A Newsletter on Recent Evaluation Findings and Methods
1991 Vol. 3 No. 3
"Integratinggender into the Agencywide effort to strengthen systems forperformance monitoringand impact evaluation
is essential as A.I.D. strives toward better accountability and development results," states Administrator Ronald W.
Roskens in his foreword to the 1991 Women in Development: A Report to Congress by the US. Agency for
International Development. He identifies this as one of the most immediate challenges for A.I.D.'efforts in women in
development. This special issue of A.I.D. Evaluation News is the first ofmanysteps in responding to this challenge through
ongoing collaboration between the Center for Development Information and Evaluation (CDIE) and the Office of Women
in Development (WID).
by Elayne Clift, Independent Consultant,
and Farah Ebrahimi
Todav, the donor community recognizes the in-
volvement of women in the development process as a
critical factor in achieving broad-based sustainable
economic growth in developing countries. But devel-
opment practitioners have not always held this view.
In fact, in the early 1970s, Esther Boserup's
groundbreaking book, Women s Role in Economic De-
:elopment, revealed that women were being excluded
from, and often harmed by, the development process
worldwide. Development projects either ignored the
role of women or limited women-in-development
activities to women-only projects or components,
relegating the role of women to that of beneficiaries of
and not participants in economic development.
Twenty years later, the integration of women as
decision-makers and participants in the development
process has become an important part of the agendas
of most development agencies. What happened in the
intervening years to bring women to the forefront of
development concerns? and What was A.I.D.'s role
in effecting this change?
The Formation of A.I.D.'s Policy
on Women in Development
During the 1970s, important strides were made
toward integrating women as full participants in
development efforts. The international Year of the
Woman (1974) and the U.N. Decade for Women
(1976-1985) focused attention on the previously un-
recognized importantcontributions of women world-
wide, as well as the constraints hindering them.
Numerous groups systematically gathered informa-
tion on the role of women from a variety of sectors,
such as agriculture, industry, commerce, education,
and health, as well as from the formal and informal
labor force. Agencies and organizations scrutinized
their policies and assessed their agendas to deter-
mine whatrole they should playinreducingwomen's
burden and in lifting women's veil of invisibility.
A.I.D. was no exception. In 1973 the Congress
Enacted the Percy Amendment to the Foreign Assis-
i tance Act, requiring US. bilateral assistance programs
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1991, No. 4 A.LLJ. k~Va1UdUULA L~cwv~
"to give particular attention to those programs,
projects, and activities which tend to integrate women
into the national economies of foreign countries, thus
improving their status and assisting the total devel-
In 1974, the Agency formed the Women in Devel-
opment (WID) Office to provide intellectual leader-
gender issues. Since then, the WID Office has pro-
vided Missions and Bureaus with many services,
including research and analysis, technical assistance,
training, and information dissemination and man-
The Agency's early women-in-development ef-
forts focused on small, women-only projects. But
these efforts soon revealed that women-only projects
by themselves are not adequate and can further
marginalize women if they relegate them to beneficia-
ries of a development activity rather than promote
their role as essential participants in development.
The experience from these efforts convinced the
Agency to use a gender rather than a women-only
approach to increase opportunities for women as well
as for men. A gender approach compares the con-
straints, incentives, and opportunities that affect the
abilities of men and women striving to improve their
In 1982, A.I.D. issued a Policy Paper on women in
development-one of the first of its kind among
donors. The basic premise of the policy is that gender
roles are a key variable in the socioeconomic condi-
tion of any countr--one that can be decisive in the
success or failure of a development effort. The Policy
Paper clearly identifies women's participation as es-
sential for the economic development of a society.
In the mid-1980s. CDIE conducted an evaluation of
more than a decade of A.I.D. women-in-development
experience. The report, Women in Development: A.I.D.'s
Experience, 1973-1985. concluded that "mainstream
projects that ensure women's participation in propor-
tion to their roles and responsibilities within the
project's baseline situation are more likely to achieve
their immediate purposes and their broad socioeco-
nomic goals than are projects that do not." In 1988,
A.I.D.'s then Administrator, Alan Woods, issued a
series of action items for the Agency to ensure that
women were regularly and effectively integrated into
program objectives. Noting that A.I.D. needed to
institutionalize the integration of women into its over-
alldevelopmentprogram,Administrator Woods said.
"To pursue a development planning strategy without
a women-in-development focus would be wasteful
and self-defeating." He directed Bureaus to develop
individual action plans with benchmarks that would
monitor the progress ofintegratingwomen intodevel-
opment planning. He further directed Bureaus and
Missions to gather sex-disaggregated data, to articu-
late strategies for involving women, to develop train-
ing programs for A.I.D. personnel, and to increase the
proportion of women participant trainees.
In FY 1989 and again in FY 1990 and FY 1991,
foreign assistance appropriations legislation speci-
fied $5 millionfromA.I.D.'s DevelopmentAssistance
accounts for women-in-development activities. Of
these resources, at least $3 million are to be used as
matching funds to cost-sharewomen-in-development
activities developed by A.I.D.'s field Missions. The
legislation requires A.I.D. to incorporate women into
its programs as beneficiaries of and contributors to
development activities at levels proportional to their
participation in sectoral activities or to their represen-
tation in the total population. To ensure implementa-
tion of this mandate, the legislation also requires
A.I.D. to include gender disaggregated data in its
evaluations and to provide documentation to enable
development practitioners to assess the extent to
which women are being integrated into development
programs, projects, and activities.
Farah Ebrahimi-Managing Editor
Karen Burchard-Production Coordinator
Elavne lift-Guest Editor
Mai Clark and Elizabeth Gold-Contributors
Pam McDade-Editorial Assistant
Produced by the Centerfor Development Infor-
mation and Evaluation, with contract assistance
from Professional Management Associates, Inc.,for
editorial and word-processing support and LAAT-
ANDESON Incorporated for desktop publishing. The
views and interpretations expressed herein are those
of the authors and should not be attributed to the
Agencyfor Internatonal Development. Comments,
articles, or inquiries may be sent to Randal Thomp-
son. Editor, A.I.D. Evaluation News, Center for
Development information and Evaluation. Bureau
for Program and Policy Coordination, Agency for
International Development. Washington, DC20523-
1802. Articles should be six double-spaced typed
pages or less.
1991, No. j
AJ.lU. tvaluatuman erve
Did You Know?
* Roughly one-third of all households in the de-
veloping world are headed by women, and in
some regions, suchas the cities of Latin America
and the rural areas of some African countries,
the percentage is closer to one-half.
Women comprise an estimated 32 percent of the
measured labor force in developing countries,
the majority in microenterprise activities.
In Latin America and the Caribbean, the female
labor force numbers 40 million, and by the year
2000 that number will reach 53 million-that is,
more than one-fourth of the region's total work
* In parts of the developing world, such as East
Africa, women work up to 16 hours per day
doing household chores, preparing food, and
growing 00-80 percent ot the farmly's food, in
addition to caring for the children, the elderly,
the ill, and the disabled in their families.
* If women's unpaid work in the household were
given economic value, it would add an esti-
mated one-third-or four trillion dollars-to
the world's annual economic product.
*t is estimated thatwomen farmers grow at least
50 percent of the world's food and as much as 80
percent of the food in some African countries.
* Between one-third and one-half of the agricul-
tural laborers in the developing world are
women--- number that is growingas more men
migrate to cities to seek employment, leaving
women behind to work the land.
Although agriculture represents a steadily de-
clining source of employment for both men and
women in developing countries, it still provides
on average two-thirds of women's paid jobs.
* Only 19 percent of the agricultural extension
staff worldwide are women.
* In Africa, where the number of trees felled
outpaces new trees planted by a ratio of 29 to 1,
women must spend more time, and travel far-
ther, to gather firewood as trees become scarcer.
They often have to walk up to 10 kilometers and
spend 5-8 hours once every 4-7 days to collect
wood for fuel.
* Only one in two women in Asia and one in three
in sub-Saharan Africa are literate.
* The better educated the mother, the less likely
the child will die in infancy. Studies from devel-
oping countries show that4-6 years of education
is associated with a 20-percent drop in infant
Future Challenges for A.I.D.'s
In the early years, the Agency focused on increas-
ing staff awareness of gender considerations through
training, technical assistance, and information dis-
semination. The next step entailed providing techni-
cal assistance and training on integrating gender
considerations into the planning of development
projects, programs, and policies. As A.I.D.'s women-
in-development initiative continued to develop, it
concentrated on agriculture, private enterprise, edu-
cation, and environment/natural resources, sectors
in which gender considerations have proven signifi-
cant for strategy, program, and project success.
A.I.D. is now turning its focus to greater collabo-
ration with donors, private voluntary organizations,
and universities, as well as to the monitoring and
evaluation of A.I.D. activities with regard to gender.
It is concentrating on building technical skills in
gender analysis and on developing a better linkage of
gender issues to policy reform.
An example of A.I.D. collaboration in the educa-
tion sector is the joint effort with the World Bank on
the World Conference on Education for All, Girls'
Education Roundtable, and on sectoral loans for
education to encourage more initiatives on female
education. The WID Office has also worked with the
InternationalCentre for Research on Women (ICRW),
Women's World Banking (WWB), Center for Devel-
opment and Population Activities (CEDPA), CARE,
and other private voluntary organizations for whom
gender is a priority. A.I.D. works closely with the
WID Working Group of the Organization for Eco-
nomic Co-Operation and Development's Develop-
ment Assistance Committee, which aims to ensure
that donors coordinate their efforts to work on
women's issues in the field. Such coordination helps
reduce duplications in research and evaluation as
These activities reflect the current climate and
energy inherent in the women-in-development com-
mnunity here and abroad. This favorable environment
is also reflected in Congressional support, evident in
AIMD. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
~NO. 3 tl.A.LJ. CVdAU4L&UAI ~
Meeting the Match
The WID Office uses its matching funds to cost-
share Mission and Bureau support of new activi-
ties that effectively integrate women into the
economies of developing countries. One means of
providing this support has been through centrally
funded projects providing field assistance in key
sectors. The following projects offer a cost-sharing
mechanism for activities addressing gender issues.
SThe Consulting Assistance in Economic Policy
Reform (CAER) project provides assistance to
developing nations in the design, implementa-
tion, monitoring, and evaluation of economic
policy reform. This includes assessing gender
differentials in the impact of reforms on such
factors as employment, poverty, and malnutri-
* The Growth and Equity Through Micro-
enterpriseinvestmentand institutions (GEMINI)
project research agenda focuses on increasing
understanding of the growth and dynamics ot
female- and male-owned enterprises.
* The Advancing Basic Education and Literacy
(ABEL) project uses WID co-funding to focus
efforts on increasing girls' participation and
continuation in basic education. ABEL offers
the more than 70 sponsors for the proposed WID Act
of 1991 and increased funding for the International
Research and Training Institute for the Advancement
of Women (INSTRAW) and the United Nations De-
velopment Fund for Women (UNIFEM). The 1995
U.N. Conference on Women, with its focus on such
core problems as poverty and the relationship of
poverty to unequal economic relationships, will be
another milestone for women in development.
In summary, A.I.D.'s involvement with gender
issues is central to the achievement of the Agency's
own objectives and mission. Whether promoting free
markets and economic growth or encouraging re-
sponsible environmental policies or providing hu-
manitarian assistance or strategic management, the
technical and managerial assistance for basic
education efforts such as the design and imple-
mentation of projects, research, and evaluation
of basic education activities.
* The Private Enterprise Development Support I
(PEDS II) project provides WID co-funding to
integrate gender concerns and develop WID
components in A.I.D. private sector support
activities. This project offers programand project
design assistance, project implementation and
evaluation, and training.
* The Agricultural and Marketing Improvement
Strategies (AMIS) projectaims to enhance A.I.D.
and hostcountry capabilities in thedesign, imple-
mentation, and evaluation of improvements for
agricultural marketing systems. This includes
examining gender roles at all points in the mar-
* Matching funds in the Gender in Economic and
Social Systems (GENESYS) project expanded
the WID Office's capability to provide technical
assistance, training, research, and communica-
tions services to A.I.D. Missions and Bureaus in
their efforts to integrate gender considerations
into their development efforts.
SAgency is moving forward with a gender focus that
has made A.I.D.a recognized leader in the integration
of women into development initiatives.
Gender-specific research and evaluation efforts
have played a significant role in making the case for
the importance of gender analysis in development
programming at A.I.D. They also provide recommen-
dations for ways to adapt or redesign interventions to
take gender into account and to improve develop-
This issue of Evaluation News reports on the out-
comes of several critical evaluations that have ad-
dressed gender and examines some methodological
and analytical issues that confront the practitioner as
she or he includes gender issues in evaluation efforts.
Specifically, the newsletter reports on key findings
identified in evaluations of development activities in
microenterprise, education, and agriculture.
l!7t, IN 0. J
~~U. CVQIIlOUVLL ~Cu
A.1.D. Evaluation News 1991,, No. 3
The Economic and Social Impacts
of Girls' Primary Education
in Developing Countries
by May Rihani, Creative Associates
In preparationfor the World Conference on "Education
for All," held in lomthien, Thailand in 1990, staff from
A.I.D. and the World Bank collaborated to compile statis-
tics from studies of the social and economic impact of girls'
education for a roundtable entitled "Girls' Education:
Problems and Potential Solutions. This effort contributed
significantly to the identification of key issues at the
conference and the resolution that female education and
literacy are important goals for the year 2000. This article
summarizes this evidence.
Obstacles to female education continue to persist
in most developing countries. The perceived irrel-
evance of female primary education, lack of per-
ceived direct economic returns to girls' education,
high opportunity costs of sending girls to school,
cultural attitudes and expectations about girls, and
educational practices in schools continue to limit
girls' access to education. If these obstacles are to be
overcome, it is extremely important to bring together
evidence showing the positive impact of schooling on
girls. Although an abundance of data is available to
show the importance of primary education on im-
proving family health and reducing infant mortality,
similar evidence has not been compiled to show the
positive impact of girls' education on the economic
and social development of societies.
In acknowledging this information gap, A.I.D.,
under its Advancing Basic Education and Literacy
(ABEL) project, conducted a review of world litera-
ture on the relationship between girls' primary edu-
cation and social and economic development.
Four major questions were addressed:
*How does education affect women's productivity
in the wide range of economic activities in which
they are engaged, namely as members of the labor
force, as participants in the informal sector, and as
principal producers of home consumption goods
* In what contexts and in what ways does girls'
education increase women's contribution to the
national objectives of economic growth and devel-
opment and to the well-being of themselves, their
families, and their communities?
How does education enable a girl to effect changes
in her society? What skills does she acquire? What
attitudes change? and What changes in her status
In what contexts and in what ways does educating
girls lead to an impact on the larger society? What
differences in impact are found according to varia-
tions in rural/urban setting, class, or culture?
The overall impact of girls' primary education is
the result of an interplay of economic and social
outcomes. Primary education enhances women's abil-
ity to perform the multitude of economic activities in
which they are engaged and to learn new methods
that vitally contribute to the economic development
and well-beingof theirfamilies and themselves. Mas-
tery of literacy, numeracy, communication, and
information processing enables women to be more
productive in the formal and informal sectors of the
work force. With these skills, women are more likely
to assume new responsibilities, carry out new eco-
nomic activities, search for jobs, or start microbusi-
nesses. The private and social returns to education
are likely to be at least as great for women as they are
for men when returns to education are defined in the
narrow sense of monetary earnings. This means that
women, like men, receive direct economic benefits
from their education in the form of higher lifetime
earnings, and society and communities benefit from
their higher productivity in the labor force.
But these benefits are only part of the story. Pri-
mary education also benefits women's nonmarket
work-work that has significant and positive eco-
nomic value but is usually not measured in national
income accounting. Thus, even the high social and
private returns to girls' primary education underes-
timate the true valueof primary education for women.
These returns are even more significant in countries
experiencing economic recessions.
Recent findings leave little doubt that women's
education also has a powerful social impact New
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
Devlomet Epeiece evew
Educating Girls: Problems, Constraints, Benefits
I. Problem Identification
In developing countries, 62 percent of the girls
areenrolled in school compared with 82 percent
of the boys.
In some of the lowest income countries of Asia
and Africa, only 20 percent of the girls are
enrolled in primary school.
Worldwide, 50 million school-aged girls are
currently not enrolled in school.
Two-thirds of the global illiterate population
One out of two women in Asia is illiterate,
representing the greatest absolute number.
Two out of three women in Africa are illiterate.
representing the highest regional rate of
The Gender Gap
The increase in numbers of girls enrolled in
school over the last30 years in manydeveloping
countries represents population growth rather
than a proportional increase in enrollment rates.
While absolute numbers are greater, total num-
bers of female population enrolled in school
often represent small increases in percentages;
in certain cases, the percentage is even lower
than in previous years.
* There is an inverse correlation between coun-
tries with low income and a large gender gap.
* Mixed-sex classrooms are undesirable in cer-
* Parents prefer female teachers for their daugh-
ters, particularly within a certain age bracket.
* A common fear in developing countries is that
education might change girls' attitudes, result-
ing in girls altering or rejecting their traditional
Marriageability of girls at an early age is impor-
tant in several cultures and takes priority over
keeping girls in schools.
Girls are needed at home to help with child care,
agricultural activities, water and fuel fetching,
and other household chores. Opportunity costs
to families tend to be higher for schooling girls
than for boys.
Social behavior of male teachers and students
toward girl students, particularly when the be-
havior reflects disapproval of girls' attendance
in school, often results in girls dropping out of
The direct costs of clothes, school supplies, and
transportation are in many cases prohibitive,
and economic returns on investment for girls
The societal economic disincentives found in the
hiring, placement, and promotion policies for
women constrain the earning ability of female
workers compared with that of male workers.
When the distance to school is beyond a kilome-
ter, girls tend to drop out of school at a higher
rate than boys.
* School admission policies exclude girls from
* Curricula are often not relevant to girls' future
* Educated women raise healthier, better nour-
* Each added year of schooling for the mother
results in a 5 to 10 percent decrease in mortality
* Children of educated mothers have a greater
growth potential; statistics indicate that these
children are two standard deviations above the
1991, No. 3
~LI.U. Evaluation orews
AJ.D. Evaluation News 1991, No. 3
Educating Girls: Problems, Constraints, Benefits (continued)
* Educated women can better interpret health
care instructions and more accurately measure
their children's growth.
Educated women space their pregnancies.
Mothers with 0 years of schooling have an aver-
age of seven children; with 7 years of schooling,
they have five or fewer children.
* Educated mothers educate their daughters as
well as their sons.
* Mothers' education has a greater impact than
fathers' education on children's schooling, es-
* Education enhances the productivity of women.
* The agricultural productivity gain due to educa-
tion is found to be greater for women than for
* Educated girls and women have the potential of
earning higher income.
Based on a compvlation of data prepared by Elizabeth K
Conference on Education for All, Boston, Massachusetts,
Households headed by educated women have a
higher income than households headed by
IV. Policy Recommendations
Build more schools closer to population centers.
Designand build culturallyappropriateschools.
Recruit and train more female teachers.
Improve quality of instruction; make curricu-
Open the labor market for increased hiring of
Reduce direct and opportunity costs for girls.
Introduce a flexible school schedule in order to
accommodate cultural, social, agricultural, and
:ing, Chloe O'Gara, and May Rihani, for the Regional
skills and attitudes learned in school, plus the confi-
dence-building social experience of schooling, change
girls in ways that affect the society as a whole. Primary
education not only provides girls with literacy and
numeracv skills but also leads them to want fewer
children and to press for the education of the children
they have. In addition, schooling passes on skills that
women can use to improve the health of their
families. A woman's ability to decide about her fertil-
ity, her children's care and education, and her eco-
nomic and social activities is essential if she is to have
an impact on society. And education, especially edu-
cation and an independentincome, increases women's
More specifically, girls' primary education gener-
ally has the following impacts:
* Girls' primary education results in more active
participation by women in the labor force, whether
in rural or urban areas. The level of participation,
however, is influenced by a variety of factors
including age, culture, type of industrialization,
gender discrimination, and women's access to
complementary resources, such as land, capital,
and technical training.
* Primary education for girls improves their skills,
making them more adept at learning new tech-
nologies, in turn, making them more productive
members of the labor force. However, these ben-
efits are realized only if employment opportuni-
ties for women exist. And these opportunities are
afforded only if broad-based rural development
strategies and industry dispersal are addressed in
the context of the roleof women and elimination of
gender discrimination in hiringwomen, especially
in semi-skilled and skilled jobs.
* Two factors determinewhetheremployment leads
to higher wage earnings and to a longer productive
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
1991.No. 3A.I.D. Evaluation News
life for women: the type of industry-whether it is
labor-intensive, sex-stratified, sustainable-and
working conditions-whether the enterprise prac-
tices sex discrimination in determining promo-
tions and whether it provides women with a safe
and healthy environment.
Primary education for girls is a necessary but by no
means sufficient ingredient for increasingwomen's
access to credit and vocational and training pro-
grams. Girls' primary education can also lead to
higher profits, especially in self-employed and
informal sector activities, which require more lit-
eracy, numeracy, and problem-solving skills. Edu-
cation may not have as much of a positive financial
impact when women are engaged in traditional
activities that rely primarily on hands-on experi-
ence or when the activities in which they are
engaged are constrained by the availability of capi-
As principals in home production activities, women
with education increase their production of
nonmarketed goods, leading to, for example, im-
proved childrearing practices, better family health,
and lower fertility.
The social impact of education on girls may vary
according to their socioeconomic backgrounds.
Education, particularly secondary and tertiary,
appears to have more beneficial consequences for
high- and middle-class girls in securing jobs and
increasing income; however, the relative changes
in the power and status of these women may in fact
be less than those experienced by working-class
women with even primary schooling.
* The cultural context in which girls receive their
education influences their ability to use what they
have learned as well as the type of education they
receive. When traditional cultural patterns include
female control of resources and involvement in
activities in the public sphere, access to education
and opportunities to earn an independent income
appear to be the only remaining ingredients neces-
sary for women to increase their status and to have
a social impact.
The positive outcomes of girls' primary education
are therefore conditioned by the prevailing economic,
social, and cultural environments, for example, type
of economic policies; distribution of resources, espe-
cially land and credit; gender discrimination; cultural
and social norms; and socioeconomic background.
Further Areas for Impact Evaluation
One of the most significant shortcomings in the
literature examined has been a failure of studies to
address the diversity of activities that can be affected
by the education of women. Evaluations of economic
impacts have focused on the participation of women
in the labor force measured in terms of market and
monetary benefits. More studies should be directed
toward assessing the changes that education makes in
the diverse economic activities of women instead of
or before entering into statistical measurements of
market activities. Evaluations of social impacts have
also had a narrow focus. For example, they have
measured the benefits of girls' education in terms of
impacts on women's reproductive roles in society,
that is, impacts of female education on fertility rates,
child health, and child education. Very few evalua-
tions have been devoted to assessing the impacts of
education on the rangeof other roles thatwomen play
in society and to determining the changes that educa-
tion makes in how those roles are performed.
Based on the literature reviewed for this project,
further research is needed in the following areas:
SThe differential impact of the structure and content
of schooling on women's social roles, women's
economic production, and women's impact on
The impact of women's education in rural areas
The differential impact of education on women of
varying socioeconomic classes
* The impacts of education on women's access to
formal and informal credit sources
* Increases in women's relative decision-making
power associated with increased education, an
independent income, and the interaction of educa-
tion and independent income
* The effects of girls' education on the capacity of
women to engage in more diverse economic and
* The effects of distortions in the labor market, for
example, gender discrimination, on altering the
potential economic impact of female education
* The social changes that education makes in girls,
especially its impact on their social skills, self-
confidence, and sense of efficacy
1991, No. 3
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991 No. 3
The inclusion of nonmarket or nonmonetary ben-
efits of women's education in the rate-of-return
approach to measuring economic benefits
Theeffects of educationon women's status through
effecting changes in existing economic and social
It should be noted that many of these areas have
been overlooked because they are not easily quantifi-
able, which suggests that not only is more research
needed, but also that different types of research may
In addition, new methodologies are needed to
explore these relevant areas. The methodologies that
have been used generally focus on outcomes rather
than processes. While these methodologies may pro-
vide correlations among quantifiable measurements,
such as wages earned, years of schooling, and number
of children, a lack of information about the process by
which education produces impact can lead to as-
sumptions that distort the meaning of the reported
outcomes or that limit the understanding of what
conditions produce significant impacts.
Finally, more longitudinal research is needed to
provide data on such areas as the impact process,
intermediate changes that make an impact on long-
range goals, and the interrelationships among several
Adapted from "7Te Economic and Social Impacts of
Girls' Primary Education in Developing Countries," by
Maria Flora. Ph.D. and Joyce M. Wolf, Ph.D.. Creative
Associates International, Inc.. for the Advancing Basic
Education and Literacy (ABEL) project, A.I.D./S&T/Ed
and the WID Office, December 1990.
in Development Communications
by Rosalie Huisinga Norem,
Office of Women in Development
Over the past 10-15 years, gender studies and evalua-
tions of farming and agricultural assistance have clearly
documented the important role women play in food secu-
rity through their efforts in production, processing, and
marketing, as well as their contributions to the nutrition
of their families. These studies have also demonstrated the
negative effects on program and project results of ignoring
gender and pointed out ways to integrate women in
agricultureand natural resourceassistanceactivities. This
article identifies someof the problems that can arise when
extension work ignores the role of women in agricultural
production and processing and offers suggestions for in-
volving women in communication and extension work in
The "invisibility" of women in agricultural pro-
duction and the reluctance of agricultural research
and extension systems to recognize thecritical role of
women as producers and processors of agricultural
products led to the exclusion of women from analyses
of target audiences or client groups. The evidence
accumulated over the past 10-15 years clearly docu-
ments that women are a critical part of agricultural
enterprises, both in production and processing. Con-
sequently, the attitudes of researchers and techni-
cians about women in agriculture are changing, but
not with regard to extension programs. A review of
cases, project evaluation reports, and studies from
Latin America, Asia, and Africa shows that extension
programs have largely ignored the role of women as
agncultural producers and have neglected to pay
specific attention to women in "extending" their mes-
sage. Extension programs have either assumed that
informationaboutproductionorprocessing will reach
women through their husbands or that the primary
role for working with female clients is through home
economics extensionists who focuson domesticchores.
In either case, the importance of women as clients or
agricultural extension has largely been ignored, mak-
ing extension and development communication less
Understanding the Audience:
Key to Successful Communication
The key to successful communication is under-
Sstanding the target audience-a generalization that
holds true for working with women. First, if develop-
ment communication efforts are to reach women, it is
necessary to know how and from where women
currently get their information--for example, from
formal or informal groups? from their children's
schools or community health clinics? from the mass
Using existing channels to disseminate new infor-
mation to women can often be very effective, in
contrast to assuming that information channels that
reach male clients will automatically reach women.
Yet case studies from all regions provide examples of
programs built on that assumption-for example,
holding field days requiring overnight travel in areas
where women cannot be away from their households
for that long or having male extensionists visit indi-
vidual farmers in an ethnic setting that does notallow
men outside the household to speak with the adult
women of that household.
AI.D. Evaluation News
91 91 No. 3
1991, No.3 A.I.D. Evaluation News
SIf developmm ent communication
is to reach women, it is necessary
to know how and from where women
Currently get their information...
Using existing channels to disseminate
new information to women can often
be very effective, in contrast to assuming
that information channels that reach
male clients will automatically
r. each women.
Second, the roles of men and women are often
different in agriculture; therefore, extension programs
need to target their efforts to the persons responsible
for a given activity or commodity. There are ex-
amples of extension workers working for weeks with
groups of male farmers about animal health in a
community in whichwomenhave traditionally raised
small animals, or extension services extending all
technology for a farming system to men when men
and women have had very different roles in that
production system. Needless to say, in such cases,
communication breaks down leading to an unsuc-
cessful extension effort. This difficulty is often exac-
erbated by the assumption that men will pass
information along to the women of the household.
A Few Simple Guidelines
A few simple, basic guidelines can improve devel-
opment communications with women. These guide-
lines area specificapplicationof good communication
and technology transfer practices. They are based on
knowing the audience and on using an interactive
rather than a directive approach.
1. Where men and women do not participate in the
same information transfer systems about a given topic, the
message and communication approach should be targeted
to women as well as men.
Even with mass media, for example, one cannot
assume that a message received in a home will be
equally available to all household members. in one
instance radio broadcasts were not reaching women
because their husbands expected the women to be
performing household duties during the time of the
broadcasts. But after a lottery specifically for women
was built into the program, husbands encouraged
their wives to listen to the program with them. This
type of creative restructuring of extension efforts,
which requires little in terms of additional resources,
can add significantly to the number of women
reached who previously had been ignored.
2. Extension training should specifically include gen-
der differences as one of thefactors used in defining the
This factor sensitizes both male and female exten-
sion workers to the different requirements for reach-
ing male and female clients and encourages the
development of programs to respond to those needs.
In some cases, it may be necessary to use female
extensionists to work with women in agriculture. In
other situations, male extension workers may have to
adapt their practices so they can work more easily
with female agriculturalists. One example that is
often given is the possibility of meeting with women
in groups in their villages or home communities.
Another is asking a male family member to be present
while the male extension worker meets with female
farmers. A team of male and female extension work-
ers might also be considered. A careful analysis of a
given environment should suggest alternatives for
3. Extension systems should consider possibilities for
better use of the human resources they currently have.
Female extensionists working in an area where
women spend much of their time in agricultural
production or processing should have agricultural
training in addition to training in home economics. In
this way, the female extensionists can provide their
clients assistance in and information about agricul-
tural practices, which could potentially increase the
women's income. In many cases, there is a strong
complementarity of skills between home economics
and agriculture, and well-focused extension training
can enhance both the domestic and economic lives of
women. For example, knowledge about processing
and storage of foods for family consumption is simi-
lar to knowledge womenneed to establish small-scale
food processing enterprises.
4. Gender-baseddifferences in rolesare not static. Thus,
development communication approaches should be based
on the current situation, not on stereotypes about tradi-
Households are dynamic systems that must func-
tion within the larger economic and social context.
For example, in some areas, men migrate to urban
labor markets or women seek employment for pay as
AJI.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
AJ.D. Evaluation News 1991, No.3
their households struggle to. meet their economic
needs.S uch developments may require development
practitioners to make concurrent changes for exten-
sion, for example, shifting the focus of the extension
effort to working with women who are left to manage
the farm while their husbands and sons work in the
5. Extension policy should provide opportunities for
working more effectively with female clients and for in-
cluding more women in extension systems.
Institutional policies that take gender into consid-
eration, particularly with regard to programs, re-
cruitment, evaluation, training, and relationships with
research institutions, will improve the functioning ot
the system overall and in turn will contribute more
effectively to development.
The guidelines stated above are a brief summary of
lessons learned in projects, case studies, and experi-
ences in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Although
the cultural context of these three regions varies
greatly, both within and among the regions, the
guidelines can still be applied within the context of
these differences to improve communication efforts
in the agricultural sector and in other areas of devel-
opment work, such as health, nutrition, and educa-
tion. Basically, addressing gender issues requires a
recognition of possible differences, knowledge of
alternative methods, understandingof cultural norms
and expectations, and a knowledge of changes occur-
ring in a society.
Women and the Informal Sector
Adapted from an article by M. Berger
A 1989 A.I.D. stocktaking of its microenterpriseactivi-
ties revealed that women's participation in A.I.D.-sup-
ported activities in microenterprise development was
significant. Women's participation was greatest in the
assistance directed toforming new enterprises and least in
that aimed at transforming microenterprises into larger
businesses with growth potential. The stocktaking also
revealed a need for impact data.
The stocktaking results, along with an assessment of the
integration ofgender considerations into the Assistance to
Resource Institutions for Enterprise Support (ARIES)
project, influenced the design of the Growth and Equity
Through Microenterprise Investments and Institutions
(GEMINI) project, which began in 1990. This article
discusseskeygenderissues in thissector. It was drawnfrom
Marguerite Berger's introduction to Women's Ventures:
Assistance to the Informal Sector in Latin America
(M. Bergerand M. Buvinic, Editors. Kumarian Press. Inc..
1989), which originated in an A.I.D.-sponsored confer-
ence, Women s Access to Credit in Latin America Sugges-
tions for Development Programs, held in Quito, Ecuador
Women entrepreneurs seem invisible. Their spe-
cific characteristics and needs are often overlooked
by policymakers, project implementors, and evalua-
tors despite the development community's increased
of assistance programs targeted to this sector of the
urban or rural economy tend to limit their analysis of
women's participation to an obligatory mention of
the number of women beneficiaries or a paragraph
about their businesses.
Moreover, while other informal-sector business
operators are considered to be "microentrepreneurs,"
activities dominated by women tend to be over-
looked, even though women are risking their own
limited capital and creating new jobs in the process.
Their businesses are often survival activities with
modest prospects for growth or a dynamic effect on
A Focus on Women
Why does the role of women in the informal sector
meritspecial attention? Oneansweris themajorchange
that has occurred in the world's labor force over the
last 20 years, specifically, the increasing participation
of women in the labor market. For example, in 1950
women represented only 17.9 percent of the labor
force in Latin America, but by the year 2000, the
percentage is expected to rise to 275 percent.
Women's increased participation is due in part to
four important changes over the past two decades.
First, economic structures are changing, in large part
because of increasing urbanization. Urbanization and
associated changes in production have transformed
work that women used to do at home into work that
is done for pay in the marketplace. In addition, al-
though the traditional economic activities of rural
womenwereoften home-based and inextricably linked
to their reproductive responsibilities in the house-
hold, a lack of access to land and other productive
resources, along with modernization of agricultural
production, has forced women to orient their activi-
ties more directly to the market.
Second, the changing levels of educational enroll-
ment and increasing educational opportunities for
youngwomen have led to expanded economicoppor-
tunities for them. Third, increasingly, women need to
bring a monetary income into the household. This
need exists in traditional, nuclear families, as well as
among the rising numbers of female-headed house-
holds. Finally, in many cases women's need to work
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
Women and the Growth of Microenterprises
42% ^ ^^____j
Formation Expansion Transformation
C Women Men
Data Source: Boomgard, James J. 1989. Microenterprise Stocktaking: Synthesis Report. Washington, D.C.:
Graph Source: 1991. Women in Development: A report to Congress by the U.S. Agency for International
Development. Washington, D.C.: A.I.D/PPC/WID.
In early FY 1989, A.I.D. examined its recent experience in microenterprise activities worldwide to guide its
programs into the 1990s. The resulting stocktakingg" showed that the microenterprise portfolio was a broadly
conceived program oriented toward growth. It was fairly evenly divided among formation of microenterprises,
expansion of businesses, and transformation of microenterprises into larger businesses with more growth potential.
Women's participation in these programs was significant. However, the percentage of women beneficiaries was
considerably lower in the transformation programs than in the formation and expansion programs.
for pay is related to the rising proportion of house-
holds in which women are the primary income earn-
The phenomenon of increasing female headship is
important for the analysis of changes in the informal
sector because of three factors. First, economic par-
ticipation rates are higher for female heads of house-
hold than they are for women in general. Second, the
participation of female household heads is economi-
cally motivated. Also, there is generally a higher
dependency ratio in female-headed households; that
is, there are fewer income earners in relation to the
total number of household members. Finally, the
occupations of female heads of household often yield
very low earnings.
Women in the Informal Sector:
Where Do They Fit?
Where do women who are new entrants into the
labor force, or those who had been employed previ-
ously, go to look for jobs? The answer lies, in part. in
the concentration of women in small-scale service and
commerce or trading activities. Faced with increasing
economic need, women are forced to create their own
jobs. They are joining the so-called informal economy,
where wages and working conditions are generally
worse than those in regularized wage employment.
The term "informal sector" describes a phenom-
enon that seems evident in the Third World, particu-
larly with regard to female employment The term
legitimizes a vaguely defined target population for
which policies and programs have only recently been
developed. It can refer to the economic units that
make up the informal sector, for example, micro-
enterprises. If self-employed professionals are ex-
cluded, informal sector microenterprises can be
defined as businesses employing no more than five
workers and having assets valued at less than $20,000.
These are the enterprises manifesting features com-
monly associated with informal-sectoractivities: small
size of operations, reliance on family labor and local
resources, low capital endowments, labor-intensive
technology, limited barriers to entry, high degree of
1991, No. 3
A-I.D. Evaluation News
AJ.D Evluaton ews1991, No. 3
Lessons Learned From the ARIES Project
The WID Office commissioned a review of the Assisting Resource Institutions for Enterprise Support (A RIES)
project to assess the extent to which women were integrated in protect activities. Although only a limited number of
ARIES activities addressed gender issues, the lessons learned from these activities significantly guided the design of
the next maior A.I.D. microenterprise project-Growth and Eauity Through Microenterprise Investments and
SInstitutions (GEMINI)--to more effectively involve women. Some of the lessons learned identified in thereiew and
recommendations are listed below.
Constraints on Women's Participation
* Sector selection for research and technical assis-
tance (TA) excludes areas in which women work.
* Local customs and institutions limit women's
* Host country policies and regulations limit
* Project staff do not collect or use gender-
* A.I.D. Missions do not request in statements ot
work integration of women in small-scale and
* Targetsomesectors where womenareemployed;
involve women in the selection process.
* Assess women's roles and constraints in each
location to determine how best to integrate them.
* Policy dialogue presents evidence of productiv-
ity lost; where possible, involve women in policy
* Budget funds for gender data collection/analy-
sis and provide TA; orient staff to gender analy-
* Be more proactive about the importance of using
gender analysis in small-scale and micro-
enterprise projects to improve outcomes.
(Mari Clark, 1991)
competition, unskilled work force, and acquisition of
skills outside the formal educational system.
Informalitydescribes thenature ofmicroenterpnses
and a significant segment of women's work. Five
characteristics are common to the work:
Internal organization. Hierarchyofworkand roles is
more flexible and informal.
Relationswithoutsideworld. Relationships with sup-
pliers, clients, and state tend to be informal, with-
out formal contract. Hours are flexibleand contacts
* Branch of activity. Different and frequently chang-
ing activities exist in a single unit of production,
commerce, or service.
* Process of production. Product cycle tends toward
discontinuity and variability. Makeshift technol-
ogy hampers production and planning.
* Separation of consumption and production. The work
does not lend itself to separation of consumption
and production usually found in economic analy-
sis because of factors such as expenditures and
assets linked to household.
These characteristics of informal-sector work also
identify the nature of women's work. But what do we
mean when we say that women are an important part
of the informal sector? Does the term itself imply
anything about women's work in an analytical sense?
Vanessa Cartaya, in her article, "El Confuso Mundo
del Sector Informal" (Nueva Sociedad 90, 1987), de-
scribes four views that define thedifferentapproaches
to the analysis of the informal sector. Each has differ-
ent implications for analyzing women's work and for
developing policies and programs to assist women.
The excess labor supply view holds that the bulk of
those working in the informal sector do so because
they lack employmentopportunities in the modem
formal sector as a result of structural imperfections
in the capital market.
* The neo-Marxist view maintains that informal-
sector workers are exploited by capitalist producers
A~I.D. Evaluation News
1991. No. 3
GEMINI and Women in Development
Growth and Equity through Microenterprise Investments and Institutions (GEMINI) is a 5-yearapplied research.
development, and services project of the Office of Small, Micro, and Informal Enterprises in the Bureau for Private
Enterprise, U.S. Agencyfor International Development. GEMINI offers technical assistance, training, economic
research, and information to A.I.D. Missions and Bureaus, implementing organizations, host country governments.
include the following.
* USAID/Bangladesh: Women's Enterprise Support
project, Project Implementation Document (PID)
and Project Paper Design
DAI was selected by USAID/Bangladesh to
design the follow-on to the Women's Entrepre-
neurship Development Project (WEDP). WEDP I
had been moderately successful but faced numer-
ous constraints because of its institutional struc-
ture (housed in a government agency) and the
requirement that it operate through a state-owned
bank (BKB). The approach suggested by the PID
team will allow WEDP II to achieve greater pro-
gram self-sustainability and rationalize its finan-
cial operations while continuing to reach its
disadvantaged target group. The team's recom-
mendations included increasing the operational
autonomy of the WEDP Unit, modifying collabo-
ration with BKB to allow the WEDP Unit to dis-
burse credit directly, and establishing regional
offices to facilitate decentralized management.
Work on the Project Paper will begin in the sum-
mer of 1991.
Office of Women in Development: Village Banking
in Asia and Latin America
In cooperation with the World Bank and A.I.D.,
DAI, through the GEMINI project, carried out a
pioneering assessment study of village banking
systems in Asia and Latin America. Village Bank-
ingoffers the potential of extending financial mar-
kets to reach populations normally excluded from
financial services. The study examined the opera-
tions of the village banking methodology as ap-
plied in six countries and drew conclusions on
needed improvements in operational approaches.
system-level intermediation, supervision,and train-
ing functions. The study also focused on the com-
patibility of the village banking methodology and
the objective of providing women access to finan-
* Office of Women in Development: Swaziland Small
Business Development project
GEMINI assisted USAID/Swaziland in incor-
poratinggenderissues inthedesign of theMission's
new Small Business Development project.
A Study on Women and Microenterprses m Egypt
The Office of Women in Development and
USAID/Cairo are co-funding this study, which
involves a survey designed to assess women's
economic participation in the informal sector in
Egypt. The survey is examining the sociocultural,
technical, financial, institutional, and legal con-
straints to the expansion of women's roles in the
Egyptian economy in order to identify ways of
enhancing the impact on women of Mission-funded
microenterprise development projects.
Dominican Republic Women in Development
Assistance will be provided to A.I.D.'s Office of
Women in Development to work with USAID/
Dominican Republic to incorporate gender issues
into the Mission's new FONDOMICRO project.
The support will be targeted to two areas: (1) tech-
nical assistance to integrate gender-relevant indi-
cators on the characteristics of microenterprises in
the Dominican Republic into the project's comput-
erized database and developing a computerized
management information system that provides
gender-disaggregated information on the status of
past and existing grants and loans; and (2) tech-
nical assistance and training to FONDOMICRO
client nongovemment organizations to increase
their institutional capacities to serve female clients.
1991, No. 3
A.L.D. Evatuation fNews
AJ.D. Evaluation News
in the formal sector; women's unpaid work in the
household and women's work in the informal sec-
tor (although performed for income) serve the
same purpose of reducing labor costs or raw mate-
rial costs for capital.
The underground economy (black market) view holds
that the informal sector is the result of pressures of
increased international competition that have led
to thedevelopment ofa new typeof manufacturing
based on subcontracting and piecework, giving
employers greater flexibility to hire or fire employ-
ees and change tasks and products.
The neoiiberal view holds that the informal sector, in
contrast with the formal sector, functions without
having to observe regulations like minimum wage
requirements, social security payments, and li-
censing. For women, regulations have usually
added to restrictions on their access to credit,
inheritance, property control, and so on.
None of these views completely captures the intui-
tive understanding of the informal sector, but each
one contributes an element that is useful in under-
standing the sector.
Characteristics of Women Microentrepreneurs
To address gender-related questions, it is neces-
sary to look at the characteristics of the owners and
operators of the microenterprises, in addition to the
size and work of the microbusinesses. The original
approach to the informal sector centered on the poor-
est workers and the self-employed, areas that in-
volved more women. But the latestsurge of interest in
this sector is zeroing in on potentially dynamic micro-
enterprises, which do not reflect as wide a participa-
tion by women.
Two types of classifications can be used to divide
the informal microenterprise sector. The first refers to
the industrial classification, for example, industry,
manufacturing, services, and commerce. The second
refers to different characteristics of firms as they
relate to the economy as a whole. Here, three major
groups can be identified: (1) "casual workers" (tempo-
rary, seasonal, survival workers); (2) independent
microbusinesses (small stores, traditional artisanrv);
and (3) subcontractors, that is, wage workers classi-
fied as subcontractors.
With these divisions in mind, women's participa-
tion in microenterprises can be characterized as fol-
lows: (I) Women comprise an important proportion of
microenterprise owners/operators: (2) women are
concentrated in certain activities (e.g., commerce,
personal services, garment making, food produc-
tion); (3) women microbusinesses are concentrated
among the smallest ana least remunerative activi-
ties; (4) many women-owned microenterprises are
an extension of women's domestic work; and
(5) women's microenterprise activities are often or-
ganized within their homes.
Implications for Policy, Programs, Projects
Within the public sector, policy interventions are
central, and policies that support microenterprises
are those that are oriented to the smallest economic
activities and those that do not unduly harm certain
sectors of activity, such as commerce. This precept is
particularly important for women-owned or oper-
ated businesses, because these businesses are among
the smallest and are concentrated in activities like
Macroeconomic and regulatorypolicies should be
designed to complement direct interventions being
developed to favor the growth of microenterprises.
Human resource development, training, and educa-
tion policy are also important areas that can have a
positive impact on the microenterprise sector. For-
mal institutions should be encouraged to develop
curricula that are relevant to the needs of the
In order to improve the situation of women and
their families, policies designed to assist the
microenterprise sector should have a dual strategy:
to strengthen and assist microenterprises that have
the possibility to expand, thereby creating new jobs
for both men and women, and to ensure the provision
of assistance to activities that can improve the in-
come levels and the standard of living of their opera-
tors, even when such activities seem to provide little
possibility for expansion.
Finally, legal reform is important for removing
government restrictions to microenterprise develop-
ment. In thecaseof women, the government may also
undertake reforms in the civil code, banking laws,
and labor laws to ensure the economic participation
Certain private sector organizations have an
excellent track record in incorporating women
into programs designed to assist microenterprises.
Despite achievements, however, organizations pro-
viding assistance to women microentrepreneurs
can encounter a number of problems. For example,
training and technical assistance can prove bur-
densome to women already struggling with re-
sponsibilities at home and in the marketplace.
Moreover, the potential demand for creditand assis-
tance in the microenterprise sector goes far beyond
the capability of the often small-scale private
sector projects responsible for assisting micro-
1991, No. 3
1991sig No.3 Evalatio EMeuahondew
Gender Information Framework
The Gender Information Framework (GIF) is a set
of guidelines for incorporating gender considerations
into A.I.D.'s development programming cycle of de-
sign, implementation, and evaluation. GIF is a step-
by-step process for addressing gender issues in both
project and program design and evaluation.
A.I.D. evaluation findings provide strong evidence
that gender is an important variable in the develop-
ment process; that is, projects matching resources to
the roles and responsibilities of men and women are
more effective than projects that do not. Therefore, to
ensure more positive project and program outcomes,
planners need to identify key differences in male and
female roles and responsibilities, analyze the implica-
tions of these differences for programming, and in-
corporate that information into development activities
GIF provides a three-step framework for this pro-
cess. Its core elements are the following:
SGender Analysis Map: As its name implies, the
"map" guides the user through a process, suggest-
ing where he or she should look.
Step one helps the user identify the baseline
situation: the differences in male and female
roles and responsibilities in the allocation of
labor, sources of income, financial responsibili-
ties, and access to and control of resources.
Step two helps the user take a first look at the
gender-specific constraints and opportunities
identified in the baseline situation. Thatis, What
are the key differences in male and female con-
straints to participation in development activi-
ties? What kinds of special skills and knowledge
based on gender roles can be used to increase
These first two steps described in theGender Analy-
sis Map are not specific to A.I.D. and may be appli-
cable to other development organizations.
Gender Considerations Guide: Findings gleaned from
the genderanalysis carried outinstepsoneand two
can be incorporated into program and project de-
sign and evaluation using step three, Gender Con-
siderations Guide. Even though the guide has been
designed primarily for A.I.D. use, it parallels docu-
ments used in other developmentagencies' overall
programming cycles, thus making GIF adaptable
for wider application.
GIF also includes a Summary of Guidelines for
Document Review, which briefly summarizes how
and where to include gender considerations in A.I.D.'s
documentation processing, including planning, ad-
ministrative, and evaluation documents.
For additional information see "The Gender Informa-
tion Frameworkt Gender Considerations m Development."
available from A.l.D.'s WID office.
Why Gender Disaggregated Data?
Understanding the division of labor and resources
between women and men is a basic partof understand-
ing the economic and social conditions of a country.
Misunderstanding of gender differences leads to inad-
equate planning, design, and evaluation of programs
and diminished development results.
Gender disaggregated data provide the following:
* A more accurate picture of the baseline situation;
program planning and policymakmng must be based
on accurate data.
*A means to monitor male and female participation
in A.I.D. activities and to identify potential gender-
based barriers that need to be addressed to achieve
* A necessary basis for anticipating and measuring the
impacts of A.I.D. program activities on women and
men in a country.
* A way to identify critical gaps in data and to collect,
tabulate, and analyze data to fill those gaps.
* Greater awareness on the part of A.I.D. staff of gen-
der differentials when planning beneficiaries' access
to and benefits rrom Mission programs.
*Convincing data to report to Congress to demon-
strate the progress that A.I.D. is making toward fully
integrating women into all development efforts.
1991, No. 3
AJ.D. Evaluation News
A.I.D. Evaluation News 1991. No. .3
Gender Disaggregating Program
by Man H. Clark, Office of Women in Development
The WID office is providing technical assistance for
integrating gender issues into CDIE's Mission-level pro-
gram performance monitoring and evaluation pilots and
will assist in the Agencywde effort to develop a perfor-
mance monitoring information system. This article de-
scribes this collaborative effort.
Over the past year CDIE has conducted numerous
program management and evaluation pilots to help
selected Missions develop model performance infor-
mation systems. Each pilot provides assistance on the
following: (1)s strategic planningand information needs
assessment: (2) design and implementation of appro-
priate program performance monitoring, reporting,
and evaluation systems; and (3) application of pro-
gram performance information in Mission manage-
ment and reporting. The WID Office is placing gender
specialists on CDIE teams and providing direct assis-
tance to CDIE staff to assist them in integrating
gender issues and gender disaggregated indicators
into the model performance information systems.
Based on the lessons learned to date from this
collaboration, it is dear that issues related to the
status of women and their full participation inactivi-
ties supported by Missions cut across all programs
and influence the achievement of strategic objectives.
Thus it is important to measure women's integration
into these efforts as participants in, agents for, and
beneficiaries of the achievement of strategic objec-
tives. To do so, it may be necessary to identify one or
more indicators for strategic objectives that measure
male and female participation and impacts. All indi-
cators or output measures expressed in terms ot
individuals or a proxy should be gender disaggre-
Gender Disaggregated Program Performance Indicators
Gender disaggregated indicators for measuring pro-
gram performance must be developed on a country-by-
country program basis. Most gender disaggregated
indicators are found at the level of project and program
outputs contributing directly to Mission strategic objec-
tives. Measures developed at the level of strategic objec-
tivesmayalso include atleastone gender-disaggregated,
people-related performance indicator.
A number of indicators appear in a wide range of
Mission strategies. The following examples illustrate
gender disaggregation of some of these indicators. This
list does not include all the indicators that should be
Incomeand employmentgenerated by project activi-
ties; number of participants in training by type of train-
ing; number of extensiorusts.
Number of persons receiving technical assistance
and extension activities by type of assistance and exten-
sion input; number of loans applied for and granted;
participation in food production, processing, and mar-
* Natural Resources Management
Changes m time and labor allocation for people who
participate in and benefit from projectactivities, by type
of change; participation in natural resource manage-
ment and tasks; baseline data on resource management.
Decreases in infant mortality rates; access to and use
of health services; improved nutritional status of chil-
dren (weight for age); number of persons with im-
proved access to clean water and sanitation; use of
health services and commodities.
Ratio of girls and boys enrolled to the eligible popu-
lation in project target areas; completion rates at each
level of schooling.
Number and types of jobs created; firm owners and
managers by size and type of firm; number and size of
loans applied for and granted.
Ratio of population voting rates; land ownership and
registration; participation in local, regional, and na-
tional government (holding office).
Number of housing/home improvement loans ap-
plied for and granted; home ownership.
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
i,,1, JN(J. 3 Ad.LJ. t~vaiuation News
In many instances indicators and program outputs
are not expressed in terms of people participating in
or benefiting from Mission activities. Instead they
refer to macroeconomic conditions (e.g., government
deficit as a percent of GDP), measures of infrastruc-
ture development (e.g., kilometers of roads), and the
quantity ormonetaryvalueof program commitments
and returns (e.g., number of export marketing infor-
mation systems). The indirect impact of these macro-
level indicators at the micro level (people-level impact)
can be assessed through linking studies. The link
between macro and micro levels is an appropriate and
necessary component of project design and evalua-
A.I.D. experience to date suggests the following
criteria for developing useful program performance
* Strong link to impacts on the lives of people--both
women and men
* Strong link to A.I.D. efforts
* Relevance and credibility to a broad range of deci-
* Feasibility to secure objective measurement at rea-
There are a few basic recommendations for effi-
ciently maintaining and further developing a gender
Income Generation for Rural
Women in Jordan: Findings
From the Final Project Evaluation
by Tulin Pulley and Margaret Lycette
In 1984, the A.I.D. Mission in Jordan awarded a
grant to Catholic Relief Services (CRS) to initiate an
income generation project for women: a sewing cen-
ter in Mafraq to manufacture school uniforms and
children's clothes. The ultimate goal of the project
was to establish an industrial sewing production
cooperative owned and operated by women. The
final evaluation of the CRS Income Generation Project
for Rural Women in jordan took place between Feb-
ruary 27 and March 9, 1989. The purpose of the
evaluation was to review the process of project design
and implementation, to assess the accomplishment ot
project goals, and to identify constraints in achieving
project objectives. In addition, the evaluation re-
disaggregated program performance information sys-
* Incorporate gender disaggregated program per-
formance information into existing reporting, re-
view, and decision-making systems.
S Collect only information that is likely to be used
and only when the costs -of data collection and
analysis are less than the expected benefits.
Keep program performance information as simple
* Use existing information as much as possible (e.g.,
demographic and health surveys, census, and other
* Use project mechanisms to collect and analyze
most additional gender disaggregated program
* Place as much emphasis on analyzing and inter-
preting information as on collecting data.
* Take advantage of opportunities to strengthen
private and public program activities in the host
Additional information on CDIE's program perfor-
mance evaluation efforts can be obtained from Gerald M.
Britan, PPC/CDIE, Room 219, SA-18 (703) 875-4964.
viewed technical and legal impediments to the cre-
ation of income generation projects. This article pro-
vides a summary of the findings from the final
The project achieved remarkable results. For ex-
Sample, by early in the second year of the project, total
wages and expenses of the Mafraq-based production
center were being covered by proceeds from sales.
The project also increased the paid employment of
women in the Mafraq area. Over the life of the project
to date, the factory employed 49 women for varying
lengths of time. The salaries of these women were a
valuable contribution to the household income in
absolute terms, but equally important, the income
was steady and nonseasonal. In fact, for many partici-
pants, the reliability of their incomes contributed to
their ability to initiate savings for the first time in their
.1 ?, ANU. 0
A.LL). Evaluation News
Field Perspecftves on Evaluation
Al.D. Evaluation News191N.3
For example, several participants developed and
participated in informal rotatingsavings clubs, while
others invested in gold jewelry and land either indi-
vidually or jointly with their families. Interestingly,
several participants invested in household durable
goods, such as washing machines, refrigerators, and
other labor-saving devices. Several project partici-
pants used their project-derived incomes to purchase
their own sewing machines and took on paid sewing
jobs for their neighbors in the evenings and on week-
ends. In addition, the professional work habits and
enhanced skills that participants acquired fromproject
training, including the concepts of standardization
and quality control, will likely increase their future
employability-not only in sewing but in other occu-
pations as well.
In addition, the project created a pool of trained
and productive labor and contributed in a limited
way to the creation of a pool of labor with manage-
ment and supervisory skills. These achievements
could have a significant impact in a rural area like
Mafraq, where most activities are agricultural and
involve little participation in the formal labor force or
the cash economy.
The project also improved the attitudes of the
families toward women's paid work. Most families
moved from resisting to taking pride in their daugh-
ters' or wives' work at the Mafraq production center.
Moreover, the salaries women received from the
project not only became an important part of the
household income, but also helped increase the
women's control over the family income and their
participation in household expenditure decisions.
The project also helped participants understand and
accept the concept of professional relations as dis-
tinct from social or ethnic relations-an important
achievement given the context of tribal relations and
the concept of status in the Mafraq community.
Evaluation findings indicate that although the
cooperating agencies shared a common objective of
employment and income generation for low-income
rural women, theirconceptof income generation was
not the same. For example, whereas A.I.D. and CRS
were oriented to developing a self-sustaining enter-
prise during the life of the project, the Ministry of
Social Development and the Arab Women's Society
(AWS) were more oriented to developing an income
generation project under the auspices of a social
welfare organization. The inconsistencies that sur-
faced on the concept of income generation proved to
be constraining factors to institutionalization.
Feasibility Study Proved To Be Inaccurate
Several assumptions made in the feasibility study
regarding production, training, marketing, and insti-
tutionalization options for the Mafraq project proved
erroneous. Marketing prospects were undefined be-
cause of a lack of market surveys. In terms of market
outlets, the project initially aimed only at meeting the
market demand for school uniforms and children's
clothes. Soon after its initiation, however, the project
officers realized that the demand for school uniforms
was seasonal and already saturated.
The feasibility study had also determined that raw
materials for production needs would be available at
low cost in the local market It turned out, however,
that although raw materials were available, the cost
for competitive quality industrial sewing products
was very high.
L i!~~U*lttt W
of traind and pr'ods
m4.$t d& a,9
The study had also grossly underestimated the
degree and duration of training required for un-
skilled workers. Moreover, ithadnotanticipated that
women would have problems travelling to Amman,
1 1/2 hours from Mafraq, to attend specialized train-
ing in management and supervisory skills. For many
families, sending their daughters away for training
was not acceptable. In fact, most of the young women
had never been outside of their families' protected
environment Although A.I.D. recognized the need
nisms for training project participants were inappro-
priate for rural women and did not address the
constraints women faced.
In addition, the feasibility study had assumed that
the cooperative model would be the mostappropriate
means for transforming the Mafraq project into a self-
sustaining enterprise. The assumption was wrong.
The study had not accurately assessed the capability
of the participating organizations in effecting the
institutional transition, and the2-yeartime framewas
too short for the task.
For example, it was expected that the local AWS
Administrative Council would work with project
participants to strengthen their administrative, man-
agement, and technical capabilities so that within 2
years they could take over the project and establish a
women's cooperative. In other words, AWS experi-
ence with service provision was expected to translate
AJ.D, Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
into enterprise management without major difficulty.
However, AWS, as an institution, had been based on
volunteerism, and its members, who were fully em-
ployed in formal occupations, did not have the re-
quired time to devote to the project AWS was therefore
not able to provide the necessary leadership to realize
the institutional transition to a women's cooperative.
There were other weaknesses as well that con-
strained the ability of participating organizations to
fully perform their expected roles. For example, CRS
developed the project proposal without sufficiently
involving the other participating organizations and
gaining their agreement. Furthermore, CRS did not
have experience with enterprise development, a fact
that was not recognized during project initiation.
Recommendations for Future Income
Reliable and fairly detailed feasibility analyses are
required prior to the implementation of income
generation or enterprise development projects.
Management and marketing are critically impor-
tant to the success of income generation projects.
Accurate studies must be carried out to determine
whether strong and extensive markets exist, and
contacts with these markets must be established
early enduring project implementation. In order to
become self-sustaining, such projects cannot rely
on very limited markets, especially when economic
policies restrict the ability of domestically pro-
duced goods to compete with imports.
* In areas where women's work is traditionally un-
paid and takes place within the home or on fairly
secluded agricultural holdings, community devel-
opment is extremely important to the success of an
income generation project focused on women.
* Time frames substantially longer than 2 years must
redesigned for such projects.Self-sustainingenter-
prises cannot typically be developed until the third,
fourth, or even fifth year of operation.
* Donor agencies that wish to work effectively with
private voluntary organizations (PVOs) in devel-
oping countries must recognize that many of these
organizations are still making the transition to
development work and thus require assistance
themselves-with feasibility analyses, proposal
preparation, and institution building. A.I.D., there-
fore, should assist participating PVOs with institu-
tional development or provide them technical
assistance in project development and implemen-
*The apparel industry is often regarded as a tradi-
tional area of women's involvement; A.ID. should
also consider funding nontraditional income gen-
eration activities for women.
Adapted from "CRS Income Generation Project for
Rural Women: Final Project Evaluation," by the authors,
Washington, D.C.: A.I.D./WID and ICRW, March 1989.
The WID Initiative in CARE
Guatemala's Agroforestry and
Integrated Aquaculture Projects:
by Kristen Johnson and Silvana Castillo
In October 1988, with the supportof a $60,000 grant
from A.I.D., CARE Guatemala's Agroforestry and
Integrated Aquacultureprojects initiated an 18-month
effort to increase women's participation in their re-
spective programs and to assemble a base of experi-
ence and information providing lessons for future
project design and implementation. This article sum-
marizes the final evaluation of this effort. Most of the
data generated for the final evaluation were collected
between January and March 1990, although activities
continued through June 1990. Theevaluation includes
an assessment of the effort's success in reaching its
objectives, an evaluation of the strategies chosen to
implement women-in-development (WID) activities.
conclusions identifying factors contributing to suc-
cess and failure, and recommendations for future
WID-related programming for the agriculture and
natural resources sector.
Virtually all strategies were implemented effec-
tively, given limitations of time and budget. Sixty-
four women's groups carried out their chosen
activities-such as raising small livestock, growing
flowers, and carrying out nursery activities-with a
large measure of success. Hundreds of other women
were incorporated into ongoing activities and ben-
efits of the two projects. The results of the evaluation
survey and other monitoring information suggest
that, despite its short duration, the WID initiative
produced dramatic improvements in women's par-
ticipation in both projects. These improvements are
not limited to simple increases in the number of
women participants. Evidence points to qualitative
improvements in the involvementof women in project
activities and access to its benefits.
During the diagnostic survey it became clear that
numerous women were interested in raising animals
A.I.D. Evaluation News
91 91 No. 3
A.I.D. Evaluation News 1991, No. 3
and growing cash crops as a means of improving
household cash income. Most of these activities re-
quire sums of investment resources unavailable to
women. Therefore, a credit component was built into
the original work plan to facilitate these activities.
WID credits and incentive donations adequately
addressed capital constraints. The great majority or
groups that received WID loans and donations were
able to put them to good use and achieved their stated
goals of increasing household income or sources or
food. Donations to women's groups enabled over
1,200 women to experiment with new practices and
production technologies without undue risk.
Sustainabilitv was promoted whenever possible by
setting up revolving funds and by using donations as
incentives to integrate activities with short- and longer-
term benefit streams.
An Effective Resource Delivery System
The resource delivery system (credits, donations.
and specialized technical backup) worked very well.
The credit strategy for women was successful in
terms of four important criteria. First, it responded
effectively and efficiently to a latent demand among
rural women for productive capital to carry out high-
priority activities. Second, the great majority of loans
were repaid promptly and in full. Third, loans were
targeted to activities that were profitable. Fourth,
wherever possible, advanced WID credit groups were
being graduated to another CARE project specializ-
ing in village banks.
Donations of tools, seeds, livestock medicines, and
other materials have helped women in three impor-
tant ways: by allowing them to experiment with new
technologies without undue risk, by lowering the
initial costs of introduced activities, and by providing
locally unavailable capital assets.
CARE assigned substantial funds and specialized
personnel to orient male field staff and provide ongo-
ing backup for their efforts with women's groups.
However, the very rapid growth of WID groups
needing specialized assistance was not fully antici-
pated by the authors of the work plan. Nevertheless,
the WID initiative had considerable success in orient-
ing and training field staff who were predisposed to
working with women. The best techniques included
informal group discussions, specialized workshops.
and exchange visits among sites. Perhaps the most
convincing strategy was to take field staff on trips to
sites where women's groups were functioning well.
These became potent examples for the rest of the
Although CARE/WID did not impose either seg-
regated or mixed forms of organization, there is
ample evidence from field staff observations and
women's own choice suggesting that in a majority of
cases women prefer to work by themselves. This
choice is culturally appropriate in many settings and
also appears to foster self-confidence and leadership
amongwomen participants. Groups comprising only
married women tended to have higher levels of par-
ticipation and commitment.
Despite higher rates of poverty, monolingualism,
and illiteracy, Indian women's groups are well orga-
nized. highly motivated, and capable of learning new
techniques. No significant differences were found
between the success rates of Indian and non-Indian
land. money, attitudes) were all borne out over the 18
months, a constraint that was not identified was that
of markets. By focusing almost exclusively on the
production side of the equation, CARE neglected
market constraints, such as volatile price swings,
inflation, middlemen, and transport. These affected
WID credit groups the most and also impinged upon
nursery groups that received incentive donations of
tools, seeds, and training to produce perishable crops.
Determining Appropriate Activities
Questions remain regarding whether or not some
of the capital-intensive small livestock activities are
really appropriate for small-scale producers who are
vulnerable to market forces and who cannot afford to
operate ata loss. Also, in several instances, some male
participants became resentful and opposed these ac-
tivities because they considered them to be preferen-
The small WID team, comprising a coordinator, a
part-time technical assistant, and a part-time consult-
ant, provided valuable assistance but was unable to
backstop all extensionists who needed them. The
training provided to field staff during the 18 months
of the initiative should be considered as the first of a
longer term effort.
The WID database, along with field staff observa-
tions, suggest that certain social and cultural features
do affect the outcome of WID efforts. The most
important of these include differences of religion and
marital status, which, when they occur in the same
group, contribute to instability and tensions. Hetero-
geneous groups tend to be less stable than homoge-
Given strong cultural norms and prevailing pat-
terns of resource control, women-oriented programs
that alienate men will probably not outlive the life of
the intervention. In this context, changing ingrained
attitudes must be viewed as a long-term process.
Ultimately, this requires changes in the structure of
national institutions and a commitment to affirmative
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3
1991, No. 3 A.I.D. Evaluation News
action so that more women extensionists and agrono-
mists can be trained and hired.
In selecting activities, women tended toward
nonforestry and nonaquacultureactivities. Small live-
stock raising, not fish farming, was the predominant
choice when WID-integrated aquaculture groups se-
lected activities. An important constraintwas women's
lack of access to land. Ultimately, most women with-
out access to farmland were unable to take full advan-
tage of the opportunities offered by CARE.
Certain labor inefficiencies were found to be im-
plicit in group projects carried out among women
living in scattered settlements. In many cases, women
participants had to walk up to an hour to reach the
group nursery, cash crop field, or livestock pen--an
inefficient use of women's time that may havecontrib-
uted to higher drop-out rates among them. In cases
where this can be avoided, such as small livestock
raising, it may be best to decentralize production to
individual households once women are able to master
basic production techniques.
Accordingtoa March 1988census, theAgroforestrv
projecthad 1,647 female participants, equivalent to
11 percent of total project participants. At that time,
91 agroforestry groups (or 25 percent of total project
groups) included women. By January 1990, the
number of women in the project had risen by more
than 50 percent, to 2,505. Perhaps more significant
is the fact that agroforestry groups that now in-
dude women have also gone up in number to 139,
a 50 percent increase.
* The census also indicates that women have im-
proved their levels of access to project decision-
making and benefits. By early 1990, over 80 percent
of female participants received fruit saplings and
forest seedlings, close to 90 percent had partici-
pated in some form of training activity, and fully 91
percent had a voice in group decisions. Half of the
project's women also received income from nurs-
* According to baseline information, 66 percent of
women contribute up to half of their household's
(cash and noncash) budget, and 13 percentage their
family's sole source of support. While miscella-
neous activities, such as crafts and domestic work,
are of some significance, agriculture provides the
key source of income for 79 percent of the women
In a diagnostic survey conducted prior to imple-
mentation, 35 percent of the women surveyed
identified the lack of land and money as major
constraints to greater involvement in productive
activities of the sort offered by the two projects.
At the time of the final evaluation, 21 (out of a
total of 34) groups had repaid their loans in full.
Another 11 were in the process of paying off their
installments, with final payments due by Septem-
ber 1990. Of 34 CARE/WID credit groups, only
two defaulted on part of their loans; in other
words, roughly 6 percent defaulted.
Only 50 percent of loan repayments were made
from sources other than revenues generated by the
WID activity. It happened primarily in cases where
loan installments were due before the activity
could generate sufficient returns. There were also
a few cases when, after disappointing sales, the
group came up short and had to make repayments
from savings. Clearly, the rate of loan repayment is
an important measure of project success. How-
ever, by itself, loan repayment is by no means an
adequate indicator of the activity's long-term fea-
sibility. In the case of numerous credit groups
experiencing low returns, successful loan repay-
ment is more a measure of good group discipline
and solidarity than of the activity's economic vi-
Recommendations for Future Activities
WID programs should attempt to foster mixed
male-female groups in situations where this is
culturally appropriate, but should not compel
women to work with men when all-female groups
* Field staff should be oriented to the potential risks
of organizing groups that mix members of differ-
ent religions or single and married women.
* Future income generating and credit activities
should require specific market studies of the
region's most common products.
Adapted from "Evaluation of the WID Initiative in
CARE Guatemala's Agroforestry and Integrated
Aquaculture Projects: 1988 to 1990," by the authors,
New York, New York. CARE, October 1990.
1991, No. 3
A.I.D. Evaluation News
AI.D.Evlato ESauaem Nw9ws
Global Assembly of Women
to Address Environmental Issues
by Elavne Clift
Miami, Florida will be thesceneof an international
gathering of women environmental activists, who
from November 4 to 8.1991, will meet to demonstrate
women's abilities and successes in addressing envi-
ronmental management. "The global assembly is
dedicated to demonstrating to the world community
the elements of leadership necessary for success and
the policies which can advance or retard such ef-
forts," says Waaius Ofosu-Amaah, a Project Director
at Worldwide, a Washington, D.C.-based network or
women concerned with environmental management
and protection. "We are going to focus on success
stories about water, energy, waste, and environmen-
tally friendly systems, products, or technologies,
such as organic farming or forestation programs.
These success stories must be repeatable, affordable,
visible, and sustainable, so that by showcasing these
efforts, we can mobilize more people, not only women,
to become involved."
The forthcoming global assembly is the outgrowth
of several similar regional meetings. The first of these
was an African Women's Assembly held in Zimba-
bwe in February 1989. The Assembly was sponsored
by the Senior Women's Advisory Group on Sustain-
able Development to the United Nations Environ-
mental Program (UNEP), a group of women who
came togetherafter the 1985 Nairobi conference mark-
ing the close of the U.N. Decade for Women. The
group was formed to establish a link between women
and sustainable development and to provide an ad-
visory body that could help channel environmental
More than 100 people from over 20 countries at-
tended the Zimbabwe meeting, whose theme was
food and self-sufficiency in Africa. Waafus Ofosu-
Amaah states, "(The Zimbabwe meeting] was a very
dynamic gathering of women who were concerned
about the issues, with the practitioners in their vari-
ous field talking about the role of the African woman
in sustainable development. The group came up with
various recommendations as to how to increase
women's effective participation in environmental
management. They talked about the role of the Afri-
can women as the natural, the real natural resource
manager, either as farmer, for subsistence agriculture
especially, or as the provider of energy in the family,
and the community. It was a landmark event."
Recommendations from this forum were subse-
quently presented to the African Ministerial Confer-
ence on Environment in Cairo, which adopted them.
Eventually the recommendations reached the UNEP
Governing Council and ultimately the U.N. General
Assembly, where they were also adopted.
Some of the strongest recommendations focus on
forestand woodland protection because of diminish-
ing fuel resources. Overexploitation of natural re-
sources and lack of integrated planningand programs
aimed at sustainable resource use were highlighted as
critical problems. Policymakers were urged to in-
volve women early in the planning process to ensure
that their insights and concerns are fully incorporated
into project design and imp lementation. For example,
the planting of indigenous trees as part of reforesta-
tion programs instead of fast-growing trees that often
are not indigenous is important to women in the
community for a variety of reasons. Indigenous trees
are used for medicinal purposes, ground cover, and
prevention of soil erosion.
The results of the African conference were widely
disseminated, and Worldwide hopes that this expo-
sure will help to ensure monitoring of governments'
commitment to include women in developing envi-
ronmental policy. U.N. agencies, nongovernmental
organizations, and governmental bodies are now
well aware of women's concerns and have publicly
promised to act on them.
The second regional assembly, the Arab Women's
Assembly on Sustainable Development, was held in
February 1990 in Tunisia. Again, under the auspices
of the UNEP Senior Women's Advisory Group, the
Assembly emphasized the role of women in environ-
mental protection and environmental education. (A
report of the African and the Arab conferences is
available from Worldwide.)
The Miami meeting will build on the momentum
begun in Zimbabwe and Tunisia. In addition to envi-
ronmentalists who will present success stories, orga-
nizers are also inviting mentors and "new generation
leaders." Mentors are individuals whose activities or
institutions can advance the inclusion of women in
more projects and more environmental initiatives
and can help advance the replication of some of the
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. j
1991. No.3 A.I.D. Evaluation News
success stories. New generation leaders are young
women who will assume leadership in this decade
and beyond. "We feel it's very important to bring
these three groups of people together to advance a
shared literacy about problems; to encourage young
women especially to incorporate environmental is-
sues into their activities, individually and organiza-
tionally; and generally to make sure that more projects
and activities incorporate women's perceptions about
sound environmental management as a normal ap-
proach," says Ofosu-Amaah.
Organizers expect many senior policymakers to
attend the meeting. According to Ofosu-Amaah,
'[policymakers) fall into our category of mentors
because they are the group who need to hear from
grassroots workers about what works and what
doesn't. They also need to hear about policies which
can help or retard community initiatives so they can
incorporate them into program design and imple-
Many eyes will be on the Miami convocation be-
cause the conclusions and recommendations from
that meeting will influence the U.N. Conference on
Environmentand Development, scheduled for 1992 in
Rio de Janeiro, and global environmental policy for
years to come.
Recent Publications Available From the Office of Women in Development
The following publications and a list of addi-
tional publications can be requested from the
Publications Manager, Office of Women in Devel-
opment, Agency for International Development,
Room 3725A NS, Washington, DC 20523-0041.
Women in Development: A Report to Congress by the
U.S. Agencyfor International Development 1990. High-
lights of A.I.D. accomplishments by sector and
The Economic and Social Impact of Girl's Primary
Education in Developing Countries. Analysis of world-
wide evidence on and policy implications of the
social and economic impacts of educating girls.
Prepared under the Advancing Basic Education
and Literacy Project (ABEL).
Integrating Women Into Development Policies and
Programs: A Guide for the Asiaand Near East Regions.
Summary of regional trends, presenting gender
issues on participation in economic and public life,
private enterprise, agriculture, environment and
natural resources, education, health, and popula-
tion and nutrition, as these sectors relate to A.I.D.
policies and programs for the region.
Women. Demographic Change and Economic Growth
in Asia, the Near East, and Eastern Europe: Conference
Proceedings. Papers developed to assist the ENE
and APRE bureaus in rethinking their policies and
programs as they might directly and indirectly
affect women's economic participation and family
planning program performance. Topics include in-
come and fertility, female education, women and
the law, and women in agricultural economics. The
papers present lessons learned from the advanced
developing countries and women's participation in
the newly emerging economies of Eastern Europe.
Guidelinesfor Increasing Female Participation inA.I.D.
Training Programs for Asia and the Near East. Guide-
lines to help A.I.D. staff and contractors increase
participation of women in U.S., third country, and
in-country training programs. Provides a matrix of
constraints and corresponding strategies for over-
Gender and Adjustment. Summary of the theories
and arguments regarding the impact of gender
differences in structural adjustment. Includes case
material from Jamaica, Pakistan, Ghana, and CSte
AJ.D. Evaluation News
1991, No. 3