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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Purpose of the paper
 Overview of the FAO gender analysis...
 Lessons learned: Reflections on...
 FAO's contribution to gender analysis...
 Conclusions
 Bibliography














Title: Gender Analysis Workshops for Professional Staff : FAO's mid-term review of lessons learned
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Title: Gender Analysis Workshops for Professional Staff : FAO's mid-term review of lessons learned
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Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
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Publication Date: 1991
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Purpose of the paper
        Page 1
    Overview of the FAO gender analysis training programme
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Lessons learned: Reflections on the FAO study
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    FAO's contribution to gender analysis training
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Conclusions
        Page 22
    Bibliography
        Page 23
Full Text

GENDER ANALYSIS WORKSHOPS FOR PROFESSIONAL STAFF:

FAO'S MID-TERM REVIEW OF LESSONS LEARNED


Working Paper Series No. 7


By

Patricia Howard-Borjas, Training and Programme Officer, ESHW
Marilee Karl, Consultant to ESHW
Anita Spring, Service Chief, ESHW


Preliminary Draft Prepared for the
Conference on "Gender Training and
Development Planning: Learning from Experience"








Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS


Rome, May 1991


MERGE
489





CONTENTS

Page

A. PURPOSE OF THE PAPER . . . . . . . 1

B. OVERVIEW OF THE FAO GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING
PROGRAMME . . . ..... . . . 2

C. LESSONS LEARNED: REFLECTIONS ON THE FAO STUDY,
"TRAINING IN WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT/GENDER
ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW
OF EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS LEARNED" . . . 5

1. Institutional Support for the Training
Programme . . . . . . . . 5

2. Trainers . . . .. . . . . 7

3. Training Tools . . . . . . . 11

D. FAO'S CONTRIBUTION TO GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING 15

1. Project Analysis . . . . . . .. .15

2. Applying Gender Analysis in the Project
Cycle . . .. . . . . . ... 16

3. Evaluation . . . . . . . ... .20

E. CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . 22

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . .. 23






GENDER ANALYSIS WORKSHOPS FOR PROFESSIONAL STAFF:
FAO'S MID-TERM REVIEW OF LESSONS LEARNED



A. PURPOSE OF THE PAPER

FAO is in the process of implementing a comprehensive Training
Programme in Gender Analysis in accordance with the mandate of its
recently developed Plan of Action for Integration of Women in
Development that was approved by the FAO Council in 1988 and by the
FAO Conference in 1989. Before developing the programme, a study
was commissioned to survey, assess and compare the experiences of
selected institutions in training their staff in Women in Devel-
opment/Gender Analysis (Poats and Russo 1990). Its objectives were
to:

identify the most relevant training experiences and mater-
ials concerning WID and gender analysis in agricultural research
and development, and

identify the lessons learned from these experiences as well
as delineate gaps in the experiences and in existing training
materials.

At mid-point in the implementation of its Gender Analysis
Training Programme, both at Headquarters and in Regional Offices,
the Women in Agriculture and Rural Development Service (ESHW) is
reviewing here the original recommendations made by Poats and Russo
in light of its own experience. These authors drew fourteen key
lessons on training in WID/gender analysis from the experiences of
other institutions. In this paper, these lessons are grouped to-
gether under three categories: institutional support, trainers, and
tools. This paper discusses the lessons learned and identifies the
contributions made by FAO to gender analysis training at the mid-
term.








B. OVERVIEW OF THE FAO GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING PROGRAMME

The FAO Gender Analysis Training Programme foresees the train-
ing of approximately 1000 professional staff at Headquarters, Re-
gional and Country Offices over the 1990-91 biennium. Its
objectives are to: a) sensitize FAO staff to women in development
(WID) issues; b) introduce the gender analysis approach in policy
formulation and planning; and c) develop participants' skills to
permit them to integrate gender considerations in the design,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of FAO's Regular Pro-
gramme and Field Projects.

WID is one of FAO's nine priority issues. Along with the Plan
of Action's unanimous approval by the FAO's governing bodies, there
was also a Council Resolution to draw up a two-year training pro-
gramme for professional staff as a part of its implementation. The
Women in Agricultural and Rural Development Service (ESHW) was is
responsible for coordinating the implementation of the Plan of
Action, and developed seven priorities that were delineated in the
Progress Report on the Implementation of the Plan of Action for
Integration of Women in Development (1989). The training programme
for FAO professional staff members is the first priority.

To carry this out, the design of the training programme was
preceded by a thorough assessment of FAO's needs, resources, and
constraints. Three independent inputs were provided: one by Russo
and Walecka of Tropical Research and Development, Inc. (1988); one
by Chaney (1989), consultant to ESHW; and one by Appel, et.al.,
from the Netherlands (1989). In addition, the review of the WID
training experiences of United Nations agencies, bilateral agencies
and other institutions referred to above was carried out by Poats
and Russo (1990). These studies provided FAO with the broad guide-
lines for the development of its programme.

Second, a series of three pilot workshops was held. The pur-
pose of the pilot workshops, each with different perspectives,
methods and tools for gender analysis, was to test and evaluate
which approaches would be the most relevant and useful for FAO
staff. The approaches that worked well in other settings were
tested in the FAO context and the most useful items were selected.
The first, carried out by two British trainers from the London
School of Economics, focused on gender issues in development plan-
ning. The second, carried out by two trainers from Tropical Re-
search and Development, Inc. in the USA, had a strong agricultural
focus, and was entitled "Gender Issues in Farming Systems". The
third pilot workshop, carried out by two Canadians who had helped
to train staff at the Canadian International Development Agency,
was entitled "Gender Analysis: A Framework for Enhancing Project
Success."






On the basis of these pilot workshops, it was determined that
FAO needed to develop its own gender analysis materials and tools
for its training programme. It was decided to adapt a version of
the analytical framework for WID/gender analysis developed by the
Harvard University team of Overholt, Anderson, Cloud and Austin
(1985). It was also determined that the programme would consist of
a series of two-day workshops with approximately 20 participants
each, and that two co-trainers would be needed for each workshop.

FAO adopted the case study method which is highly participa-
tory, in which the gender analysis framework is applied to two case
studies by participants working in small groups. Small group
reporters relate their conclusions to the plenary in sessions where
participants have an opportunity to enrich their findings, debate
the issues and reach consensus.

FAO has developed a series of materials for use in its work-
shops, including: a slide presentation introducing the workshop's
objectives and the participatory case study methodology employed;
a slide presentation of the gender analysis framework and related
tools; a series of case studies based on FAO projects; tools for
applying the gender analysis framework, consisting of worksheets
and study guidelines for the "Activity Profile", the "Resources/
Benefits Profile" and the "Development Constraints Analysis"; a
series of mini-case studies on applying gender analysis in differ-
ent phases of the project cycle; and participant evaluation forms.

Thus far, 11 case studies have been developed and cover a wide
range of countries and technical areas: Community Forestry, Thai-
land; Agricultural Sector Review, Vietnam; Integrated Dairy Devel-
opment, Ecuador (in English and Spanish); Natural Resource Manage-
ment, Mali; Small-Scale Coastal Fisheries Development, ASEAN Coun-
tries; Weed Control, The Gambia; Livestock Production, Turkey;
Water Supply, Guatemala (in Spanish); Agricultural Sector Review,
Burundi (in French); and Post-Harvest Storage, Benin (in French).

A video on the Gender Analysis Workshops has also been pro-
duced to present the objectives and methodology of the workshops
and to explain the benefits of incorporating gender analysis.

At mid-point in the two-year programme, approximately 500
professional staff have been trained. In addition to the three
pilot workshops, 24 workshops have been held at FAO Headquarters:
20 in English, two in Spanish and two in French. Two workshops in
Spanish have also been held at the FAO Regional Office for Latin
America and the Carribean in Santiago, Chile, and two were held in
English at the FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific in
Bangkok, Thailand. Plans have been made to hold workshops in the
FAO Regional Offices for Africa and the Near East. Two one-day
Gender Analysis Workshops for senior management have also been
programmed.




4

Besides the Gender Analysis Training Programme, two com-
plementary efforts connected to other on-going FAO training acti-
vities have been carried out. The Staff Development Group in col-
laboration with ESHW has revised the Project Formulation Course
given approximately six times per year at FAO, to make specific
reference to gender issues in the project cycle. A module on WID
had been added to a course for National Project Directors given
several times per year in English and French. Additionally, a
monthly seminar series on women in agriculture serves to provide
information on current WID topics.




5


C. LESSONS LEARNED: REFLECTIONS ON THE FAO STUDY, "TRAINING IN
WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT/GENDER ANALYSIS IN AGRICULTURAL DEVEL-
OPMENT: A REVIEW OF EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS LEARNED"


FAO has identified three cornerstones of a successful gender
analysis training programme: institutional support, trainers, and
tools. This section recapitulates the Poats and Russo conclusions
with respect to lessons.learned in these areas, and reflects on the
FAO experience to date.


1. Institutional Support for the Training Programme

As part of their examination of lessons learned, Poats and
Russo wrote that, in order to assure success of a training pro-
gramme,

There must be an explicit mandate for WID/gender training
from the top of the organization. This mandate must be
clearly communicated to all of the various units of the
institution...the directors and administrators of the in-
stitution must attend the training...They...need to make
a statement by their presence that this training is in-
deed important to the institution as a whole (p. 32).

As was pointed out, the training programme was mandated by
resolutions of the FAO Council and Conference, and the subject of
WID is one of nine priorities of the Organization. The training
programme is currently the only type of training that is mandatory
for all professional staff at Headquarters and in the Regional Of-
fices. Special budgetary support has been provided to the coordi-
nating unit (ESHW) for this purpose.

FAO's experience is that while an explicit mandate for WID/
gender training from the top of the organization is essential to
the success of training, it is not sufficient to ensure smooth
programming of participation of staff in the programme. Senior
management must be fully convinced of the need for training, since
they must cooperate to achieve participation of their staff
members.

Strategies have therefore been developed to promote awareness
of the benefits of workshop participation. A video on the Workshops
has been produced for promotional purposes. In addition, two spe-
cial one-day workshops are being developed for senior management
with the following objectives: a) to inform them of the contents of
the courses so that they may oversee their staff's activities and
discuss the issues that arise in implementation; b)-to assure that
they support and encourage the attendance of their staff in the
workshops; and c) to permit them to understand better the need to






address WID aspects in policy issues and in other areas according
to the Plan of Action.

Other mechanisms have been established to ensure high levels
of participation in each workshop. A crucial step has been the
computerization of lists of eligible staff by division which per-
mits better follow-up. Follow-up on scheduling of participants is
now being carried out by the Office of the Director General, rather
than by the WID-coordinating unit. This underlines the fact that
the training programme, is a mandate for the Organization as a
whole.

Due to the decentralization of FAO's programmes at the region-
al level, it was also found that the organization of the training
workshops in the Regional Offices require a prior visit on the part
of a senior-level headquarters staff person. Efforts are made to
assure that a) regional senior management is fully cognizant of the
benefits of training; b) regional staff schedules are adjusted to
permit 100% attendance; c) special needs of the Regional Offices
are identified and the courses adapted to these; and d) logistical
arrangements are made well in advance. Some of the WID Focal Points
in the Regional Offices have been brought to Headquarters in ad-
vance to participate in workshops and to become familiar with the
format. These Regional WID Focal Points have then carried out much
of the preparatory work for workshops in their offices.

Generating adequate support for gender analysis training with-
in the institution also depends upon the way that the programme is
introduced to staff members. Two aspects should be carefully add-
ressed: The programme design should respond to the perceived needs
of the institution, and the most receptive staff should be sche-
duled to participate in the initial workshops.

The study commission by FAO noted that,

Selection of participants is crucial to a successful
training course or programme. Consideration of who should
attend the first training activity, what organizational
units and levels) they should represent, and how they
will be encouraged to attend is one of the most important
steps in the organization of training on WID/gender
analysis (Poats and Russo, p. 35).

The FAO training programme includes the training of all pro-
fessionals in Headquarters and the Regional Offices except those
whose duties do not touch in any way on programming aspects, i.e.,
finance, audit, administrative, computer and security personnel. In
discussions with the various technical units, it was agreed that
those concerned with the project cycle and the formulation of pol-
icy advice to Member Governments would be given first priority in
training: most of this category of staff was covered in the first
six months of the training programme.







The FAO experience has confirmed that selecting staff members
with an interest in WID/gender issues to participate in pilot work-
shops and in the first few months of the training programme helps
ensure success and provides useful feedback for improving future
workshops. Since participation in the second and third pilots and
in several of the first few regular workshops occurred basically on
a volunteer basis, most of these participants were already con-
vinced of the benefits of gender analysis. This created a critical
mass within the Organization which helped achieve acceptance of the
Training Programme. Their feedback made it possible to refine the
methodology and to select the most useful case studies for later
workshops, whose participants tend to be less convinced of the need
for the workshops and who tend to take the course only because they
are required to do so. The "good reputation" of the programme,
which was earned in the early stages, helped demonstrate to the
remaining staff that participation is beneficial.

Although it was originally thought that it would be desirable
to tailor the workshops to the specific needs of each technical
division or professional level, this would be very costly in a
complex organization such as the FAO that has many different tech-
nical areas of specialization. It was therefore decided that the
workshops would include a mix of participants of different profess-
ional levels and areas of technical expertise; this mix has proven
to be a positive aspect of the programme. The opportunity for
multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural discussions is appreciated by
the participants, since bringing together professionals from the
social sciences and technical specializations broadens the perspec-
tive of participants. It helps those who have had little previous
exposure to social issues in general or to project, programme, and
policy analysis to become aware of the relevance of gender issues.
This multi-disciplinary atmosphere makes participants more willing
to hear different opinions and learn from each other.

One drawback of this mix of technical areas in the workshops
is that it is not possible to demonstrate the applicability of
gender analysis in every technical area, although participants are
shown that the framework may be applied to a wide variety of con-
texts and across regions.


2. Trainers

A second cornerstone of a successful gender analysis training
programme is a good team of trainers. Establishing a team of train-
ers with the necessary qualifications and preparation requires sig-
nificant institutional support. The Poats and Russo study recommen-
ded the following:

...Someone from within the institution needs to have
full-time responsibility for training...While consul-






tants are routinely used by institutions to conduct WID/
gender training, they need to work with someone from
within the institution as a partner in the activity in
order to provide content and continuity to the train-
ing...(p. 32).

FAO's experience confirms that an ambitious gender analysis
training programme needs at least one full-time staff member. The
programme included provisions for two full-time trainers. Both need
strong WID/gender professional experience to manage it, and it has
been under the supervision of the Service Chief of ESHW. Having a
full-time training coordinator or head trainer in a regular post
has proven to be important. This Coordinator provides continuity
and plays an important role in briefing and training consultants
who serve as co-trainers in the programme. The Coordinator also su-
pervises and coordinates workshop logistics.

Further, there must be clarity from the beginning as to the
qualifications and preparation required for trainers. The FAO study
showed that:

WID/gender training must be managed and backstopped by
strong, qualified professionals...Briefing in all areas
of agriculture is necessary for trainers to be able to
field technical questions as related to women and gender.
Trainers need to have recognized research and development
experience that will generate respect for them among
their non-Wid colleagues (Poats and Russo p. 32).

FAO found that the ideal training team consists of a man and
a woman from a developed and a developing country. This is not al-
ways possible to achieve, and teams composed in other ways are ac-
ceptable, if these meet all other qualifications.

FAO has identified the following as the necessary qualifica-
tions for trainers: expertise in rural development and experience
in project formulation; expertise in WID/gender issues; capacity to
grasp the training methodology; and a high-level of self-confi-
dence. FAO has found that expertise in WID/gender issues is more
important than previous training experience.

Recruiting such a team is a time-consuming task due to the
difficulties pointed out by the Poats and Russo study:


The lack of a sufficiently large pool of qualified train-
ers means that they are not always available to service
the initial or on-going needs for training within an in-
stitution. One alternative is training staff of the
institution while another alternative is training consul-
tants who are then contracted over a relatively long per-
iod of time (p. 33).






FAO has found that those who have participated in the training
programme generally fall into one of two categories: WID/gender
experts or those who are trainers specialized in some other area of
development. It has been found that it is easier to train WID/
gender experts to become trainers than for trainers in other areas
to achieve the understanding and expertise in WID/gender issues re-
quired to carry out the workshops. In any case, some form of train-
ing of trainers (TOT) is required to adapt trainers to the FAO Pro-
gramme.

The FAO training programme includes some sessions on TOT which
strengthen training skills. Sessions focus on the roles of train-
ers, presentation skills, de-briefing skills, and detailed analyses
of the gender analysis workshop materials. Role playing sessions,
where trainers practice presentations and debriefings with col-
leagues, are video-taped to provide feedback to the trainers and to
help ESHW evaluate their skills. In the first year of the Pro-
gramme, FAO's lead trainers were consultants with WID/gender ex-
pertise who originally had little training experience. It was found
that between three weeks and two months of TOT and workshop exper-
ience is required before trainers can begin training on their own.

People from within the institution could be gender analysis
trainers, but it was not possible to take FAO staff away from their
current job responsibilities for the amount of time required for
the programme. The FAO experience underlines the need to develop an
international roster of qualified or potential trainers.

A new lesson FAO has learned is the importance of the role of
the small group facilitator, because a major part of the workshop's
time is spent in small group work. This was not foreseen in the
initial design of the programme, and initially the small groups
were not assigned facilitators, but were asked to select their own
chairperson. It soon became apparent, however, that a considerable
amount of time was spent deciding on how to begin small group work.
The groups often did not have a thorough grasp of how to apply the
gender analysis tools to the case study materials and required
guidance in using these tools; groups also sometimes become side-
tracked in discussions not directly related to the task at hand.

It was therefore decided to appoint a facilitator for each
small group who is not a workshop participant. The facilitator's
role is to guide the group in applying the gender analysis tools,
to answer any questions having to do with the methodology and to
manage the time allocated.

Arranging for three to four facilitators per workshop does
present some difficulties. ESHW staff, consultants, former parti-
cipants and even trainers have been facilitators in past workshops.
Experience has shown that past workshop participants who are con-
vinced of the usefulness of the gender analysis methodology are
often effective facilitators.







Facilitators must be convinced of the benefits of applying
gender analysis, have a thorough grasp of the methodology and the
content of the case study material and have skills in small group
work. They should be able to guide the group without being too
directive. Occasionally, WID experts find the role of facilitator
frustrating, particularly when the group does not immediately see
the implications of gender analysis. They are tempted to give the
"correct answer" rather than to allow the group to go through the
process of self-learning. It is important that both the workshop
participants and the facilitators themselves are clear as to the
facilitator's role.

Therefore, facilitators must be thoroughly briefed on the
methodology and content of the materials prior to each workshop.
This is an additional task that must be taken into account by the
trainers. Because of the large number of facilitators required for
workshops, strategies must be developed to ensure that a sufficient
number of qualified facilitators are available.

A training programme of the size that FAO has undertaken -
with an average of three workshops a month and in three languages -
also requires good secretarial and logistical support, as Poats and
Russo pointed out:

Trainers require adequate resource and support personnel.
A training course takes on a life of its own once it be-
gins and must fully engage the trainers. Trainers need
good secretarial and logistical support (p. 34).

The work of scheduling participants, reproducing and
distributing the workshop materials and setting up the facilities
is a full-time job in itself. The ideal support person is an
executive secretary with word processing and computerized data base
management skills. Additional support personnel has also been
required to: programme meeting rooms, order materials and printing,
and service courses (e.g., coffee, water, phones, messages).

Trainers, facilitators and support personnel must also culti-
vate good time management skills. This is especially important when
the time available for courses is short. Not only must trainers and
facilitators be expert at managing the amount of allocated time,
but support must be such that no time is lost in dealing with
logistics during the workshop. Each segment of the workshop must
flow smoothly into the next.

According to the FAO study,

The length of a training activity depends of the profess-
ional level of the participants to be trained, partici-
pant expertise, time available for training, financial
resources, availability of trainers, and the material and






skills to be covered...Many trainers interviewed felt
that at least two days are necessary for training...It is
only on the second or third day that the lessons become
relevant to participants (Poats and Russo p. 27).

Taking into consideration the workloads and schedules of FAO
staff, it was initially planned to hold workshops of one and one-
half days in length. Workshop duration was extended to two full
days, as the shorter length of time proved insufficient. Even so,
two days appears to be barely long enough to allow participants to
comprehend the concepts of gender analysis and to acquire the basic
skills required to carry out this analysis. Many participants state
that the workshop should be longer, although a minority would pre-
fer a shorter workshop.


3. Training Tools

FAO has found that the training tools employed must meet
multiple requirements: they must increase acceptance of the gender
analysis and WID issues, allow for self-learning, be adapted to the
requirements of the organization, and be usable within the period
of time allocated.

FAO's experience has shown that using the gender analysis
approach can be very effective in overcoming resistance to WID by
examining both women's and men's roles, responsibilities, resource
access, benefits and constraints. Also, while not negating equity
issues, the workshop gives more weight to issues of efficiency (cf.
Moser 1989). This approach enables the workshops to focus on the
objective of enhancing policy, programme and project success, which
is more acceptable to the majority of participants.

In terms of the content of the workshop, in the process of
applying gender analysis to case study materials, it becomes clear
to participants that women's productive and reproductive activities
are overlooked more frequently than are men's activities; that
women usually have less access to resources needed to carry out
their work; and that projects often fail to target women as benefi-
ciaries and to develop strategies to ensure their participation as
appropriate to the project's objectives. Thus WID and equity issues
are raised in the small group and plenary discussions, with equity
issues being discussed more frequently when there are social scien-
tists and those with field experience among the participants of the
workshop.

The Poats and Russo study points out that,

The case method approach is particularly well-suited to
training in WID/gender analysis, because it avoids lec-
turing to participants, actively engages participants in
learning as individuals and in collective groups, and






provides a realistic experience in handling gender analy-
sis in development efforts (p. 34.)

FAO's experience confirms the suitability of the participatory
case method, based on the principle of self-learning, as an
effective way of introducing the fundamentals of gender analysis
and its application to the project cycle. The FAO Training Pro-
gramme was designed to use the case method as its central
methodology, combined with presentations and audiovisuals to
introduce concepts and issues.

It has been difficult, however, to find appropriate audio-
visuals. While several very good video and slide shows exist on WID
issues, these mostly focus on women rather than on broader gender
issues. They generally fail to show the inter-relatedness and com-
plementarity of women's and men's roles. FAO's experience has shown
that professional staff are usually either already in some ways
generally aware of and sensitive to WID issues or that they are
resistant to them. Audiovisuals that focus on WID issues exclu-
sively often tend to bore participants or to reinforce their
resistance, and therefore may even have negative effects.

Similarly, too many lecture presentations may have negative
effects. The FAO training programme has reduced lecture presenta-
tions to the bare minimum. One lecture presentation with slides on
the Gender Analysis Framework, of approximately 30 to 40 minutes in
length, is given at the beginning of the workshop. The rest of the
time is spent in small group work and in plenary discussions in
which participants practise applying the tools of gender analysis
to case studies and to the project cycle.

FAO has developed its own slides to accompany the presentation
of the Gender Analysis Framework. In addition to giving the back-
ground, concepts and tools of gender analysis, this presentation
incorporates a brief discussion on why statistics do not ade-
quately reflect women's work, why women's participation in the
labour force is increasing rapidly, why female-headed households
are on the increase, etc. The presentation is reinforced by de-
scriptions of actual project experiences that illustrate the use-
fulness of gender analysis in enhancing project success.

The presentation of the gender analysis framework is the one
part of the workshop which is purposely non-participatory. Ques-
tions and discussion are deferred to the small group setting. This
is to avoid premature debates on WID/gender issues that partici-
pants do not yet understand well. Discussion and debate of WID/
gender issues are far more effective when they arise in the small
groups in the context of specific cases and environments where em-
pirical evidence can be brought to bear.

FAO now has extensive experience in developing case studies.
According to the FAO study,







It may not be necessary to develop new case studies in
order to begin training in WID/gender analysis. Existing
gender case studies can be used in initial training acti-
vities...These can be complemented with project documents
that typify the project process for a particular insiti-
tution...Once a Training Programme is underway...it may
be worth the time and expense to develop case studies
based on specific experiences of the institution (Poats
and Russo pp. 34-35).

FAO has found that the case studies must be based on its own
pipeline or ongoing projects in order to be effective. Eleven case
studies have been developed using FAO project documents. They vary
by region and cover a wide range of technical areas: dairy develop-
ment, weed control, post-harvest losses, fisheries, forestry, agri-
cultural sector reviews, etc.

Not all projects are suitable as case studies for training in
gender analysis: only those in which there are clear gender impli-
cations and a clear need for redesign to take into consideration
the gender issues involved should be chosen. The projects chosen
should not be too simple or too complex as they must be analyzed in
a short amount of time, and should reflect mainstream agricultural
activities. The project document should be generally well formu-
lated (except for the problem of gender issues) so that parti-
cipants do not get sidetracked into discussing unrelated topics.

The trainers should be familiar with all the related project
information (pre-project studies, reviews, evaluations, etc.) so
that they have a full understanding of the case and can easily
answer questions from the participants, some of whom may have been
involved in project design or implementation.

FAO's experience is that, in order to be effective, the case
studies should be written by those who have a thorough knowledge of
gender analysis training and the application of the framework. The
case studies under preparation should be screened at an early stage
to judge their effectiveness. One problem for the preparation of
case studies is that most information available is secondary and
data are not available in critical areas such as time use, deci-
sion-making, and distribution and use of benefits within the
household.

The FAO workshops use two case studies per workshop, which
meet the following criteria: the first-day case should be a rela-
tively simple case and the second-day case should be more complex
and challenging. The first case should deal with a micro-level
project while the second case should present a macro or policy-
level project, to demonstrate that gender analysis-can be applied
both to project and policy formulation. The two cases should be
drawn from two distinct regions (Africa, Latin America, Asia, the




14

Near East) which have quite distinct gender divisions of labor, to
demonstrate that gender analysis can be applied equally well in
different regions and circumstances.

If the workshop participants are quick to grasp the use of the
gender analysis tools, they are given the "Activity" and the Re-
source/Benefits Profile" already filled out on the second day and
guides are provided to enable them to focus their attention more on
analytical questions than on description.






D. FAO'S CONTRIBUTION TO GENDER ANALYSIS TRAINING


The FAO training programme has contributed to the knowledge on
the evolution and development of gender analysis training. This
section relates some of FAO's experiences and examines areas in
which FAO has either developed new materials or techniques or has
identified needs and solutions. These areas are: Project Analysis,
the Application of Gender Analysis in the Project Cycle, training
programme evaluation and specific courses and materials.


1. Project Analysis

The FAO training programme uses an adaptation of the Gender
Analysis Framework developed by Overholt, et. al. (1985) consisting
of three components: the "Activity Profile", the "Resources/ Bene-
fits Profile" and the "Development Constraints Analysis". The
"Development Constraints Analysis" is a modification of their
"Project Cycle Analysis".

In the Development Constraints Analysis, participants are
asked to identify the development constraints found in the project
area under consideration. These constraints may be economic (e.g.,
lack of credit, lack of markets, low labour productivity), social
(e.g., cultural attitudes/taboos, high birth rates), environmental
(e.g., deforestation, poor resource base, erosion), or institu-
tional (e.g., lack of extension/training, insecure land tenure,
poor legal structure).

The participants then examine the gender considerations of
these constraints in light of what was found in the "Activity and
Resource/Benefits Profiles"; that is, they examine how these con-
straints may affect men and women differently depending on their
differentiated activities and their access to and control over
resources. Finally, the participants analyze the implications of
these gender considerations for their relevance to project design
and make suggestions as to how the project could be changed to en-
hance its success.

For example, the resources profile may show that in general
men and women lack access to credit, but women's access is even
more restricted due to lack of collateral. If credit is important
to development in the region, the lack of access to credit may be
picked up in the Development Constraints Analysis and women's lower
access noted as a gender consideration. Participants would then
assure that the project design considers increasing men and women's
access to credit, with specific activities to increase women's
access.

The "Development Constraints Analysis" is key to the applica-
tion of gender analysis in the project cycle. It alerts the






participants to the fact that projects may fail to achieve their
objectives if they do not take into consideration the different
roles, and access to and control over resources and benefits of men
and women. The discussion focuses mainly on women, since women
usually face the largest number of constraints, but participants
often detect new constraints for both men and women that are not
considered in the project document.


2. Applying Gender Analysis in the Project Cycle

Understanding the importance of gender analysis to successful
project design and implementation in a workshop setting is easier
than actually applying it to real situations. By the afternoon of
the second day of the workshop, the participants have grasped the
concepts of gender analysis and have practised applying them to two
case studies. At that point they need to examine the possibilities
of applying gender analysis in their own work, in each of the
phases of the project cycle they are dealing with (formulation and
design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation).

There are common problems whose implications and solutions
differ according to the stage in the project cycle. They fall into
two categories: generic problems, such as the lack of information,
and specific problems related to institutional procedures and re-
source availability. Both types are addressed in a final two-hour
session, in which the staff members attempt to envision how to
apply gender analysis to their daily work. If these constraints and
their potential solutions are not addressed in the course of the
workshop, they could become serious limitations to implementation
of gender analysis. The advantages of multi-disciplinary groups is
evident in this session: people from different technical divisions
have different opinions about ways to address these problems and
bring different experiences and insights to bear on them.

The session is also used to introduce certain important gender
issues that have not arisen in the case studies. For instance,
women's time limitations that result from their double workloads
and lack of access to labor-saving technology can be discussed in
more depth during this session. At this point in the workshop, par-
ticipants are usually aware of both the time and cultural con-
straints women face and are ready to discuss ways to overcome them
during project implementation.

A new methodology has been introduced for the session that
employes mini-case studies, that are short sketches of problems
arising at various stages of the project cycle. As with the other
case studies used in the workshops, the examples are taken from
real FAO project experiences. By the end of the second day, parti-
cipants are accustomed to working with case studies and so these
mini-cases generate rich discussion quickly. (An added advantage of
mini-cases is that they can be prepared in a relatively short






amount of time and can be varied as needed to introduce problems or
issues that have not yet been discussed.)

The initial set of mini-cases used in this session deal with
problems that arise in the project formulation stage. The first is
an example of an information constraint. A project formulation
mission has the task of designing an irrigation project where it is
suspected that women are heavily involved in rice production and
water supply system maintenance. However, the mission does not
have access to the comprehensive information required to be able to
incorporate women into the project as beneficiaries. The
participants are asked to discuss how this information constraint
can be overcome: What information is required? Who is responsible
for collecting it? When and how?

Participants generally agree that gender analysis is required
in this situation and the discussion on what, who, when and how
results in a long list of suggestions including a pre-formulation
mission or preparatory phase to gather the information (if the pro-
ject is large enough to warrant the expense), to a desk study, to
the use of rapid rural appraisal. Participants realize that the
amount of information is limited and that there are indeed many
ways to overcome the constraint within the procedures and resources
available to the Organization.

The second mini-case poses the question of the expertise re-
quired in a project formulation mission. The project formulation
mission team for an integrated rural development project that
intends to assure the full integration of women in all activities
consists of four technical experts, two of whom have taken the
gender analysis training course. The participants are asked whether
or not this team has the expertise required for project design and,
if not, how the team composition should be changed. It also asks
how it can be assured that gender is fully contemplated in the
mission's work.

This question always generates a debate as to whether or not
there should be a WID expert on the team or whether every member of
the team should be responsible for gender issues. After discussing
the advantages and disadvantages of each proposal, most partici-
pants conclude that, while there may be particular cases where a
WID expert is necessary, ordinarily every team member should be
responsible for gender analysis and, therefore, should participate
in gender analysis training. Participants point out that formula-
tion missions often include external consultants who may not have
any gender awareness or training. Provision must therefore be made
to brief them on gender issues and to include attention to gender
issues in the Terms of Reference of all team members.


Another set of mini-case studies deals with the implementation
phase of projects and directs attention to obstacles to achieving






women's participation even when this has been included in the pro-
ject's objectives.

For example, women's low participation in a horticulture pro-
ject is discussed in a third mini-case.. In the country under consi-
deration, women are mainly responsible for horticulture and spend
several hours a day in unremunerated palm oil processing for domes-
tic consumption. In fact there is a low cost, simple technology
available that could reduce the labour requirements greatly for
this task.

In the fourth mini-case, women's participation in well-paying
coffee production activities is low because they lack child care.
The women propose to set up their own child care arrangements and
request the project's help in training women as informal pre-school
teachers.

Questions posed for these last two examples are: can FAO
projects incorporate technologies or social services that release
women's time from household obligations to participate in project
activities? If so, how can this be done in the implementation
phase?

Participants quickly realize that application of the gender
analysis framework at the project formulation stage might have an-
ticipated these problems and provided for solutions. There is di-
vided opinion about how to deal with the issues when they arise
during the implementation phase. Most participants agree that FAO
can provide technologies and social services if these are crucial
to project success. Some feel that FAO cannot provide these unless
they are directly or indirectly related to the project's objec-
tives. A minority believe that issues such as the provision of
labour-saving technologies for women's domestic work and the
provision of social services should be included, even when these
are not directly related to the project's objectives.

People who have worked as project managers or in some other
capacity in the field almost always relate experiences in which
means were found to overcome similar obstacles, e.g., by using
already existing financial and human resources of the project and/
or by calling upon government sources, local NGOs or other agencies
for assistance. Some participants feel that these obstacles can be
dealt with, but only at the time of a review or evaluation mission,
particularly if substantial new funds are required.

A fifth mini-case deals with the need to sensitize people
working at the project level to constraints relating to the deli-
very of services to women. The problem involves the provision of
extension services and the scheduling of training sessions at times
and places when women can attend. Solutions for reaching women with
extension and training range from the simple "ask the women when
they can come for training" to the more complex need to provide






special training facilities separate from those for men. In the
process of the discussion, participants become aware of the need
for sensitizing extensionists and project personnel to gender
issues.

The final set of mini-cases deals with project evaluation. The
problem is whether and how gender issues can be addressed in the
project evaluation stage, when these are not made explicit in the
project's objectives and activities. These mini-cases highlight the
need to incorporate gender criteria in project evaulation.

The sixth mini-case is a project to increase maize production.
The evaluation study shows that, after three years, maize produc-
tion had not increased, although the same amount of maize was being
produced by half the number of people because of increased produc-
tivity. The project had the unexpected impact of changing the
sexual division of labour. Whereas previously both men and women
worked in maize production, now only men do. The women were em-
ployed off-farm and both household income and food consumption had
increased.

The seventh mini-case is an acquaculture project that aimed to
increase women's income through increased fish production and to
improve nutrition. Women's fish production was so high that they
opened restaurants to sell what they produced, but when it became
clear that the project was successful, the husbands appropriated
the benefits, taking over the restaurants and abandoning their
agricultural production. The men insisted that women continue to
fish, but without payment.

The questions posed to participants are: Were these projects
successful? What additional criteria would be needed to evaluate
these projects' impact on men and women? How can gender issues be
incorporated in FAO's technical review and evaluation activities?

Differences of opinion are sharpest on the criteria for
project success and how to deal with unforeseen results and im-
pacts. Some participants feel very strongly that projects can only
be evaluated on the basis of whether or not they achieved their
stated objectives. Others argue that unintended impacts can and
must be part of the evaluation of any project. Participants gen-
erate a long list of additional gender-related criteria and infor-
mation necessary in order to evaluate these projects, including
opportunity costs, distribution of benefits within the household,
decision-making on household spending, effects on nutrition, the
well-being of the family, and sustainability, and so forth.

The seventh mini-case also reinforces the need for gender
analysis in project formulation: if the project design had taken
into consideration issues related to decision-making and control
over income within the household, the appropriation of the project
benefits might have been avoided.







3. Evaluation

The last half hour of every FAO workshop is devoted to parti-
cipants' evaluation of the workshop,.both oral and written. Parti-
cipants are asked to give a brief assessment of the workshop and to
tell whether or not it lived up to their expectations and/or con-
cerns as expressed in the opening session. They are then given a
five-page evaluation form rating each of the sessions for content
and process, the strengths and weaknesses of the trainers, the
logistics, the length, the overall usefulness of the workshop, and
whether or not it met its objectives. These evaluations have been
useful in improving and strengthening the content and process of
the workshops. Presently, the evaluation results are being compu-
terized to facilitate analysis.

FAO has also developed long-term and in-depth monitoring and
evaluation mechanisms including a coding system and a six month
follow-up evaluation to help measure the impact of the gender
analysis training on the Organization's activities. The coding
system for all FAO projects will measure three variables: the
potential of a project to include WID issues in terms of the
targeted sector and population; how the project document includes
women and WID concerns in terms of objectives, strategies, inputs
and outputs; and whether or not women are actually reached as
participants, beneficiaries, and personnel in project and programme
implementation.

The follow-up evaluation is to be filled in by participants
six months after workshop participation. It focuses on the degree
to which participants feel they understand the different concepts
employed, which concepts and tools they feel are most useful in
their daily work, how often they have actually employed the tools
and analysis in the different aspects of their daily work, what
constraints, if any, they have found when attempting to apply
gender analysis, and suggestions for workshop follow-up.


4. Specific Courses and Materials

As a result of the FAO Gender Analysis Training Programme,
there has been an increased demand for further courses and mater-
ials on applying gender analysis to specific areas. Many workshop
participants have expressed the need for more practice in applying
the gender analysis framework and tools in their work. Some of
these participants have volunteered to serve as facilitators in
later workshops in order to strengthen their skills.

Therefore, FAO is considering the development of an advanced
level workshop programme for past participants who would like to
learn more about applying gender analysis, especially in terms.of
strategies for particular sectors (i.e., credit, marketing, post-






harvest technology, agricultural research, extension and training,
fisheries industries, community forestry). Participation would be
on a voluntary basis.

As a result of the Gender Analysis Workshop at the FAO Re-
gional Office for Asia and the Pacific, a series of workshops on
applying gender analysis in forestry projects will be developed in
five country-level projects in Asia. A special module on gender
analysis is being developed for a community forestry course for
national mid-level managers in five Andean countries, based on
extensive case study work that includes the production of video
tapes. In Honduras, a gender analysis training workshop will be
conducted for national project staff using local case studies. A
training on gender issues project was designed for male and female
grass-roots and ministry level extension workers in Ethiopia. It is
anticipated that there will be additional requests for training
forthcoming from various countries and FAO projects, and that
training of country project staff and ministerial and other
agricultural personnel will take place.

Finally, participants also note the need for a set of precise
guidelines on how to generate the kind of information required to
carry out gender analysis. These guidelines could be used by FAO
staff or consultants on design missions, and their production will
be part of follow-up activities.






E. CONCLUSIONS


FAO's experience in developing gender analysis workshops for
professional staff confirms the lessons learned through the study
it commissioned from Poats and Russo (1990), which in turn were
based upon the experiences of other institutions and organizations.
This paper touched upon lessons learned in what the FAO considers
to be the three major areas of concern: institutional support,
trainers and tools.

In the area of institutional support, FAO not only has an ex-
plicit mandate from its governing bodies, it has also developed a
number of strategies to promote awareness of the benefits of work-
shop participation, including the production of a video, special
workshops for senior management and programming strategies for en-
suring participation.

In regard to trainers, FAO has identified the specific quali-
fications required for WID/gender analysis-training and has insti-
tuted a TOT programme to overcome the shortage of trainers. It has
discovered that small group facilitators also play an important
role in FAO's workshops and has made provisions to recruit and
adequately brief these facilitators.

FAO has adapted the Gender Analysis Framework developed by
Overholt, et. al. (1985), developed its own case studies and modi-
fied the gender analysis framework and tools to meet the specific
needs of its staff members. Of particular interest are the modifi-
cations relating to the "Development Constraints Analysis" and the
introduction of a new session on "Applying Gender Analysis to Dif-
ferent Phases of the Project Cycle". FAO has also developed both
direct and indirect evaluation mechanisms to measure the effective-
ness of gender analysis training and its impacts on the work of the
Organization. Finally, as a result of the training programme, there
is a demand for more specific courses and materials on how to apply
gender analysis in the policies, programmes and projects of the
various technical divisions. Given this consideration, budgetary
resources allocated to gender analysis training were increased in
for the 1992-93 biennium.








BIBLIOGRAPHY


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