Group Title: Exchange
Title: The Exchange
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The Exchange
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Peace Corps (U.S.) -- Office of Training and Program Support
Ferris, Barbara
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Peace Corps, Office of Training and Program Support,
Peace Corps, Office of Training and Program Support
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: Winter 1992
Copyright Date: 1988
Frequency: quarterly
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 2, No. 2 (Spring/Summer 1988)-
General Note: Editor: Barbara Ferris.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089933
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 18329279
 Related Items
Preceded by: The WID Newsletter

Full Text






Happy holidays to all of you. Which
ever holidays you celebrate, I am
confident that they will be festive in
their own very special way. In this
New Year, I wish you all peace and
promise in your communities, your
work and your lives.

In looking back at the old year,
together, we have moved forward,
incrementally, at working to improve
the lives of women, their families and
their communities. First and foremost,
thanks to your creativity and
commitment, Peace Corps Volunteers
have facilitated nearly one hundred
workshops for women in forty
countries (no small feat given logistics,
transportation and politics). The
workshops addressed a variety of needs
including training in small business
skills, participatory training techniques,
literacy, numeracy, mud stove
construction, animal traction,
vaccination campaigns and leadership
and management skills for women. As
a result of these workshops, the
participants have been able to take back
to their communities the skills learned
and train others. You have built
capacities that will help women sustain
themselves and their families.

Also this year, the agency has adopted
policy that reads, "Recognizing that
women throughout the global
community play a key role in the
development of their nations, Peace

Corps will work to achieve the full
participation of women in development
activities by ensuring that women have
access to the skills and technologies
offered in all Peace Corps activities
occurring in their communities and
countries. These efforts will be
implemented in the field through PC
programming and training and
supported from headquarters through
Agency management practices,
overseas staff development, pre-service
training, project plans, the Integrated
Planning and Budget System (IPBS),
the Programming and Training System
(PATS) manual, and written and visual
materials produced by Peace Corps.
The integration and recognition of the
role of women in developing their
countries will be documented in all
sectors of Peace Corps."

It is evident by the workshops you have
facilitated in your communities that you
recognize the importance of ensuring
that women have information, tools and
skills to improve their lives. You
recognize that women are shouldering
the burden of both household support
and income generation activities on an
average of sixteen hours a day. Why
focus on women in the development
process? We know from history that
often times women have been left out
of the design and implementation of
projects. We also know that women
often do most of the work on a project,
yet they do not participate in decisions

that will have a direct impact on their
lives. Unless everyone in a
community has access to participate
in a project, it will not sustain itself.

Women have many roles and
responsibilities in the countries where
we work. It is important for a woman
to have access to education so that she
can fully understand nutrition and
health issues that will affect her
children. It is critical for a woman to
have access to credit, bookkeeping,
and marketing skills so that the time
she spends operating a business is at a
profit rather than a loss so that she
can pay for school fees, medicines
and other basic necessities. Women
must have access to extension
services so that their time spent in
fields and home gardens will ensure a
bountiful harvest. Access is
necessary for economic development
to take place in a country.

As we welcome the new year, I hope
you continue to welcome the
challenges to help people help
themselves and the commitment to
serve that brought you to your
community. Know that you can make
a difference.

Barbara Ferris
WID Coordinator

Bambara Bambara Bambara Bambara


- A Tradition of Success

During the late 1600s a large group of
Africans escaped from the tribal
warfare and destruction on the coast
of Ghana near Accra. Mostly fishing
families who used canoes to travel
east along the Gulf of Benin, they
settled at a place which was later
named Aneho in the Republic of
Togo. These families brought with
them many traditions which have
bonded their tribe, the Ge or Mina
people, together for generations.

Now, over 300 years later, many of
these traditions are continuing to bond
these people. One example is the
women's group "Blema-Alodo" of
Aneho, founded by women who were
very proud of their Mina heritage.

"Blema-Alodo" is a Mina phrase
meaning "the ancient Mina traditions
helping the next (generations)" which
explains the main objective and
purpose of the group. The main
objective is to sensitize people that
they too can organize themselves to
create their own work. They want
young women in the community to
join the group to learn new skills and
to practice the traditions of their

The group began in 1982 when 60
women from Aneho joined together to
teach others through traditional dance
and theater. Since that time, the
women have performed their dance
for funerals, marriages and other
traditional ceremonies. They have
also performed theater for health
campaigns and to teach Mina
traditions to the area youth.

In January of 1991, the women's
group began their gardening project
on three hectares of land in Aneho.
Since then, the women have built one

Photo by M. Wiedel.

An artist from Blema-Alodo adds
finishing touches to a batik.

well to match an existing well on the
site as well as five cisterns. The
women earned money to build the well
and cisterns by collecting monthly
dues from members and through the
sale of European and traditional
vegetables, which they grow.

In addition, the women have recently
begun a material dying project next to
the garden. Experienced women in the
community are teaching younger
group members how to do indigo
dying of material and also color
"batik" dying.

"Blema-Alodo" has grown into a self-
motivated group with a dedicated
leadership. Some of the main reasons
for their success stem from the corerr
stones" they set down in their
beginning and have since built upon.

The first corerr stone" is the efficient
organization of the group. This
organization is evident in their

working constitution and bylaws that
have changed to nurture the growth of
the group.

The second "corner stone" is the
support of the members by the group.
The group offers support to its
members through the collection of
funds to help pay the hospital bills of
sick members. When a group
members dies, they collect money to
pay for the tomb.

The third corerr stone" is support of
the group by the members. This is
witnessed each Wednesday during the
weekly business meetings of "Blema-
Alodo" when the women pay their
dues and sometimes give extra
money. Each member also has a
membership card which includes a list
of internal rules of the group. These
include 1) Self-Respect, 2) Respect of
Others, 3) Love for Others, 4)
Exactitude/Correctness, 5) Regularity/
Attentiveness, 6) Perseverance, and in
capital letters DISCIPLINE. The fact
that the women follow these rules so
religiously shows the value of their
support to the group. To these
women, the group "Blema-Alodo" is
not only their work it is their family.

The fourth corerr stone" of the
women's group and probably the
main reason for their success has been
the strong vision that the women
share to help the next generation of
their people, and their perseverance to
make their vision a reality.

For more information contact:
Mike Wiedel, PCV
Peace Corps
BP 3194
Lome, Togo

"Making Workshops Work"

Ideas can be presented in two day
workshops, but getting those ideas
put into action really depends on
"timely follow-up" which becomes
the key to making workshops work.
PCV/WID Coordinator, Jane Miller,
and her co-worker Glendora, didn't
waste any time in making follow-up
visits soon after a two-day workshop
on group-formation and income-
generation skills. They knew that it
was important to contact the
workshop participants in their
villages, assess how they could work
with them and schedule on-going
visits to implement the group
formation and income-generation
ideas initiated in the workshop.

Jane writes, "It looks like I'll be
working in three villages. One is a
Creole village (Ontario) on the
western highway. A couple of
women from there were at the
workshop, so we're trying to build a
women's group from that. So far we
have five solid members, but next
week we are having another meeting
which I think will be larger. They

Working in
groups is an
effective way
to share ideas
and find
have an idea to do a children's
kitchen at lunchtime for the children
who come from far away villages
with very little food for lunch, if

The second village is San Antonio.
It's a Mayan village eight miles from
San Ignacio. There's no transport
there, so we're only able to get there
one afternoon a week. We've had
two meetings so far about eleven
women a couple were at the
workshop also. This group is very
shy and used to leaving all decisions
in the hands of their husbands. It's a
tough group to work with, as so
many will not talk at all.

Photo by S. Reynolds

The third place is called San Jose
Succotz, another Mayan village.
This group does Mayan dances at
festival times and for other
performances. There's also a
woman's group there that had some
money from Opportunities for
Women. They bought a number of
sewing machines and supplies, made
a lot of clothes, and also
embroidered blouses, skirts and
dresses. When I went there, all of
their things were stuffed away in
cardboard boxes in the corner
hidden from view. They have a
perfect spot for a tourist stop, since
it's right by where the ferry takes
people to the ruins. They'd like to
have a little shop where they sell
their clothes and make some food to
sell. They have asked me to be the
coordinator of the group for the next
two years and to train one of them to
take over they need help in every
area: organization, planning,
marketing, bookkeeping, etc. So,
I'm going there three days a week
and things are moving along."

For more information contact:
Jane Miller, PCV
Peace Corps
P.O. Box 487
Belize City, Belize

Presentation of a business plan indicates both visible and hidden costs.

Participatory Training

Peace Corps WID Committee in
Ecuador organized and facilitated a
training workshop at the end of
September. Thirty-five PCVs and
their counterparts participated in the
seminar which was designed to
develop skills and expand the
resources for improving and
augmenting projects which involve
women in their communities.

Each Volunteer selected a
counterpart from his/her
community, and various socio-
economic levels in the country were
represented. The workshop served
as a bridge for projects among all
levels of Ecuadorian society. The
counterparts included both men and
women, national agency personnel,
small community and Campoo"
leaders, and all the ethnic groups of

The two-day workshop included the
"Women's Construction Collective"
video which demonstrated new
possibilities open to women and
indicated that jobs for women can
be non-traditional. Then small
groups were formed and each group
facilitated a technique for
participatory training to the entire
group. Included in the
presentations were puppets, mime
and skits.

Later, simultaneous workshops led
by PCVs were held on non-formal
education and group formation
(with emphasis on parent in-put),
small business projects, public
health and environmental issues.
Each participant chose one
workshop, and then shared their
experience and ideas from the
workshop with others.

Photo by D. Custard.

The daughter, mother and father puppets clearly conveyed the
message of the importance of education for girls. The audience
roared when an Ecuadorian man played the daughter puppet.

A presentation on increasing self-
confidence was led by a Volunteer
and her counterpart. They stressed
self-worth and emphasized the
enormous contributions made by
Ecuadorian women to their
communities. An Ecuadorian
Judge from the Superior Court,
Doctora Mariana Yepez advised
women of their legal rights on
issues of marriage, divorce, child
custody and workers'
compensation. At the conclusion
of the workshop, each participant
prepared and presented an
individual plan of action which
included four questions designed to
move ideas into action when they
returned home.

* What are two things you
learned from this conference?
How to clearly define goals and
how to recognize problems and
look for solutions. How to share
ideas and to emphasize the value of
women's work in the home and

* What will you do with this
information when you go back to
your communities?
Invite groups to work together and
discover the interests of the groups.
Better organize existing groups and
expand on the possibilities within

* When and how will you share
this information in your
Share these new ideas immediately
during regular meetings or by
initiating special charlas. Share
these new ideas soon and with
patience. Begin today by writing a
simple and short summary of what
was learned during the conference.

Math and Science ISTs

* What resources will you use to
share this information?
Drawings, puppets, socio-dramas,
flannel-boards and games. Sing
songs, tell stories and charlas. Call
upon the help of members of the
community. Ask for the help of the

The participants left the conference
enthusiastic and motivated about
the role of women in their
"machisto" culture. Men and
women alike discovered that
women play an important role in
every sector of the economy. By
calling upon women as a resource,
Ecuador will gain one of her richest

For more information contact:
Phyllis Hower
Donna Custard
WID Coordinators
Peace Corps
Ave. 6 de Diciembre 2269
Casilla 635 A
Quito, Ecuador

In-service workshops conducted by
Teachers College, Columbia
University in eleven Peace Corps
countries have emphasized the role of
women in mathematics and science.
Teachers College faculty Drs. Lisa
Evered and Eileen Donahue in
mathematics and Dr. Jean Lythcott in
science have conducted workshop
sessions designed to help Peace Corps
Volunteers and host country teachers
encourage their female students to
continue their study of mathematics
and science. In many cultures
mathematics and science are
considered to be male domains of
limited interest to and with few
opportunities for women. One
important goal of the Columbia
training sessions is to improve
sensitivity of male teachers to the
needs and interests of female students.
Sensitivity sessions feature panel
discussions and presentations by
successful female mathematicians and

The results of these workshops have
been surprisingly positive. Male host

country teachers express a "change
of heart" brought about by
recognition of female potential in
mathematics and science. Female
host country teachers have
benefitted from the opportunity to
address women's issues on an equal
footing with their male
counterparts. The Teachers College
workshop faculty believe that
training activities, particularly in
mathematics and science for host
country teachers and Peace Corps
Volunteers, should always include
some discussion of female inequity
in these important fields. In nations
critically short of personnel trained
in mathematics and science, the
potential contribution of able
women is priceless.

For more information contact:
Dr. Lisa Evered
Box 210
Teachers College
Columbia University
New York, NY 10027

Milestones of advocacy for women's equality
Women, more than ever, are on the global agenda, the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Devel-
as a result of 30 years of constant advocacy and pressure, opment, Peace. Agencies are asked to collect thorough
1946 The United Nations Commission on the Status statistical information on women for the first time.
of Women is formed to monitor the situation of women 1979 The United Nations General Assembly adopts
and promote women's rights around the world. the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimi-
1952 The Commission initiates the Convention on nation against Women.
the Political Rights of Women, the first global mandate to 1980 The World Conference on Women in
grant women equal political rights under the law-the Copenhagen adopts the Programme of Action for the
right to vote, hold office and exercise public functions. Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women:
1957 and 1962 Conventions initiated on the equality Equality, Development and Peace. Agencies are asked to
of married women, guaranteeing them equal rights in mar- prepare the most recent data and time-trend analyses on
riage and in dissolving marriage, the situation of women.
1967 Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination 1985 The Nairobi World Conference reviews
against Women. progress during the decade for women and adopts the
1975 International Women's Year. The World Confer- Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of
ence on Women in Mexico City proclaims 1976-1985 as Women.
Reprinted from United Nations The World's Women 1970 1990: Trends and Statistics, 1991.

Wavelengths Wavelengths Wavelengths


Costa Rica

"To educate a woman is to educate a
family and a nation." However, the
education of a woman entails keeping
her in school. Math and physics
teachers in Benin have found that
female students comprise 10-15% of
their student population with their
representation diminishing at each
successive level. Faced with the choice
of educating a son or a daughter, a
family typically chooses the son. This
is because he will remain in the family.

To begin to address this problem, the
Peace Corps Benin WID committee has
developed a scholarship program to aid
and encourage girls to stay in school.
With the support of an RPCV group in
Pittsburgh and a private donor, we gave
four need-based scholarships to
promising young women. We awarded
approximately $40 to cover costs of
school fees, uniforms and school
supplies. This alleviates some of the
burden of household tasks, thereby
allowing the student more time to
concentrate on her studies.

Next year we plan to expand our project
to ten scholarships. Also we will
encourage PCV teachers to hold year-
end celebrations for girls who have a
passing grade.

WID Benin is looking for new ideas
and projects to encourage school-age
girls to continue their formal education.

For more information contact:
Paul Stern, PCV
Peace Corps
B.P. 971
Cotonou, Benin

In the county of Puriscal, there are
many women's groups struggling
to develop small income-
generating projects. Throughout
Costa Rica the majority of pueblos
have an association of
development This organization,
complete with a board of directors,
is frequently male dominated.
They meet to make decisions
related to community issues and
development. In 1990 the Puriscal
women's group united, and for the
first time in history, an association
of development exclusively for and
by women was formed. This
facilitates networking of resources,
mutual marketing support and on-
going training courses.

Currently there are more than 6,000
members of ASONAGAF
(National Organization of
Affiliated Feminine Groups)
comprised of more than 150 groups
throughout the country. Their
charter is to eradicate the myth
related to women's professional
and personal growth and
development and to provide
ongoing support for creation and
development of small industries for
and by women.

While traditional projects and
women's roles are supported and
enhanced (such as bakeries,
handicrafts, etc.) the emphasis is
toward the less stereotypical
professions and image.
ASONAGAF offers such benefits
as a revolving credit fund, legal
services, counseling and education.
A presentation to the Puriscal
Association of Development was

scheduled. One of the questions
raised was, "Will you provide us
with classes in painting on fabric?"
The response, "No. The market is
pretty much saturated, though we
will help market the product if it
still exists. We will, however, help
find training for those that wish to
learn to run a tractor or
scholarships for those wishing to
be veterinarians." The Puriscal
Association is now affiliated, thus
broadening their networking
support, marketing possibilities,
and educational resources.

I was asked to facilitate a
Leadership Seminar Series for the
Board of Directors of
ASONAGAF. In August 1990, we
began, and later we obtained office
space for the creation of an
educational center.

The response to the seminars was
overwhelmingly positive. These
women came from all over the
country, some left their homes as
early as 5:00 a.m. for their long
commute, at first on foot, and then
on bus. The attendance is almost
always 100%. Our beginnings
were quite grassroots. The history
of the Board included frequent
conflicts and dispute. When the
subject of "confidentiality" was
introduced the response was
incredulous. It was carefully
explained to me that this alien
concept had no future in Costa
Rica. "Here, before you finish
telling it, it is in the streets!" After
much discussion they unanimously
agreed to try. A gradual change of
attitude began to come about
Communication began to open.
Trust emerged, and we were ready
to begin.

The pilot program was 10 weeks,
focusing on leadership,
organizational development, human
relations, problem resolution, stress
management and communications.
Some of the techniques used were
theater for development, sensitivity
training, speakers, mediation and
discussion groups. Each member
soon became responsible for the
conceptualization and presentation
of a segment.

For Phase II, our attendance had
grown considerably. The women
who had attended the pilot series
were teaching these skills in their
communities as quickly as they
could learn them, and I was
receiving requests to facilitate
groups in various parts of the
country, including a youth group.
Keenly aware of my approaching
COS, I began to interview Costa
Rican professors and professionals
and audit classes to identify those
that might continue what had
begun. We hired qualified
instructors to teach courses that
often lead to certification at
completion. The courses have
included: accounting, nutrition,
communication, yoga, teaching and
facilitation techniques, creative
conflict resolution, clothing design
and small business administration.

Many of the women have been
effusive in the statement of their
appreciation, some saying they
have long wished to attend the
University, but were unable due to
financial restraints. They never
imagined such an opportunity as
this would exist, and felt it to be
equivalent. The increase in self-
esteem and level of professional/
personal growth is evident to the

most casual observer.

We received a private donation
from a couple in Ohio. The
directive was that we were not to
use it for work, only recreation.
After due consideration, it was
decided we would hire a van and
the entire group would go to the
beach. Though this is a very small
country, some had never seen the
ocean. One woman's personal
dream of her lifetime was to see
the sun rise over the ocean. She
stayed up all night and wept when
it occurred, saying she never
imagined such a thing possible
while she was still in her 30's.

New courses are now beginning,
which include administrative law,
advanced accounting, public
speaking, advanced small business
administration, motivation and
legal rights.

It should be pointed out that while
this may indicate a certain level of
sophistication, the reality is that
without exception, these are poor
women. The majority are from
farming communities. With the
support of Peace Corps WID, these
women have been able to

It is good to know that we have
been provided with some tools and
enhancements that will be shared
with others in the future.

For more information contact:
Nancy Howard, RPCV
P.O. Box 481
Sunset Beach, CA 90742

The poster in this issue's centerpiece
comes to us from the National
Women's History Project.

On March 8th, 1908, thousands of
women, predominantly young,
immigrant women who worked in the
garment industry, gathered in New
York's lower east side to protest
against intolerable working
conditions, and to demand the right to
join the garment worker's union. The
demonstration was one of many
which occurred during this time as
conditions within the rapidly
expanding garment industry
deteriorated. It was not until the
tragic Triangle Shirtwaist fire of
1911, however, that national attention
was directed to the plight of working

At an international women's
conference in 1910, Clara Zetkin
proposed a resolution that March 8th
be declared a day of commemoration
- International Women's Day. Since
that time the day has been celebrated

National Women's History Month is
observed in March to incorporate this
date, emphasizing the importance of
women's roles as workers, and
acknowledging the international
connections among and between all

For more information contact:
National Women's History Project
7738 Bell Road
Windsor, CA 95492





Metro Metro Metro Metro Metro Metro

four regional Assemblies held in
In ternat io al Africa, West Asia/Arab world, Asia/
Women's Day Pacific and Latin America/

International Women's The success story presentations
Day, celebrated around the showed that women, based on their
world on March 8th experiences, roles, and skills, have
r n specific and valuable contributions
recognizes the important to make on issues related to the
contributions women have environment which are being
made in their communities addressed by the United Nations
and countries. Peace Corps Conference on Environment and
Volunteers worldwide have Development (UNCED). They also
demonstrated that the global
marked the dayl in their resolution of environmental issues
communities with festivals, and the advancement of
workshops, parades, environmental management requires
seminars and other the involvement of women.
activities to raise the
The next step will be for each nation
awareness of the importance of the world to hold a National
of women's work. Assembly of Women and the
Environment in their own countries.
Circle the date on your
Crclenda. Find on your For more information contact:
calendar. Find out how Waafas Ofosu-Amaah
your country celebrates Global Assembly
1 WD and start to make Project Director
your plans. Please let us 1331 H Street, NW
know how we can help. Suite 903
_Washington, DC 20005

Global Assembly
WID Annual

The Global Assembly of Women and
the Environment met in Miami,
Florida from 4 8 November to
address the global issues of water,
waste, energy and environmentally-
friendly systems, products and
technologies. During the Assembly,
218 successful grassroots projects,
concerned with these issues were
presented by women from all regions
of the world. The Global Assembly
also received the conclusions of the


The first Peace Corps Women in
Development annual report was
published last fall and has been sent
to all Peace Corps countries. The
purpose of the report was to review
the activities and assess the
accomplishments of the Women in
Development office during 1989-90.
Highlights of the report include

activities of WID Committees
worldwide as well as workshops
facilitated by Volunteers for women
in their communities.

Additionally, the report highlighted
International Women's Day (March
8) activities worldwide, Women's
History Month (March) activities and
collaborative efforts with other
agencies, PVOs and NGOs.

Gender Analysis


Gender Analysis is a methodology
used to identify the roles and
responsibilities of men and women.
By understanding who does which
tasks, who earns cash or other forms
of income, who spends money, and
who makes the decisions and has
access to productive resources,
development projects can more
effectively target activities to meet
project goals.

Gender Analysis is an integrated
approach, examining how four
factors labor, income, expenditure
patterns and resources of men and
women affect household production
and consumption. The factors can be
used together or separately,
according to the demands of the
production problem.

The Gender Analysis video
demonstrates this methodology. A
copy of the video has been sent to
each Peace Corps country and can be
a valuable tool for pre-service

Childbirth, without frills

ByEileen Tugum

C OLD, frightened, and writhing
in pain Mary died in the jungle
in a remote part of Papua New
Alone, exhausted, in desperate need of
help, she clung to a sapling and died with
her unborn baby stuck between her legs.
Her family buried her without cer-
emony the next day. Her sin: she had got
pregnant outside of marriage. Shunned
by the village, ashamed, and fearful, she
had tried to deliver her baby herself.
In the same area another woman also
died in childbirth. She had complained
of pain and confided to women relatives
of stench and discharges. But in a society
that doesn't talk about these things the
problem was not brought to health
workers' attention. She died.
Even if it could have been talked
about, the nearest health centre was a
day's walk through rugged country.
A trainee health extension
officer on leave delivered the
child. It had been dead for some
time. The infant's skin was
peeling off. The woman's family
had to put on a big party to
compensate the man who had
broken tradition and cultural
taboos to deliver the child.
Over 1000 women in Papua
New Guinea are reported to die
annually from problems related
to childbirth but only about
one in 10 maternal deaths are
estimated to be reported.
Some studies say the most
immediate cause is lack of care.
However, they say social and
cultural factors usually underlie
biological and physical reasons.
These include poverty, ignor-
ance, isolation, poor nutrition,
overwork or heavy workload, no ..
family planning (many .
pregnancies, or closely spaced -"
children), violence based on lack .
of respect between partners,
inaccessibility of health services,
cultural food taboos, and cul-
tural attitudes to women and
their role and childbearing.
Studies say many of these are
related to low status of women.
The good news is that the
health and welfare of PNG
women has finally gained a
national focus, as at the 19th
Waigani Seminar inJune in Port
Moresby. About 100 men and WoImnl
women representing women's often cu
leaders, health workers, policy

makers, project planners and educators
attended the one-day meeting the
culmination of a four-year project focus-
ing on the status of women's health.
The meeting looked at the issue under
the sub-topics of education, social and
cultural issues, health services and gen-
eric issues which were seen as contribu-
ting to women's health. The aim was
identifying major barriers and develop-
ing strategies and projects.
For education and literacy there was
a call to carry out a mass campaign to
change community attitudes to women
and their role, including sensitising men
on women's issue and educating them to
share responsibilities. There was a call to
set up village reading programs and
village resource centres, and for efforts to
improve the status of women at the
national level through lobbying and
boosting their role in decision-making.
There was a call for updating health
worker curriculum, training more female
workers, strengthening women's organis-

In remote area: bearing children in geographical,
ltural isolation

nations on the local level, as well as the
Women's Division which would be made
its own Ministry.
Participants stressed that women's
health was very important it was the
key to the health of her children and
Group discussions revealed that de-
spite a shortage of resources in specific
areas such as health services, there are
general financial and human resources
available. What is missing is coordi-
nation of efforts and integration of
programs within existing projects. They
said a coordinating body should be
established to ensure ideas are implemen-
ted, not put in a document and forgotten.
The Departments of Health, Home
Affairs and Youth, Education, Finance
and Planning and donor agencies at the
meeting gave their commitment to mak-
ing the ideas a reality.
A meeting will be organised to follow
through the call to establish a coordinat-
ing body and set up future directions.
The Prime Minister's wife and Patron
of the 19th Waigani Seminar, Margaret
Nakikus, in her address said the current
health situation of women is "unaccept-
able and must change".
She said the country had seen
some major improvements in
some health indicators, for ex-
ample infant and child mortality
rates have been decreasing, but
the same cannot be said for
women's health. "In fact there
are indications that the situation
is worsening," she said.
She pointed out that:
Papua New Guinea women
today make up 47 per cent of the
country's population;
43 per cent of them are in
the child-bearing years of 15-44;
and on average each will bear
5.4 children;

each stands a lifetime
chance of one in 26 of dying
during a pregnancies;
access to family planning is
limited and less than 3 per cent
are using it.
According to Acting Secretary
for Home Affairs and Youth
Clant Alok: "What we need is
commitment to the overall status
of women. We need not only to
identify factors affecting the
health of women and develop
strategies and projects to address
these barriers, but to give human
and financial support."
Otherwise the bright ideas
will just remain bright ideas, and
the status of women's health will
not improve. O

Reprinted with permission of Pacific Islands Monthly, November 1991.

Resources Resources Resources Resources


The United Nations International
Research and Training Institute for
the Advancement of Women
(INSTRAW) serves to undertake
research and training activities that
will make clear the best ways of
involving women in the development
process, especially in developing

INSTRAW researches projects to
identify barriers to progress for
women; undertakes statistical work to
encourage and help others improve
official statistics everywhere in order
to make the facts about women
visible; and to facilitate training to
show how to include women at every
level of decision making and to create
a true and effective partnership in
world development.

For more information contact:
Margaret Shields, Director
Culle Cesar Nicolas
Penson No. 102-A
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

The Midwest Women's History
Center is collaborating with the
American Association for
International Aging to collect
materials on the life experiences of
grandmothers in Asia, Africa and
Latin America. Areas of focus
include the roles grandmothers play in
their families and communities,
economic conditions and
contributions of grandmothers, how
different family configurations effect
grandmothers and what causes them
joy and/or difficulty. Project
coordinators will use the information
gathered to create a curriculum unit
on the cross-cultural experiences of

grandmothers that will be appropriate
for many educational settings, but
particularly for use with older U.S.

For more information contact:
Susan Hill Gross
Upper Midwest Women's History
6300 Walker Street
St. Louis Park, MN 55416

The Urban Child Program at
UNICEF is interested in learning
about any projects in which children
or youth (up to 18) were involved.
Examples could include participation
in community development projects,
primary health initiatives,
environmental projects, etc. Please
include title of project, brief
description, age and sex of children
involved, photographs, if available,
and contact person.

For more information contact:
"Child and Youth Participation"
UNICEF International Child
Development Centre
Piazza SS. Annunziata 12
50122 Firenze, Italy

The Habitat International Coalition
(HIC) Women and Shelter Network
requests that women professionals
with experience in the field of human
settlements and sustainable
development send their curriculum
vitas so they might be included in a

For more information contact:
Women and Shelter Network
P.O. Box 14564
Nairobi, Kenya

Pakhribas Agricultural Centre is an
agricultural, livestock and forestry

research institution which undertakes
an intensive program of research,
training and other inter-disciplinary
activities aimed at improving the
quality of life in the eastern hill
region of Nepal. The center
introduces and develops technologies
suitable for the local environment and
helps farmers raise their standard of
living through increased sustainable

For more information contact:
Pakhribas Agricultural Centre
c/o BTCO
P.O. Box 106
Kathmandu, Nepal

The College of Agriculture and
Natural Resources of Africa will
open in 1992 and will be located west
of Mutare in Zimbabwe. The mission
of the college is to recognize the
importance of the environment. The
college will offer a four year bachelor
of science degree with main course
areas of: natural resource, rural
development, food and human
nutrition, agricultural education,
agronomy, animal science,
agricultural mechanization and
agricultural economics.

For more information contact:
Dr. John W.Z. Kurewa
Africa University
P.B. P7024
Old Mutare

Realizing the Rights of Women in
Development requests papers from
writers in developing countries.
Papers should examine progress and
constraints in particular situations by
case studies or examine strategies
which help generate knowledge about

rights and the power to assess and
secure them.

For more information contact:
Rebecca Cook
Faculty of Law
University of Toronto
78 Queen's Park Cresent
Toronto, Ontario
M5S 2C5, Canada

The African Research and
Educational Puppetry Programme
(AREPP) is a non-profit educational
trust providing educational puppet
theatre and training workshops for
people in southern Africa. Puppet
theatre can be an effective education
tool with unique potential to bridge
racial, cultural, language and
education barriers.

For more information contact:
P.O. Box 51022
Johannesburg, South Africa

The Computer Networking Project
is presently working to establish an
international computer network of
women doing research on issues
affecting women in the Third World.
The purpose of the network is to share
information and resources via
electronic mail and to collectively
produce working papers to be
published and distributed by the
project. The network is part of the
PeaceNet electronic mail system and
will also be linked to the national
university system (BITNET) and
other international communications
networks. If you would like to
communicate with PeaceNet, their
User I.D. is TWWP.

Grants and


The Global Fund for Women
offers grants to groups concerned
with women's rights, violence
against women, legal literacy, media
images of women and access to
communications technology.

For more information contact:
The Global Fund for Women
2400 Sand Hill Road # 201
Menlo Park, CA 94025

The Inter-American Foundation
Fellowship Program supports
development practitioners and
applied researchers from the
Caribbean, Latin America and the
United States whose research and
career interests concern grassroots
development activities among the
poor. Fellowships are available for
"Field Research at the Master's
Level," "Field Research at the
Doctoral Level," the "Dante B.
Fascell Program" and "U.S.
Graduate Study Program for Latin
America and the Caribbean."

For more information contact:
IAF Fellowship Programs
P.O. Box 9486
Arlington, VA 22219-0486

The Spring Foundation will award
grants of up to US $5,000 to Ph.D
candidates and postdoctoral students
doing research on the resiliency of
women specifically, women's
strengths in the face of adversity.

For more information contact:
The Spring Foundation
316 El Verano Avenue
Palo Alto, CA 94306

National Endowment for the
Humanities offers grants of US
$750 to defray such research
expenses as transportation,
subsistence and lodging.

For more information contact:
Travel to Collections Program
Division of Fellowships and
Room 316
National Endowment for the
1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20506

Institute of Current World Affairs
has three fellowships available to
live and study outside the United
States for two years and to provide
formal or informal written reports of
their activities or findings at least
once a month.

For more information contact:
Institute of Current World Affairs
The Crane-Rogers Foundation
4 West Wheelock Street
Hanover, NH 03755

The Margaret McNamara
Memorial Fund provides
scholarship support for women from
Southern countries who are enrolled
in an accredited educational
institution in the USA and plan to
return to their countries within two
years from the date of the grant.
Recipients must be in a program to
improve the lives of women and
children in countries of the South.

For more information contact:
Margaret McNamara Memorial
World Bank
1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433

The WHO Safe Motherhood
Operational Research (SMOR)
Program is offering research funding
for government and nongovernmental
organizations in developing countries.
Up to US $40,000 is available for
each project or phase of a project,
which identifies an opportunity to
improve and extend existing services
using available technology.

For more information contact:
Maternal Health and Safe
Motherhood Research Program
Division of Family Health, WHO
1211 Geneva 27


Resources for Development
Education has annotations of the
latest print and non-print materials in
development education. This 155
page directory describes materials,
theme, goal, potential audience, point
of view and geographic focus. US

For more information contact:
Abby Barasch
National Clearinghouse on
Development Education
American Forum for Global
45 John Street
Suite 1200
New York, NY 10038

WorldWIDE Directory of Women
in Environment is now available. It
lists names, addresses and interests of
women who participate in
WorldWIDE's international network.
187 pages.

For more information contact:
P.O. Box 40885
Washington, DC 20016

COSAW Bulletin, an occasional
publication of the Committee on
South Asian Women, publishes
essays, reports, interviews, reviews
and creative works by and about
South American women on their
struggles and achievements in South

For more information contact:
Jyotsna Vaid
COSAW Bulletin
Department of Psychology
Texas A & M University
College Station, TX 77843

Zimbabwe Women's Bureau
Newsletter, published in English,
Shona and Ndebele, focuses on issues
of importance to grassroots groups
including projects, summaries of
meetings and conferences, and notes
on legal questions and economic

For more information contact:
Zimbabwe Women's Bureau
43 Hillside Road
Cranborne, Harare

Contemporary Issues for Women in
Latin America is a complete four-
part instructional unit for secondary-
to undergraduate-level students
focusing on women in contemporary
Latin America and the Caribbean.
Focus is on women in the family,
work and empowerment. For
example, Marianismo and machismo
as ideals of female and male behavior
are considered. The importance of
women's work to families is

demonstrated. The growing
importance of women as leaders in
political protest movements is
highlighted. Women forming
cooperatives and other organizations
to work for economic and social
change are discussed. Readings,
statistics and participatory exercises
engage students in open-ended
discussions of women and the family,
work and empowerment.

For more information contact:
Susan Hill Gross
Upper Midwest Women's History
6300 Walker Street
St. Louis Park, MN 55416

The Global Empowerment of
Women is a report of the Association
of Women in Development's biennial
international conference on how to
organize grassroots participation and
to link research and action in order to
strengthen women's role in politics
and the economy.

For more information contact:
AWID Office of Women's Programs
10 Sandy Hall
Virginia Tech
Blacksburg, VA 24061

The WORDOC Newsletter,
published twice yearly, includes items
on food, energy and debt crises in

For more information contact:
Women's Research and
Documentation Centre
Institute of African Studies
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria

Conferences and


"EcoPublic Forum"
March 1992
Geneva, Switzerland

For more information contact:
Centre for Our Common Future
52 Rue des Paquis
1201 Geneva, Switzerland

"The 2nd Asian Women's
April 2 12, 1992

For more information contact:
Kumiko Funabashi
The Asian Women's Conference
Organizing Committee
22-17 Nishikubo-cho
Tokiwa Daira
Chiba-ken 270, Japan

"Workshop on Industrialization and
Women's Health"
April 15 17, 1992
Singapore, Republic of Singapore

For more information contact:
Singapore Council of Women's
11 Penang Lane
#05-01 Singapore 0923

"First World Congress on Tourism
& Environment"
April 27 May 1, 1992
Belmopan, Belize

For more information contact:
Ministry of Tourism & Environment
19 Mayflower Street
Belmopan, Belize

"Women and Housing Needs:
International Symposium"
May 2 8, 1992
Calcutta, India

For more information contact:
Women's Development Unit
Indian Institute of Human
120- A
Sri Aurobindo Road
Konnagar, West Bengal
712 235 India

"World Conference on
Environment and Development"
June 1 12, 1992
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

For more information contact:
Secretariat, UNCED
Case postal 80
Conches, Geneva

"92 Global Forum"
June 2 8, 1992
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

For more information contact:
92 Global Forum
Hotel Gloria
Predio Anexo
Sala 366
Rua do Russel 632
22212 Rio de Janeiro

"Women's History Workshops"
June 22 25 and August 3 6,
Sonoma County, California

For more information contact:
National Women's History Project
7738 Bell Road
Windsor, CA 95492

"5th International and Inter-
disciplinary Congress on Women"
February 1993
San Jose, Costa Rica

For more information contact:
Mirta Gonzalex-Suarez
School of Psychology/PRIEG
Universidad de Costa Rica
San Jose, Costa Rica

"Global Forum on Environmental
and Development Education"
September 24 28, 1993
New Delhi, India

For more information contact:
Dr. Desh Bandhu, President
Indian Environmental Society
U-112 (3rd Floor), Vikas Marg
Delhi-110092, India

Peace Corps Volunteers
and Staff if you are
interested in facilitating
a workshop or seminar
third or fourth quarter
for women in your
community to transfer
technical skills or human
resource development
skills, please send your
proposal through your
APCD/CD to Barbara
Ferris, WID
Coordinator. We want
to help you in any way

The Exchange is published quarterly by Women in Development, Office of Training and Program Support, Peace Corps
of the United States, for distribution to Peace Corps Volunteers and Staff. All opinions expressed are those of the editor
and individual writers and not necessarily those of OTAPS or the Peace Corps.

Editor/Writer..................................... Barbara Ferris, WID Coordinator
Technical Assistant......................... Erin Masson, OTAPS Technician

Express Yourself

This is YOUR page! Don't be shy use it to contribute, comment, exchange, suggest, aspire, network and request. Or
tell us what's happening with WID in your country that you would like to share with others. Tell us the great success
stories what works, what doesn't. We love mail! Please be sure when you tell us about your project, you give a
location and an address. Thanks. Cheers.

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