Group Title: Exchange
Title: The Exchange
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The Exchange
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Peace Corps (U.S.) -- Office of Training and Program Support
Ferris, Barbara
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Peace Corps, Office of Training and Program Support,
Peace Corps, Office of Training and Program Support
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: Winter 1993
Frequency: quarterly
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 2, No. 2 (Spring/Summer 1988)-
General Note: Editor: Barbara Ferris.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089933
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 18329279
 Related Items
Preceded by: The WID Newsletter

Full Text





My warmest greetings to all of you
for a healthy and happy holiday and a
wish for a great new year. And happy
fifth anniversary of The Exchange!
This issue is dedicated to you Peace
Corps Volunteers around the world,
because your thoughts, your articles,
activities and suggestion have been
rolling off the presses for five years.
This fantastic achievement would
have been impossible without your
commitment to take risks, to share
ideas, and to identify resources to
help each other find creative solutions
to daily challenges around the Peace
Corps world. Your work has enabled
me to create a widely read publica-
tion, a very powerful tool linking
and exchanging information with
nearly 8,000 people throughout our
global community who are committed
to improving the quality of life for
women and their families.

Five years ago I arrived at Peace
Corps and the idea of institutionaliz-
ing the roles and responsibilities of
women had not yet taken hold, yet
Volunteers have been working with
women since Peace Corps' inception.

Working with all the sector special-
ists, the programming and training
people in the region and the field
staff, we continue to systematically
and successfully design and evaluate
our projects to ensure that women

have access to the technical skills and
resources that we bring to country.
We do it by asking questions such as,
'How do the project goals impact
women in the community? How will
women have access to the benefits of
the project? How can teachers ensure
that girls stay in school? How can we
include the contributions of women
into lesson plans? What techniques
can we employ to ensure that women,
in light of culture and tradition, will
participate in the decision making
process of projects that will have a
direct impact on their lives?' These
are just a few examples of questions
that can ensure that women are
included in the economic develop-
ment of their own countries.

Through facilitating participatory
training, leadership and management
workshops for women, through
creative and innovative International
Women's Day celebrations (March
8), through the creation of scholarship
funds for girls and national essay
contests focusing on the significant
contributions women have made in
their countries, Volunteers have given
Peace Corps a leadership role in
knowing how to ensure that women
have access to societal benefits in all
sectors of the economy.

Until we have achieved the goals set
forth by United Nations Decade for

Women Equality, Development and
Peace we must continue to challenge
the inequities that half of the world's
population encounter in their daily
lives through workshops, training,
seminars and other creative mecha-
nisms to give women the necessary
tools and skills to be full and equal

Your unfaltering commitment to the
goal of helping people help them-
selves has inspired me to grow and
flourish as the Women in Develop-
ment Coordinator. And for your
willingness to take risks, cross
cultures and live in another language -
I am honored and grateful to have
worked with you.

In this new year, I wish you peace in
your hearts and in your lives.

Barbara Ferris
WID Coordinator

Bambara Bambara Bambara Bambara

Girl's Environmental

Its amazing what kids can do if you
just give them encouragement and
opportunity! In 1991, 31 shy young
women from Nareerat Girls High
School in Phrae province in northern
Thailand, two pioneering teachers, a
government community develop-
ment worker, and community
development Volunteer Cindy
Robinson joined together to form a
drama club, the Phrae Youth
Environmental Theatre Project.
None of them had ever been on stage
before. Drama was definitely the
furthest thing from their minds.
Now, just one year after its initia-
tion, the theatre troupe which calls
itself "Saeng Tien," or "Light of the
Candle," has helped spread the
message of environmental conserva-
tion to thousands of students not
only in Phrae, but across Thailand.

Robinson got the idea for the theatre
project after reading about another
Volunteer who started a community
theatre group for health education in

a refugee camp in northeastern Thai-
land. "I liked the idea of using drama
as a means of communication," she
explained, "It can provide an opportu-
nity for individual as well as overall
community development, and is a low
cost grass-roots initiative. This type
of project also does not require any
special technical or educational skills
on the part of the PCV or the partici-
pants," she adds. "Anyone of any age
can be involved."

There is a real need for environmental
education in Thailand, as the country
is now experiencing devastating
effects of rapid, unchecked develop-
ment and economic growth. Teachers
and students of the Nareerat School
Conservation Club were willing to
give it a try, and the project was
launched. The intention of the Saeng
Tien club is to promote and enhance
environmental awareness, primarily
for children in the community.
Robinson and her co-worker also
wanted to provide leadership,

A scene from the "I am a Tree" story theatre production.

problem solving and creative thinking
skills for young women, and to
encourage them to take an active role
in environmental policy in the future.

The group needed help to get their
advocacy efforts off the ground and
approached The Canada Fund,
receiving a grant of 80,000 baht (US
$3,200) to cover training, administra-
tion and support costs.

In April 1991, a professional theatre
group called MAYA conducted a five
day training workshop for the
students. Just two months later the
students were writing their own
scripts, designing their own costumes
and sets, choreographing, and
developing their performances which
cover a variety of stage media
including shadow puppetry, musical
drama, dance, traditional puppetry,
story theatre and mime.

With assistance from The Canada
Fund, Saeng Tien was able to begin
traveling to the eight districts of Phrae
on weekends, to perform for thou-
sands of primary and secondary
school students.

"We weren't quite sure what we were
getting ourselves into," says Parichat
Kartosod, the group's student
director. "We also weren't sure how
we would be received by the other
students and children watching our
shows. It was intimidating at first."

"The kids were really nervous in the
beginning, but they need not have
worried," says Robinson. "The
performers, ranging in age from 13 to
18, develop a clear rapport with their
audiences during their shows, and
include them in various acts," she

Theatre Group

explains. Saeng Tien has its young
audience laughing uproariously, and
then gazing intently over the course of
the one and a half hour production, as
the troupe shifts its mood from hilarity
to reflection.

The acts focus on deforestation, wildlife
protection, air and water pollution and
anti-littering. "We want the shows to be
educational, but also entertaining," says
Ms. Needanat Thinchom, one of the
teacher advisors for the group. "Our
message is very serious, but we feel our
audiences will absorb more and
remember longer if they are having fun
while they learn. We believe an
interactive approach is the best way to
accomplish our goal."

And accomplish it they have. The
Saeng Tien group has performed for
several thousand children and adults at
schools and community events through-
out Phrae province, and are well known
in the region.

On April 22, 1992 they celebrated Earth
Day with a special performance in
Bangkok, held at the American Univer-
sity Alumni Association. The V.I.P.
show, attended by H.E. Arthur C.
Perron, Canadian Ambassador to
Thailand, was the first in a three-day
performance tour in the city, which
included several productions for inner-
city youth and children of the Klong
Toey Slum.

The Bangkok performance tour, funded
by a second $3,000 grant from the
Canadian Embassy, received national
media coverage. "We never expected
the program to expand beyond Phrae
province," exclaims Ms. Boontin
Denprapat, the group's other teacher
advisor. "This program demonstrates

that students can take an active, self
directed role in conservation efforts
and in environmental education

The program hasn't been without
difficulties though. "It has been
tough working within the conserva-
tive education system in Thailand
where little importance is given to
extra curricular activities and women
are still confined mainly to tradi-
tional roles," says Robinson. "There
is a lot of academic pressure here,
and it was almost impossible to find
time for the students to rehearse. We
had to compromise and cut our
performance schedule. In order to
compensate though, we are now
producing a video of the group which
will be available on loan to help
spread the conservation message
even further."

The students are continuing to take
an active role outside the confines of
the school system, as they are now
organizing a province-wide youth
environmental volunteer organiza-
tion. Robinson suggests that others
who may be interested in starting up
a similar project might consider
community groups as an alternative
to a school-based troupe. She
believes that a group independent of
a school could avoid some of the
administrative barriers that Saeng
Tien has encountered, and might
have less difficulty finding time to

"It's been a truly educational experi-
ence for me as well as the students,"
says Robinson. "I have been
continually impressed with the
commitment, resourcefulness and
creativity displayed by the young

women in the troupe. 'Light of the
Candle' doesn't describe this group
accurately, a bonfire is more like it,"
she adds laughing.

Robinson is now a third year PCV in
The Gambia.

For more information contact:
Cindy Robinson, PCV
Peace Corps/The Gambia
PO Box 582
Banjul, The Gambia
West Africa

The "Stranger in the Forest."

Leadership Training at the Cooperativa

Cooperativa Integral de Servicios
"Cochabamba" Ltda. of Cochabamba,
Bolivia, developed a six month
education program on leadership
training for its women members,
thanks to a much appreciated dona-
tion the Huber family of Carlisle,
Massachusetts made to Friends of
Bolivia (Amigos de Bolivia y Peru).
To initiate the program in July 1992,
Volunteers Jessica Robin and
Stephanie Rust, along with the
promoter of the Cooperative, Olga
Ticona, organized the first All-
Women's Assemble for Cooperative
members in the 14 year history of the
cooperative. 61 women participated
from 30 communities representing six
of the provinces of the Department of

The program focused on the role of
women members within the Coopera-
tive. Of the 4,000 active members,
15% are women, yet only a handful
are directors in their local chapters.
In order to integrate women more into
the agricultural projects and credit
programs, the Cooperative decided

that women must play a more active
role in leadership. The training was a
first time opportunity for women
members to vocalize their needs,
ideas and experiences in order to
make this goal a reality. Four women
members were selected to speak about
their work within the Cooperative as
well as within their communities.
These women have served as role
models through the years and the
training enabled them to share their
experiences with many other women.

To continue the new program, five
courses on leadership training are
scheduled for the remainder of 1992
for 75 women in the five central
communities of the Cooperative's
working zone. In August and
September, the first two were pre-
sented by PCV Stephanie Rust and
Promoter Olga Ticona in Tiraque and
Ucurena, respectively. Through these
courses the Cooperative hopes to
organize a network of women leaders
of the 48 chapters. The courses are
geared towards women who cannot
read or write and are presented in

Cooperative member Esther Moya
explains her goal: To open a bakery.

i-~~ t .

Participants and organizers of the 'taller' in Tiraque.

both Spanish and Quechua, one of
Bolivia's indigenous languages.

The participation and evaluations of
the program have been positive and
the cooperative plans to continue the
programs next year. A very special
thank you to the Hubers and Friends
of Bolivia from the Cooperative and
all the socias for making all this
happen. Anchata agredeski (Thank
you very much in Quechua).

For more information contact:
Stephanie Rust
Peace Corps/Bolivia
Casilla # 1655
La Paz, Bolivia

I _

Numeracy Workshop

Peace Corps Ivory Coast with the
support of OTAPS/WID sponsored a
numeracy workshop October 2-9,
1992 for Volunteers and host country
nationals in Abidjan. The workshop
is a follow up to the numeracy TOT
sponsored by the WID Committee in
Senegal in April, 1990, which was
attended by Volunteers and counter-
parts from Benin, Mali, Niger, Chad,
and Gabon and also supported by
OTAPS/WID. The methodology
comes from TOSTAN/UNICEF, a
NGO based in Thies, Senegal which
focuses on literacy and numeracy.

Beninese Gnona K. Kante and PCV
Julie Brown from Benin facilitated
the workshop as both had been
previously trained in the numeracy
methodology. Numeracy is especially
helpful to rural development workers
who often work with co-operatives
and women's groups who need to
know how to read and write numbers.
During the five day workshop, the
participants learned not only method-
ology and teaching techniques, but
also how to adapt the system to their
particular situations. Moreover, once
the technique was demonstrated by
the facilitators, the participants them-
selves facilitated sessions introducing
units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.
Meetings were held daily to discuss
how to adapt the information to
individual situations. On the final day
of the workshop, each participant
prepared and presented a plan of
action specific to their village or

It is recommended to train more host
country nationals at future workshops
who can teach numeracy to others in
their own communities because of the
language barriers presented to the

Volunteer. It is necessary for PCVs
and HCNs to know and understand
the program because PCVs can
provide training, organization and
logistic skills and country nationals
can provide clear explanations in
local language. One PCV and one
HCN from the Ivory Coast worked
along side the two facilitators form
Benin in order to learn how to
facilitate future workshops in the
Ivory Coast. It is hoped that we will
continue to train others in teaching
numeracy throughout the country.

For more information contact:
Cynde Robinson, CD
Corps de la Paix
BP 1282
Cedex 01
Abidjan 06, Cote d'Ivoire

International Women's Day,
celebrated around the world on
March 8 recognizes the impor-
tant contributions women have
made in their communities and
countries. PCVs worldwide have
marked the day with festivals,
workshops, parades and other
activities to raise the awareness
of the importance of women's

Circle the date on your calendar
and let us know how we can help
you make IWD a success.

1. Initiation and Leadership:
Are women involved in project
initiation and leadership? How
many women? Who? What is their
status? What is their role in the
project. Are indigenous women
involved? Are they responsible
and responsive to project partici-
2. Participation and ControL-
Do women participate in the
direction of the project? How?
Characterize the structure (if
any, formal/informal) for partici-
pation and feedback. What is the
participant's role? Will this expe-
rience change women's roles?
3. Benefits:
What are the benefits of this
project to women? Direct? Indi-
rect? How are they measured? Do
the participants perceive them as
benefits in key areas in their
lives? Is the project structured so
that, having attained one objec-
tive, the participants can move on
to others? Does the project con-
tribute to increasing women's ac-
cess to knowledge, resources, and
the power structure?
4. Social Change:
Does this project increase
women's options, raise their sta-
tus? What are political, economic
and cultural implica-tions of the
project? Does the project create
dislocations? Does it reinforce
structures of exploitation? Have
these effects been anticipated?
What provisions are there to deal
with them?
5. Process:
Does the project treat develop-
ment as a process? How does it
relate to a larger plan? Does it
stimulate a broader base for con-
tinuing development? Is the proj-
ect flexible enough to adjust its
course to changes identified as
desirable? Does the project treat
women as an integral part of the
family and the community?
Soure: Technical Assutance Informa-
tion Cleainghouae, Ameran Counca of
Voluntary Agenie for Forign Servio

Wavelengths Wavelengths Wavelengths


The sand-storms and rains have
finally ended (yes, it rains in Maurita-
nia) and the roads have opened again.
We thought this would be a perfect
time to get together and tell you about
our activities.

WID Mauritania just reformed this
year. We had a one year hiatus in
activities due to Peace Corps evacuat-
ing the country during the Gulf War.
We restarted with completely new
members and a new WID Coordina-

We established and defined our goals
as a committee, and then began
culling Women In Development
publications for ideas about projects
and other methods of promoting the
role of women in Mauritania.

We compiled information on WID
and on women related activities, as
our first accomplished project. The
information will be presented at every
Pre-Service Training (PST) and In-
Service Training (IST). Carla Hunt, a
WID Committee member, presented a
course on Teaching Bookkeeping to
Illiterate Women at the recent
Agriculture/Forestry/Co-op IST.

We are presently developing a script
for a five to ten minute television
segment TV-Mauritania has agreed to
air if we just provide the film clip.
We will submit the completed script
to the Peace Corps WID office in
Washington DC.

We will use the same film segment
with narration in English, as part of a
video shown to incoming Peace Corps
Trainees during their INTERLOC
session state-side. This will introduce
each new wave of Volunteers to our
committee and show them some of
what we have accomplished.

We are also discussing money-raising

ideas for our next project. We want
to establish a renewable fund which
we could use to help finance women
students wishing to complete high

Those are the ideas we have come up
within our first year together. We
would greatly appreciate any other
ideas or suggestions you might have
based on your own experiences.
Please write to us.

Edwin D. Falconer
Corps de la Paix
BP 222
Nouakchott, Mauritanie
West Africa


HELP! I'm not sure if this is the right
place to seek support, but your
newsletter came at a time when I am
feeling particularly frustrated. And,
well you had an "Express Yourself"
page, so I thought I'd use it.

I'm a PCV serving in the Republic of
Palau. I'm working in Library
Resource Development. My situation
is different than most. Palau is not
starving, we've got running water, a
strong youth group, no blatant
physical abuse, and liquor is a no-no
in my state. Sound like heaven? I
thought so too. Unfortunately, Palau
is also a created welfare state. The
people are trapped in a web of hand-
outs and canned food.

I'm seeking to network with people
who have ideas on weaning away
from (the old give the family a fish or
teach them how to make the pole
concept) and sustainable develop-
ment. Right now, I seem to only be

able to find contacts who would rather
I teach the students than teach the
teacher. I need ideas on the other side
of the coin!

All ideas are welcome! Thanks for
your help!

For more information contact:
Nydia Blood
Peace Corps
PO Box 158
Koror, Palau 96940


I'm a rural public health Volunteer
and am trying very hard to incorpo-
rate AIDS education, HIV testing and
training of counselors into our
center's programs. For World AIDS
Day (December 1) we'll be showing a
video including music, skit and
follow-up discussions. Local
women's groups will judge a school
anti-AIDS poster contest and con-
doms will be passed out at the door.
But things are moving slowly here.

I would love to hear from PCVs in
other covers of the world about
ideas, successes and failures in AIDS
education. Regardless of Volunteer
assignments, everyone should be
involved in AIDS education.

Any travelling PCVs passing through
our neck of the woods can contact me
for an AIDS discussion. Thanks.

For more information contact:
Kirsti Lattu
Corps de la Paix
BP 3288
Kigali, Rwanda


Lilongwe Cheshire Home has
struggled against many obstacles
since I came to work here in Septem-
ber 1991. We work with handicapped
children and their mothers (rarely
their fathers) in community-based
clinics around Lilongwe district. For
seven months we carried on without a
vehicle or office space. I never
stopped to think that others might
consider our organization itself to be
handicapped because we haven't
hired any men to work with us.

We found some office space and
successfully obtained funding for
rental. It is located in an industrial
section where trucks are loaded and
unloaded from nearby warehouses.

One day, it was the time to paint a
sign in front of the building so people
would have an easier time finding our
office. The "sign man" charges
K300, so I decided to do it myself. I
recruited the help of two Malawian
women who I work with.

First we painted the background
white. We measured out the dimen-
sions and letters. This process was
being keenly observed by a huge
crowd of men who had nothing better
to do as they waited for another truck
to come for loading. My two co-
workers kept me up on the Chichewa
conversation of the men as they
watched us work.

"Look at those ladies. They work at
that place that has no men working
for it. What kind of organization
hires only women?" they said to each

Later as the morning went on and the
sun came out, they were still capti-
vated by our work. "Those women
shouldn't be out here painting that
sign. It's a man's job," they argued.
"They even drive their own vehicle

instead of using a driver," one man

All three of us were glad to finish up
the sign so we could get away from
the ants that kept crawling up our legs
and the crowd of men who found us
so fascinating. We were proud of our
work. As we cleaned up, our secre-
tary heard the men saying, "Well look
at their sign. It looks even better than
the other signs around here. Who
would have thought women could do
all that!"

For more information contact:
Dee Hunt, PCV
Peace Corps/Malawi
PO Box 208
Lilongwe, Malawi


Gardening in Senegal is a manual
designed for and by PCVs in Senegal.
In the early 80's, Volunteers in the
"Animation" program created the first
edition. It became the primary
reference for Volunteers working in
garden activities for the next ten
years. In the mean time, horticultural
research has advanced and Peace
Corps has moved into new regions.
As more Volunteers began working
with gardens, primarily women's gar-
dening groups, new problems and
new areas for intervention were
identified. Finally, the role of
gardening itself is changing from
marginal, individual gardens to group
gardens often related to the national
women's group movement to a NGO
initiation. It was decided that the
manual needed to be updated.

Work on the new manual began in
1991 by the gardening task force of

the WID Committee. With the help
of our APCD David Kelley, we began
collecting crop-specific technical
information and sent out a survey to
all PCVs in agriculture and natural
resources. PCV support and response
to the surveys were high and by the
1992 rainy season, the manual was
ready for publication.

Whatever the scope of the garden, it
remains an important activity in its
role of increasing food availability
and self-confidence of the individual
and groups that garden.

For more information contact:
David Kelley, APCD
Corps de la Paix
BP 2534
Dakar, Senegal


A dedicated WID subcommittee of 3
PCVs and 2 Basotho women has just
completed a 1993 calendar. It is a
calendar of "Outstanding Basotho
Women" which will be distributed in
the primary and high schools. The
printing was done in Lesotho and a
local artist created the cover design.

Any group interested in undertaking a
similar project should plan on 2 years
of preparation. After reading all the
good ideas in The Exchange, we
would like to share some of our own
to encourage others.

For more information contact:
Rebecca J. Perry, PCV
Peace Corps/WID
Box 554 Maseru 100
Southern Africa


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This issue's centerpiece comes to us
from the National Women's History
Project, designed by Margaret
Whiting. This year's theme, "Dis-
cover a New World: Women's
History," invites us to rediscover the
wealth of our heritage the inspiration
of women's lives. This "new world"
includes many remarkable women
who have been the spirit and founda-
tion of their families and communities
throughout history. It includes
women from all classes and cultural
groups women who have simply
lived their lives in their own unique
historical context, and by so doing
have moved history forward. Their
lives and experiences are just waiting
for discovery and exploration a new
world rich with role models of deter-
mination and vision. The graphic
design on this poster provides an
image of this vision, and the pleasure
of identifying and appreciating its
many elements is like the process
many of us have experienced as
we've begun discovering the "new"
world of multicultural women's

"Possibly the most
influential investment
that can be made in the
develop ing world is
educating girls"

Lmrence Summers
Chief Economist, World Bank

Annual Report

Hot off the presses, the Annual
Report is in the mail and on its way to
you. Included in the report are
summaries of all the workshops
facilitated by Volunteers for women
in their communities, the extraordi-
nary activities of WID Committees
worldwide, highlights of The
Exchange, and a brief summary of
the work of the WID Coordinator. It
also highlights the creative and
innovative International Women's
Day (March 8) celebrations that
Volunteers have facilitated through-
out our global community.

Through the work of Peace Corps
Volunteers (the hallmark of our
success) around the world whose un-
faltering commitment to improving
the lives of women, their families and
their communities, the Annual Report
is possible.

Project Design


The Pictorial Apprenticeship Program
Handbook created by Senegal PCVs
Evan Bloom and Susan Reid is a
project planning tool for pre-literate
communities. The handbook, a
cooperative effort between the PC/
WID office and the Ministre du
Development Sociale au Senegal uses
pictures on small cards to depict
problem situations, objectives,
participants and implementation tasks.
After initial pre-testing of the ap-
proach with a set of twenty-three
illustrations drawn by a Senegalese
middle school student, a complete

card library of more than one hundred
illustrations was designed for five
common project areas in Senegal
which include health, vegetable
gardening, formal/non-formal
education, grain mills and water

Four copies of the handbook have
been sent to each country. It is a
wonderful tool to ensure that every-
one in the community participates in
designing and implementing their
own projects.

The Year of the


The votes are in and although we will
continue to strive for equity in
Congress, it is getting better, albeit

In the 1992 election, 29 women were
newly elected to the 103rd Congress.
Four new women Senators will bring
the total number to six and 24 newly
elected Representatives will join 24
returning Congresswomen to bring
the total number in the House to 48.
Out of a total of 535 seats, 54 women
in Congress is certainly not represen-
tative of more than half the population
in our country.

Record numbers of women were
elected to state legislatures this
election year. It is within reach -
think about it!



that you are a woman in India
whose husband is unhappy
with the dowry you've
brought. Wanting freedom to remarry,
he sets you afire.
Imagine that you are a Pakistani woman
who has been raped. You are thrown in
jail-on the grounds of adultery.
Or you are a Thai girl, born to poor
parents. When you reach puberty, they
sell you into prostitution and leave you
chained to a bed in a Bangkok brothel.
These situations are neither hypotheti-
cal nor unique. What's new is that we
know about them. thanks to women's

Afrikaners were entitled. Instead, the world
community joined in an economic boycott
that recently pushed white South Africans
to vote to dismantle apartheid.
Shouldn't we apply equal pressure
when we learn that both Saudi Arabia and
Kuwait condone genital mutilation? When
girls in those countries (and others) reach
puberty, their clitoris, and sometimes
their labia, is excised. Saudi and Kuwaiti
women are also denied the right to vote.
and their testimony in court does not carry
the same weight as a man's, making rape
and other violence against women almost
impossible to prove. Yet rather than ex-
press outrage, the United States, pro-

world, women are dying and disappearing
at a rate that suggests they are being delib-
erately eliminated. Census statistics from
1991 revealed 100 million fewer women
than statisticians expected. In Asia there
were 60 million "missing" women-fe-
males whose births had been recorded but
who had died or disappeared somewhere
along the way. The motive for this is no
mystery: In many parts of the world, the
birth of a daughter is mourned, because
when she marries, her family must pay a
dowry rather than receive one. According
to the United Nations Development Fund
for Women, these "burdensome" girls
are often denied food and medical care.
so many eventually die. This is what
CEDAW hopes to combat.
Although CEDAW was adopted by the
U.N. General Assembly 13 years ago and
has since been ratified by 109 of the
U.N.'s 175 member countries, the U.S.
has yet to follow suit.
Unlike women in many other countries.
American women have political clout. We
should use it. We can write to our elect-
ed representatives and demand
CEDAW's immediate ratification. We
can insist that Congress check a coun-
try's record on all human rights before
voting on a foreign-aid package or trade
agreement. We can also participate in
letter-writing campaigns and let the
U.N.'s secretary general know that we
expect women's rights to be a center-

In many countries, the brutalization of women is the unofficial law of the land

projects recently formed by Amnesty In-
ternational. Human Rights Watch and the
International League for Human Rights.
What isn 't new is that the world commu-
nity-the same countries that fiercely
condemn such atrocities as apartheid in
South Africa and the torture of prisoners
in Latin America and the former Soviet
Union-accept violations of women's
human rights with a sad shake of the
head and a shrug that means "Well.
what can anyone do?"
According to officials in these countries
and even representatives of some human
rights organizations, these abuses are due
to cultural or religious differences;
"That's just the way they do things over
there" is a common refrain. Or they say
that horrors such as bride burning-which
is against Indian law-occur in the home
and are therefore impossible to police.
What these responses reveal is that
throughout the world women are seen as
less than human. In assessing apartheid.
no one argued that ghettoizing blacks, de-
nying them full citizenship and murdering
them at will was a cultural right to which the

fessed leader of the fight for human rights.
has not only closed its eyes but spent bil-
lions of dollars defending these countries
during the Gulf War-all the time using
the grisly details of Iraq's human rights
violations against Kuwait to win Ameri-
can support for the war.
In 1989, the State Department. under
fire from women's groups, did start in-
cluding a survey of abuses against women
in its annual Country Reports on Human
Rights Practices. Yet so far the reports
have not affected foreign policy. Accord-
ing to the new women's rights projects, a
critical next step is getting Congress to
ratify the United Nations' Convention on
the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimi-
nation Against Women (CEDAW).
Among other things, CEDAW would
guarantee women:
The right to vote.
The right to enter freely into
Equal access to fundamentals such
as food and health care.
"Equal access to food" may seem like
pretty basic stuff, yet in some parts of the

piece of the 1993 World Conference on
Human Rights in Vienna.
Activism works. Because of public
outcry, France recently became the first
country to grant asylum to an African
woman who fled genital mutilation. In
Brazil-where traditionally men who
killed their wives for adultery or even
the suspicion of it have not been prose-
cuted-local women's groups and Hu-
man Rights Watch have persuaded the
government to insist that police inter-
vene in cases of domestic violence. The
outpouring of reports, statistics and con-
cern that will be generated by the newly
formed women's rights projects will
help make human rights abuses against
women impossible to ignore. We should
all work to make it inexcusable for gov-
ernments to say that starving, raping or
brutalizing women is "just the way we
do it over here."

For more information, call Amnesty Inter-
national USA (212-807-8400) or Human
Rights Watch Women's Rights Project

SAuguas 1992. Glamour

Reprinted with permission.

Resources Resources Resources Resources


A Day in the Life of an African
Woman Farmer is a video which
explores the issues and challenges
that affect African women's efforts to
feed their families and helps the
viewer develop an understanding of
the competing demands on women's
time and the importance of incorpo-
rating them into community and
national decision making related to
food security strategies.

For more information contact:
PACT Media Services
777 United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017

The East-West Research and
Coordination Center for Gender
Studies is a recently established
organization in Prague, Czechoslova-
kia that aims to initiate, support and
coordinate gender-based research in
East Central Europe and the CIS, and
promote gender equity in social
planning by developing research
proposals that contribute to this

For more information contact:
Olga Kucerova-Podkolodnaya
East-West Gender Studies
P.O. Box 188
111 21 Prague 1

The Women's Library and Infor-
mation Center Foundation opened
in April 1990 to collect research
materials, publications of women's
organizations, statistics, laws, journal
articles, photographs, letters, diaries,
memoirs, newspaper clippings,
conference papers, seminar proceed-
ings and books written about women
and issues relating to women. In
addition to its function as a library
information center, the Foundation
will also organize conferences,
seminars, concerts and art exhibitions.

For more information contact:
Women's Library and Information
Center Foundation
Fener Mah
Fener P.T.T. yani (tarihi bina)
Fener Bapur Iskelesi Karsisi
Halicc 34220
Istanbul, Turkey

"Women Hold Up Half the Sky"
This 100% cotton short sleeve T-shirt
is available through The United
Nations Development Fund for
Women (UNIFEM) for US$15.00.
UNIFEM supports the self-help
initiative of women in developing
countries, thus making their lives
more productive. By increasing their
economic power, UNIFEM helps to
improve the lives of women, their
families, and their communities.

For more information contact:
252 North Washington Street
Falls Church, VA 22046

New Global Network
The International People's Health
Council has just been formed.

For more information contact:
David Werner
Hesperian Foundation
PO Box 1962
Palo Alto, CA 94302


The Women$hare Funding
Newsnote provides a listing of
fellowships, scholarships, internships
and short-term training programs
relevant to development concerns in
Third World countries. The opportu-

nities listed range from health and
family planning to leadership training.

For more information contact:
International Women's Tribune
Women$hare Project
Alice Quinn
777 United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017

Women, Youth and Farmers'
Project, Northern Mindinao,
Philippines is a grant project that
seeks to enable farmers and women of
Baungon area to create a self-reliant,
self-nourishing community through
farming and marketing, a new con-
sumers' cooperative, and a coopera-
tive approach to income-generating

For more information contact:
Coordination in Development, Inc.
475 Riverside Drive, Room 1842
NewYork,NY 10115

Lumpa Village Vegetable Farm,
Sierra Leone The goal of this grant is
to help women increase vegetable
production and thus improve their
income. 20 women and 201 school-
girls, participate. Women tradition-
ally grow the foodstuffs of the area.

For more information contact:
Coordination in Development, Inc.
475 Riverside Drive, Room 1842
NewYork,NY 10115

African Development Education
Program is a grant whose purpose
serves to provide training to partici-
pants from 15 African countries who
are interested in earning a bachelor's
degree at American colleges or
universities. Applicants interested in

this program must be nominated by
the Ministries of Education in their
own countries. The institute is
particularly interested in including
women in this program.

For more information contact:
African-American Institute
833 United Nations Plaza
New York, NY 10017

Lady Aberdeen Scholarships
provide an opportunity for qualified
women to obtain training in home
economics, including nutrition and
rural community welfare, either at
home or abroad. The awards are
made to rural women in developing
countries who are sponsored by a
member society of the Associated
Country Women of the World.

For more information contact:
Associated Country Women of the
Vincent House
Vincent Square
London SW1P 2NB, England

The Fellowship Program for West
Africa functions to train promising
professionals from West Africa in the
use of social science research for the
development of effective policies and
programs to increase the economic
participation of low-income women in
developing countries. The deadline
for application is April 1993.

For more information contact:
International Center for Research on
1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW
Suite 302
Washington, DC 20036

The World Health Organization
awards fellowships in areas of public
health, teacher training in health
sciences, and postgraduate studies in
medicine and surgery. The fellow-
ships are awarded through the
governments of its Member States,
and candidates should contact the
Ministry of Health or the correspond-
ing national health administration, of
their country of origin for advice on
the correct procedure for application.

For more information contact:

World Health Organization
Regional Office for Africa
PO Box #6
Brazzaville, Congo

World Health Organization
Regional Office for the Americas/
Pan American Sanitary Bureau
525, 23 rd Street NW
Washington, DC 20037

World Health Organization
Regional Office for the Eastern
PO Box #1517
Alexandria 21511, Egypt

World Health Organization
Regional Office for Europe
8, Scherfigsvej
2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark

World Health Organization
Regional Office for South-East Asia
World Health House
Indraprastha Estate
Mahatma Gandhi Road
New Delhi 110002, India

World Health Organization
Regional Office for the Western
PO Box 2932
Manila 1099, Philippines

UN Development Fund for Women
(UNIFEM) has monies available to
fund small-scale, income-generating,
innovative and experimental training
projects that teach skills to women.
Proposed project should concentrate
on rural development, planning, and
communications. Applications may
be submitted at anytime.

For more information contact:
United Nations/UNIFEM
304 East 45th Street
Room 608
New York, NY 10017

The America the Beautiful Fund
has over 35,000 pounds of vegetable
seeds available to nonprofit organiza-
tions interested in growing food to
feed the hungry. Vegetable seeds can
be obtained by qualified agencies for
the cost of shipping and handling. To
apply for a free seed grant, request the
"bulk seed request form" and send a
self-addressed, stamped envelope.

For more information contact:
America the Beautiful Fund
Department CAC
219 Shoreham Building
Washington, DC

African Women Publishers'
Training Program is a program
offered by The Center for Foreign
Journalists and is designed to
strengthen all facets of producing a
small English-language publication.
Topics covered include management,
planning, presentation, production,
distribution and revenue return.
Candidates must be from Anglophone

Africa and must publish or manage a
newspaper, magazine or newsletter,
preferably development oriented.

For more information contact:
African Women Publisher's Training
The Center for Foreign Journalists
116990-A Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA 22091

Asian Development Bank Scholar-
ship Program is a scholarship that
was created to enable people to
contribute to the social and economic
development of their countries after
completing graduate studies at
institutions designated by the Asian
Development Bank (ADB). ADB
will provide names of designated
Asian and Pacific institutions and
member countries.

For more information contact:
Asian Development Bank
(West) Division
Manager, Education, Health and
6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong
Metro Manila, The Philippines

International Fellowships in Urban
Studies are awarded by The Institute
for Policy Studies at Johns Hopkins
University to conduct research and
possibly teach at the University in the
USA. There are two types of urban
studies fellowships available, Senior
Fellowships and Junior Fellowships.

For more information contact:
Institute for Policy Studies
Shriver Hall, Charles & 34th Streets
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD 21218


Official Report of World Women's
Congress for a Healthy Planet is the
official report of the Congress, held in
November 1991. The Congress was
created to ensure that women would
have an equal say at the United
Nations Conference on Environment
and Development in Brazil, June
1992. The report includes the final
Women's Action Agenda 21 and also
publishes caucus statements, the
findings and recommendations of
Tribunal judges and other material.

For more information contact:
Women's Environment and Develop-
ment Organization
845 Third Avenue
15th Floor
New York, NY 10022

"Women and Health" is a newspack
of international articles, case studies
and bibliographies that focus on
subjects such as 'Gender and Primary
Health Care,' 'Women and Mental
Health: Towards a New Definition of
Policies in Health,' and 'Population
Policies and Women's Health.' This
collection is from OXFAM's Gender
and Development Unit, a body
established to promote policies of
integrating women into the main-
stream of development in the Third

For more information contact:
274 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 7DZ, UK

Women. Poverty and Environment
in Latin America is a new report by
Sally Yudelman and Michael Paolisso
that explores the ways women in the
region contribute to protecting natural
resources and the environment.

For more information contact:
Suite 302
1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20036

A Directory of Women's Media
contains brief descriptions of over
1,300 newsletters, periodicals, other
print and electronic media, publishers,
bookstores, libraries, archives,
distributors, and other media re-

For more information contact:
Sara D. Roosevelt Memorial House
47- 49 East 65th Street
New York, NY 10021




"Women, Family Law and Human
January 14-15, 1993
Vienna, Austria

This conference will feature an
international panel of experts who

will focus on various aspects of
Convention Articles 9, 15 and 16
dealing with nationality, legal
equality and marriage and family
law. The last part of the program
will focus on preparations of UN
international conferences to be held
in 1993, 1994 and 1995.

For more information contact:
Humphrey Institute
301 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55455

"Black Women's Identity" and
"Black Women's Livelihoods in
the Developing World"
February 22-26, 1993
Costa Rica, Central America

The United Nations Development
Fund for Women (UNIFEM) is
sponsoring these two panels on black
women in developing countries at the
Fifth International Interdisciplinary
Congress on Women (FIICW). The
panels will draw on black women's
experiences from Africa, Latin
America and the Caribbean. Panel-
ists will be representative of these

For more information contact:
Sandra Martin
304 East 45th Street
New York,NY 10017

"Toward Comprehensive Pro-
grams to Reduce Vitamin A
March 8-12, 1993
Arusha, Tanzania

This meeting, sponsored by the
Tanzania Food and Nutrition Center,
will begin with a national symposium
focusing on programs and accomplish-
ments in Tanzania. Following this, the
meeting will feature presentations on
the theme as well as oral, poster, and
video presentations on a variety of
topics including vitamin A program
issues, progress in changing dietary
behaviors related to vitamin A, and

For more information contact:
IVACG Secretariat
The Nutrition Foundation, Inc.
1126 Sixteenth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036

"Grassroots Women Arise"
March 1993
Enugu, Nigeria

This workshop is being organized by
the Women Education and Rural
Development Education Center.

For more information contact:
No 31 NGWO Street
PO Box 15723
Enugu, Nigeria

Global Health Consciousness:
Building Bridges to a Common
April 2-3, 1993
Galveston, Texas

This conference will explore numerous
links between health, the environment,
and development. Participants will
study the possibility of health and

development efforts that are suppor-
tive, participatory and sustainable.

For more information contact:
The University of Texas Medical
The University of Texas School of
Nursing at Galveston
Continuing Nursing Education
1100 Mechanic Street
Galveston, TX 77555-1029

"International Council of Nurses
20th Quadrennial Congress"
June 20-25, 1993
Madrid, Spain

This conference has a "unity for
quality" theme, and will focus on
maternal and child health and safe

For more information contact:
International Council of Nurses
3 place Jean Marteau, 1201
Geneva, Switzerland

Hats off to Rigoberta
Menchu, a Quiche
Indian peasant
woman from
Guatemala, who is
this year's Nobel
Peace Prize winner.
About the Nobel
Peace Prize Menchu
said: "I consider this
prize above all
encouragement for
the struggle of

The Exchange is published quarterly by Women in Development, Office of Training and Program Support, Peace Corps
of the United States, for distribution to Peace Corps Volunteers and Staff. All opinions expressed are those of the editor
and individual writers and not necessarily those of OTAPS or the Peace Corps.

Editor/Writer..................................... Barbara Ferris, WID Coordinator
Technical Assistant......................... Lauren Wallender, OTAPS Technician

Express Yourself

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