• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Workshop programme
 Experiences of village based...
 Rapid appraisal techniques for...
 Community level feedback
 Community evaluation
 Workshop participants
 Requirements for the workshop
 Tree dictionary
 Back Cover






Title: Participatory research for rural development in Zimbabwe : a report of a training workshop for ENDA Zimbabwe Trees Project
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 Material Information
Title: Participatory research for rural development in Zimbabwe : a report of a training workshop for ENDA Zimbabwe Trees Project
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Scoones, Ian
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: International Institute for Environment and Development
 Subjects
Subject: Africa   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Africa -- Zimbabwe
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089919
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: African Studies Collections in the Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Workshop programme
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Experiences of village based research
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Rapid appraisal techniques for CWs and VBRs
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 15a
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Community level feedback
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Community evaluation
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Workshop participants
        Page 41
    Requirements for the workshop
        Page 42
    Tree dictionary
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Back Cover
        Page 52
Full Text
ENDA ENVIRONMENTAL UNIT WORKING PAPER


MERGE
236


J .


Participatory Research for
Rural Development in
Zimbabwe:

A report of a training workshop
for ENDA Zimbabwe Trees Project






Compiled by IAN SCOONES


IIED
s- ~
INTERNATIONAL
INSTITUTE FOR
ENVIRONMENT AND
D E V LOP M E N T


ENDA-ZIMBABWE
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
ACTIVITIES ZIMBABWE


















PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ZIMBABWE:
A REPORT OF A TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR ENDA-ZIMBABWE TREES PROJECT




Maketo Community Hall, Msipane, Runde Communal Area,
Zvishavane District, Zimbabwe




March 28th 31st 1989







Compiled by Ian Scoones,
Sustainable Agriculture Programme,
IIED







PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ZIMBABWE:
A REPORT OF A TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR ENDA-ZIMBABWE TREES PROJECT

Maketo Community Hall, Msipane, Runde Communal Area, Zvishavane
District, Zimbabwe

March 28th 31st


CONTENTS


Introduction

Workshop Objectives
Background to the Project

Workshop Programme

Experiences of Village Based Research

Community Acceptance
Problems Faced by Local Resarchers
Biases in Information
Sampling Problems
Logistics

Rapid Appraisal Techniques for CWs and VBRs

Farmer Transect and Aerial Photo Analysis
Seasonality
Marketing Issues
Preference Ranking

Community Level Feedback

Group Meetings
Ways of Stimulating Debate and Discussion
Feedback Presentations

Community Evaluation

Appendix 1: Workshop Participants
Appendix 2: Requirements for the Workshop
Appendix 3: Tree Dictionary








PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ZIMBABWE:
A REPORT OF A TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR ENDA-ZIMBABWE TREES PROJECT

Maketo Community Hall, Msipane, Runde Communal Area, Zvishavane
District, Zimbabwe

March 28th 31st



INTRODUCTION


Workshop Objectives



The workshop was attended by the full staff of the ENDA-Zimbabwe

community management of woodland project (see appendix 1). The

aims of the training exercise were:



To assess the research experiences of the Village Based

Researchers (VBRs) during the previous three months, to

identify problems and design solutions.



* To train the Community Workers (CWs) and VBRs in

participatory research techniques that will be of use in

community level planning and research.



* To use these techniques to conduct a rapid appraisal of tree

resource issues, with a particular focus on fruit trees, in

two Village Development Committees (Vidcos).



* To assess techniques for community feedback of project

research.











To examine the options for project evaluation by communities

who have been involved in the project.



Background to the Project



The ENDA project is developing a participatory approach to

research and extension for community management of woodland

resources. The area is semi-arid with a varied environment. The

project focuses on a participatory, adaptive and fine-tuned

approach, rather than on orthodox particular technical packages.

The project evolved out of a research process between 1985 and

1987 in Mazvihwa Communal Area (CA). A variety of techniques are

used to give the local people an opportunity to articulate their

concerns, needs and objectives. The research is linked to village

level planning of tree resources conducted at the VIDCO level.

This process enables the people of each area to make their own

response to the perceived woodland problems, using a variety of

approaches. These include planting in homes and fields, planting

in community woodlots, managing communal woodland regeneration

through protection or enhancing systems of rule making.



Work with farmers since i986 has clearly demonstrated that trees

are considered central to the production system of this semi-arid

area. Trees meet a variety of needs, requiring different tree

species in different situations. Certain indigenous trees, for

example raise soil fertility and enhance soil moisture, and so

are often left in fields against government agricultural








extension advice. Others are frequently wanted as shade and fruit

trees, often exotics, in homesteads. In the communal woodlands

trees that are good browse for stock, provide firewood and

building timber, and have fewer competitive interactions with

grass tend to be desired. Ecological variation and historical

factors, among a range of determinants, mean that the precise

resources and needs of each area are different.



Community rule making about utilisation of tree resources is an

important institution in local society, even if not entirely

effective. For example, a number of especially valuable species

can only be cut for very specific purposes. Certain areas are

also protected from cutting. In the wider woodland, cutting is

supposed to be scattered so as to prevent over-exploitation of

particular patches. With the shift from chiefly authority to

elected committees since independence, and with increasing

woodland pressure, these rules have had to change and adapt. The

project facilitates this where appropriate. This is important as

many communities feel that more effective management of existing

woodland is likely to be more productive than the mass planting
L
of seedlings.



The project approach fosters a dialogue between the Community

Worker and the community through a series of interviews and

meetings at the village level. The CWs are resident farmers who

are well known to the communities they are working with. The

research process allows the Vidco to assess and analyse the local

situation and come up with a management plan, suited to local


L









conditions. This is the result of a one week appraisal and a

village meeting facilitated by the ENDA community worker (CW). It

is a reversal of the top-down message or package oriented

extension approach of conventional forestry and natural resource

conservation projects. The CWs establish what numbers of which

species indigenous and exotic are required in each VIDCO area

using interviews and group discussions. Seeds are provided by the

community and the seedlings grown in village based nurseries.

They are planted according to the village management plan during

the rainy season. Some fencing is also supplied to protect trees

form browsing animals. Communal woodland planting is generally a

combination of replanting bare patches and enrichment planting of

highly valued species. Individual farmers also collect seedlings

for planting in their homes and fields. Rural institutions, such

as schools and clinics are also given support in tree planting

activities.



Since late 1987 the project has been operational in four areas -

Runde, Mazvihwa, Chivi North and Chivi South. Each area has a

community worker who facilitates community planning in two wards

during the year. During the initial project phases ENDA has

supported the nurseries and planting activities, as well as the

community workers. In the coming phases of the project certain

activities are will be taken up and run by the community.



ENDA has set out to learn from the project experience. There are

two parallel research activities that aim to assess the project's

impacts and suggest future directions. One research project is










attempting to establish a comparative idea of woody biomass

availability and use in the four project areas. Studies are being

carried out on: the woody biomass resources in each area, the

woodland dynamics of different vegetation associations, firewood

consumption, brick burning, construction uses. .Germination and

survival rates of nursery produced seedlings are also being

investigated.



The other study is investigating the socio-political-religious

factors that determine the :ability of Vidcos and rural

communities to effectively plan and manage natural resources. The

effectiveness of the project's participatory approach is being

evaluated as part of this study.



Central to these research activities are the team of village

based researchers (VBRs). These are local people who have

recieved some secondary education and are resident in the project

areas. There are 16 VBRs representing all the wards where the

project is active. The role of the VBRs is to assist in the

collection of information for the research projects in their home

areas, to feedback research results to the community, to carry

out community evaluation of project activities and to support the

CWs in village level planning for woodland resources. The aim of

the training workshop was to improve the capacity of the VBRs and

the CWs in research, feedback and evaluation using participatory

techniques.










WORKSHOP PROGRAMME


Tuesday 28th:

Introduction to workshop objectives; administrative issues (30

min).



Working groups: listing of problems with research carried out so

far interviews, fuelwood studies, woodland transects (45 min).

Plenary report back (45 min)



Wednesday 29th:

Research techniques: Understanding seasonality issues; Preference

ranking; Farmer transects and aerial photograph analysis: group

excercises (3 h).



Fieldwork: Walking transects and aerial photograph mapping in 2

Vidcos (2.5 h). Analysis: drawing the transect diagram; examining

time series aerial photographs (2 h).



Thursday 30th:

Plenary: Group presentation of transect results and aerial

photograph analysis (1 h)'.



Fieldwork: Subgroups carry out interviews on seasonality of fruit

tree production, use and marketing, the economics of fruit trees,

and preference ranking of fruit trees in 2 vidco areas (4 h).










Analysis: Construction of seasonality diagram; analysis of

preference ranking results; assessment of marketing and economics

information (3 h).



Friday 31st:

Plenary: Presentation of appraisal results; discussion (2.5 h).



Community feed back mechanisms listing advantages and

disadvantages of possible options in working groups -

presentation and discussion. (1 h)



Role play: Preparation of feedback presentations in working

groups on fruit trees, fuelwood, tree planting and construction -

Presentation of drama, song and dance pieces (1.5 h).



Group meetings and the role of feedback in the project:

discussion (30 min)



Evaluation and assessing community participation: Working groups

draw up list of possible questions discussion (1 h).



Project announcements: Schools drama workshops, nursery

techniques training sessions, work plan for VBR research (45

min).








EXPERIENCES OF VILLAGE BASED RESEARCH


The following is a list of the key issues brought up by the VBRs

and CWs reported by four working groups:



Community acceptance



A number of groups commented that fears were aroused in the

communities with the start of research activities. Some people

feared that they would be arrested if they admitted cutting wood,

others commented that transects in the grazing areas aroused

suspicions of grazing scheme plans or destocking. Others noted

that people were unsure of the outcome of the project and

suspected that they might be forced into payments at a later

date. Some locals had been suspicious of the motives of the

researchers and questioned the benefits of projects on the basis

of past experience. They asked: "What will be the outcome of the

research? Many projects have come in other areas and have failed

whilst people have been used."



The group discussion dwelt on the issue of community acceptance

for some time. It was noted that the historical inheritance of

oppressive and top-down natural resource management regulations

and rural planning was something that had to be lived with and

only through time and exposure to alternative approaches will

sceptics gain confidence. The need to relate sensitively to

community concerns during interviews was also raised. Issues

relating to interview conduct that were highlighted in the










January workshop were covered again. The workshop resolved to

focus on community feedback as a priority issue during the coming

year. The importance of forging an effective working team between

the CWs and VBRs was also emphasised.



Problems faced by local researchers



Several groups commented that local jealousies had been aroused

with the employment of VBRs. Similar problems arise when

lineage/political affiliations had apparently been favoured. This

.ad resulted in some families objecting to the project. The

perennial problem of who to interview was also highlighted. Some

objected to being interviewed, others feel they are being missed

out. Some VBRs noted the problems faced when doing research in

one's own home (eg parents may want other tasks done). These

problems have few solutions, except through the reemphasis of the

system of employment (on merit and a restriction of one VBR per

ward) and a sympathetic acceptance of the wishes of individuals

not to be interviewed.



Biases in information



A number of instances were cited where information returns were

known to be inaccurate. This related in particular to the source

of firewood. In certain areas firewood is collected illegally

from commercial farms, but people are loathe to admit this for

fear of arrest. The discussion agreed that this was a problem,

but one common to all rural research on such issues. The








advantage of researchers resident in the rural areas is that they

can know when information is likely to be biased and make a

record. Nearly all other studies are not in a position to make

such corrections.



Sampling problems



Questions about sampling procedure for the research studies were

raised by all groups. The principles of sampling in research were

reiterated and the system employed for the various studies was

reviewed.



Logistics



Practical problems of transport, difficulties in measurement

techniques etc were brought up. The workshop resolved to

investigate possible solutions.










RAPID APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES FOR CWs AND VBRs


The ENDA research project has two directions of information flow.

One is from the community through the CW or VBR and directly back

to the community. The other is from the community through the VBR

.and CW to the ENDA professional staff for project assessment,

'report and policy paper writing.



-Both information flows require research results that can be

.rapidly assessed and assimilated, either for community feedback

or for on-going project review. A critical element of the

building of the research capacity of the CWs and VBRs is to equip

them with techniques that allow rapid assessment and analysis. It

is an important emphasis of the role of the VBRs that local

capacity for analysis and feedback is strengthened. The workshop

opened with a discussion about the use of information collected

in rural areas:



"What do we do about the information we collect? Do we just

sit with it by ourselves? We can use it for ourselves. We

can say we know alot and tell people in Harare. But how do

we use it in a valuable way? We need to be able to throw our

findings back to the' community. They need to be able to say:

'No, you are wrong it is not like that'. Then we, the

researchers, can ask a better set of questions and assist

the projects' progress. We are aiming to come up with an

effective model about rural development and feedback to the

people. You cannot just pocket the information! We cannot








make the best use of it in Zvishavane, Harare or in England.

It is here in the rural areas that the owners of the

information can make best use of it."



Three appraisal and analysis techniques were introduced at the

workshop: Walking transect. and aerial photograph analysis,

seasonality diagrams and preference ranking. This built on the

training in interview approaches carried out at the previous

workshop. Each of the techniques has some elements in common:



All rely on semi-structured interviewing



S All require interaction between the researcher and farmer in

open discussion


All are attempts at assessing local perceptions and

conditions.


All use simple diagrams or tables to analyse the information

rapidly



Farmer transect and aerial photo analysis



Classroom session



The importance of analysing spatial characteristics was

introduced. In terms of the project the spatial assessment of

village woodland resources and problems as part of the community









planning process was emphasised. In addition, the wider

assessment of biomass resources -in the project area was on the

research agenda and aerial photographs had been ordered.


Activities:



Working groups were given photo 'snaps' covered with acetate

sheets and asked to outline the main features with marker pens.

These features were then marked with a key. Following this the

groups had to assess what other information was contained in the

photographs (Figure 1)



Aerial photographs were introduced as a method for getting a

different and wider perspective than that normally recorded on

the ground. Aerial photos can be used:



* to assess different areas and land categories,

* to assess changes over time,

* to assist work on the ground

* to help focus discussion with farmers on issues on space and

land-use change.



Working groups were asked to outline and key different land

categories on a 1:50000 aerial photograph of the Runde project

area. The following categories were outlined: Arable land,

grazing/woodland, rivers/ waterways, settlement, -roads (Figure

2).





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The concept of a transect down a slope was introduced. Transects

were chosen on the aerial photographs for the two study Vidcos,

in discussion with the farmers from the two Vidcos (Vidco

chairpersons). Transects that traversed a range of land types

from topland to bottomland were marked on acetates covering the

aerial photographs. Transects of approximately 2 kms were chosen

for the exercise.



Field exercise



The group split into two each accompanying the Vidco chairperson

to the starting point of the transect. Subgroups had

responsibilities for assessing different information whilst

walking the transect (eg slope, vegetation, history, land-use

types, administrative boundaries, soils and physical features

etc.). The information was recorded in notebooks or on the aerial

photograph acetate. Information was derived through discussion

with the Vidco chairperson (or others met en route), through

direct observation or in group discussion at various stopping

points.



Analysis: Transect diagram



The two groups drew up the transect diagram on their return. All

of the information collected by different individuals was put on

the diagram (see Figures 3 and 4). The process of filtering and

collating the information generated much debate in the groups.

The Vidco chairpersons also joined in the discussion and helped

to iron out certain points of contention.

















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On completion of the transect diagram particular problems were

identified for each of the zones identified in the transect.

These were assessed in relation to opportunities for the ENDA

woodland management project. Examples included the replanting of

land cleared by the DDF camp, bare land near homes and land noted

to be suffering from erosion. The types of tree species that

might be appropriate were discussed in terms of existing tree

species and the type of soil observed.



Aerial photograph



The aerial photograph information was also analysed. Vidco

boundaries were estimated at and the major land-use categories

identified with the help of the Vidco chairperson. The exact

boundaries of the Vidco were unclear however. Both groups

analysed the aerial photographs for changes over time.



* One group compared the features noted in the transect

diagram with those observable in a 1968 aerial photograph.

The differences were noted in another transect diagram for

1968.



* The other group mapped the major land-use categories and

settlement patterns in the 1980 aerial photograph and

compared this with photos from 1939 (see Fig 5).



Both groups noted the following changes over time:
-i













More arable land and less grazing area

More settlements, roads, dams



However, in other areas outside the Vidcos different patterns

emerged particularly when comparing the 1939 photograph with more

recent images. Arable land had been consolidated into blocks,

vlei (valley bottom wetland) cultivation had been reduced and

some areas that were previously cultivated had now reverted to

woodland. The impact of land-use policy was seen to be different

in different Vidcos. Present day woodland availability is

therefore determined largely by previous land use planning.



Presentation



The diagrams (Figs 3 and 4) were presented to a plenary session

and the general themes that emerged discussed. All materials

presented were written up on large sheets of paper. The workshop

reflected briefly on the possible role of the technique in Vidco

resource management planning.



Seasonality


Classroom session



The importance of understanding changes through a year was

introduced. Changes in seasons affect resource availability and

use and so influence people's activities. All of these factors












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will affect planning for the project. The potential uses of

seasonal calenders in the project were discussed. These included:

the planning of seed collection and planting activities in

different project areas, the use in special studies by the VBRs,

for instance, in relating the quantitative assessments of

fuelwood use to perceived firewood use patterns.



The seasonal calender diagram was introduced and the group

contributed a series of diagrammatic characterizations of

seasonal change in tree resource use and availability. The

following information was filled in:



* Local classification of seasons



* Fruiting period and peak for several exotic and indigenous

fruit trees



* Browse intensity



* Fuelwood use



Fieldwork



Interviews were carried out in subgroups of 3 in the 2 videos.

Information was collected on seasonality, marketing and

preferences of fruit trees. Each subgroup carried out 2-4

interviews over a period of about 4 hours. Each subgroup aimed to

interview a range of people: men and women, both young and old. A


1 0










sample of approximately 10 interviews per Vidco were carried out,

which represented a reasonable range of household types.



Questions were asked about the seasonality of fruit availability

'of different trees. In addition seasonal differences in marketing

opportunities were assessed. Some groups made qualitative

assessments of seasonal labour demands and nutritional

information. Each Vidco group collected information on about 25

different fruit tree species.


Analysis



Information from each of the subgroups was collated and a

seasonal diagram produced on a large sheet of paper (Figure 6).

Intense debate was involved in the construction of the diagram,

particularly over conflicting information from different

interviews and over incomplete information. The group debated

fruiting season timing on the basis of the interviews carried

out. The process of drawing the seasonal calendar assisted in

the development of a consensus amongst the team.



The analysis concentrated on a comparison between the differences

between indigenous and exotic fruit availability, the relationship

with other activities, the seasonal opportunities for marketing

and the impact of fruits on children's nutritional status.




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Presentation


Each Vidco group presented their seasonal diagram to plenary,

giving a brief summary of the findings of the analysis. The

seasonal patterns can be related to calendar months or climatic

variations reflected in the local terminology for different

seasons (e.g. Zhezha (harvest), Chando (cold season); Chirimo

(dry season)). The general results can be summarised as follows:



Differences fruit availability



Indigenous fruits are available throughout the year, except in

May and June when no fruits are available (according to the

interviews).



Exotic fruits are largely available in the rainy season; at other

times of year they would have to be reliant on irrigation.



Differences in marketing



Exotic fruits are available at a peak labour season, so marketing

may be difficult.



Indigenous fruits are available at other times of year,

particularly in the dry season, when labour requirements are

lower and more flexible. The possibilities of storage of

indigenous fruits means that they can be marketed throughout the

year and fit with labour availability or cash needs.









Nutritional impacts


Exotic fruits are available when other foods are also around (Jan

to April), while indigenous fruits are available at times of year

when children's nutrition is poor (Sept to Nov). The seasonal

peak in nutrition levels in zhezha (March to April) will be

helped by the availability of fresh fruits. Because of the

storage properties of certain indigenous fruits, they can be made

available as food at any time of year. However, drying is likely

to affect their nutritional qualities.





Marketing issues


Classroom session



A brief group discussion of the possible issues relating to

marketing was carried out. A recording matrix was derived that

related species price, sale location, transport system and fruit

storage qualities.



Fieldwork



Questions were asked as part of the farmer interviews (see

above).








Analysis


A combined matrix was filled in for all of the 'information

collected during the Vidco interviews



Presentation



Two matrices were presented to the full group with an'outline of

issues. The following issues arose during the presentations and

the ensuing discussion. (see also Table 1).



* Exotic fruits have a local market, whereas indigenous fruits

generally do not (except when processed eg shomwe, mukumbi

from Mupfura).



* Unit price of exotic fruits is high because of high local

and urban demand and relatively lower supply. Indigenous

fruits have low unit price because there is a relatively

high supply in Runde, there is competition amongst sellers

and relatively low rural demand.



* Indigenous fruits have a good urban demand where they are

regarded as "exotic". The reverse is true of exotics where

garden irrigation in the townships means that they can be

grown. Because of this exotic fruits tend to be more

expensive in the rural areas; the reverse of indigenous

fruits.






* There is a larger flow of fruits (indigenous and exotic)

from the rural areas to town than in the other direction

(exotics only, especially fruits like oranges).


* Indigenous fruit storage properties means that marketing and

transport is feasible.



* Transportation to urban markets by bus is expensive.



* 'Exotic fruits require significant labour inputs in terms of

protection, watering and management, whereas the

requirements of indigenous trees is lower. Therefore despite

differences in unit price the returns to labour may be

higher for saleable indigenous fruits.



* Indigenous fruits are regarded as "free goods", as they are

found naturally in the communal woodland. However, although r

free in cash terms there is always a cost in collection.

This increases as the woodland resource is depleted when

more time or risk (eg climbing to inaccessible parts of the

tree or stealing from the farms) is involved.



Preference ranking



Classroom session



The rationale for preference ranking was introduced. It is

important to understand why people make choices between different


24






things, and that the reasons differ. This may be dependent on

age, sex, education, wealth or other factors. Preference ranking

has two outputs a ranked list of 6-8 and criteria for making

the choices. In the ENDA project it is important to discover what

are people's priorities and to understand 'why people have

different preferences. Only with this knowledge can the project

be truly responsive to local demands.



Preference ranking techniques can have a number of applications

in the project process. They can be used to assess local

priorities for the village level planning process prioritising

tree species for planting in homes, in fields and in grazing

areas and gaining the detailed perspectives of different sectors

of the community. As part of the research element ranking can be

used to assess local criteria of choice in fuelwood, fruit trees,

building materials or building wood and compare actual use

patterns with ranked preferences.



Method


* The farmer is asked to name 6 important species (eg for

fruit)



The names are written out on pieces of paper (alternatively

leaves or fruits can be used)



The farmer is asked to choose one species from all possible

pairwise comparisons according to a simple question eg: "If







you had the choice of growing just one of these two species,

which would you grow?"



* The choice is recorded on a matrix.



* The farmer is asked why s/he made the choice, all possible

reasons are asked (without prompting).



* Good and bad criteria are recorded in a table



* The ranking is'drawn up according to the sum of all positive

choices for each species.



The workshop participants tried out the techniques in four

groups. The full group listed 6 species under four headings -

firewood, building, cattle browse and fruit trees. In each

subgroup one person was the interviewer, another the interviewee,

another recorded the results in the matrix and another listed the

criteria. The results were presented back to the plenary session

and are reported below.



Fieldwork



Rankings were carried out on fruit trees at each home where

interviews were held. The farmer was asked to list 6 important

fruit trees (including both indigenous and exotic). Each ranking

took approximately 30 minutes.




26






Analysis


The matrices for each of the two Vidco groups were analysed and a

chart produced of the overall ranking for each informant (Figure

8). The groups then compared preferences for different informants

by age and sex.



The criteria lists were compiled on a table for each Vidco group

(Table 2) and differences between indigenous and exotic fruits

assessed.



Presentation



Each group reported their summary of findings back to the plenary

session. These can be summarised as follows:



Ranking differences:



* There was a general preference shown for exotic fruit trees

across all groups (old/younger men and old/younger women).



* Older women showed a higher preference for indigenous fruit

trees than other groups



* Men's criteria focused more on cash value, whereas women's

focused on food value.



Differences in criteria:






* Exotic fruit trees were seen as important for earning money


* Indigenous fruit trees had a wider range of uses



* Indigenous fruits generally stored better



* Indigenous fruits caused problems of digestion



* Since exotic fruit trees generally ranked higher, the cash

value criterion was probably weighted higher in people's

minds than the other criteria showm by the indigenous

fruits.






COMMUNITY LEVEL FEEDBACK



The aim of feeding back research information is to stimulate

debate and discussion in the community. Research is partof a

process which starts with the collection of information, goes

through sorting and analysis to the development of a picture of

what is happening. There is then a need to offer this picture

back to the community so that they can assess it, add to it,

learn from it and have a chance to act upon it. The project

therefore needs the farmer's views on how to solve the problems

highlighted by the research process. Feedback also helps to widen

the debate and discussion to a wider circle of people. Research

may be done with individuals, but feedback is to the community.

The channel for feedback is the group meeting. Sharing the

research information increases peoples confidence in the research

process and helps to allay fear or mistrust.


Group meetings



Group meetings need someone to help debate and discussion start.

It is important to let the people present guide the content and

not have ideas imposed. This is the role of the CWs assisted by

the VBRs. After the introduction to the meeting and a description

of the ENDA project and research topics, the larger group should

be split into smaller groups of 4-5. These groups can be given

different discussion topics. Older and younger people or men and

women can be in separate groups if it is felt that this will

encourage.the exploration of different issues. The VBRs and CWs





will act as resource persons-for the group discussions (30 mins),

perhaps offering experiences of research or village planning.

Each.group will then report back to the wider group with a short

presentation (5 min each). This will hopefully prompt wider

debate and this will be a further opportunity for the VBRs and

CWs to feedback research experiences.



Group meeting opportunities:



The following types of meetings were listed as opportunities for

feedback. The approach taken will be dependant on the audience

and it is clearly easier to encourage a different structure in a

meeting called by the project. This should not dissuade the

project from encouraging involvement and open debate in other

meetings however.



S Ward/Vidco meeting

S Village community worker meeting

Schools

Farmers group/Agritex

Church group

S Womens club/association

Youth brigade



Ways of stimulating debate and discussion



The workshop participants again split into four groups to list

all possible ways of stimulating debate and discussion in a group


30





meeting. The advantages and disadvantages were also listed and

presented back to the workshop.



Report back from 4 groups:



Stories



Advantages: Short; interesting; give confidence; history is

passed on; old people involved.



Disadvantages: Exaggerated; myths; people can disbelieve; many

interpretations.



Drama



Advantages: Easily understood; involves people actively; relates

what is actually happening; clear illustration of points; gives

courage.



Disadvantages: May take a long time; shyness; organisation

required.



Pictures/Posters



Advantages: Illustration of fine woodland; if provided, very

useful in schools; educational; diagrams and maps resulting from

VBR research.





Disadvantages: Difficult to produce in meeting, may be expensive

to provide.



Songs



Advantages: People are generally interested; can include school

children; combine with dancing; revival of old songs.



Disadvantages: Relevance of the song may be questioned; requires

people who can sing.



Choirs



Advantages: Stimulates people well; people enjoy alot



Disadvantages: Requires prior organisation



Poems



Advantages: Requires few people and a short time; can be written

out in a book; can hold anywhere; of historical interest.



Disadvantages: Boring if'participants not active or if poem too

short or long; can be misinterpreted.



Dances



Advantages: Traditional dances encourage the elders







Disadvantage: Knowledge of the dances not so widespread



Competitions



Advantages: Encourages the unwilling (especially if prizes); can

use old games from the past.



Disadvantages: May create divisions; prizes cost and should be

discouraged.



Examples suggested during the plenary:



Seed collection competition (max number of tree species)

Naming trees: the first to stop or falter in naming new

species loses.

Leaf identification: One group collects a range of leaves

from different species; the others have to identify.



Local tours



Advantages: Encouragement of direct observation



Disadvantages: Time constraint in a meeting



Examples suggested:



Visits to local woodlot, orchard or nursery





Visit to historical site (eg rambotemwa)



Fruit tasting



Advantages: People will come to meetings with food



Disadvantages: Expensive; luring not participating


Film



Advantage: See visual representations; lively, memorable and

interesting; information from other areas broadens horizons.



Disadvantages: Relevance to local conditions; expensive and

requires equipment; needs night time showing; a room is required;

attracts too many people.


Prayer



Advantages: Includes Christians actively in the project



Disadvantages: Alienates the traditional believers



Slogan



Advantages: Mobilisation; focus on project needs






Disadvantages: Slogans may be inappropriate in certain areas;

political/propaganda approach; lack of choice; means power and

control not participation.



Lectures



Advantages: Brings precise and accurate information



Disadvantages: Labour involved in preparation; need well equipped

lecturers; fail to get rapport or involvement; tell people what

they already know; condescending; low participation.




All of the options presented by the working groups were discussed

vigorously and assessed in relation to a number of criteria:



Do they provoke debate and discussion?

Do they actively involve people in participating?

Do they require equipment?

Can they be feasibly carried out in a group meeting?



The group felt that all options were possibilities except: films,

slogans, prayers and lectures. These were rejected on the basis

of the disadvantages outlined above.



The participants again split into working groups and each were

asked to prepare a presentation using one of the options listed

during the previous session. Four subject areas were chosen:






construction wood; fuelwood; tree planting and fruit trees. Short

presentations were prepared in 30 mins and fed back to the whole

group (about 5 minutes each).


Feedback presentations



1. Construction wood: drama



Four species are represented by different actors mutsviri,

mususu, musasa and mupani. Each introduces their wood qualities

and their value for construction. A villager arrives in the

forest in search of wood to make his new hut. He first cut some

musasa for makavi, then poles from mususu. He later returned to

collect nhungo from mutsviri. However he found them bent and

unsuitable, he therefore used them for his kraal.



Discussion: The drama illustrated the multiple functions of

different species in construction, but there was no clear ending

nor an exploration of conflicts over wood resources.



2. Fuelwood: drama



The old father found he had little opportunity to help his

family. He sits discussing the problem with his wife at home. His

wife suggests that he should brew beer to raise cash. However,

they found that finding firewood was a serious problem. They

think of hiring someone to collect firewood for them using a

cart. But the person charges them $5 for cutting and $3 for


36







transport. This meant that it was impossible for them to solve

their problems.



Discussion: The indirect approach of bringing up the problems of

firewood scarcity through examining the increased cash market for

wood was thought to help provoke debate on how firewood shortages

particularly affect those people without money.



3. Tree planting: drama



Two drunken lovers are wandering in the forest and they chance

upon some men planting trees. They wander past and tell them that

they are wasting their time. "Surely, it is up to God to let the

forest grow; these things just happen naturally". The tree

planters object and say that they have been doing this for some

time and the forest is now coming back. The drunkards ask if they

are being paid to do this, but the others say no. The drunkards

then wander off. The woman then starts to think aloud about what

they have seen and suggests to the man that they should go and

help too. The man is most reluctant and rejects the idea. However

the woman persists and the man then joins her for fear of being

left behind. They return to the place where the trees are being

planted and help out.



4. Fruit trees: song and dance



An old Karanga praise song for mananga was used to sing about:

Musuma, Muvuyu, Munengene, Munyii, Mango and Guava.









COMMUNITY EVALUATION



The project already had systems in place for monitoring project

outputs in terms of nursery production, species chosen by

different Vidcos, germination rates, seedling survival, numbers

of trees planted and where etc. These are easily measured and

.quantified. However, one of the project's primary aims is to

encourage a system of community planning and management that

results in community participation and awareness. This is

difficult to evaluate. Success depends on a wide range of

factors and is determined by the different conflicts of interest

in rural communities, the effectiveness of village institutions,

the degree of contact with project activities and the local

debate encouraged by the research extension process.



The project intends to follow up in Vidco's where the community

planning and project implementation has taken place in the

previous season. This evaluation will be led by the VBRs. This

will assist the CWs in their future work and identify local needs

for follow up in Vidcos where they have already worked. During

the community planning phase 30 interviews are carried out as

part of the village appraisal (approximately 30% of households).

The community evaluation will be based on a further 20

interviews; 10 from the list of those already interviewed and a

further 10 who had not been interviewed before. As with the CW

interviews a range of men and women and wealthy and poor

households will be interviewed. The intention is to assess the







degree of participation in the project and the way the project

was heard about, .as well as picking up areas of conflict or

dispute. In addition, information relevant to monitoring and

evaluation will come out in group meetings held in these areas.

The methods outlined above will be used tb bring up such issues

and act as a focus of discussion. The outputs of such meetings

will then be reported by the CWs as part of the normal reporting

system.



Working groups were formed to discuss a possible checklist of

questions to be asked as part of the community evaluation survey.

The results were reported back in a plenary session and a full

list compiled:



Checklist of questions for community evaluation:



General: Vidco, age, sex



Contact with the project: Interviewed, ward meeting, vidco

meeting, other meeting (eg school/farmer club/women group);

friends/relatives/beer party; Vidco officials; Agritex/NRB;

community drama; none.



Participation in project activities: Visit to nursery; seed

supplied to nursery; tree propagation techniques workshop;

woodlot preparation/fencing/watering; tree planting

communal/home; seedling propagation at home; schools projects.







Issues: Conflicts and disputes related to the project; benefits

of the project; future prospects and expectations; fears about

project outcome; suggestions for future direction.



The list developed during the workshop will act as the basis for

the drawing up of an interview checklist for use by the VBRs.



Follow-up and feedback



The results of the Vidco appraisals carried out during this

workshop will be reported back to the communities at Vidco

meetings to be held in April as part of the community planning

process that is being started in April in Ture Ward, Runde. The

original transect diagrams, seasonality charts and ranking

results are on large sheets of paper suitable for presentation to

the meetings.







Appendix 1: Workshop participants

Davison Gumbo Environmental Unit director, ENDA
Billy Mukamuri Project Coordinator, ENDA
Morden Muzondo Research associate, ENDA
Johnson Madyakuseni Village Based researcher supervisor
Ian Scoones Consultant, Drylands programme, IIED (London)

Chivi North project area:

Nebeth Muguti Community worker
Hapius Chuma
Mafirowanda Mafirakurva
Steven Vhashiko
Nhamo Zhakata

Chivi South project area:

Ruzvidzo Community worker
Katyamarai Chitsika
Pirisika Kege
Joram Magwati
Tamuka Moyo

Mazvihwa project area:

Mathou Chakavanda Community worker
Vukirai Mukamuri
Stenford Mushuri
Oliver Chikamba
Munatsi Ndhlovu

Runde project area:

Champion Magwisi- Community worker
Roily Mangena
Martin Matshazi
Barnabus Moyo
Betty Ndhlovu

Acknowledgements: The ENDA-Zimbabwe community management of
woodland resources project is supported by grants from the Ford
Foundation and NORAD. We are grateful to the Councillors, Vidco
officials, Agritex and the Ministry of Community Development and
Women's Affairs who offered us the hall and welcomed us into the
community.







Appendix 2: Requirements for the workshop

Classroom and sleeping accommodation
Food, cooking assistance and utensils
Blackboard and chalk
Notebooks and pens
Marker pens of different colours
Large sheets of paper (30)
Aerial photographs
Acetate sheets
Sellotape

Total costs: approx Z$600. (including allowances)


42








Appendix 3: Tree Dictionary

Trees planted in the project area (1988/9 season)

Total: 47 tree species; 24 fruit tree spp.


Local name


Fruit


Scientific name


-----------------------------------------------------
Mubvumira Kirkia acuminata
Muchakata Parinaria curatellifolia
Muchecheni Zizyphus mucronata
Mudohonya Ficus soldanella
Mudziyavashe Combretum apiculatum
Mufuti Castor oil
Mukamba Afzelia quanzenzis
Mukusi Teak
Mukwakwa Strychnos madagascarensis
Munhunguru Flacourtia indica
Munyii Berchemia discolor
Muonde Ficus sycamorus
Mupani Colphospermum mopane
Mupanda Lonchocarpus capassa
Mupfura Sclerocarya birrea
Mupfuti Brachystegia boehmii
Mupwezha Combretum collinum
Murovamhuru Combretum hereroense
Musasa Brachystegia spiciformis
Musekesa Piliostigma thonningi
Mushavi Ficus spp.
Mushuku Uappaca kirkiana
Musuma Diospyros mespilliformis
Musvimwa Lannea stuhlmanni
Mususu Terminalia sericia
Mutamba Strychnos spinosa
Mutobwe .Azanza garckeana
Mutondo Julbernadia globiflora
Mutondochuru Schotia brachypetala
Mutsviri Combretum imberbe
Muvora Albizzia amarra
Muvuyu Adansonia digitata
Muzumi Strychnos cocculoides
Rukato Acacia ataxacantha
Acacia polycantha


Flamboyant
Guava
Gum
Jacaranda
Lemon
Leticena
Mango








Mulberry *
Naartjis *
Orange *
Paw paw *
Peach *


Trees not planted but mentioned in the text:


Dhorofia
Dzvirimombe
Muhubvu
Mukosvo
Mukute
Mutarara


*
*
*
* .


Opuntia sp.
Vangueria sp

Artabortrys brachypetalus
Syzygium sp.
Gardenia spatufolia










Table 1: MARKETING OF FRUITS combined results from the two
groups

SPECIES STORAGE PRICE MARKET TRANSPORT


Exotic fruits

Orange

Guava


Avocado

Apples

Mango I


Peach I

Lemon


JNo

40
No


No

Short

Jo


Jo

hort


10-20c/each

2-10c/each;
$7/bkt

80c/each

5-20c/each

5-10c/each;
$1,5 4/bkt

3c/each

10-15c/each


Local/Zvish

Local/Zvish


Local/Zvish

Local/Zvish

Local/Zvish


Local

Local/Zvish


Indigenous

Mutobwe


Mutamba

Musuma



Makosvo

Hubvu

Dzviri-
mombe

Muonde

Munyii


Mushuku

Mukwakwa

Muchakata


fruits

Cook, dry
salt

Short

Dried,
under ash


No

50c/cup

No




Dried


Dried

Dry, roast

Compress,
form meal


2c/each


5c/each

20c/small
cup; exch
for grain

20c/bunch

Zvish

10c/cup




20c/small
cup/plate

Ic/each



20c/plate;
exchange w.


Zvish/Gweru


Zvish

Local/Zvish/
Gweru


Zvish

Bus

Zvish




Local






Zvish


Bus

Bus


Bus

Bus

Bus




Bus


Bus


Bus





Bus



Bus


Bus


q








grain flour

Mulberry No 20c/plate Zvish Bus

Muzumi Dried 5-15c/each Zvish Bus

Dhorofia 2c/each Zvish Bus

























----------------46-----------
























46






Combined criteria from the two groups


GOOD THINGS


BAD.THINGS


Exotic fruits


Good fruit, cash,
shade


Nutritious fruit,
marketing, high
growth rate,
baking, butter.

Tasty fruit, drink,
Cash, 'adds blood',
prevents disease.

Fruits, juice for
tea, slimming, put in
porridge, cures flu


Fibres in teeth, cannot
store, attract mosquitoes,
when unripe affect mouth


Needs watering


Watering, turn to lemons



Sour and bitter, thorns


Good to eat


Good fruits

Good fruits, sales,
germination easy,

Body building food


Indigenous fruits


Eating, selling,
porridge

Good fruit


Can be cooked and
stored, cash, eaten
any season, makes
teeth and jaws strong
whitens teeth, leaves
ear medicine, shade,
windbreak, browse.

Beer, stored, food
porridge, exchange
with mealie-meal,
sale.


Male trees

Fruit has no food, too
many cause nyon'o

Babies' umbilical cord
slow to heal.


Vomit if eat hora, const-
ipation if swallow seeds

Seed damages gums

Stomach ache, 'block
embryo's gullet', kids
can break necks when
falling from tree.


Bad smell


FRUIT


Mango


Avocado


Orange



Lemon



Apple

Paw Paw

Peach


Banana


Muzumi


Mushuku

Matobwe


Chakata


Table 2:






Mutengeni

Mutamba

MuDzviri-
mombe

Musuma


Musvita


Mupfura


Muchech-
ete

Mutunguru

Mukosvo



Mukwakwa

Mukubvu


dood fruits

Porridge, storage

Fruit soft and
nourishing

Cash, easy to
collect, storage

Fruits


Fruits, beer, dovi,
nuts, animal food.

Fruits to eat,
entertain kids

Fruits good

Fruits good, 'jelly
liquid loosens
stomach contents'

Fruits good, stored

Fruits, cash


Thorns



No trade


Seeds block gut
stomach ache

Can attract mosquitoes
when bad

Social problems (beer) eg
fighting; stealing.

Might meet baboons when
collecting dangerous

Thorns, no trade

No taste, darkens teeth,
causes 'dzviti'








Figure 8 RANKING RESULTS: all groups combined (14 informants)


Sex .....
Age ....

AVOCADO
MANGO
NAACHI
ORANGE
APPLE
PEACH
GUAVA
BANANA
LEMON
PAWPAW

MUNYII
MUZUMI
MUSHUKU
MATOBWE
MUTAMBA
MUCHAKATA
MUTENGENI
MUPFURA
MUSUMA
MUSVITA
MULBERRY
MUONDE
MUNUNGURU
DZVIR
MUKWAKWA
MUKOSVO
MUCHECHETE


M M M M M M F F F F F F F F
O O O O M M O O O M M M M M


1 1


2 2


1
2 2
3
6


1


1 3 2 1 1

5

4
2 3 3 1


3
3 2 3


4 1 1
5


4 2 4


3 3 4
6


5 6
5


3 6



5


KEY: Sex: M = Male; F = Female
Age: O = Old; M = Middle Aged
Rank: 1 (highest) to 6 (lowest)








Figure 7 Results of preference rankings

Ranked firewood species

Favourable Unfavourable

Mutondo Good charcoal Does not burn if wet
Little smoke Smokey if wet
High heat
Fibre good fuel

Mubhondo Good charcoal Bulky
Little smoke Difficult to cut
Burns efficiently
Burns slwly
Burns if alive/dead

Mutsviri Good charcoal Scarce
Alot of heat Thorny, bulky


Mugonde



Mubari-
bari

Mutson-
zowa


Little smoke
Good heat
Provides shade

High heat
Light to carry

Good for beer brew


Ranked fruit trees

Mupfura Fruits, nuts, beer,
shade, leaf litter,
carving, stools,
mortars, medicine.

Munyii Fruits,carving,dye
medicine, easily
planted.

Mango Fruits, shade, cash
sales, leaf litter.

Mutobwe Palatable fruit,
teeth strong/clean

Mushuku Tasty fruit, leaf
litter


Hard to cut
Heavy
Disturbs crops

Alot of smoke
Alot of ash

Sacred not used in
kitchen


Mosquitoes attracted by
fruit



Danger if swallowed by
children.


Mosquitoes attracted,
easily rot

Branches easily break
if kids climb

Difficult to plant








Paw Paw


Good fruits


Construction wood

Gum Easy to cut, straight
poles, fast growth

Mutsviri Long lasting

Mususu Straight poles, fibre

Mupani Long lasting, poles
'straight

Mutondo Fibres

Muvora


Cattle browse ranking

Mumveva Food in fruit, sweet
flowers, evergreen

Mupani Quickly have leaves,
protein content high

Mubhondo Soft leaves, not too
tall, abundant

Mupanda Big leaves, evergreen

Musasa Early leaves

Mutehwa


No shade, watering,
easily damaged.


Hard to cut

Fibres weak

Cannot be found in all
places

No straight poles


Leaves fall in winter


Leaves small




Leaves coarse

Small leaves, difficult
to browse, sticky


51




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