Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 A new food supply at the doors...
 Kids + schoolyards + zeal...
 The noble yam
 Silent spring revisited
 Crisis in the Sahel
 Black colleges: Expertise...
 Which costs more: Aid or no...
 Energy: Top foreign policy...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Agenda (Washington, D.C. 1978)
Title: Agenda
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089934/00001
 Material Information
Title: Agenda
Uniform Title: Agenda (Washington, D.C. 1978)
Abbreviated Title: Agenda (Wash. 1978)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agency for International Development
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Public Affairs
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Press and Publications Division, Office of Public Affairs, Agency for International Development,
Press and Publications Division, Office of Public Affairs, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: March 1981
Copyright Date: 1982
Frequency: monthly
Subject: Economic development -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Periodicals -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: Agency for International Development.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Publication began with Jan. 1978.
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 5, no. 4 (May 1982).
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 2, no. 4 incorrectly called v. 2, no. 3.
General Note: Title from cover.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 2, no. 2 (Mar. 1979).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089934
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03687306
lccn - 78642407
issn - 0161-1976
 Related Items
Preceded by: War on hunger
Succeeded by: Horizons (Washington, D.C.)

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    A new food supply at the doorstep
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Kids + schoolyards + zeal = trees
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The noble yam
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Silent spring revisited
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Crisis in the Sahel
        Page 14
    Black colleges: Expertise rediscovered
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Which costs more: Aid or no aid?
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Energy: Top foreign policy concern?
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Back Matter
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

agency for international de' elopmenr
MARCH 1981

a F








Developing countries made striking progress in many ways during the 1970s, reports
the Overseas Development Council. Their gross national product grew at an average
annual rate of nearly 6%--compared with just over 3% in the developed countries.
The manufactured exports of the South grew at an annual rate of more than 10%,
and the PLQI (Physical Quality of Life Index, which combines information about
infant mortality, life expectancy and literacy) of the developing countries increased
from 39 in 1960 to 57 in the late 1970s.

A breakthrough that could result in providing developing nations with millions of
tons of protein a year may be in the offing. According to the Los Angeles Times,
Scottish scientists at Stirling University have developed a technique for producing
male-only fish. The work applies to several species of tialpia, a popular fresh-water
food fish in tropical Africa and Asia. For the first three or four weeks of life, tilapia
are neither male nor female. Later, male or female sex hormones determine the sex
of the fish. The young fish grow rapidly, but once breeding starts, growth slows
dramatically, making commercial farming difficult. By adding small doses of male
sex hormones to water containing the fish, all fry become male. Having no mating
partners, the male grow twice as fast as females, don't waste energy and calories on
sex and just keep growing.

Generations of Indian women in the foothills of the Himalayas have helped support
their families by gathering leaves and roots for medicinal purposes from nearby
forests; their sons, by extracting turpentine from the trees. But then the government
began selling rights to lumber companies to cut large areas of timber and before the
women's eyes their source of income started to disappear. Even more important,
they feared their sons would be forced to leave home to search for work elsewhere.
When the lumber companies arrived, the women put their arms around the trees and
refused to budge. The Indian government considered the women's plight and now
formally supports them; cutting by the lumber companies has stopped.

New agricultural technology has only reached 10 to 15% of the world's 3 billion
farmers, says agronomist and Nobel prize winner Norman Borlaug.

Consumer's guide: The U.N.'s Development Forum reports that the Consumer
Guidance Society of India recently sampled foods commonly sold by roadside ven-
dors in Bombay. The foods were tested for the most common food-related diseases,
such as cholera, gastro-enteritis, dysentery and food poisoning. Of the eight
samples, seven proved unfit for human consumption, with bacterial levels far
exceeding the limits prescribed by health authorities.

The non-oil-producing developing countries now absorb 38% of United States
exports and are the fastest growing export market for American goods, according to
an Overseas Development Council report.

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We hope you continue to find Agenda useful and informative and that
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March 1981 Vol. 4, No. 2

A New Food Supply at the Doorstep
Lee Mullane

Kids + Schoolyards + Zeal = Trees
Michael C. Benge

The Noble Yam
Jean-Marc Fleury

Silent Spring Revisited
Eugene S. Morton

Crisis in the Sahel
Noel V. Lateef

Black Colleges: Expertise Rediscovered
Emmett George

Which Costs More: Aid or No Aid?
John Sewell

Energy: Top Foreign Policy Concern?

Agenda is published 10 times a year by the
Agency for International Development, a
part of the International Development Coop-
eration Agency. Agenda is free upon request
to the U.S. public. Readers are invited to
submit original manuscripts (including
speeches) and photographs on any aspect of
international development. Such material
cannot be returned unless accompanied by a
stamped, self-addressed envelope of suffi-
cient size and strength. Contents of this pub-
lication may be reprinted or excerpted un-
less copy-righted or non-AID source is noted.
Credit to Agenda is requested.
The opinions and conclusions expressed in
Agenda are those of the authors, and do not
necessarily reflect official AID or U.S. policy.

M. Peter McPherson, Administrator-
Christine Camp, Acting Director
Office of Public Affairs
Press and Publications Division,
Office of Public Affairs
Agency for International Development
Washington, DC 20523
(202) 632-8351
Edward R. Caplan, Division Chief
Lee Mullane, Editor





Jamaican women
are learning
backyard gardening,
soil conservation
and nutrition,
at the same time.

by Lee Mullane

There is something new going on
in rural Jamaica today. Young
women-who know the land, fami-
lies' needs and the economics of
farming-are becoming a new breed
of agricultural agent. Trained in
composting, crop rotation and the
principles of nutrition, they are
traveling from farm to farm, talking
to other women, listening and teach-
ing. They are persuading small farm-
ers, many of them women, that there
are ways-old and new-to get
more from their land.
Jamaica is a willing land. Until
erosion in recent years robbed it of
much of its topsoil, its rich tropical
earth produced fruits and vege-
tables almost without being asked.

Breadfruit and avocado-pears grew
wild and abundantly. Farmers had
little difficulty.
But there is a problem now, and
it's getting worse. Jamaica, like
many other developing nations, is
reeling under the combined blows of
population growth, deforestation,
country-to-city migration and eco-
nomic chaos. In an attempt to fight
back and save the vital watersheds,
stop the erosion and boost food pro-
duction, the Jamaican government
has encouraged small farmers to
plant cash crops to send to the
hungry in the cities and to sell on the
foreign market. The trouble with this
measure is that it allows the farmers
very little for themselves or their

families. Cash crops-coffee, bana-
nas, cocoa, yams-don't provide a
balanced meal. The farmers are too
poor to buy what they need to sup-
plement the crops they grow to sell.
Over time, the farm children show
signs of malnutrition.
Twenty percent of the children
under 4 are significantly under-



weight. The death rate for 1- to
4-year-olds is twice that of Bar-
bados, Trinidad and Tobago. Just
under half of all pregnant women
are anemic.
The fledgling crop of new exten-
sion agents-they number about 23
now-are under the Family Food
Production Plan, itself a recently

added part of a wider effort of the
Jamaican government, with help
from AID. That effort, called the In-
tegrated Rural Development Pro-
gram, begun in 1978, is aimed first
at halting soil erosion and second at
increasing food production and help-
ing farmers take care of their own.
With headquarters in Christiana,

the Integrated Rural Development
Program has sought over the past
several months, primarily through
soil conservation but also through
extension services and credit, to:
* Improve the standard of living for
farm families.
* Increase the amount of food for
those not living on farms.

MARCH 1981





Since the first extension agents went to work last April, more than 540 home gardens have

been planted.

Jamaica, like many devel-
oping nations, is reeling
under the combined
blows of over-population,
deforestation, country-to-
city migration and eco-
nomic chaos.

* Improve Jamaica's trade balance
by cutting down on food imports.
Jamaica now imports over half of
the food it needs.
* Provide an important source of
foreign exchange through ex-
* Create a rural market for indus-
trial goods and services.
Jamaica's economic problems are
well known. Increasing poverty has
taken a heavy toll on the people and
the land.
The small farmers hold the key to
food self-sufficiency for Jamaica.
The extension agent project is
geared to women farmers because
men are migrating in increasing
numbers to cities and other coun-
tries in search of jobs.
In common with women through-
out the developing world, the
Jamaican farm woman is finding her
resources dwindling while responsi-
bilities mount. She is expected to
feed and care for her family, see to
education when it is possible, and
grow crops to sell and eat too, when
there is enough. If her man is work-
ing abroad, she waits for what little
money he can send home.

With an eye toward improving the
conditions so many rural Jamaican
women face and toward including
them in the overall rural program,
AID and the Jamaican government
initiated the Family Food Production
Program last year as a model "proj-
ect-within-a-project." It is centered
in the Two Rivers and Pindar Water-
shed areas in the northeastern re-
gion of the island nation. According
to the program's designers, Elsa
Chaney and Martha Lewis, both on
contract to AID's Office of Women in
Development, it is a nutrition-food
production package based on care-
fully planning a cycle of continu-
ously growing, nutritious vegetables.
These vegetables are chosen for
their ability to complement the tradi-
tional starchy diet.
It means that women are being en-
couraged by their own country-
women to plant a series of vege-
tables that will almost completely
balance their diet (some meat is
needed). The objective is to keep the
household garden producing some-
thing all the time. The agents are
suggesting that the gardens be made
right outside the door, though many
Jamaican women have to walk a dis-
tance. But with a garden nearby, a
woman can tend her crops while do-
ing other chores, considerably cut-
ting the time involved and insuring
careful cultivation. For example,
watering becomes a natural exten-
sion of household duties when a
woman can toss dirty water used in
the house literally from the door step
onto the garden. That's much easier
than trekking perhaps miles carry-
ing a water jug.
"To pin it down," explains
Chaney, "The Family Food Produc-
tion Plan is a cycle of nine nutritious
vegetables, which, if planted in
roughly the order laid out and com-
bined properly with the starchy
foods, will give a family pretty good
nutrition with only occasional
animal protein."
The plan was worked out by
Lewis, a gardening expert who col-
laborated closely with the project


horticulturalist. For example, if you
put rice with peas (kidney beans),
you get a release of the amino acids
and the dish is more nutritious than
to eat each alone. So it is with a
number of food combinations.
The various recommended vege-
tables come from six groups:
Amaranthus (calaloo); Cucurbite
(pumpkin, squash, cucumber, and
melon): Hibiscus (okra and sorrell);
Kole (kale, pak choi, cabbage, tur-
nips, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard);
Legume (red pea, cow pea, peanut,
mungo beans, gungo pea, broad
beans, soybeans, string beans); and
Solanaceous (tomato, pepper,
garden egg, and Irish potato).
As the first step in setting up the
program, the planners looked care-
fully at the women's normal work
load. Would they be able to take on
what for many might be an added
burden? About half go regularly "to
the bush" to work on the cash crops.
They ascertained that most could.
For those who did work on cash
crops, the help of older sons and
menfolk would be needed. In any
case, the men must be involved
because unless they agree to use a
piece of land for a household garden,
there is no garden, Chaney explains.
The next step was to recruit and
train young women, almost all from
the project area. With a combination
of U.S. and Jamaican experts, a
month's training course gave the
women the rudiments of gardening
and nutrition. The initial course is
followed up with refreshers and ad-
ditional training. More than half of
the original class is now at work and
their numbers are growing as new
classes start.
The first extension workers have
been in the field since April, and
their teaching appears to be taking
hold. More than 540 gardens have
been planted in the first six months,
according to Chaney. Now there are
more clients than the program can
handle, she adds. "The women are
saying, 'When are the young ladies
coming to help me start my garden?'"
All the vegetables selected and

In classrooms like this, students are taught that home vegetable gardening is integral to the
health and economic well-being of the Jamaican family.

Farmers are encouraged
to plant cash crops, but
these alone do not pro-
vide a balanced meal.

recommended for planting except
kale are familiar to the woman
farmers, a factor contributing to
their acceptance.
Lewis explains:
"We knew, for example, that
calaloo is common in Jamaica and
it's very nutritious. We also knew
that kale is very much like calaloo,
with the added benefit of being more
productive and very high in vitamin
A and iron, both of which are needed
in the tropics."
What happens when a garden has
a variety of vegetables growing in it
all the time, Lewis explains, is that
the woman feels obligated to "add a
little to the pot" each day, and that
is very good for the diet.
If one plant is beginning to mature
and reach the end of its productive
cycle, you have another type ready

and waiting to put in the ground. The
system depends on planning. There-
fore, Lewis continues, care of the
soil is essential. "You can actually
create soil by composting," she
adds. "I dream this will be a new
wedge to introduce new care and ap-
preciation of soil."
If gardening is to be the wedge,
the young woman extension agents
are the force to drive it home. They
are helping to prepare gardens, to
build up the soil and to select the
vegetables, and they are teaching
good nutrition-meal planning, sani-
tation, what foods are best for preg-
nant women, infants and toddlers.
Both Chaney and Lewis believe
the program can work in other
places as well, even in climates
vastly different from Jamaica's.
Home vegetable gardening is prov-
ing to be integral to the health and
economic well-being of the family in
Jamaica, Chaney says. She adds: "It
also may well be a key to recognition
of the economic contribution that
women are making to development
everywhere." 0

Lee Mullane is editor of "Agenda."

MARCH 1981


School i--: -. -. "" ... : '
tree-growing --- --
projects can

by Michael D. Benge

Many people in developing coun-
tries know how to grow at
least some food. Few know how to
grow trees. Yet trees maintain the
soil that grows food and provide the
wood for cooking.
Trees are disappearing. Mother -
Nature can no longer carry the h .
burden of replacing what is lost. If
man is going to cut, man will have to
But there is a scarcity of tree
seedlings for planting, and this is a
problem that overshadows even the
lack of forestry know-how. More-
over, the high cost of setting up and
maintaining tree nurseries and the
lack of the means to transport seed-
lings are added deterrents to refor- ~.- "
station. The result is that nursery -I- le.
seedlings have become too expen- 'I _,-.f.
sive and trees are not being planted. r ."r" -..
There is an alternative. -
If developing countries do without 'q
the central nurseries that have be- : .


come their primary source of seed-
lings and if they create school and
backyard nurseries, they can lower
-overhead costs, involve villagers
directly, use resources better, and
train students and villagers to care
for the trees with familiar tools and
technology. Wells can be dug at
school or in the village.
School and backyard nurseries
can teach people that trees are fun-
damental to maintaining the water
supply, reducing soil erosion, im-
proving soil fertility, and providing a
habitat for wildlife and forage for
farm animals.
Schools can serve as focal points
through which to introduce new
technology, conduct demonstrations
and carry out extension work. The
villagers respect the school
teachers. Often students will take
home tree seedlings to plant around
Wi' man contlnueP iton ottrpns. rrQ ees the house or in the kitchen garden.
"iijl TdhioplPuor mrol iin ihprm no, Ior ,rit runf Frequently, they can influence their
lood. The solulron maT, he n Iree nurserr e_ run
b, cho,,ol. parents to plant trees. In this way,
each student is a potential extension
V" ,Plots of land could be set aside for
school and community wood lots,
energy plantations, fruit orchards,
parks, or forage production areas.
Planting and maintaining these
areas could become part of the
school curriculum and school and
community projects. Where com-
munity efforts are not feasible, there
is an alternative. Backyard nurser-
.. 4, ,ies may become private enterprises.
-4. V -It has worked in at least two

MARCH 1981 7

developing countries-the Philip-
pines and Haiti.
A school program to produce tree
seeds was undertaken by a district
school supervisor in Cebu in the
Philippines. The supervisor required
that every teacher in his district
plant and care for five Leucaena
trees in the school yards before they
could collect their salary. The trees
were inspected each month to see if
they were still growing. If a tree
died, a new one had to be planted-
"No trees, no pay!" This seed pro-
gram served as the basis for an ex-
panded school tree planting project.
The district supervisor persuaded
the Philippine government to set
aside a parcel of land at each school
for mini-energy plantations and
parks. The school official met with
the local villagers and got them to
agree that these areas would be pro-
tected-livestock grazing and
poaching would be prohibited.
The villagers helped the children
build a fence around the areas
whenever seedlings were available.
An agriculturalist came to the school
to teach pupils to care for Leucaena
trees, Each student was required to
plant and care for 10 trees and was
graded on his or her efforts. Classes
and schools competed. Part of the
competition was to determine which
student, class and school could plant
the most trees-as well as influence
the most parents, family and com-
munity members to plant trees.
In Haiti's Grande Rivier du Nord
region, backyard nurseries are do-
ing well. Farmers have learned that
soil can be made more fertile, ero-
sion reduced and crop yields in-
creased-all desperate needs-by
planting the right kind of trees on
land not already planted with crops.
In fact, in Haiti, growing trees on

idle land is like putting money in the
Through the efforts of the Men-
nonite Central Committee, a private
voluntary group, farmers have been
given seeds and taught how to set up
tree seedling nurseries. They have
been encouraged to plant fast-
growing species.
Initially the committee's staff of
agricultural technicians and exten-
sion agents singled out recognized
leaders among the farmers and en-
couraged them to plant trees. The
farmers in turn became extension
agents. It is estimated that over 2
million trees have been planted.
School nurseries, mini-parks, fuel
plantations and fruit orchards are
practical laboratories and excellent
mediums through which many sub-
jects, such as science, biology and
ecology, can be taught. With the
right selection of fast-growing trees
(preferably leguminous), one site
may serve all these functions.

Schools also are an excellent
medium through which to multiply
seeds for sale and use in expanded
forestation projects. Seeds of
rapidly growing trees can be given
to the students for propagation, and
the seedlings planted and nurtured
as a requirement in their regular
school curriculum. Rapidly growing
tree species, such as Leucaena
leucocephala, can produce as many
as 10,000 viable seeds per tree only
after one year. Schools could thus
produce vast quantities of seeds.
Students and villagers could even
contract to gather seed from forest
trees, with careful education and
supervision built in.
Why not organize a youth conser-
vation corps, much like the U.S. Boy
Scouts and Girl Scouts? In many
developing countries, Boy and Girl
Scout organizations already exist.
They could expand into a conserva-
tion corps and teach tree-growing.
Often, hillside and subsistence
farmers cultivate only a portion of
their land; the rest lies idle. Unless
this land has adequate vegetation,
erosion accelerates, soil structure
deteriorates due to solar radiation,
and essential nutrients are lost
through the leaching effect of
tropical rainfall. It is necessary to
educate the farmers to these facts
and to convince them that the poten-
tial production of their land is
But education is not enough. The
farmer must have a ready source of
appropriate tree species available to
plant on his unused land. These
plant materials can be provided
through a backyard nursery pro-
gram. O

Michael D. Benge is an agroforester
with AID's Office of Agriculture.





No edible plant
has a richer

From the Ivory Coast to
Cameroon, in the countries bor-
dering the Gulf of Guinea, no edible
plant has a richer social and
religious heritage than the yam. In
many areas, this delicious tuber re-
mains the only crop requiring spe-
cial ceremonies for its planting and
harvest. It is so closely interwoven
into the life of the people of West
African forest zone that a French
botanist christened this region "yam
Births, weddings, deaths, and the

by Jean-Marc Fleury

inauguration of leaders are all occa-
sions that call for yam dishes, usu-
ally prepared from special varieties
and according to elaborate recipes.
The demand for yams-one of the
oldest foodstuffs in existence-re-
mains constant.
Yet, venerable as it may be, the
yam has been criticized by a number
of African governments. Its produc-

tion is extremely costly, the returns
meager. In Cameroon, for example,
it costs over $1,150 to plant a hect-
are (21/2 acres) of yams, and the
grower often has to keep a third of
his crop for seed! It is easy to under-
stand the agricultural ministries'
reluctance to support such a costly
crop, particularly as it requires five
or six times as much work as cassava
or sweet potatoes. It appeared that
the yam was doomed to disappear,
giving way to other more practical

MARCH 1981

But the officials and the planners
underestimated the attachment of
millions of people for whom yams
are the most prestigious of foods.
Yam production remained constant.
Authorities were forced to acknowl-
edge the error of their ways and in-
clude the tuber in their national
agricultural programs.
Although it produces only about a
million tons each year, compared to
neighboring Nigeria's 12 million
tons, Cameroon included the yam in
its root crop improvement plan.
Simon Ngale Lyonga, an agronomist
at the Agronomic Research Insti-
tute's Ekona station, at the foot of
Mount Cameroun, took charge of the
Cameroonian yam program.
"From 1959 to 1976, I was up to
my ears in yam," he says. "In fact,
the government had little choice: one
area of Cameroon bordering on east-
ern Nigeria alone imported 4,250
tons of yams in 1965; imports for the
country as a whole totaled at least
four times that amount."
Under the national root and tuber
crop improvement program, Camer-
oonian authorities plan to increase
yam production from the 400,000
tons harvested in 1975-76 to 1.3
million tons in 1980-1981-an an-
nual increase of nearly 20%.
Lyonga, coordinator of the program,
says that it is still too early to tell
whether this objective is being met.
However, the obstacles to profit-
able cultivation are such that Cam-
eroonians now speak of the need to
"redesign" the yam. The top part of
the plant is a vine that must be sup-
ported by a stake to obtain an ac-
ceptable yield. But the demand for
firewood has drastically reduced the
wood available and yams require
some 2,500 stakes per hectare (1,000
stakes an acre)! Moreover, as the
tubers of some varieties grow about
three feet below ground, harvesting
involves major excavations and pre-
cludes mechanization short of bull-
dozers. Finally, enormous quantities
of seed are required: growers must
plant about 10,000 tuber pieces or
up to five tons of seed per hectare!

All that for a yield of 15 to 50 tons. It
is going to take time to "redesign"
the yam.
With the yam growers in mind,
Lyonga and his team wanted to
tackle the most pressing needs first
and come up with strategies that
could be applied immediately. First
they had to find the highest-yielding
varieties. With assistance from
Canada's International Development
Research Center (IDRC), 95 in-
digenous varieties were collected

throughout Cameroon and tested
along with 19 other varieties re-
ceived from the International Insti-
tute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in
Ibadan, Nigeria. Analyses confirmed
the relatively high protein content of
the yam tuber, particularly of the
species Dioscorea dumetorum,
which contains up to 11% protein. In
addition, D. dumetorum yields ac-
ceptable crops even without staking,
and the tubers do not burrow quite
as deeply into the ground. It would


Lef: In Cninerc\\n .I former mUst keep a
Sjhird of his crop fcw seed Below-' The obsracles
Lb cultjation are caui.ng some in 4peuk of
$r --redesigning' the %,am.

be almost the ideal yam if it did not
have a tendency to harden quickly
and become woody after harvesting:
it has to be eaten the same day,
preventing commercial use. A
chemist is trying to determine
precisely why D. dumetorum's car-
bohydrates turn into indigestible
cellulose so rapidly.
While awaiting the development
of ideal varieties, Lyonga, after suc-
ceeding in making the yam the sub-
ject of modern agricultural research

in Cameroon, is now working to set
up an improved seed distribution
network and to produce data sheets
on cultivation practices.
Thousands of cross-breeding at-
tempts will have to be made before
varieties emerge that lend them-
selves to mass production. Having
switched from sexual to vegetative
reproduction centuries ago, the yam
does not bloom. Fortunately, they
are now able to induce flowering
systematically at such places as

IITA, where many promising hybrids
have been produced.
Yet, even if an acceptable yam is
developed for mass production,
small farmers will continue to plant
the traditional varieties required by
customs. Those customs have en-
sured this demanding crop a prom-
inent place through the ages. O

Jean-Marc Fleury is on the staff of
the International Development
Research Centre of Canada.

MARCH 1981

R oughly two-thirds of the breed-
ing birds in many North Amer-
ican forests migrate to the tropics
for six to nine months of the year.
Only recently have biologists pro-
gressed in outlining the tropical
needs of these millions of insect-
eating birds. The disappearance of
tropical forests may have as its first
important and direct effect the
destruction of much of the North's
breeding birds.
In a symposium just published by
the Smithsonian Institution Press
(Migrant Birds in the Neotropics:
Ecology, Behavior, Distribution, and
Conservation; Allen Keast and E. S.
Morton, eds.), more than 40 scien-
tists report on their ecological
studies of these birds in the tropics.
Their information shows that birds
breeding in North America are not
interlopers, "fitting in" as best they
can around the fringes of tropical
forests already filled with resident
birds: they are an equally important
part of these forest ecosystems.
Rather than "invading" the trop-
ics like foreigners and then return-
ing "home" to the North to breed,
the migrants should be viewed as
leaving their tropical "homes" for a
brief breeding sojourn to the temper-
ate North, where they take advan-
tage of spring's flush of insects to
raise larger broods than they could
if they remained in the tropics.
While doing so, they are voracious
predators that reduce the number of
insect pests and hold down the
number of insect generations per
year. Without these birds, for exam-
ple, there would be little to stop
"spring webworms" from having
many generations per season in-
stead of one in early spring, before
most migrant birds arrive.

Silent Spring


by Eugene S. Morton

Tropical deforestation is

killing U.S. migratory birds.

Many migrants not only find their
food in the leafy canopy of tropical
forests, they return each year to the
same trees. John Rappole of the Uni-
versity of Georgia recently recap-
tured a Kentucky warbler banded
seven years earlier on the same spot
in a Vera Cruz, Mexico, forest. Rap-
pole found that most of the forest he
surveyed for migrants in 1973 and
1974 was gone in 1980; he found one-
twelfth the number of migrants on
the same plot after forests had been
partially cleared. There is therefore
no longer any doubt that many mi-

grant species disappear as tropical
forests are cleared. And for the
many species that return each year
to winter territories, there is no
place to go, since all remaining
forests have traditional owner-birds
ready to defend their turf against
these refugees.
The decline of migrant birds has
been slow until now. This is because
birds from one area of the breeding
range scatter widely throughout the
tropical range. For many species,
this winter diffusion means a slow
but perceptible decrease as tropical


forests disappear. For others, a sud-
den decline may occur when feed-
ing sites along the migration path-
way become insufficient or when the
diversity of plant species is no longer
sufficient to provide the critical fruit
or nectar food for even a few days.
With 20,000 to 40,000 square
miles of forest destroyed each year,
the decline of migrant birds will ac-
celerate. The problem is exacer-
bated by the smaller wintering area
than breeding area for migrants.
Birds from approximately 6.5 mil-
lion square miles in North America
funnel into a wintering area of about
1.6 million square miles, concen-
trating in winter about fourfold.
This is only a rough generalization
that does not reflect the true com-
plex adaptations that migrants have
evolved over thousands of years.
While some species may go directly
from breeding territories to winter
territories, others traverse nearly
the whole breadth of Western
Hemisphere according to a specific
For the Eastern kingbird, the
hemispheric pattern of wet and dry
seasons is important. In early Sep-
tember, kingbirds leave North Amer-
ica in a rapid passage direct to the
southern end of their migration in
Amazonian Peru, Colombia, and
Bolivia, arriving in late October. At
the same time, they change from
their northern insect diet to one
almost exclusively of fruit plucked
from forest trees. Migration north
begins as the dry season presses
north from the equator. By March
they enter Panama, feeding almost
exclusively on fruit from one species
of tree that may time its fruit ripen-
ing specifically to the passage of the
kingbird. The kingbird has evolved


to track the tropical dry season
because then it will find more abun-
dant fruit. But it is clear that an im-
mense tropical area is used for
winter survival by this still common
North American breeder. The de-
struction of forests in a segment of
the nearly continuous migratory
pathway will permit survival of only
those birds with sufficient fat
reserves to find the next patch of
dwindling forest. Fewer birds will
have that luck as patches become
further separated.
The loss of migrant birds will be
severely felt in North America,
where they constitute such a large
percentage of the breeding birds.
But incentives from the United
States to other Western Hemisphere
countries to preserve tropical forests
cannot be viewed as self-centered by
the rest of the world. The loss of
migrant birds reflects land use pat-

terns that will not be to the best in-
terests of tropical countries in the
long run. Migrant bird populations
are a biological indicator; their
decline reflects incipient desertifica-
tion of once-lush lands. Hilly regions
of high rainfall are best to forest, for
once forests are removed and con-
verted to grassland, they do not
regenerate, the nutrients inevitably
wash away, and bare earth which
cannot support man's existence
leaves no legacy for future genera-
The loss of migrant birds, a truly
hemispheric resource, is not an in-
evitable result of change reflecting
the progress of developing nations,
but the decrease in their soil's fer-
tility, the misapplication of agricul-
tural techniques suited for temper-
ate zone climates, quick riches at the
expense of sustainable yields, and
population growth that thwarts the
meaning of "developing."
There is no justification for losing
migrant birds to the extent probable
at this time, for they represent only
one, albeit an important, reason for
tropical forest protection. Loss of
the genetic material represented by
the incredible number of plant and
animal species that make up a trop-
ical forest will remove potentially in-
valuable genes from our developing
genetic manipulation technology, not
to mention important chemicals and
drugs. Forest destruction, perma-
nent removal of whole ecosystems,
amounts to massive experiments
that will remove a legacy. The
decline of migrant birds will indicate
how widespread the effects will be.

Eugene S. Morton is a research
zoologist at the National Zoological
Park, Washington, DC.

MARCH 1981


A Review by A. Gordon MacArthur



World attention was focused on
the Sahel in the early 1970s:
International news photos depicted
suffering people and starving cattle
in a parched land. The drought that
struck the Sahel, the group of eight
West African states stretching
across the southern fringe of the
Sahara Desert. lasted from 1968 to
1974. It was not the first time that
drought devastated this area, nor is
it likely to be the last. But this time it
captured universal awareness as
never before. The Sahel region, con-
taining 30 million people in an area
about two-thirds the size of the
United States, is situated in a
precarious ecological zone of fragile
soils and erratic rainfall.
Noel Lateef's book. Crisis in the
Sabel, presents a realistic assess-
ment of the Sahel's problems and
potential. The book is painstakingly
researched and combines a wealth
of information on economic and so-
cial indicators-to the extent that
these can be collected in an area
almost devoid of basic statistics. The
author makes it clear that although
the Sahel is a harsh place to live, its
problems are largely social-lack of
basic education, health conditions
among the worst in the world, lack of
even the most basic transportation,
lack of basic technology, lack of an
effective civil service.
While food production has not
been able to keep pace with con-
sumption, a situation clearly ag-
gravated by the drought. Lateef
rightly points out that the Sahel has
the potential to feed itself, if basic
structural problems can be over-
come: Farmers must be given incen-
tives to grow more millet and
sorghum. It is not enough to address

A Case Study

in Development


in Development Cooperation, by Noel
V. Lateef. \Vestview Press, Boulder,
CO. Frederick A. Praeger. publisher.
August 1980. 288 pages. $25.

only the technical aspects of grow-
ing crops. If the farmer cannot get
his produce to market for lack of
roads and if the government sets
support prices for grain at levels
that offer no inducement to farmers
to grow more, total food production
Lateef rightly argues that the low
level of technology and education,
the inadequate infrastructure and
the weakness of the institutional
base are the major factors inhibiting
economic growth, not the lack of
physical resources. Grain produc-
tion in many parts of the Sahel could
increase dramatically through bet-
ter use of technology. For example,
in Niger, AID-supported cereal pro-
duction project has demonstrated
that a threefold increase in yields,
over what was possible using tradi-
tional methods, can be obtained
under rainfed agriculture. The ir-
rigation potential of the Sahel, with
its three large river basins, the
Senegal. Niger and Gambia, has
scarcely been tapped.
Beyond dependency on agricul-
ture and livestock for its basic
susbistence. the Sahel has the poten-
tial of realizing enormous benefits
from mineral exploitation. Niger of-

fers the example of a poor country
endowed with large reserves of
uranium, an asset that is currently
being exploited and for which
revenues realized by the government
are placed in a development fund.
While Lateef engages in a good
deal of theorizing about development
in general and provides insights into
various models of development, his
description of the Club du Sahel, the
informal gathering of donor and
recipient states that provides the
framework for the long-term eco-
nomic development planning in the
Sahel, is most germane.
More a process than a formal or-
ganization. the Club du Sahel came
into being during the final years of
the last drought. It brought together
the Sahelian states and the bilateral
donors interested in long term devel-
opment of the region. The Sahelian
states had themselves formed the In-
terstate Committee for Drought Con-
trol in the Sahel (CILSS) in 1973, and
the Club became the rallying point
for donors who saw the Sahel's eco-
logical and economic problems is
regional and were determined to
avoid a piecemeal, ad hoc approach
to them.
The Club du Sahel and the CILSS
have established a model for
development. That model demands a
long-term commitment and patience.
Lateef ably describes the problems
and potential of the area and gives a
detailed, thoughtful insight into the
efforts now going on to lessen the im-
pact of any future droughts on the
people of the Sahel. O

A. Gordon MacArthur is assistant
director for program in AID's Office
of Sahel and West Africa Affairs.


Egerton College in Nloro. Kenya conducts agricultural training and research.


E~perimse ediscvere

At the turn of the century, black
educator Booker T. Washing-
ton, founder of Alabama's Tuskegee
Institute, sent a team of agricultural
specialists to Togo, then a German
colony in West Africa, at the request
of the German government; they
were to teach cotton cultivation.
This was probably the first time a
predominantly black U.S. college
had assisted a foreign country.
Other black institutions followed
Tuskegee. They have made a signifi-
cant, yet largely unrecognized, con-
tribution to development.
In the 1940s, a professor at North
Carolina A&T University in Greens-
boro helped lay the foundation of
President Truman's Point Four pro-
gram, forerunner of today's U.S.
foreign assistance program. William
Edward Reed, director of interna-

A heritage

of hardship

has fostered

an important


of development


tional programs and dean of agricul-
ture at A&T, traveled for the State
Department to Liberia, Sierra Leone,
Indonesia and other countries to
help plan development programs.
And in the '50s, Prairie View A&M
University, near Houston, and South-
ern University, in Baton Rouge, LA,

joined the ranks of colleges and
universities assisting poor nations.
For years these and other predom-
inantly black schools have worked to
shed the label of "teacher-preacher
factories," which resulted from the
large number of graduates trained
in the two fields. Traditional
segregationist policies restricted
professional involvement of black
Americans primarily to those two
Nevertheless, since they were
founded in the late 1800s, Tuskegee
and other schools have been teach-
ing agriculture and rural develop-
ment despite the fact that few pro-
fessional jobs were available in
those areas. In recent decades,
these black colleges have also
trained hundreds of foreign agricul-
tural specialists.

MARCH 1981

Finley T. McQueen, director of
Tuskegee's Washington office, re-
calls that in 1954 Tuskegee sent pro-
fessors to Indonesia to set up
machine shops and build vocational
training centers. In 1960, McQueen
led another team to Liberia under a
U.S. government-funded contract to
train teachers as part of a rural
school development program. Mc-
Queen spent seven years with the
project, which was subsequently ex-
panded to build teacher training
facilities at Zorzor in 1961 and
Kakata in 1964. By 1964, enrollment
at these institutions had climbed to
375. Most of these projects were
funded by the International Cooper-
ation Administration, a predecessor
of the Agency for International
Today, Tuskegee experts are ad-
vising farmers in North Yemen on
growing high-yield varieties of fruit
and nut trees to supplement diets
that now consist largely of lamb and
sorghum. The project is designed to
reduce North Yemen's dependence
on imported fruits and nuts. Cur-
rently the country produces food
valued at about $9.7 million a year,

Egerton students produce a cheese well-
known throughout most of East Africa.


gIA R-I ----
jB& lt j -A*

SECID professors representing several predominantly black schools meet with village leaders
as part of an AID-supported agricultural research program in Upper Volta.

about 11% of the value of its food im-
port bill. Its import bill for produce
exceeds $30 million a year.
Southern University, anticipating
increasing involvement in overseas
projects, recently opened its Center
for International Development. "The
Center will become one of the most
viable mechanisms for providing
developmental assistance to Third
World countries," predicts Gran-
ville Sawyer, assistant to Southern's
president. Sawyer said that South-
ern and other black schools will one
day be regarded as highly as larger
universities such as Michigan State
University or the University of
California at Los Angeles in terms of
overseas project work.
The participation of American col-
leges in overseas development goes
back to the 19th century, but it was
not until the Point Four program that
many schools became involved. Un-
der Point Four, the United States
concentrated its assistance in India,
Taiwan, South Korea and Latin
America. American schools from the
Midwest, South and Far West, with
climates similar to many developing
nations, were encouraged to help
design and carry out overseas proj-
ects. Colorado State, Kansas State,

the University of California at Davis,
California Polytechnical Institute,
the University of Missouri and
Michigan State have been leaders in
this area.
AID'S Board for International
Food and Agriculture Development
(BIFAD) is working to remove a
number of obstacles to greater par-
ticipation by other American col-
leges, particularly black colleges.
These obstacles include promotion
and tenure policies that do not
reward overseas research and de-
velopment work; gloomy budget fore-
casts; and a shortage of language
Southern is working with Loui-
siana State University in Sierra
Leone on a crop research and mar-
keting project. In conjunction with
Njala University, the project is in-
tended to help small scale farmers
throughout Sierra Leone produce
more rice.
Many developing countries like
Sierra Leone use "slash and burn"
method of clearing land, which has
been blamed for the loss of soil fer-
tility and serious erosion. Southern
and LSU experts are studying ways
to restore fertility through crop rota-
tion and fertilizers.


In Kenya, Charles White, an agri-
culture extension specialist from
Virginia State University, is heading
a team of U.S. professors as part of a
$50 million project to improve Eger-
ton College, one of Africa's best
known agricultural training institu-
tions. The project is contracted
through the Southeast Consortium
for International Development
(SECID). SECID professors are taking
over the teaching duties at the col-
lege while Egerton faculty members
work toward advanced degrees in
the United States.
Prairie View A&M University has
enjoyed the reputation of training
most of the black engineers in the
United States. Currently several of
its professors are helping design and
build training facilities at Liberia's
Booker T. Washington Agricultural
and Vocational Institute. Liberia
desperately needs technicians to
carry out its long-term development.
In recent years, AID has helped
strengthen black colleges and
universities so they can assume a
larger role in international develop-
ment. According to current regula-
tions, some 17 black schools can
SECID advisors from U.S. schools examine the
construction of a poultry center in Upper Volta.

Suchet Louis, a professor at Tuskegee In-
stitute, and Sauver Mahotiere, a horticulturist
from Ft. Valley State College inspect tradi-
tional tools.

qualify for participation in U.S.
government-funded development
projects. The schools are the 1890
state land grant institutions and a
number of colleges classified as
"historically black." AID also
awards a number of Title XII
"strengthening grants," which

MARCH 1981

assist many of these colleges to up-
grade their research capabilities to
handle overseas development proj-
According to Fred Richards, BIFAD
agriculture development officer,
most of the nation's black colleges
improved their agricultural and
rural development faculties during
the 1960s. This was accomplished
with funding from the U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Before that,
hardly any federal funds for this
purpose went into these schools.
Richards, who is still a Prairie
View staff member, is on loan to AID
under on Intergovernment Personnel
Agreement. His role is to encourage
the participation of 1890 institutions
in AID-assisted projects.
Robert Huesmann of BIFAD says
AID is trying to include these col-
leges through the strengthening
grants and through increased par-
ticipation in its country programs.
Despite these efforts, Huesmann
feels that most of the schools are
handicapped by a lack of research
and relatively small numbers of
faculty for long-term development
projects overseas. "None of the

Students at Egerton College maintain animal pens as part of their daily routine.

'1890s' have doctoral programs.
That means they haven't fully
developed the research capacity
they need. If you have doctoral pro-
grams, you can attract a greater
number of Third World students and
this strengthens your international
The predominantly black colleges
suffer from many of the problems

that now deter larger, predomi-
nantly white institutions from doing
more overseas research and devel-
opment projects. The uncertainty of
AID funding levels, an emphasis on
short-term development projects;
and the insecurity of Third World
political climates are serious draw-
backs to involvement by American
colleges in general.

"The '1890s' have certain skills
because of their historic involve-
ment with the poor, their vocational
and agriculture and extension pro-
grams," Huesmann notes. "In many
areas of the world they would have a
certain advantage of larger white in-
Arthur Henderson, of Southern
University's overseas development
staff, says:
"It's hard to relate to the prob-
lems of rural people unless you have
experienced some of those problems.
The larger schools have more money
than we do and more people who are
trying to write books. But I think we
identify more closely with the prob-
lems of the Third World, especially
Africa. For example, I can remem-
ber that not too long ago, there was
no running water, outdoor toilets or
other conveniences in many parts of
the South."
AID's source list of predominantly
black schools indicates that many of
them compare favorably with larger
institutions in terms of expertise in
agriculture, health, nutrition and
education. Alabama A&M University
in Normal, for instance, is one of the
nation's top schools in triticale
(hybrid of wheat and rye) research;
the University of Maryland Eastern
Shore has an excellent reputation
for training extension agents;
Prairie View has an outstanding in-
ternational center for dairy goat
research; Houston's Texas South
University, with 2,300, ranks as one
of the nation's top schools for train-
ing foreign students and through its
Teacher Corps-Peace Corps Program
has placed a number of former
students in administrative positions
in AID and other agencies.
Predominantly black colleges are
clearly an untapped resource for
overseas development despite limited
funding and comparatively few
tenured professors who can be
detailed overseas. E

Emmett George is a public informa-
tion officer in AID's Office of Public


n the last 12 months, a number of
detailed analyses have warned
that continued indifference to the
needs and wants of poor people and
poor countries could have disastrous
consequences. These studies also
advised, however, that a U.S.
response would improve the pros-
pects not only of the poor countries
but of the United States as well. At
the start of a new decade and a new
Administration, it is important to ex-
amine what the U.S. interest and the
U.S. role in Third World develop-
ment are.
In early 1980, the report of the
Presidential Commission on World
Hunger, a commission composed
largely of private U.S. citizens, con-
cluded: "There are compelling
moral, economic and national secu-
rity reasons for the United States
government to make the elimination
of hunger the central focus of its
relations with the developing
world ... "Purposeful use of U.S.
power would... focus and shape
the idealism and generosity that is so
indigenous to the American spirit."
Around the same time, the Brandt
Commission (formally called the
Independent Commission on Inter-
national Development Issues)-a
prestigious group of business
representatives, former government
officials, and intellectuals from five
continents-released its report after
two years of arguing, negotiating,
and learning from one another. The
commission wrote: ". .. The achieve-
ment of economic growth in one
country depends increasingly on the
performance of others. The South
cannot grow adequately without the
North. The North cannot prosper or
improve its situation unless there is
greater progress in the South." The
report spelled out more than 90
specific actions the international
community could take that would
alleviate the financial, environ-
mental, and human crises that ap-
pear to be coming. Of the report,
Peter Peterson, chairman of Lehman







attention to


problems, even


at home may

be unsolvable.

by John W. Sewell

Brothers Kuhn Loeb and one of the
members of the commission, has said
that the alternatives to working on
negotiations to bring about change
are "huge and continued economic
shock; a billion people literally starv-
ing; an international financial sys-
tem that could be in a state of eco-
nomic crisis .. We have to try, if
only because the stakes are too high
not to try."
In the summer of 1980, yet an-
other major statement was made
about the long-term prospects facing
this ever-smaller planet. "The
Global 2000 Report to the Presi-
dent," an interagency U.S. govern-
ment study, warned: "If present

trends continue, the world in 2000
will be more crowded, more pol-
luted, less stable ecologically and
more vulnerable to disruption than
the world we live in now. ... Life for
most people on earth will be more
precarious in 2000 than it is now-
unless the nations of the world act
decisively to alter current trends."
These are not partisan state-
ments. Nor are they condemnations
of the actions of any group, party, or
set of officials. Rather they highlight
problems that cannot be solved in

the span of a
term or even a

single congressional
two-term administra-

tion. Unless the world begins to ad-
dress them, the lives of not only the
world's poor but also its rich are not
likely to get better and will probably
get worse.
The U.S. role in solving the global
problems described in detail by the
Global 2000 study, the Brandt Com-
mission, and the Presidential Com-
mission on Hunger has been the par-
ticular focus of the Overseas Devel-
opment Council (ODC). In the proc-
ess, it has become clearer and
clearer that not only does this coun-
try have a moral obligation and a
security interest in addressing these
global concerns, but even the
"domestic" troubles with which we
currently are preoccupied-energy,
inflation, unemployment, slow
growth, immigration-cannot be
resolved without attention to the
developing countries. These coun-
tries as a group (and some of them
individually) are now significant ac-
tors in the world's economic system.
Their control over oil, their ability to
provide low-cost consumer goods,
their growing markets for industrial-
country exports, their position as
major suppliers of key raw mate-
rials, and their growing involvement
in the world financial system all af-
fect the U.S. economy directly. It is
therefore imperative that the United
States recognize these relationships
and begin to take both immediate
and longer-term steps to bring its

MARCH 1981

policy into accord with changing
In ODC's "Agenda 1980," two ma-
jor long-term development tasks for
the decade were set forth: (1) to
resume economic growth, provide
employment, and reduce inflation,
and (2) to take major steps to
eliminate hunger and other aspects
of absolute poverty by the end of the
century. These are not tasks for the
United States to undertake alone.
They will require the commitment
and cooperation of all countries. Yet
the United States, in particular,
must recognize that its official ac-
tions and those of its private sec-
tors-profit and non-profit-affect
the lives of billions of people and
that its contribution to a program of
global cooperation therefore is vital.
In order to make that contribution,
however, the United States must
first redefine and expand the con-
cept of its own "national security,"
decide what it needs and wants from
changes in the international eco-
nomic order, and develop a leader-
ship style to deal with the domestic
limitations on a development cooper-
ation policy. Let us look briefly at
each of these three tasks.

Expanding the Concept of National
Security. U.S. policy to date has
viewed developing countries primar-
ily from the standpoint of how they
figure in the strategic relationship
between the United States and the
Soviet Union. Defining U.S. security
solely in military terms, however,
obscures our equally important
economic and political foreign policy
objectives in the Third World.

Military force has little impact on
population growth, deforestation, or

Identifying U.S. Needs. So far, the
United States has put more emphasis
on attacking developing-country
demands for a "new international
economic order" than on putting
forth imaginative proposals of its
own. The United States urgently
needs to set its long-term goals and
to weave its various policies into a
coordinated and comprehensive

Exercising a New Kind of Leader-
ship. The changing nature and rela-
tionship of domestic and interna-
tional problems requires a new kind
of leadership. An imaginative,
forward-looking approach is needed
(1) to cope with global problems even
in the face of competing national in-
terests, (2) to organize the U.S.
government to deal more creatively
and efficiently with developing coun-
tries, (3) to deal with domestic
economic dislocation resulting from
changing international conditions
and (4) to share international deci-
sion making with other countries.

These long-term tasks at best can
only be started during the first part
of 1981. There is, however, a whole
set of actions that the United States
could take soon to advance develop-
ment goals and to set the stage for
longer-term changes. U.S. action on
the program outlined below would
have a minimum impact on the fed-
eral budget. Even in a period of
budgetary constriction, U.S. leader-

ship on such a program would
greatly help to prevent further
deterioration in the global economy
and could go a long way toward
meeting this country's long-term in-
terests. In other words, the real
costs of acting on these proposals
will be far less than the costs of not
The short-term program of action
proposed in the Overseas Develop-
ment Council's "Agenda 1980" in-

Improving the World's Monetary
System. The United States should
support measures to augment the
revenue of the International Mone-
tary Fund (IMF), increase the Spe-
cial Drawing Rights (SDRs) available
to developing countries, make condi-
tions attached to IMF loans less
stringent, increase private lending
and double the amount of money the
World Bank may lend (which can
prudently be done even without
expanding its capital base).

Sustaining World Trade.
The United States and
other countries should
actively resist pres-
sures toward further
protectionism, im-
plement the codes
agreed upon in the
recent multilateral
trade negotiations,
increase the amount
of trade credit avail-

*_ _

able to developing countries, and
resume negotiations to stabilize the
prices of many primary commodities
exported by developing countries.

Improving World Food Security. The
United States should press to reopen
negotiations on an international
wheat reserve, increase support for
expanding agricultural production
in food-deficit developing countries,
and increase the amount of emer-
gency food aid available to countries
or regions hard hit by short-term
food shortages (e.g., the countries of
sub-Saharan Africa, troubled by a
second year of drought and large
numbers of refugees).

Increasing Energy Security. The
United States should work with
others to explore the possibility of an
international agreement on oil and
to increase international coopera-
tion in finding and producing more
oil and gas and in developing new
energy sources, particularly in the
developing countries.

Meeting Existing Commitments. The
United States should at a minimum
resist pressures to further
cut development assistance.
continue its critical role in
emergency relief pro-

grams and meet its pledges to multi-
lateral institutions.

Pledging Increased Future Support.
The United States should commit
itself to increasing its development
assistance. It should create (along
with other countries) a special pro-
gram to help low-income countries,
make repayments on past develop-
ment loans available for current
needs, and explore various forms of
"automatic" transfers.
Neither the short-term nor the
long-term actions outlined here will
solve the world's human or economic
problems-but they could go a long
way toward bringing about improve-
ment for rich countries as
well as poor countries.
The United States is

still a major economic power, and its
official actions as well as the deci-
sions and actions of its private banks
and private voluntary organizations
affect people in other countries as
For all its current difficulties, the
United States could do much to
resolve the deadlock that has domi-
nated so many international discus-
sions. o

John Sewell is president of the Over-
seas Development Council. This ar-
ticle is based on the Council's report,
The United States and World De-
velopment: Agenda 1980, published
in September 1980.

ENERGY: I Yes, says
r 1a survey of
ENERl;Y* business,

Top U.S.




academic and

Energy should be this country's
top foreign policy priority in the
80s, say more than 80% of American
business, government and academic
leaders surveyed recently. In con-


Contributing to the Development Process of the Third World
Many possibilities for contributing to the development process of the less developed countries (LDCs) in the
Third World have been proposed. For each of the policy options listed below, please check the column that
most nearly reflects the extent to which you personally agree or disagree with the option.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Fully Partially Partially Fully
Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree
1. U.S. should significantly expand bilateral official foreign aid
programs to LDCs 28% 34% 13% 16% 9%
2. U.S. should expand public-private cooperation on funding
development projects 41 40 12 5 3
3. U.S. should encourage LDCs to rely primarily on private
development capital 14 33 12 31 11
4. U.S. aid should go primarily to the poorest LDCs, with less
emphasis on the more developed LDCs 9 26 12 33 20
5. U.S. aid should go primarily to the newly industrialized
countries (NICs) as "multiplying forces" to reach the more
impoverished nations 5 30 23 31 11
6. U.S. should open its market and encourage other developed
nations to open their markets to LDCs 39 47 7 6 1
7. U.S. should take a firmer stand in negotiations with LDCs,
making sure that technology or management transfer is
countered with increased business growth and profitability for
the U.S. 20 31 17 23 10
8. U.S. should maintain a "hands off" policy so that each nation
pursues its development on its own 3 14 14 34 35
9. The current LDC debt load should be rescheduled 12 41 25 15 8

trast, the U.S. contribution to
development of the world's poorest
nations ranked seventh among nine
top priorities named.
The survey of 750 people was con-
ducted by the International Manage-
ment and Development Institute
(IMDI) and the Council on Foreign
Relations (CFC), private, non-profit
organizations based in Washington,
DC, and New York City, respectively.
All of these polled were IMDI and
CFC members. IMDI is an educa-
tional institute working to promote
cooperation and understanding
among corporate and government
executives. Its funding comes pri-
marily from corporations. CFC is
made up primarily of academicians

and government officials.
The survey covered a wide range
of foreign policy issues. Of those who
responded, 34% were from busi-
ness, 16% from government, 18%
from the academic world and a
smaller proportion from the media
and other private non-profit groups.
On the subject of business growth
in the '80s, most respondents felt
that NATO countries-which in-
clude most of the industrialized
countries-offer the best potential
for international business market.
They ranked Asia a close second.
Latin America, troubled recently by
social and political unrest, ranked
third, Africa last.
Although most believed foreign

aid should not be a high priority in
coming years, they rejected a
"hands-off" policy. Instead they
favored active U.S. involvement in
the Third World through private
commercial and market mecha-
nisms, as opposed to direct aid pro-
grams, with protection for U.S.
business interests.
Two development approaches
were strongly favored: opening U.S.
and other industrial markets to
developing countries; and expanding
public and private cooperation on
development projects.
The survey results are generally
in tune with recent surveys of the
general public.
Some slight differences among

MARCH 1981

The Foreign Policy Posture of the United States in the 1980s

There is a great difference in perception of where America is headed in the field of foreign policy in the
decade ahead. For each of the foreign policy postures listed below, please indicate by checking the appro.
private column whether you think each is "very likely," "somewhat likely," or "not at all likely" to happen in
the 1980s.
1. 2. 3.
Very Somewhat Not at all
Likely Likely Likely Rank
1. An "inward-looking" posture ... adapting to limited energy and other
resources, slowed growth and income-severely limited commit-
ments abroad 10% 37% 53% 3
2. A "limited power" posture ... restoring a sound domestic economy and
maintaining involvement, but not leadership in world affairs 22 61 17 2
3. A "leadership without dominance" posture ... restoring economic
strength at home and military/economic leadership abroad, making
stronger military commitments where necessary, emphasizing
coordination with allies 47 47 6 1
4. A "strongly assertive" posture ... restoring military/political/economic
strength and influence (at the expense, if necessary, of domestic social
programs), with primary emphasis on meeting Soviet expansion by force,
"going it alone" if necessary 6 38 56 4

Regardless of what you think actually will happen in the 1980s, please check the one policy option that you
personally would most prefer to see happen.
% Rank
1. The "inward-looking" posture 1. 0 4
2. The "limited power" posture 2. 7 3
3. The "leadership without dominance" posture 3. 80 1
4. The "strongly assertive" posture 4. 12 2

respondents were noticed. Govern-
ment people were less disposed than
those from business to a stronger Areas of Opportunity for Business Growth
U.S. government stand in negotia- Opportunities for Growth: Where do you think the best opportunities
tions with the Third World. Govern- for international business will be in the 1980s? Please rank in order
ment respondents also were more the areas listed below with "1" being the area of greatest opportunity,
committed to basing foreign policy and "5" being the area of least opportunity.
on case-by-case human rights
assessments, a. NATO (Europe, Canada) 1 (63%)
In summary, responses indicated
a trend toward a realistic accep- b. Middle East/Persian Gulf 4 (30%)
tance of international responsibility,
and a desire to cooperate with U.S. c. Latin America 3 (41%)
allies and the developing world.
Copies of the survey may be ob- d. Asia 2 (60%)
trained from IMDI, 2600 Virginia
Ave. NW, Suite 905, Washington, DC
e. Africa 5 (8%)

Foreign Policy Objectives

As you view the decade of the 1980s, how would you rate the importance of each of the following foreign
policy objectives? Please indicate in the columns to the right whether you think each objective should be of
"highest priority," of "priority," or of "lower priority."
1. 2. 3.
Highest Lower
Priority Priority Priority Rank

A. Countering the Soviet challenge 52% 41% 8% 4
B. Expanding international trade and investments 39 50 10 6
C. Contributing to the development process of the Third World 22 53 25 7
D. Strengthening rapprochment with the People's Republic of China (PRC) 12 64 24 8
E. Building strong defense and economic relations with major allies
(Europe and Japan) 61 36 3 2
F. Stabilizing and strengthening the Middle East 54 41 5 3
G. Formulating a viable energy policy 82 16 1 1
H. Developing a foreign policy based on U.S. concepts of "human rights"
and democratic principles 7 28 65 9
I. Strengthening U.S. military/defense capabilities 48 44 9 5


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a enda
agency for international development
Office of Public Affairs
Agency for International Development
Washington DC 20523




THE FAMILY FOOD PRODUCTION PROGRAM (FFPP) is a nutrition intervention/food
production package, designed by Elsa Chaney and Martha Lewis, that has been
added successfully to an Integrated Rural Development Project in Jamaica. Cur-
rently it is being considered for a women's component in a natural resources con-
servation project in another Caribbean country, as well as for an African national
women's organization.

The Family Food Production Program is a planned cycle of nutritious vegetables
grown for family use to supplement diets which, in many world areas, depend
almost completely on starchy staples. The package consists of technical assis-
tance in designing the gardening and nutrition aspects, tailored to each local
area, as well as in carrying out a training program to equip e tension agents
to work on nutrition and family food production with rural women. In world
areas where continuous cropping is not possible, the FFPP includes food preserva-
tion techniques. Attention also is paid to the nutritional value of wild plant species
which can be gathered to add to the family food supply.

ONE PART OF A WOMEN'S COMPONENT, the Family Food Production Program was
introduced in a rural development project in Jamaica. As is the case in similar
rural projects, this soil conservation/rural credit scheme emphasized producing
more foods for the non-farm sector (to improve Jamaica's trade balance by cutting
down on food imports) as well as increasing food exports to provide an important
source of foreign exchange. In spite cf its emphasis cn food production, the project
made little provision for what the 5,000 families in the project area -- some 25,000
people -- would eat. The project was designed with an: almost exclusive "outward
focus, understandable because providing food for the cities and increasing farm
exports are urgent political as well as economic issues.

YET, IN THE ABSENCE OF SPECIAL EFFORTS, it was obvious after an initial assess-
ment that families would continue basing their diets largely on their starchy cash
crops -- yam, cassava, Irish potato, banana, plantain, breadfruit -- unless there
were a steady supply of fresh and affordable vegetables, accompanied by an inten-
sive campaign on the importance of eating them. Consumption in rural households
is not necessarily enhanced by increased income from cash crops. On the con-
trary, there is now strong evidence of links between what a household produces
and what it consumes. Fresh vegetables and fruits often are expensive and avail-
able only in distant markets. Women in the Jamaica IRDP already are aware that
opportunity costs of vegetable gardening balance out positively when they calculate
the greater time investment in walking to market and the cost of buying food. An
added incentive is the higher nutritive value of produce fresh from the garden.


Six months after its inception, the twenty FFPP extension officers have helped
establish 540 gardens. The earliest gardens are in the third planting cycle,
and word has gotten around so that women are seeking out the extension officers
to ask for instructions.

The Family Food Production Program is replicable, with careful adaptation and
adjustment, in many world areas, and would be appropriate for a women's com-
ponent within a larger health, population, nutrition, forestry, natural resources
conservation, agriculture and rural development project. It has potential for
sponsorship through women's organizations and other private voluntary groups.
The FFPP is particularly well suited to being added to agricultural or rural
development projects when such basic questions are asked as what the project
families will eat when their land is producing cash crops -- many of them non-
food items -- for urban or foreign consumers.

Martha W. Lewis Elsa M. Chaney
3512 Porter Street, N.W, 7215 Windsor Lane
Washington, D.C. 20016 Hyattsville, Maryland 20782
*(202) 353-1431 (301) 277-8945

The incoming administra-
tion has major opportunities
both for new approaches and
for catastrophic missteps.
Global economic negotia-
tions have stalled, but the
underlying causes of eco-
nomic distress remain. Will
the U.S. face squarely the
issue of global poverty, even
if we object to the proffered
solutions? If we promote
capitalist, export-oriented
development models such as
Taiwan and South Korea, will
we accept the need to open
the U.S. market to their prod-
ucts? If we abolish or
drastically cut aid, where do
we expect the poorest Third
World countries to get the
capital and technical know-
how to stave off disaster?
U.S. leadership must consist
of more than saber rattling.
-Frank C. Ballance
Christian Science Monitor

Whether the Republicans
can accept the fundamental
decline in America's eco-
nomic and military power
abroad is the basic question
for their policies toward the
Third World. Acceptance will
put us on the road to making
necessary adjustments to
the new international system
signaled by the Arab oil boy-
cott of 1973-74. It will also
guide us in creating political
patterns and methods of
communication urgently
needed in our evolving rela-
tions with peoples whose
economic viability inter-
meshes with our own. The
Soviet Third World's grip on
vital resources and its
demonstrations of will can
be ignored only at our peril.
-Henry F. Jackson
New York Times





Meaningful and genuinely
needed foreign assistance
can be an important and
effective foreign policy tool-
not in forcing recipient
governments to become U.S.
puppets, but in increasing
American influence and lev-
erage with those govern-
ments. We are missing quite
a few bets in enhancing our
standing with many nations
by the shortsighted and
selfish attitude we have
assumed toward foreign aid.
Our meager ratio of assis-
tance looks even more
anemic when one considers
that nearly 40% of total
American foreign assistance
this year is going to two
countries-Israel and Egypt.
Beaumont, TX

The real competition to
Central America and the
Caribbean is between
economic and political
models that can bring both
development and stability.
Latin American observers
believe Reagan advisers
must address these issues
to formulate an effective
long-term policy toward the
-Alan Riding
New York Times

The real energy crisis is
not oil but wood, and no one
will escape the effects of a
balding Earth.

More than half the grain
that moves in international
commerce grows in
America's rich farmlands. In
an age when resources are
power, this is power that
would command the respect
of an oil sheik. During the
past year of disappointing
harvests, the world's grain
reserves shrank from a 55-day
supply to only 35 days. Con-
sumption outstripped pro-
duction by 3%. Obviously, as
population explodes, hunger
equates with political
upheaval. America's $40 bil-
lion in agricultural exports
cannot be divorced from
foreign policy.
-Baltimore Sun

When a Third World
government is in jeopardy,
outside assistance may be
able to save it. But only a
case-by-case analysis can
determine whether our in-
terests are truly vital and en-
dangered, whether a helping
hand could keep the sinking
government afloat, and how
expensive the bailout exer-
cise would be. In general,
the cost would be prohibitive
whenever a regime's base
has withered but its opposi-
tion enjoys broad and pas-
sionate support. When pump-
priming would be costly and
of dubious value, we should
instead reassess our com-
mitment to the disintegrating
regime and consider untying
ourselves from a loser.
-Richard E. Feinberg
New York Times

Agency for International Development
Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20523


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