Group Title: Exchange
Title: The Exchange
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Title: The Exchange
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Peace Corps (U.S.) -- Office of Training and Program Support
Ferris, Barbara
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Peace Corps, Office of Training and Program Support,
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Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: March 1995
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Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 2, No. 2 (Spring/Summer 1988)-
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Preceded by: The WID Newsletter

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534



THE EXCHANGE

WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT VE MARCH 1995
VOLUME NO. 20
of the United States

Women and Environment


Table of Contents
Support to Share ............................
Thoughts on Women in ihe
Environment ............................
Bambara ........................................
Wavelengths ..................................
Resources ......................................







Support to Share


Women have been natural re-
source users and managers for
thousands of years. They have
found and protected water
sources; identified edible and
medicinal forest products; and
harvested wood and other fuel
sources for cooking and heating
their homes. Yet, the work they
do often goes unrecognized.
"Why? How could that be?" one
asks. I think it is related to our
definitions of "work". Social
scientists have looked at "work"
and broken it down into several
types. Unfortunately most of us
only think of one kind of activity
when we think of "work," at best
two. Let's take a look at "work."

Most people define work as an
activity which results in the
production of a commodity and
which is usually paid. "Productive
work" can be counted, is added to
national economic statistics and
contributes to overall social and
economic pictures of communities
and countries. This kind of work
is usually done by men.

"Reproductive work" is another
kind of work which must be
performed to feed and clothe the
family, raise the children, and care
for the home and its surroundings.
People often include subsistence
agriculture, water and fuelwood
gathering, feeding of farm labor-
ers and small animal production
as part of "reproductive work."
This work is rarely compensated
economically and so almost never
appears in national economic
statistics. Most of this work is
done primarily by women.

"Integrative work" are those
activities which serve to hold the
community together, especially in
times of stress. Grieving activities,
support for religious ceremonies
and other acts contributing to


social cohesion are considered
"integrative work." This work is
rarely compensated. In many
communities, women are the
principal, though not exclusive,
figures in these tasks.

"Status enhancement work" are
those activities which contribute
to the prestige of the household.
In order to be engaged in these
activities, a household must have
enough assets (money, time,
goods) to be able to spend time in
activities which are not "produc-
tive work". A woman who
engages in unpaid (volunteer)
activities demonstrates to the
community her and her husband's
success in meeting more than their
basic needs, leaving her time to
dedicate to uncompensated work.
Entertaining friends and family at
a large wedding celebration is
status enhancement work, even if
it is fun and expected by everyone
as a demonstration of the cultural
value of hospitality. Shopping can
also be status enhancement work.
By definition almost, "status
enhancement work" is not com-
pensated.

Finally there is "non-productive
activity", like sleeping, grooming,
leisure activities, eating. These are
activities which are only for
personal needs, interest or satis-
faction of the individual. Embroi-
dering or woodworking for fun
and relaxation is non-productive
activity; if it is for selling later, it is
productive work.

Women's work in natural resource
management is most often defined
as part of their "reproductive
work" responsibilities and there-
fore often overlooked with regard
to the importance of the activity
and the importance of the worker.
Women, too, contribute to defor-
estation as they must search


farther and farther afield for
fuelwood. They, too, use forest
products in national parks and
game preserves. They, too, will
benefit from environmental
education and community-based
natural resource management
projects- but only as we continue
to look with care at the actual
roles they play in the use and
management of natural resources
in their communities. A wonderful
publication which can help one
begin to think about specific ways
in which men and women, boys
and girls, use forests and natural
resources differently is called
Women in Community Forestry
(WD098). It is available through
your in-country resource center or
through ICE. It doesn't give
answers, but it does help you
begin to frame the questions, e.g.
Which trees or parts of trees do
women use? Which do men use?
Are they different? (They prob-
ably are. Important to think about
if you are doing a community
nursery or trying to find non-
timber related income generating
projects.) This book is short 2
hours to read, maybe and it is
not just for foresters. Try it you
might be surprised by the gender
issues and differences you might
never have thought of before. You
might also be inspired to start a
secondary activity.

The next issue of The Exchange
will focus on Women and Health
(about June); the one after that
(about September) will focus on
Women and Education. Please let
us know what you are doing and
you might end up on the pages of
The Exchange!

*Thanks to Mary Hill Rojas for
many of the ideas about "work".


Betsy Davis, WID Coordinator







Thoughts on Women and the Environment


Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Management Projects


Peace Corps develops programs
that consider three spheres of
influence: Peace Corps' sphere of
influence; the host country's
sphere of influence at the national
level; and the host country's
sphere of influence at the local
levels. The core of programming
strategy ideally is located where
these three spheres overlap. In
other words, Peace Corps focuses
its programs where local develop-
ment needs are recognized and
supported at the national level
and can be addressed using Peace
Corps Volunteer skills within
Peace Corps' method of operation.

Given this approach to develop-
ment, local level problem analysis
is a fundamental first step to Peace
Corps project development and
implementation. Problem analysis
includes such elements as scope,
consequences, and causes. Defin-
ing these elements requires
thoughtful assessment of project
participants and beneficiaries.
Besides recognizing and address-
ing dominant groups within the
sphere of influence of a project,
strong projects also recognize and
address the roles of other groups,
such as women, youth and
indigenous people within the
community that may not normally
be recognized but that may benefit
from the project or otherwise
effect project outcome.

Successful natural resource
management projects consider the
perspectives and concerns of the
variety of people involved in
using and managing natural
resources. Unfortunately, women
may be overlooked in natural
resource management project
design and implementation.
Women's work may tend to be
home-based, within the "informal


sector" of the economy or denied
recognition by both women and
men because of culture and
tradition. Additionally, forestry is
traditionally viewed as a man's
profession (Rojas, 1989). There-
fore women's roles in harvesting
fodder, fuelwood, and in natural
resource management may be
unacknowledged and women's
roles in the project overlooked,
misunderstood or undervalued.

The tools in the chart on the
following page (adapted from
Thomas-Slayter et al, 1993) may be
useful in analyzing and defining
the roles of women within the
community in relation to forests,
natural resources, and land use.
Some or all of these activities may
be carried out by a project design
team during the project design
phase or by Peace Corps Volun-
teers as a part of baseline data
collection during the early years of
the project. It is important for
Volunteers and project designers
to realize that conducting this
kind of analysis requires that a
certain level of trust exist between
the interviewer and the commu-
nity. This process of building
trust may take a year or longer in
some cases and should be built
into the project design or Volun-
teer assignment.

The following questions, adapted
from Women in Community Forestry
(Rojas, 1989) may be useful in
further refining gender specific
issues within the project area or
community. These questions may
be used as a part of a questioning
or interviewing strategy or may
simply be considered by the
design team when evaluating
project impacts.
Are men or women respon-
sible for family fuel supply,


livestock fodder or grazing
animals?
Do women have rights to
certain products, in certain
quantities, and at certain times
from multi-purpose tree
species, whereas men prefer
other forest products?
Do women's groups exist in
the community that can be
used as project facilitators, for
cooperative forestry activities
or to help in collecting infor-
mation about women's roles
in the community?
Are the project staff interested
in and experienced with
involving women in project
design and implementation?
Will women's mobility be
limited or constrained because
of culture or social traditions?
If so, how will this affect
women's involvement in the
project?
Are there differences in the
public fora that men and
women may attend or differ-
ences in the patterns of their
leisure time when they maybe
available to attend meetings?
Will women be expected to
water and tend to seedlings
that men raise in private
nurseries or trees that men
have planted? If so, can
women be convinced of the
utility of these species, and of
the project as a whole?
Will women's workloads be
increased or will other tasks
be abandoned as a result of
the increased time devoted to
forestry work?

In summary, better natural
resource management projects
result when the full range of
problem scope, causes and
consequences are considered. An
important element of problem
Continued on page 5










Tools for Analyzing and Defining Roles of Women in Natural Resource
Management Projects

Wealth Ranking

Definition: A sorting exercise to gain information from key informants about the socio-economic standing of
community members, in order to more fully describe the composition of the community in terms of the
distribution of wealth.
Approach: Interviews are conducted of both male and female community members, who rank the relative
well-being of each family in the community.
Value: The surveyor begins to see ways that gender roles and socio-economic class interact in communities.

Household Interviews

Definition: An interview held with the adult male and/or female in charge of the household in a commu-
nity.
Approach: Informal interviews or discussions are conducted on a wide variety of topics which may include
socio-economic status, gender division of labor and decision-making, control of family resources, health, child
care and the harvest and use of forest and natural resource products.
Value: Allows for in-depth understanding of a household with opportunity for follow-up discussion and
analysis of important issues.

Participant Observation

Definition: A record of the specific daily activities of local residents in a community.
Approach: Community members are observed for part of a day as he or she works. Follow-up visits can be
conducted as needed to observe different activities or seasonal variations.
Value: Enables the observer to chronicle the specific activities of community residents, and to describe the
work being done by a variety of members of the community, including men, women, youth, and others.

Gender Resource Mapping

Definition: A map of households in a community which represents distinct land uses and clarifies the
division of control, responsibility, and labor among men, women, and other groups.
Approach: Working closely with individuals representing major community groups, household types and
agro-ecological zones within the community are mapped, including the division of control, responsibility, and
labor among community groups.
Value: Provides a visual display of a community's resources and how they are used and managed by a
variety of groups within a community. This tool helps project planners to clarify the distribution of labor and
resources, and the relationship between different community groups and resource use. It is also useful
because the map can be presented to the community members for their feedback.

Gender-Disaggregated Seasonal Activities Calendar

Definition: A calendar that identifies livelihood tasks and categorizes responsibilities by season, gender, age
and intensity of activity.
Approach: Input is elicited from men and women in focus groups or from key community members. Calen-
dars are drawn to display typical activities and responsibilities of household and community members
throughout the year. Different calendars may be needed for different socio-economic classes.
Value: Assists project planners to see the different roles that different groups play within the community,
and how work is distributed seasonally.


Adapted from Thomas-Slayter et al, 1993










Continued from page 3

analysis is to consider the effects
of the project on community
groups, including women that
may not traditionally be fully
considered in natural resource
management projects. The
following guidelines will help
ensure that women are considered
and included in project design
(FAO, 1987):

1. Explore gender issues through
two way communication with
women, recognizing that the
needs of women and men may
not be the same and that the
impact of projects on them
may therefore be different.
2. Investigate customs, taboos
and time constraints that
women face.
3. Promote the role that women
do and can play in natural
resource projects at each level
and analyze the ways in
which projects either exclude
or include women.
4. Exchange information with
individuals at every level,
with local women, with
practitioners on involving
women, with policy makers
on women's roles in natural
resources management.
5. Support women's groups and
encourage the formation of
new ones that help women
gain access to decision making
and strengthen women's
support for each other.
6. Work together to provide
access to land and trees,
recognizing customary and
traditional women's holdings,
and seeking creative solutions
for landless women.
7. Consult with women before
introducing new technologies
or species, ensuring that
women's needs have been
considered and the impact of
new techniques or trees on


women's lives have been
evaluated.
8. Collaborate to make credit
and income available to
women either individually or
through women's groups.


The following resources may be
useful in further exploring the
topic of gender analysis:

Rojas, Mary, 1989. Women in
Community Forestry: Afield guide
for project design and implementa-
tion. Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United
Nations. ICE Catalog Number
WD098.

Food and Agriculture Organiza-
tion of the United Nations, 1987.
Restoring the Balance: Women and
Forest Resources.

Thomas-Slayter, Barbara, Esser,
Andrea Lee, and Shields, M. Dale,
1993. Tools of Gender Analysis: A
Guide to Field Methods for Bringing
Gender into Sustainable Resource
Management. Clark University.

Bunch, Roland, 1982. Two Ears of
Corn: A Guide to People-Centered
Agricultural Improvement. World
Neighbors. ICE Catalog Number
AG049.

National Environment Secretariat,
Egerton University, Clark Univer-
sity, Center for International
Development and Environment of
the World Resources Institute,
February 1990. Participatory Rural
Appraisal Handbook. Ice Catalog
Number AG258


Submitted by: Jamie Watts, Sector
Specialist, OTAPS/Environment


Peace Corps'
Francophone
Environment Workshop

The seaside town of Limbe,
Cameroon was the site of
francophone Africa's recent Peace
Corps Environment Workshop.
Co-sponsored by Peace Corps and
the USDA Forest Service, the
Conference brought together 32
participants from 13 African
countries as well as eight partici-
pants from the United States.

Throughout the week, APCDs and
their HCN Colleagues worked on
improving Peace Corps program-
ming within four thematic work-
ing groups: formal environmental
education, non-formal environ-
mental education, community-
based natural resources manage-
ment, and integrated conservation
and development. Gender issues
were integrated into these themes
as one of three cross-cutting
subjects. Each working group was
asked to consider obstacles to
participation by women, what
questions project staff need to ask
women, and how to better bring
women into project activities.

Results of working group meet-
ings confirm the key role women
already play in the management
of natural resources and the
necessity of considering women
explicitly when designing projects.
Recommendations include using
more women as development
agents, designing environment
projects that benefit women by
linking economic returns with
natural resource management,
and including women in all
aspects of project implementation.

The attendance of women in the
workshop itself was solicited from
the beginning. As a result, the







Bambara


Bambara


Bambara


breakdown of the group (posts
and Washington) consisted of 13
women and 27 men. Fully eight
out of the thirteen countries
represented at the conference had
a woman among their partici-
pants. Among participants were
Henriette Koubakouenda (new
APCD in the Congo), Sylvie
Noussee (World Wildlife Fund
Education Programs Coordinator
in Gabon), Mariama Diallo
(Regional Community Develop-
ment Officer for USAID's Natural
Resource Management Project in
Guinea), Zoouleikha N'Dao
(Director of Mauritania's im-
proved cookstove project), Julie
Burland (APCD Environment in
the Ivory Coast), Marcia McKenna
(APCD Environment in Niger),
Lucienne Goddot (School Inspec-
tor in CAR), and Alice Lima (High
School Science Teacher in
Cameroon).

It was the participation of these
women, rather than our inserting
gender issues into the workshop
design, that ultimately proved
most important. More than once
the discussion turned into a full-
scale debate with the women
leading the discussion to a much
greater depth than would have
otherwise occurred. Our conclu-
sion was that the most meaningful
learning occurs, not only when
gender concerns are an integral
part of the design, but also when
women are a vocal part of the
group.


Submitted by:
Peter Maille and Scott Lewis,
Sector Specialists,
OTAPS/Environment


Fiji
Environmental Awareness
Activities for Women

Peace Corps/Fiji, Women In
Development Committee has been
involved in Environmental
Education since September 1992.
We have organized and facilitated
the workshop "Women and their
Kitchens/The Management of
Household Rubbish" for several
groups of women throughout the
beautiful islands of Fiji. These
workshops ranged in length from
a half-day to three days, and the
training was designed to stress the
importance of a clean environ-
ment, and in particular, to demon-
strate practical methods for
reducing the amount of waste
going into the dump. Through the
information presented the partici-
pants are empowered to make
"environmentally friendly"
decisions about the management
of their rubbish, so that collec-
tively we can all make a positive
impact on the environment. The
sessions include an Environmental
Awareness Quiz, a Home Rubbish
Survey, Songs about the Environ-
ment and a display of crafts that
have been made by reusing and
recycling waste materials.

The workshops have been an
overwhelming success and, as a
result, some follow-up activities
have been organized. In particu-
lar the committee organized and
sponsored the Environmentally
Aware Craft Fair in September
1993, and The Clever Ways with
Waste Craft Fair in September
1994. These fairs featured crafts
that were made by reusing and
recycling waste materials, as well
as displays from local organiza-
tions committed to promoting a
healthy environment through
their programs and/or products.


This type of fair was the first of its
kind held in Fiji, and was educa-
tional for members of the commu-
nity. Furthermore, the fair pro-
vided an excellent money making
opportunity for women from both
urban and rural areas. The crafts
on sale included handmade
recycled paper (made by a PCV
with girls from a local school),
doormats and bags made from
crocheted plastic bags, as well a
wide variety of crafts made by
reusing tin cans, rice and flour
bags, plastic bottles, mesh onion
bags, fabric scraps, styrofoam
meat trays, etc.

Additionally, the committee is
currently working with the
National Council of Women, Fiji to
organize short Household Waste
Management Workshops for some
of the 30 Non-Governmental
Women's Organization affiliated
to the Council.

WID Fiji welcomes suggestions or
ideas from PCV's in other coun-
tries that are providing environ-
mental education to community
groups.


Submitted by:
Wainiu Caginiliwalala
WID Coordinator, Fiji











Guatemala
Propane Stoves: An
Appropriate Technology

Upon arriving at my site in May of
1993, I was astonished to discover
the price of firewood compared to
the price of propane gas for the
Peace Corps issued stove that I
used. Asking around town, I
found that families were using
between Q80 ($14.00) (Q=Quetzal;
$1USD=Q5.75) and Q120 ($21.00)
per month to cook over an open
fire or with a wood stove. My
wife and I used up our 25 pound
tank of propane in about 3 months
at Q25 ($4.50) per tank or only
about $1.50 per month. Other
families, cooking more fuel
intensive foods like beans and
corn for tortillas for many more
people, used about one gas tank
per month or about $4.50 per
month. I found, after a quick
calculation, that a gas stove, could
quickly pay for itself given the
local price difference.

Walking to my house one day,
carrying my just-filled gas tank on
my shoulder, I ran into a friend of
mine who said he used to have a
gas stove when he lived in Guate-
mala City and that he would like
to have one again but that he
didn't have enough money to buy
one. He already knew the bene-
fits: no need for his wife to blow
on the fire continuously, no eye-
reddening kitchen smoke, and no
waiting around for a wet wood
delayed dinner. Other benefits he
didn't mention are that it's
cheaper, that it helps preserve the
precious nearby cloud forest, and
that his wife would be much less
likely to die of lung cancer or
some other smoke exposure
related disease and would greatly
appreciate the convenience as
well. I said that if he could get


four other families together, we
would start a revolving fund to
buy them the stoves.

I obtained Q2500 ($430) in funding
from a local group-enough to buy
the first five four-burner, table-top
stoves at Q490 ($85) each. That
was in November of 1993. Since
then, nine more families have
been able to purchase stoves for
Q340 ($60.) bringing it to a total of
14 stoves-all on the original $430.
They each pay Q35 or $6 per
month over a 10 month period
and each family receives instruc-
tion, upon installation, of the safe
use of the stove.

In conducting an informal study
of the economic benefit to those
that switched to gas stoves, I
found a savings of 30% to 60% for
open fire and wood stove users.
Potential savings of 60% were
reached for those that eliminated
firewood use completely. How-
ever, most families continue to
cook tortillas over a wood fire
because it provides a larger flame
than that of the gas stove and they
can cook more tortillas at one
time. Based on these rates of
savings, the stove will pay for
itself in a matter of 8 to 20 months
depending on the cost of the stove
and the rate of savings. In talking
with Volunteers from other sites
in this highly diverse set of
ecosystems that make up Guate-
mala, I've found for most Volun-
teer sites, the gas stove beats
firewood whether in an open fire
or in a wood stove.

The traditional "Appropriate
Technology" of the Improved
Chofina Stove, the ceramic stove
or other such variety of wood
stove is no longer the most
appropriate technology as it does
not provide the convenience, the
economic advantage, or the forest


preservation that a propane stove
does. Propane stoves save forests,
save money, decrease women's
risk of lung disease, and save
women's time all better than any
competing technology.


Submitted by:
Paul Cocca, PCV
Guatemala


Uruguay
Young Women Scout
Leaders at the Cape
Polonio Forest Reserve

Project Polonio (Proyecto Polonio),
a cooperative project involving the
Scouts of Uruguay, the Natural
Resources Department in the
Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture
and Fisheries (Direcci6n de
Recursos Naturales y Renovables
of the Ministerio de Ganaderia,
Agriculture y Pesca), and Peace
Corps Uruguay was conducted
during January, February and
March 1994. Various Scout
groups, from around Uruguay
learned about park and forest
management and helped local
park rangers with fire patrol and
other project activities at the Cape
Polonio Forest Reserve (Reserva
Forestal de Cabo Polonio). Many
of the participants in the training
project were young women Scout
leaders.

Over the years, the Ministry has
invested a lot of time and energy
in the pine and eucalyptus forest
through planting, thinning and
maintenance so that now the
wood is very valuable and por-
tions of the forest are being
harvested commercially. In order
to protect their investment, fire










prevention efforts have become a
priority for the area. However,
there is little funding available
and resources are scarce for
managing the area. Consequently,
Scout leaders and ministry
officials created Project Polonio.

The Scout program in Uruguay is
similar to those around the world
but differs somewhat from that of
the U.S. The "Lobos" program is
similar to our Cub Scouts. The
"Scouts" program is similar to the
first part of our Boy and Girl Scout
programs, except that here they
combine the boys and girls and
young men and women into the
same program. Next comes the
"Pioneros" which is similar to our
Boy Scouts that are almost ready
for Explorers. Then comes
"Rovers" which is equivalent to
our Explorers program. The Scout
leaders are called "Animadores"
who range from young adults all
the way to the middle aged. Most
of the Scout groups that partici-
pated in the Project Polonio were
Scout leaders.

Each Scout group came for a 10
day tour and stayed in ministry
bunkhouse-style facilities at the
headquarters, or what is locally
called the "Vivero," located at the
southern end of the Reserve.
During the first two days the
Scouts learned about the Reserve
history and purpose and got a
short course in general conserva-
tion and ecological principles,
identification of Uruguayan flora
and fauna, protected areas man-
agement, and fire protection and
management.

I was asked by my counterpart
Juan Pablo Nebel, Director of the
Division of Flora, Parks and
Protected Areas (Division Flora,
Parques y Areas Protegidas), to
help conduct the environmental
training. We are using the


"Manual para la Capacitaci6n del
Personal de Areas Protegidas," put
together by the U.S. National Park
Service, especially for Latin
America, as well as other reference
materials, including the "Nuestra
Tierra" booklet series and bird and
animal guides. The training
manual, by the way, was used for
Uruguay's first-ever parkguard
training course, that was hosted
by Santa Teresa National Park in
the November 1991.

During the last seven to eight
days the Scouts went on fire patrol
in four to six hour shifts, working
at the two fire lookout towers, or
"torres," and at the cabin, called
the "casilla," located near the
entrance to the four wheel drive
road into Cape Polonio. The
Scouts also work on other projects
around the Reserve, such as
helping to paint signs, general
park maintenance, and are even
working on a pamphlet about the
Reserve that can be handed out to
the public.

I was very impressed with the
Scouts' knowledge of the world
outside Uruguay. They know a
lot more about world affairs,
including the U.S., than many
Scouts in the U.S. A number of
the Scouts had traveled to the U.S.
or Canada through various
exchange programs. However,
many of the Scout leaders were
not very knowledgeable about
Uruguayan native flora and fauna.
Most were unaware of how
diverse the bird life is in Uruguay
but were quite interested in
finding out more about them. So
it was a great opportunity for
them to increase their knowledge
of native species.

All were eager to learn about park
and forest management and to
help out in any way they could at
the Reserve. In addition, the Scout


leaders got a chance to sharpen
their outdoor skills, learn about
the challenges of managing a
protected area like the Reserva de
Cape Polonio, allowed the Minis-
try the flexibility to give their local
park rangers (guardaparques)
some much needed time off
during the three months. Project
Polonio is a great example of a
service project where everyone
benefited, young women and
men, as well as the Ministry and
especially Uruguay.


Submitted by:
Brady Green, PCV
Uruguay










Asia-Pacific Regional Environmental Education Workshop


How can we increase the involve-
ment of women in environmental
education programs? This topic
was a major focus of a regional
workshop on environmental
education held by Peace Corps in
Subic Bay, Philippines in July
1994. Sponsored by Peace Corps'
Asia-Pacific Region and the Office
of Training and Program Support
(OTAPS), the six-day workshop
was attended by 19 Peace Corps
staff in Asia-Pacific posts and 12
host country counterparts with
whom they work. The workshop
offered a unique opportunity to
improve environmental education
programming in the region and
provide several useful examples
for increasing the participation of
women in these programs.

Peace Corps defines environmen-
tal education (EE) as a process
aimed at improving the quality of
life by empowering people with
the tools they need to solve and
prevent environmental problems.
Peace Corps is working hard to
make EE an integral part of many
of its programs and to broaden the
audience for EE through work-
shops, training, and materials
development. As primary users of
natural resources and frequently
the first victims of environmental
degradation women have a
crucial stake in efforts to protect
the environment. But women are
frequently excluded or forced to
play a diminished role in environ-
mental decision-making. Planning
an EE program must increasingly
seek to target women, and an EE
program's design must be appro-
priate for and have the support of
women or groups of women such
as female students or women in a
local community.

For the Asia-Pacific workshop, the
training team developed a session


that gave participants specific
skills in targeting women audi-
ences for EE and for identifying
the unique opportunities and
barriers presented by working
with these audiences. The session
was developed by combining
approaches to identifying and
targeting audiences found in
Conservation Education: A Planning
Guide (M0023) with guidelines
found in Women in Community
Forestry: A Field Guide for Project
Design and Implementation
(WD098) for increasing the role of
women in natural resource
projects. Both publications are
available through ICE.

The workshop participants were
then presented with real-life
examples of women taking a
leading role in EE efforts. The


Philippines provided an excellent
example of a country where
women and women's groups are
playing a pivotal role in EE
efforts. The workshop invited two
women, Donna Reyes and Dr.
Juanita Manalo, directors of
Filipino NGOs that are targeting
women for EE and sustainable
development projects. Peace
Corps also brought to the work-
shop Wainiu Caginiliwalala,
Peace Corps Fiji's Medical Officer
and WID Coordinator, who has
organized and led workshops on
managing Fiji's solid waste
problems by reducing, reusing, or
recycling household waste.

Submitted by:
Scott Hall, Sector Specialist,
OTAPS/Environment


Fiji PCMO and WID Coordinator Wainiu Caginiliwalala participating
in the A/P Regional Environmental Education Workshop







Wavelengths Wavelengths Wavelengths


Benin
International Women's Day was
celebrated on March 17 in N'Dali
and was organized by PCV Jillann
Richardson, Adama Yolla, CPS
and Saka Binasi, Nurse, with
assistance from Fatourna Boguidi,
CPS, Amina Yibrigaye, CPS,
Abiba Dabo Talata, CPS, Fatouh
Kissira, Radio Parakou and
Momouni Alassanit, Director
CEG.

Festivities began at the CEG with
presentations of prizes to the first,
second, and third place winners
for both the boys and girls in 3rd
and 4th classes for the ideas they
expounded on the subject:
"Pourquoi l'Mducation est aussi
important pour lafemme?" Winners
were chosen by a jury composed
of two French teachers, the PCV,
the stagaire, the CEG Director and
the Inspector. The Sous-Prefet for
N'Dali, Mr. Emmanuel Azonhin,
opened the ceremony by praising
the students' efforts and encour-
aged them, especially the girls, to
continue working hard in their
classes and to prepare themselves
for next year's national competi-
tion. Next the PCV explained the
history of International Women's
Day and shared the Peace Corps
goals for hosting this essay
contest. Then the Director read
the best of the four winning essays
to the entire student body; and,
after the applause, the CPS
responsible added a few words as
to how the Social Center of N'Dali
also worked to achieve these same
goals. Prizes were distributed to
the four third-place winners (a
notebook and colored pens),
second-place winners (a notebook,
pen, a file folder), and the first-
place winners (a notebook, pen,
and either Sous 1'Orae or La
Secretaire Particuliere). Photo-
graphs were taken of the festivi-


ties by the Volunteer and the
radio reporter recorded the four
first-place winners and later
translated them into BaAtonum
(the local language).

In the afternoon, the celebration
continued at the Samaan Yenu
(People's House) with all the
women of N'Dali arriving with
their babies. The winning essay
from the morning was read in
French and Baiyonum. The
women also learned about the
history of Tonkurubun Tonbakaru
(International Women's Day) and
were encouraged to purchase
souvenir flowers that were made
by a group of young women in
N'Dali. Afterwards there was
another "sensitization" in
BiAtonum and Dendi on the
importance of attending the baby
weighing at the Social Center and
on having all the children vacci-
nated at the Maternity Center. To
further encourage the women to
do so, prizes (palmida soap) were
awarded to those women who had
regular attendance at the baby
weighing and whose children
were full vaccinated (approxi-
mately 100 total). To close out the
day's festivities, a young girls'
dance troupe sang and danced
under the International Women's
Day banner. The PCV was also
coerced into dancing with the
troupe while taking photos of the
activities and people in atten-
dance.

On March 19, a report on Interna-
tional Women's Day in French
and BA~ tonum put together by
Mr. Kissira was aired on the radio.
According to Mr. Kissira, "every-
one in the Borgou and Atacore
know that N'Dali celebrated their
women!" It was exciting to hear
the report on the radio and to hear
people talking about the festivities
and the role of women in Beninese


society for the following few days.
But a personal event stands out as
the best example of successful
exchange of information.

On the day after the radio trans-
mission two women who spoke
almost no French arrived at my
house with food to thank me for
sharing Tonkurubun Tonbakaru
with them. Through an inter-
preter they told me that they had
attended the festivities at the
Samaan Yenu and later talked to
their children who are attending
the CEF about the celebration and
what they learned about educa-
tion and their children's health.
After the radio program they had
further discussions with other
women and their husbands at
which time they agreed to send
four of their daughters to school
next year, no matter what sacri-
fices they had to make to do so.


Submitted by:
PC Benin


Honduras
"Mind, Body and Spirit"
Workshop

ENLACE which means "link" as
in a chain or "liaison" is a PCV
founded and run committee
dedicated to supporting women in
Honduras.

ENLACE participates in sessions
at the training center, has a
column in the newsletter "Alli No
Mds", promotes clothing ex-
changes and T-shirt sales to fund
activities and has a bulletin board
outside the Resource Center
where articles, meeting dates and
other news are posted.










Recently, a women's leadership
workshop was held in which
participating PCVs could invite a
rural woman (from their village)
to attend. The workshop was
jointly funded by SPA & PC/H
with the collaboration of local
development agencies. More on
the workshop follows:

Mind, Body, Spirit: Women's
Leadership Development was
held at Lake Yojoa. Fourteen
Volunteers, their 15 guests and
others from agencies we work
with attended. The communica-
tion was extremely difficult, so at
times the pre-workshop planning
was scattered and chaotic. But in
the end the workshop was a great
success. I would venture to guess
that all would participate again if
the chance arose.

To start off the workshop we saw
a great performance by the theatre
group "Bamb6" from
Tegucigalpa; it was a humorous,
yet very educational twist on
men's and women's traditional
roles here in Honduras. The next
day was very dynamic with
themes dedicated to women's
health and sexuality. The presen-
tations were excellent by all
involved. The next day was
long-full of charlas, fun learning
activities and the closing ceremo-
nies. The day was dedicated to
women's leadership development.
We got the extra bonus this day of
free boat rides on the lake which
everybody loved.

If there is one underlying theme
that permeated pre-workshop
planning and the workshop itself,
it would be that of cooperation
and sharing in the chaotic plan-
ning phase. A number of people
took on the different responsibili-
ties necessary for the workshop's
organization. We all felt like


someone else was doing more
work than we were; perhaps this
is a good example of the coopera-
tion and effort put in by all. The
coordination of it all seemed crazy
but it all fell amazingly into place.
During the workshop we had the
cooperation of PCVs, their guests,
the guest speakers and members
of other organizations who
showed up to participate and
observe.

I just wanted to mention that some
of the most dynamic and interest-
ing sessions were put on by the
PCVs and their guests. PCVs
Danielle Marone and Amy
Kostishack and their counterparts
put on a session about natural
medicine; PCV Teresa Langston
enlisted the help of another PCV's
guest to teach about the benefits
and preparation of soy bean
products. PCV Axel Reyes put on
an excellent talk about AIDS with
the help of PCVs Paula Cantor
and Kathy Gallinger. PCV Collen
Forbes and her counterparts
directed activities with regard to
"Building Allies" and recognizing
and conquering obstacles. Thank
you all for your energy and ideas.

I would like to recognize and
thank all the work the previous
ENLACE members and Directiva
have done over the past two years.
If it weren't for their dedication to
WID and the idea of the work-
shop, which was passed onto the
new members, none of this would
have been a reality.

The truest example of the success
of the taller was that friendships
were made,"confianza" was
gained from the beginning and
people shared. The feedback we
received from the evaluations was
excellent and will help in the
planning of future workshops.
The overall feeling was positive;


the PCVs and their counterparts
both got a lot out of the experience
and will go back to their sites with
new ideas and motivations.


Submitted by:
Vikki Stein, PCV
Co-President, ENLACE




Lesotho
It's always great to read about the
new and creative ideas supporting
women in development across the
globe. But what if you're an
inspired PCV anxious to
strengthen the role of women in
your community but your country
is lacking a WID committee?
Well, use that ingenuity to estab-
lish one. Having had several
requests for how we initially
began, WID Lesotho thought we
would share our beginning with
The Exchange.

After careful discussion, we came
up with three main objectives of
WID:
1. To create awareness among
women about issues that affect
them.
2. To offer financial, personal, or
technical support to local women's
projects.
3. To create a network among
local women's organizations.

Enthusiastic members can think of
various ways to achieve these
goals. In Lesotho, WID sponsors
the annual International Women's
Day Celebration. This includes
organizing a 5K fun run and
helping to prepare for speakers
and publicity. This year we are
promoting a women's career day
where Education Volunteers will
bring two students to the capital.
The girls will be exposed to










successful women professionals
encouraging them to strive for
careers and value their education.
To raise funds for these events,
WID creates and sells calendars
displaying monthly photos and
stories of outstanding Basotho
women. We also sell t-shirts and
cookbooks to the Volunteers.

Obvious from articles in The
Exchange, there are innumerable
activities that your committee can
hold depending on the needs of
your community. We hope this
information has been helpful to
any aspiring Volunteers. It's a
great organization so good luck
and stay motivated.


Submitted by:
PCV Laurel Westman
Peace Corps Lesotho


Lithuania
Greetings from Lithuania! I am a
small business advisor in Althus,
and I have been very active with a
women's group here.

I have recently gotten some great
news that I would like to share. I
have been assisting the women's
group here with the writing of a
grant to The Global Fund for
Women. The Women's Commit-
tee of Homeland Union (the group
here) has just received a grant in
the amount of $6,000 to assist
them in opening a women's
center, running their current
programs and developing new
ones. These women will make
great use of this grant; they have a
lot of energy and ideas to assist
women in the city and the region.

This group currently offers
psychological counseling, foreign


language programs (to improve
the educational and economic
situation of women), women's
health programs, and dental care
programs for children. They also
organize cultural events, and
distribute donations to poor
families.

The Global Fund for Women has
given this group of women more
than just funding for a project.
They have told them they believe
in them, their goals and their
ability to achieve those goals.
These women have been criticized
by people in the community, by
their spouses and families who
believe that their efforts are in
vain and not for a necessary cause.
Yet The Global Fund for Women
has backed them, and backed
them with funding that will give
them additional creditability,
pride and strength from the
knowledge that someone believes
in them.

I am very proud to have the
opportunity to know and work
with these women. Their spirit is
strong. Lithuania is a place where
there is a lack of resources, and
where women's voices have been
suppressed for so long. It's
wonderful to see people shining
through despite the odds.


Submitted by:
Carol Jenkins
PCV Lithuania


Editor's note: please see
Resources for information on The
Global Fund


Guinea
Hello from Guinea. Pleased to
announce the existence of our
WID collective. We have existed
for a year now and would like to
make a request. We need ideas,
support, and inspiration. We
currently have four active collec-
tive members. HELP!! The WID
collective of Guinea would like to
solicit correspondence/ideas/
support from other WID commit-
tees, collectives, and such like.
Please write to:

WID Collective
c/o PCV Chris Irwin
B.P. 1927 Conakry, Guinea
West Africa
Corp de la Paix




Moldova
In a collaborative effort between
the WID Moldova group and Save
the Children, a one-day clean up
was organized to help put the
finishing touches on a school and
housing facility for up to 25
homeless Moldovan women and
children in the coming year. The
women will be encouraged to
become self-supporting through a
job placement program, while the
children will study all the subjects
included in the ministry curricu-
lum, as well as the English lan-
guage.

In the past year, Moldova's WID
group and Save the Children have
worked together on various
projects, such as a Children's Art
Exhibition in celebration of
International Children's Day, a
women's crafts sale and most
recently, a day-long environmen-
tal project, which involved
cleaning and planting two gardens
on the property, where children










could learn to grow their own
fruits and vegetables.

Unfortunately, the cold November
weather didn't cooperate with our
intentions. The ground froze the
previous night, making it physi-
cally impossible to turn over the
soil with our shovels, So, we were
forced to consider an alternative
plan of action: We spent the day
cleaning-up the grounds for a
garden in the spring, sorting
international donations of
women's and children's clothing,
and painting beds for orphans. In
the end, it turned out be a success-
ful day. Our project for next
month is to design and paint the
nursery walls--we're thinking of a
warm forest motif.


Submitted by:
PCV Elisa Levy
Moldova


tion asking for advice or sugges-
tions in implementing the pro-
gram in Sao Tome. The response
was encouraging. The foundation
is continually expanding the
project into other countries, but
Sao Tome was the first developing
country.

At a general WID meeting we
formed a sub-committee of six
PCVs (one from each district in
the country) and one Sao Tomean
counterpart to work on the
project. From this sub-committee,
we formed three groups. The first
was called the "Letters Commit-
tee", responsible for writing letters
to the school directors, letters
explaining the project to the girls,
parents, contacting and orienting
all the women hosts, writing
questionnaires for the girls, and
any other letters or forms. The
Letters Committee was also the
primary point of contact for
anyone interested in learning


more about the project. Next there
was the "Planning Committee,"
responsible for matching up the
girls with their hosts based on the
questionnaire responses, and for
making all of the transportation
arrangements. The third was the
"Activities Committee", respon-
sible for organizing the lunch and
planning morning orientation
activities for the girls.

On the day of the event, the girls,
accompanied by the PCVs from
their communities, arrived at the
Peace Corps office. They had a
morning snack and played a name
game organized by the Activities
Committee. Afterwards, the
committee handed out forms
which they were to use to inter-
view the woman with whom each
was to spend the day.

The girls were delivered to the
workplaces of the women hosts
(that included a doctor, the


Sao Tome and

Principe
Take Our Daughters to
Work

On April 28, 1994, 20 girls and 20
women hosts participated in the
first annual "Take Our Daughters
to Work Day" that was held on
the central African island nation of
Sao Tome and Principe. The event
was organized by the Sao Tome
WID Committee in collaboration
with the Ms. Foundation for
Women in New York. The
funding for the project was
provided from SPA.

Take Our Daughters to Work is a
national event in the U.S. Its
purpose is to increase girls' self-
esteem. The WID committee
wrote a letter to the Ms. Founda-


photo by: PCVDavid Graff










director of a women's sewing
cooperative, a television reporter,
even the secretary of the President
of the country, and many others).
The hosts had all received copies
of the girls' completed question-
naires the week before, giving
them an idea of the girls' lives,
professions of their parents, types
of communities they live in, what
they want to be, etc.

The girls remained with their
hosts for approximately four
hours. A luncheon was organized
for the girls and hosts. During the
luncheon the committee distri-
buted t-shirts to all the girls
(complements of Ms. Foundation).
After lunch, the PCVs escorted the
girls home. The event ended
quite early to ensure that all of the
girls arrived home before dark.

One of the most memorable parts
of the day was that Vera Cravid, a
reporter from the national televi-
sion station, was reporting on the
project as she was hosting
Nadinilsa Cabral, the girl assigned
to her. They drove around with
the camera crew to various
workplaces of women in the
project, and Vera allowed
Nadinilsa to conduct all the
interviews which were shown on
national television that night.

The general reaction to the project
was overwhelmingly positive.
PCVs were stopped on the streets
by people praising the merits of
"Dia das Meninas." The project
will be continued and expanded
next year. The committee has sent
out questionnaires to the women
hosts asking how the project can
be improved, and PCVs have
followed-up with the girls at their
sites.

The Ms. Foundation is very eager
about expanding the project to


more countries, and enthusiastic
about collaborating with Peace
Corps Volunteers. Anyone
interested can contact Betsy Davis,
WID Coordinator in Washington
or:
Gail Maynor, Project Director,
Take Our Daughters to Work
141 Fifth Avenue, Suite 6S
New York, New York, 10010,
USA


Submitted by:
PCV Laura McHale
Sao Tome and Principe


Women in Environmental
Engineering

Samara Ben Ammar, 1994.
"Protection of the
Environment Through the
Management and Exploitation of
Solid Waste: The Tunisian
Experience." Al-Raida, Quarterly
Newsletter of the Institute for
Women's Studies in the Arab
World (Beirut), Vol. 10, No. 64
(Winter), pp. 28 29.
In Tunisia, as in other
countries, urbanization and
industrialization have contrib-
uted to the pollution of surface
water and air, in addition to the
amount of solid waste. Ben
Ammar (Tunisian Institute for
Scientific and Technical Research,
Arula) notes three ways of
disposing of solid waste: con-
trolled waste dumping, incinera-
tion, and transformation of waste
to organic fertilizers. Each
method has its own costs and
benefits in the Tunisian context.
Domestic waste in
Tunisia has a high organic
content: more then 80%. Says
Ben Ammar, "Since Tunisia
suffers from a serious lack of
organic fertilizers,... domestic
waste can be used to replenish
the eroding soil." But to avoid
the pitfalls experienced in other
Third-World countries, the
transformation operation must
be compatible with the type of
waste, marketing must be
efficient, and the costs of organic
fertilizers must be kept low.
Women traditionally
control the household economy,
the author notes. "Women can
decrease the volume of domestic
waste through limiting their
acquisition to essentials, avoiding
items that can be used only once
such as plastic bottles, [and]
choosing containers that can be
recycled." DevelopNet News
October 1994; Volume 4, No. 10


_ _







Resources


Resources


Resources


Network of East-West
Women Constitutes a Legal
Committee

In the summer of 1990, following
the fall of communism in Eastern
Europe, a group of activists in the
East and West formed the Net-
work of East-West Women
(NEWW). The group focuses on
keeping women's concerns on the
political and social agendas of the
emerging civil societies in the
region.

NEWW's members include
writers, journalists, professors,
lawyers, union organizers, stu-
dents, and activists, from Albania,
Bulgaria, the Czech Republic,
Croatia, former East Germany,
Hungary, Lithuania, Poland,
Romania, Serbia and Montenegro,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Russia, and
Ukraine, as well as women from
Canada, the UK, and the U.S.
NEWW's activities include setting
up an e-mail network; providing
seed money or strategic assistance
to women's centers, projects,
conferences, publications, and
grassroots campaigns; supporting
research on women's history in
the region; providing information,
directories, and mailings; helping
to build feminist libraries and
doing collaborative work with
individuals and organizations in
media, education, environment,
health care, and political lobbying.

At a planning meeting in
Budapest, Hungary, May 30-
June 1, NEWW formed a legal
committee to monitor women's
legal status in this region. More
than 50 women from 13 countries,
including former Soviet republics,
Eastern European states, and the
U.S., gathered in workshops and
plenary sessions to discuss the
status of women in their respec-
tive countries and to determine


the most effective methods for
working on behalf of women in
this region. Participants agreed to
set up national legal committees to
focus on local concerns and
assemble multinational teams to
work on issues that cross country
boundaries. The NEWW Legal
Committee will be headquartered
in Warsaw, Poland and will be
coordinated by attorney Urzula
Nowakowska.

Network of East-West Women
c/o Sonia Jaffe Robbins
395 Riverside Drive, Suite 2F
New York, NY 10025, USA
(212) 749-6798; fax (212) 995-4148;
email neww@igc.apc.org.


WorldWIDE Network of
Women in Development
and Environment

The WorldWIDE Network of
Women in Development and
Environment was founded to help
women at all levels of society
participate in the protection of the
environment and in the manage-
ment of natural resources. The
organizations' goals are:
* To establish a worldwide
network of women concerned
about environmental manage-
ment and protection.
* To educate the public and its
policy makers about the vital
linkages between women,
natural resources and sustain-
able development.
* To promote the inclusion of
women and their environmen-
tal perceptions in the design
and implementation of
development policies.
* To mobilize and support
women, individually and in
organizations, in environmen-
tal and natural resource
programs.


For more information on
WorldWIDE and its programs,
contact:
WorldWIDE Network, Inc.
1331 H. Street NW, Suite 903
Washington, DC 20005, USA
Tel.: (202) 347-1514
Fax.: (202) 347-1524


African Women Leaders in
Agriculture and the
Environment

AWLAE awards grants to women
from developing countries to
pursue graduate studies in
agriculture and the environment
in the United States.

AWLAE, Winrock International
1611 North Ken Street
Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22290, USA
Tel.: (703) 525-9430
Fax.: (703) 525-1744


The Global Fund for
Women

The Global Fund for Women
provides small grants to women in
developing countries for various
development projects.

Global Fund for Women
2480 Sand Hill Road
Suite 100
Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Tel.: (415) 854-0420
Fax.: (415) 854-8050



Gender and Sustainable
Resource Management

The John D. and Catherine T.
McArthur Foundation has estab-
lished a grant making initiative on
gender and sustainable resource









management. It hopes to encour-
age the incorporation of gender
perspective in the examination of
natural resource issues, to
strengthen and support the role of
women in natural resources
management, and increase public
understanding of gender differ-
ences in resource use. The initia-
tive will support research and
action programs that seek to
influence environmental policy or
conservation practices. Interested
organizations should submit a
brief letter of inquiry describing
the proposed activity and its
relevance to the initiative.

Caren Grown
Senior Program Officer
Population Program
John D. and Catherine T.
McArthur Foundation
140 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60603, USA
Tel.: (312) 726-8000



The MacArthur
Interdisciplinary Program

The MacArthur Interdisciplinary
Program provides support for
graduate students who are
committed to the study and
development of issues of social


change, human rights, security
and international cooperation,
focusing on developing countries.
The program provides fellowships
of full tuition and US $10,000 in
living expenses for doctoral
students in the Colleges of Agri-
culture and Liberal Arts and the
Program in Conservation Biology,
and for students entering profes-
sional degree programs in the
Humphrey Institute of Public
Affairs. For information, contact:
The MacArthur Program
Institute of International Studies
University of Minnesota
214 Social Sciences Building
267 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Tel.: (612) 624-0832
Fax.: (612) 662-2242



The Inter-American
Foundation

The Inter-American Foundation
has created four fellowship
programs to support development
practitioners and researchers from
Latin America, the Caribbean, and
the United States whose research
and career interests concern
development activities among the
poor. Two programs support field
research in Latin America; another


brings Latin American and
Caribbean scholars and practi-
tioners to the United States for
advanced training. A new pro-
gram supports grassroots deve-
lopment dissemination activities
of distinguished Latin American
and Caribbean leaders. Inquires
should be directed to:
IAF Fellowship Program
Dept. 111
901 N. Stuart Street, 10th Floor
Arlington, VA 22203, USA




International Center for
Research on Women
(ICRW)

The International Center for
Research on Women has pub-
lished the first of a new Policy
Series titled: "Women and AIDS:
Developing a New Health Strat-
egy." This issue brings together
ICRW's experience in 14 countries
concerning the factors that put
women at risk of contracting the
AIDS virus. It also proposes
policy and program strategies to
help stem the spread of AIDS.
Write to:
ICRW
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The Exchange is published by Women in Development, Office of Training and Program Support, Peace Corps
of the United States, for distribution to Peace Corps Volunteers and Staff. All opinions expressed are those of
the individual writers and not necessarily those of OTAPS or the Peace Corps.


Editor/Writer.........................
Technical Assistant.....................


Betsy Davis, WID Coordinator
Jana Wooden, WID Program Assistant; Marcy Garland, Consultant


Tell us what's happening with WID in your country that you would like to share with others. Tell us the
great success stories, what works, what doesn't. When you tell us about your project, please give a location
and an address. Thanks. Send contributions, comments, suggestions, requests, etc., to:
Editor, WID Newsletter
Peace Corps/OTAPS
1990 K Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20526, USA




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