Gender and Global Climate Change
TITLE: MERGE AND THE SAID GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAM IN BRAZIL
RATIONALE: Since 1974, USAID has recognized the need to include the analysis of
participation by both women and men in development projects, in order to assure
women's access to project benefits, and to improve the efficiency of projects through
more adequate socioeconomic analysis. In the GCC program, incorporation of gender
analysis has been the focus of GENESYS for the past three years. UF's MERGE program
will continue this emphasis through collaborative work with GCC grantees during the next
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: By the end of the session the participants will have:
(1) Learned about the background to the gender focus in USAID's GCC program,
and the activities carried out by GENESYS.
(2) Been introduced to the approach of UF's MERGE program.
(3) Discussed the concept of gender as distinct from sex.
(4) Heard several examples of how gender is relevant to GCC projects.
(5) Been introduced to the concept of "institutionalization" of gender.
(6) Been asked to collaborate in defining specific strategies to integrate gender as
a fundamental concept in the analysis of impact of the GCC program.
MATERIALS: Overhead 1 (GENESYS activities)
Overhead 2 (MERGE partners)
Overhead 3 (MERGE process)
Overhead 4 (Institutionalization of gender)
TIME: 45 minutes
STEPS AND ACTIVITIES:
5 MIN Introduction. Explain the background to USAID WID policy, clarifying the WID
(women's equity) and GAD (efficiency; sustainability) approaches and that both are
important. Quote from GENESYS, assumption that: Women and men have important
roles in all extractive and agroforestry systems, as sources of knowledge about resources,
as producers, processors and sellers. There is little information about this division of labor
by gender. In order to improve the probability of adoption of GCC-introduced
innovations, projects need to be based on, and adapted to, a more precise understanding of
the knowledge, abilities, activities, and aspirations of women and men.
5 MIN Summary of GENESYS Summarize the activities, challenges, and lessons learned
of GENESYS during past three years in GCC program (Overhead 1)
5 MIN Introduction to MERGE Summarize history of MERGE program and three areas
of emphasis: integration of gender, community participation, and natural resource
management; work with partners in Brazil, Peru and Ecuador (Overhead 2); and
integrated approach to institutionalization through partnerships, training, research, and
application with a central focus on work with communities (Overhead 3). List proposed
MERGE activities in Brazil: institutionalization (in collaboration with partners);
strengthening local capacity; training and technical assistance; networking and exchanges
(describe upcoming MERGE conference); documentation and dissemination.
10 MIN Define gender as distinctfrom sex Ask the participants to help with this
exercise. First, men raise their hands. Then, women raise their hands. Ask the men:
when you were children, what activities were considered suitable only for boys? For
women: only for girls? (list on newsprint). Women: Did you ever participate in any of
these activities considered suitable only for boys? Did the men? [Show how the
categories are flexible.] Was there some reason (boys or girls) did not participate in ?
[Show the absence of biological/physical reasons). Summarize that the exercise shows the
difference between sex (biological, fixed) and gender (culturally-defined, since childhood,
5 MIN Gender and GCC Program Give examples of how gender roles can directly affect
GCC project activities. (See comment #3 for examples). Clarify that gender means more
than working with women, although it is important to analyze the impact of interventions
(new demands on labor time; new income sources) on women and children and their
welfare. Gender also is potentially relevant at all levels of activity and partnership of the
10 MIN Institutionalization of gender within the GCC Program Explain that
GENESYS concentrated on working with Brazilian NGOs and helped to "institutionalize"
gender in these organizations. MERGE will broaden the strategy to work at all levels of
the program: work with already-established objectives, to define gender relevance and
how to measure progress; invest in strengthening of local capacity in Rio Branco and
Bel6m; strengthen networks within and outside Brazil. Introduce GENESYS chart of
"basic elements" of institutionalization of gender (Overhead 4). Clarify that MERGE will
seek to move each GCC partner forward along the continuum.
The MERGE proposal: Pose basic question: what is the real impact of GCC and
how is it differentiated by gender? Addressing this question can improve the possibility of
achieving GCC objectives, but at this point we don't know the answer. Explain MERGE
proposal to: 1) work with US grantees to define log frame indicators in terms of people
and ask how each might be differentiated by gender; 2) define specific gender indicators
for activities such as policy reform; institution-building; training; and work with
communities; 3) work with Brazilian grantees to defined product and process indicators
that are of interest in their work with communities; 4) assist in defining strategies for
collecting, analyzing, and applying data for M&E, documentation and adaptation of
existing strategies; 5) use GENESYS socioeconomic studies as point of departure for
definition of M&E strategies; 6) emphasize building of local capacity for these tasks,
through training and technical assistance, and links to outside networks.
5 MIN Conclusions Solicit participation of all GCC partners in defining strategy to
integrate gender as a fundamental concept in analysis of project impact; emphasize that
MERGE philosophy emphasizes partnerships, process, and networks and therefore open
participation in definition of joint activities.
(1) This session was presented at the Annual Coordination Meeting of the GCC program
in Brazil. It was the only session with gender content on the program. UF had been
requested to present the MERGE program, which required background information on
gender and GENESYS. At the end of the session, several participants approached us with
specific ideas about how gender could be relevant in their project activities.
The basic sequence could be adapted to other policy-oriented audiences: Policy
background (specific to group); work on gender to date (specific to sites); participative
activity on gender vs. sex; specific examples of gender relevance to programs represented;
concept ofinstitutionalization as a process; specific work proposals.
(2) The participative activity illustrating gender vs. sex must be followed in its sequence
in order to make the appropriate conceptual points. In Brazil, the exercise was simplified
to become a "game" focused on recalling childhood activities. It did not achieve the
analytical goals of eliciting the conceptual distinction between gender and sex.
(3) The examples of gender relevance in the GCC program included:
(a) PESACRE (a research and extension organization) proposed the development
of a pig-raising project to a community seeking alternative income sources. The
community response was not enthusiastic, because the field worker talked only to the men,
whereas the women were those primarily responsible for small animal care.
(b) Representatives of local NGOs that worked with women's groups participated
in a gender analysis training workshop and began to realize that their work might be more
effective if they used a gender approach, working with both women and men, rather than
focusing only on women.
(c) An agroforestry project in an extractive reserve in Acre was not going well,
especially in its seedling nursery. The project was working with men, whereas women
were the ones with more experience with plants and seedlings. Was this a flaw in project
(d) Several projects that propose new forms of processing of forest products for
the market did not consider the fact that they depend on increased labor by women. What
will be the impact on family income, women's time allocation, and household welfare?
These questions have not been addressed.
FACILITATORS: Marianne Schmink (University of Florida), Suely Anderson
SESSION ORIGIN: Jon Dain and Karen Kainer provided guidelines for the overall
session, and suggested the gender/sex exercise, based on an exercise developed by Denise
Garrafiel from a training session with PESACRE. They also reminded us of the examples
from GCC project activities. Marianne Schmink put together the overall sequence,
drawing on GENESYS reports and tools.
OVERHEADS: Overhead 1 was presented by Suely Anderson. In reality
she presented several overheads (not attached)
Overheads 2 and 3 are relevant only to MERGE projects
Overhead 4 was a Portuguese translation of a GENESYS tool