions: how were local people involved in
planning and implementing the project; how have they benefited from the effort;
do they believe the project attained its goals and/or local goals?

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

The beneficiaries: asking the questions

Monitoring should include identification and tracking of participants. Gender
disaggregated examinations of intended and actual beneficiaries can unearth
explanations for under-participation by different groups.

* Identifying beneficiaries
V Who are the various intended beneficiaries?
V Who is actually participating ?
* How were the beneficiaries identified?
A socio-economic survey?
Local counterparts?
V How are the actual beneficiaries characterized? Age, gender, socio-economic
status, regional, provincial or ethnic affiliation?
V Are the intended and actual beneficiaries similar in profile? Why or why not?

* Monitoring participation
* How have the ultimate beneficiaries been involved with the project?
V Who has been involved: Women, men, ages, socio-economic status, ethnicity?
V What monitoring system does the project have in place to track who has been
involved and how?

* Determining the impact of the project on the beneficiaries
/ How is the impact of the project on the beneficiaries being assessed?
V Is there a differential impact on different groups? On women? On men?
In order to answer these questions adequately, some form of socio-economic
survey or series of interviews could be conducted. The results should clearly
outline the following:
V The project-related activities of the beneficiaries, gender-disaggregated
V The beneficiaries' access to and control of project-related resources
/ The constraints faced by particular beneficiaries
Finally, include a copy of the FAO Community Forestry Unit's "Guidelines for
monitoring people and gender issues in FAO forestry projects" with the terms
of reference for the monitoring and evaluation team.

Integrating gender considerations into the project cycle

The tripartite review mission

The tripartite evaluation is a comprehensive on-site review of all the key compo-
nents ofa project with the purpose of improving the project design and implemen-
tation. It is conducted by a team representing the host government, the donor and
the implementing agency, FAO.
Terms of reference are written for the tripartite review, providing a guide for
the team of what is to be evaluated. It is essential the terms of reference ensure that
beneficiary-related issues are assessed, therefore, all tripartite terms of reference
should explicitly ask the monitoring questions outlined in the previous section
"The beneficiaries: asking the questions".

The terminal report

The terminal report, written at the end of the project, has two basic parts:
V an assessment ofthe extent to which project activities have been implemented,
outputs have been produced and progress has been made in achieving the project
V a presentation of recommendations for follow-up.
The project management prepares the terminal report. In writing the terminal
report, it is essential to examine the extent to which the people-centred objectives
were achieved and the extent to which pre-implementation preparation helped or
hindered project efficacy.

IV Choosing
and project staff

Left E\ie,msiJ,' stqa/ and. /iainnEr in 'western Zambia

Choosing consultants and project staff

1. Identification/formulation team

_)0f THE SELECTION, ORIENTATION and briefing of both
consultants and project staff must emphasize
the crucial importance of gender-related con-
1. siderations. The project identification and for-
mulation teams may be composed of different
people. Similar considerations should, how-
ever, go into the selection and briefing of team

SDrafting terms of reference

The terms of reference (TORs) for the formula-
tion team need to be written within a conceptual
worker withfarnersinGhana framework that emphasizes the need to con-
Project worker with farmers in Ghana
sider issues related to the intended beneficiar-
ies. The terms of reference should generally include:
V a statement of the project's origin and rationale;
V the outputs expected from the team formulation;
V the general rules the team must follow;
V the major project selection and design constraints and suggested project
activities that might be included.

Composing the teams

The following is an example of an identification team TORs that includes the
necessary components and emphasizes the need to consider issues related to the
intended beneficiaries. In orderto maintain the project's focus on the participants,
project personnel should be both technically strong and aware of the relevant
socio-econom ic and gender-related issues. The project identification/formulation
team sets the stage for the project so careful selection of the team is crucial.

Choosing consultants and project staff

Use of wasteland for farm forestry -
project identification team

Terms of reference
a) Farm forestry can be used to grow trees on wasteland and marginal land. It
is an effective approach to affi restdtiun %\ hen there is the active and willing
participation of the local people, both men and women. A community in the
arid region of Nicaragua would like to use farm forestry to develop degraded
b) The identification team will need to determine the farm forestry activities
needed for the project in the area. The community needs income, has an
interest in afforestation and is familiar with cooperative work. The team must
identify specific target beneficiaries, goals and potential collaborative insti-
tutions/organizations % within the community. Project identification must in-
clude consultations with different segments of the community including
women's groups and farmer's cooperatives. The general object es for the
project ill need to be de% eloped using panlicipatorn techniques and integrating
farm forestry.
c) Every stage and element of the project must he consistent \\ ith FAO's
commitments to: serving the %world's farmers, particularly the smallest and
poorest. cictic el,. engagingbeneficiaries in projects: ensuring that the concerns
of both women and men are always specifically taken into account.
d) Ultimately the leadership for the project must come from the community
itself. The project must be designed to reflect cornmunit\ members' (both
rnen's and \\ omen's desires. acti\ ities. access to and control over resources
and constraints.
e) Project activities might include training in leadership, farm forestry
techniques. small business operation orcooperative learningtechn iques. Both
men and women need to participate in the project. The team must design an
approach that \\ ill facilitate fill participation. Participatory techniques should
be used to implement the activities.

The team leader

The team leader creates the tone for the entire project identification and formula-
tion processes. It is critical that this individual be made aware of the importance
of focusing on and continually considering both beneficiaries in general and

Choosing consultants and project staff

relevant groups of beneficiaries such as men and women, individually.
V When possible, the team leader should have training in gender analysis prior
to or as part of briefing. The FAO training in gender analysis through the Women
in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service is one resource that is
V The team leader should be given the FAO Forestry Resource Packet on Gender
Analysis and Women in Development (above) for review. Additional information
related to people's participation and gender-related issues in forestry can also be
useful tools for the team leader. S/he can retain these as references for the whole
V The team leader needs to understand, and feel responsible for, the centrality of
the social or socio-economic issues of the project. During briefing, the team leader
should be made aware of the fact that s/he has a mandate to consider the
beneficiaries and particularly groups of beneficiaries in all parts and at all times
during the analysis.

The FAO forestry resource packet
on gender analysis and women in development

1. FAO. 1990. "Handouts, incorporating gender concerns into project
formulation". Adapted from USAID Gender issues in agriculture and
natural resource management, Rome, Italy.
2. FAO. 1987. Restoring the balance: women and forest resources, Rome,
3. FAO. 1989. Women in community forestry: afield guide for project
design and implementation, Rome, Italy.
4. Sivard, Ruth Leger. 1985. Women a world survey, Carnegie Corpora-
tion of New York. World Priorities, Washington D.C., USA.
5. Molnar, A., Women andforestry: operational guidelines.
6. United States Agenrc for International Development. 1989. The gender
information framework: a pocket guide, Office of Women in Develop-
ment, Washington D.C., USA.
7. Vainio-Mattila, A. and V.L. Wilde. 1992. Field manual on gender
analysis andforestry, FAO, Rome, Italy.
8. Wilde, V.L. and A. Vainio-Mattila. 1992. Gender analysis
framework for forestry development, FAO, Rome, Italy.

Choosing consultants and project staff

V The team leaderneedsto be able to articulate the need to focus on and work with
project beneficiaries, both men and women, and what they do.

The team

It is important that team members are aware ofthe potential significance of socio-
economic, beneficiary and gender-related issues in project design. Indicators of
potential team member's awareness might be:
V familiarity with the concept and practice of participatory development;
V previous work with projects that involve the poor;
V training and/or a willingness to be trained, in gender analysis;
V background in the social sciences;
V familiarity with the concept and literature of gender considerations or women
in development.
All team members would need to be aware of some of the basic, relevant
differences between men and women with regard to trees and forests:
V land tenure laws, both customary and statutory, may be different for men and
V some women may retain exclusive rights to leaves, branches, fruits and/or nuts
of a tree, while the tree itself may be "owned" by the man;
V women may choose one crop over another to avoid the need for male labour
during land clearing;
V women and men may make separate and different decisions about the use and
sale of forest products;
V men and women may prefer different tree species based on the tasks they
The various team members will need to focus particularly on varied types of
information that differentiate the needs and interests of men and women as well as
other distinct beneficiary groups. For example, a legal expert would particularly
need to know the differential tenure rights of women and men. Similarly, an
economist would need to be aware of the different income earning activities and
expenditures of men and women.

Including a gender analysis expert

The inclusion ofateam memberwho is specifically responsible for gender analysis
can sometimes help ensure that the concerns ofthe project beneficiaries, both men
and women, are consistently considered.
A gender analysis expert can relieve some of the pressure on the team leader

Choosing consultants and project staff

because s/he challenges the team to report on the relevant beneficiary-related
considerations. If there is a gender analysis expert and s/he lacks the full support
of the team leader, however, his/her people and gender-related concerns can
become peripheral to the mission in any case. The team must appreciate both the
integral importance of beneficiary and gender-related considerations to the project
and the effect that lack of attention to these issues can have on all aspects of project
planning and implementation.
Often a team member plays a dual role; working within his/her professional
discipline- sociology, forestry, nutrition or economics, for example while
simultaneously serving as the gender analysis expert. If this approach is used, the
expert needs to have his/her dual mandates clearly defined. The terms of reference
need to indicate the importance of applying gender analysis and consideration of
other beneficiary-related issues across subject specialities. If the "dual role"
approach is used, it is not adequate to simply, for example, give a woman on the
team responsibility for the analysis of gender considerations. Being female is not
enough- the expert must have expertise in the field of gender analysis.
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recommends that
whether or not the gender analysis expert plays a dual role, s/he should have skills
that mesh with the project objectives in orderto maximize his/her credibility with
other team members, partner institution and country colleagues. His/her experi-
ence and academic background should be equal to that ofthe other team members
(CIDA 1989).

Choosing consultants and project staff

2. Terms of reference for project

personnel and consultants

TERMS OF REFERENCE outline the duties, tasks and
obligations of project experts and consultants.
TORs usually begin with a statement about who
will supervise the consultant and then outline
Their duties. If the TORs are to help centre the
Project and design of activities on beneficiaries,
they need to link the technical assistance that is
provided to the project beneficiaries. To en-
courage the appropriate kind of research and
analysis the TORs must be specific.

Chief technical advisor

For the chief technical advisor to a project, the
Transplanting seedlings in AIgeria
terms of reference will need to ensure that the
approach to implementation and operation considers people-related issues and
beneficiary concerns. For example:
"Under the general supervision of the Director of Forestry Department
Operations (FODO) and the direct supervision of the overseeing operations
officers, the chief Technical Officer will be responsible for management and
coordination of the project activities. The work will include:
Selaboration of a work plan for the project. The work plan will be subject to the
approval of FODO;
V creation of any additional terms of reference for consultants to the project;
V organization, implementation and oversight of all activities related to the
project including extension work, training programmes, field visits, monitoring
and evaluation, etc., ensuring that the interests and concerns of both FAO and
target project participants are considered in implementation and operation;
V technical supervision of consultant and expert activities on the basis of their
terms of reference;

Choosing consultants and project staff

V completion of the required project progress reports;
V supervision of all project activities;
V selection of national project staff;
V preparation of a terminal report three months before the end of the project."

Other personnel

The terms of reference for other project personnel will also need to ensure that
implementation decisions will be made with the involvement and input of
participants. For a project that has the objective "to promote agroforestry on steep-
sloping farm land," the terms of reference of a Training and Extension Specialist
might read as follows.

Terms of reference -
Training and extension specialist

Under the general supervision of the chief technical advisor, and given the
project's objective "to promote participatory forest development on steep-
sloping farm land," the consultant \ ill perform the follow ing:
Undertake a quick review to determine the men and women who farm the
steep-sloping marginal land;
Interview at least six local people who farm the relevant land, three women
and three men, to gain an understanding of seasonal patterns of land use and
time availability and how they differ by gender;
Determine land use preferences and beneficiary priorities for the land (they
may differ by participant subgroup);
Develop and initiate a locally-adapted training and extension approach that
will provide access to services, information and inputs to both men and women
farmers in the area;
Derive a list of specific topics extension workers and training programmes
should be prepared to cover based upon participant preferences and land

Questions to answer
when investigating
gender issues

In a more in-depth analysis of the gender-related issues, it can be helpful
to analyse separately the relevant considerations for individually relevant
groups and activities. The following is a framework outlining the specifically
relevant considerations to examine in different contexts
Each analysis should begin by disaggregating issues at the project site
because asking certain questions about different parts of the community
can help clarify each community sub-group and its relationship to project

Questions to answer when investigating gender issues

A RURAL FAMILY LIVES within a system composed of four basic parts:
V the household and its individual members
V the livestock and wildlife
V the crops; and
V the natural vegetation including trees and forests

The household and its individual members

m Who makes up a household ?
V Husband, wife and children?
V Husband, wives, grandparents and children?
V A woman and her child?
In many regions, the extendedfamily makes a definition of "household" difficult.
In one area ofAfrica, the definition became "those people who eat from the same
pot" or "use the same cookingfire". Whatever the definition, it should be used
consistently by the project team.

* How many female headed households are there ?
Note that differentforms ofliving arrangements- monogamy, polyandry, consen-
sual unions and polygamy have different implications for different family
members depending on age and gender. In many parts of the world it is a matter
of honour that a man be counted as head of household even though he may be
absent because ofdeath, divorce, migration, or abandonment.

* How do rights differ within a household ?
A first wife may haveprivileges oflandtenure that the thirdwife does not have. An
older woman often has more freedom and decision-making power than does a
woman ofchild-bearing age. A man may own a tree, but the women may control
its leaves or fruit.

The livestock and wildlife

* What livestock are kept ?
* Are they large or small animals?
* Why are they kept: milk, eggs, dung, religious reasons, status, bride wealth?
/ Are wild animals used; how are they used, during what seasons ?
Taboos surrounding the use ofanimals and animal products are frequent. In
many areas, very little meat is eaten, especially by women, andparts ofthe animal,
even a chicken or fish, are relegated by gender, age and status. Among the Shona

Questions to answer when investigating gender issues

in Zimbabwe, for example, cattle are usedfor manure, forploughing, to enhance
male status and as payment to a bride's father. Seldom are cattle used for beef

* Who takes care of different animals ?
V Do women and men have control over different animals?
V Who milks animals and collects fodder and dung?
V Who builds pens and what type of material do they use?
V Who benefits from the livestock and in what way?
V If women are in charge, does the fodder need to be available close to the
household compound?
Women frequently care for small livestock calves, chickens, rabbits while
men care for large animals. Sometimes women manage the animals that remain
close to the home while men manage those that go greater distances; herds
requiring grazing, fodder and water.

* Who hunts, processes and benefits from large game, small animals,
insects and fish?

The crops

* What crops annual and perennial are raised and how are they used?
t Which are for sale and which are for home use?
V How are trees used to manage soil, water or wind for annual crop production?
V When trees are introduced as crops, whose land will be used?
V Will food or income patterns change?
In many rural areas of the world, households have fruit trees banana, mango,
coconut, jackfruit, breadfruit, papaya, guava, cashew, apples, berries- near the

V Who in the household works with the crops?
V Who plants, who cooks and who markets?
V Do men and women work with different crops ?
The management ofspecific crops is often closely related to gender. In many parts
ofsub-Saharan Africa, women are responsible for certain crops and have their
own fields. Often these are subsistence crops, such as cassava, millet, vegetables.
Men are more involved with cash crops, rice, coffee and tea.
Even when crops are grown by women and men together, the related tasks may
be gender-specific. In Sri Lanka, both men and women are actively involved in
agriculture. Men, however, are primarily responsible for land preparation and

Questions to answer when investigating gender issues

chemical application, whereas women dominate other tasks-seeding, transplant-
ing, weeding, harvesting and processing. As a result, when a tree plantation is
introduced, for example, men may be responsible for clearing the land while
women may have responsibility for carrying water. When agroforestry is intro-
duced, women may need to spend time weeding around the trees while men may
sell the goods produced and control the income.

Natural vegetation and trees

* What areas of natural vegetation are available and how are they used?
V Is there communal land and what are the rules for its use?
V If there is forest reserve land, who has access to which products from it?
V Are there products that could benefit rural families if made available?
" Could these areas be managed to provide more benefits, especially to the poor,
without placing others at a disadvantage?
V Who in the household collects and uses these products?
Landless and land poor families everywhere take advantage offorest and tree
resources when they are available. A study shows that farm families in Northeast
Thailand obtain 60% oftheirfood from nearby forests. In India, landless women
often dependon governmentforestsfor food, fuel and fodderfor family use andraw
materials for forest products they sell.

* What trees are found on the farm and in household areas, who controls
them, who has the rights to them and who actually uses them ?
V Iftrees are in fields or near homes, which are they and what are their functions?
V Were they planted, protected or "just there"?
V If they were planted, were they planted by seed, cutting, transplanted from
elsewhere or from seedlings raised or purchased from a nursery?
V Who in the family selected the trees, who planted them and who has the rights
to fruits, leaves, branches?
V Who can cut the trees down?
V Which trees, if any, are used for fodder, medicines, fuelwood, food or soil,
water or wind management?
V Are they for household use or income-generation?
V Are they used to provide shelter for animals, as building materials or to make
household utensils?

* Who in the family has control over land use and other tree and forestry

Case projects

Bibliography/case projects


Anker, R., M.E. Khan, R.B. Gupta. 1988. Women's participation in the labourforce.
A methods test in Indiafor improving its measurement. International Labour Office,
Campbell, J. (ed.). 1991. Women's role in dynamic forest-based small scale enter-
prises: case studies on uppage and lacquerware from India. FAO, Rome.
Canadian International DevelopmentAgency(CIDA). 1990. Women inforestry: Andhra
Pradesh social forestry. Quebec.
Canadian Interntional Development Agency (CIDA) 1989. Women in development
and the project cycle. September, Quebec.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 199). Women in development:
a sectoralperspective. Quebec.
Casley, D.J. and K. Krishna. 1987. Project monitoring and evaluation in agriculture.
Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
Castro, A.H. 1990. "Social science support for community forestry: an introductory
guide" (Draft). FAO, Rome.
Commission of the European Communities. 1991. The integration of women in de-
velopment: why, when and how to incorporate gender into Lome IV projects and
programmes. Brussels.
Dixon-Mueller, R. and R. Anker. 1988. Assessingwomen's economic contributions to
development. International Labour Office, Geneva.
Falconer, J. and C. Koppell (editor). 1990. The majorsignificance of 'minor'forest
products: the local use and value offorests in the West African humidforest zone.
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FAO. 1991. Committee on Fisheries, Nineteenth Session: "The role of women in
fisheries development". Rome.
FAO. 1990 Committee on Forestry Tenth Session: "Women in forestry". Rome, Italy.
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August, Bangkok.
FAO. 1989. Community forestry: rapid appraisal oftree and land tenure. Rome.
FAO. 1989. Forests, trees and people. Rome.
FAO. 1989. Progress report on the implementationofthePlanofActionforIntegration
of Women in Development. FAO Conference, Twenty-fifth Session, November,
FAO. 1989. Women and community forestry in Sudan. Rome.

Bibliography/case projects

FAO. 1989. Women in community forestry: a field guide for project design and
implementation. Rome.
FAO. 1988. The developmentofvillage-basedsheepproduction in WestAfrica. Rome,
FAO. 1988. What it is, what it does. Rome.
FAO. 1988. WorldConference onAgrarian Reform andRuralDevelopment: Guidelines
on socio-economic indicators. Rome.
FAO. 1988. World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development: Ten
years offollow-up the impact ofdevelopment strategies on the rural poor. Rome.
FAO. 1987. restoring the balance: women and forest resources. Rome.
FAO. 1984. Guidelines for the evaluation of Technical Cooperation Projects. Rome.
FAO. 1983. Field Programme reporting manual. Rome.
FAO. 1983. Reform and rural development on women, small farmers and landless
labourers. Rome.
FAO. 1981. Checklist for women in development for programming and project
formulation. Rome.
FAO. 1980. Committee on Forestry: towards a forestry strategy for development.
Gerden, C.A. and S. Mtallo. 1990. Traditional forest reserves in Babati District,
Tanzania. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, International Rural De-
velopment Centre, Uppsala.
Hirvela, I. 1988. "Assessment of consideration of women-related aspects in the
projects and programmes included in the FAO/Finland Cooperative Programme",
unpublished document.
Hocking, D. 1990. "Selection oftheappropriate indicators". IntheFAO/SIDA Forests,
trees andpeople Newsletter 11, December.
Huizer, G. 1983. Human Resources, Institutions andAgrarian Reform Division. FAO,
Kerns, V. 1985. Reportingon women andmen inFAO-assistedforestryprojects. FAO,
Moser, C.O.N. 1989. "Gender planning in the Third World: meeting practical and
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Niamir, M. 1990. Communityforestry: herders 'decision-making in natural resources
managementinaridandsemi-aridAfrica, Community Forestry Note6. FAO, Rome.
Powell, M. and F. Tanner. 1989. Women in development source book. July, CIDA,
Prasai, Y. 1989. "Women's participation on forest committees". In Women's role in
forest resource management, edited by B. van der Borg. FAO, Bangkok.
Rao, A. et al. 1991. Gender training and development planning: learning from

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Regnier, A. 1990. Guidelines for project formulation for Trust Fund projects. FAO,
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Bibliography/case projects

Case projects

BGD/84/054 "Assistance to Community Forestry Programme by upazillas"
(1 May 1990-30 April 1995)
* Forestry; extension; training; afforestation; institution building

BRA/87/007 "Integrated forest development in the northeast of Brazil"
(1 January 1987-31 December 1990)
* Wood for energy; forest management; training

DMI/86/006 -"Implementation of forestry management in Dominica"
(1 July 1988 -31 December 1990)
* Development planning; forest management

INS/83/019 "Assistance to forestry sector development planning"
* Socio-economics; forest management; development planning

GCP/KEN/051/AUL -"Fuelwood, afforestation, extension in Baringo"
(21 February 1983 -31 December 1990)
* Wood for energy; forest extension; afforestation

GCP/NEP/042/SWE -"Development of income and employment through
community forestry" (1 August 1988 -31 July 1990)
* Women integration; forest activities; forest development

MLW/86/020 -"Assistanceto forestry sector"(1 June 1988 30June 1992)
* Forestry for rural development

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