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Assessing women's role in development : a preliminary workbook

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Assessing women's role in development : a preliminary workbook
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Assessing women's role in development : a preliminary workbook
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Washington, D.C.
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Agency for International Development
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ASSESSING WdOMEN'S ROLE fI DEVELOPMtENT: A PRELfIMINARY WORKBOOK
Devvloped by the Bureau~ of Applied Rese3rch -.ri An'.hropolcSy
AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT WASHINGTON, D.C. 20523 June 22., 1935




T
Introduction ............................................... 4-5
Agricultural Production .................................... 6
I. Cropping Systems .................. : ................. 6
A. Gender Division of Labor ............................... G
B. Time Allocation ........................................ G-7
C. Access to Land for Agricultural Production ............. 7
1. Ownership Patterns .................................... 7-9
a. Family Farms ......................................... 7-8
1. Joint Ownership or Land Use Rights .................. 7
2. Separate Ownership or Land Use Rights ............... a
3. Single Ownership or Usufruct ........................ a
b. Women-Headed Households .............................. 9
D. Income Generation ...................................... 9
1. Cash Cropping ......................................... 9-11
E. Out-Migration .......................................... 11
F. Community Planning ..................................... 11
II. Livestock Management ................................... 12-lG
A. Gender Division of Labor ............................... 12
B. Time Allocation ........................................ 12-13
C. Access to Livestock Production Resources ............... 13
1. Ownership Patterns .................................... 13
2. Resource-Related Access Problems ...................... 13
D. Income Generation ...................................... 13
1. Livestock Sales ....................................... 13-14
2. Dairy Product Sales ................................... 14
3. Dairy Marketing ....................................... 15
E. Extension and Training ................................. 15-16
1. Veterinary Care ....................................... 1G
F. Community Planning ..................................... 16
III. Credit
A. Local Credit Programs ...................................... 17
B. Access to Credit ....................................... 17
C. Investment ............................................. 17
D. Community Planning ..................................... 17
IV. Marketing ............................................. 18-19
A. Gender Division of Labor ............................... 18
B. Time Allocation ........................................ 18
C. Access to Marketing Resources .......................... 18
1. Marketing Cooperatives ................................ 18
2. Transport ............................................. 19
3. Community Planning .................................... 19
D. Income Generation ...................................... 19
E. Community Planning ..................................... 19
2




V. Appropriate Technology.................................. 20-22
A. Gender Division of Labor................................ 20
B. Time Allocation.......................................... 20
C. Access to Appropriate Technology........................ 20-21
1. Ownership Patterns...................................... 20
2. Distribution of~ New Tools and Eq~iipment............... 20-2.
3. Affordibility........................................... 21
4. Durability.............................................. 21
D. Income Generation........................................ 21
E. Extension arid Training.................................. 21-22
F. Community Planning....................................... 22
VI. Water Management.......................................2 3-25
A. Gender Division of Labor................................ A
1. Household Water Use.................................... 23
2. Irrigation Water Use................................... 23
B. Time Alloca3tion.......................................... 23
C. Access to Water......................................... 23-24
1. System Management Access Problems...................... 24
2. Ownership-Related Access Problems...................... 24
D. Water Management......................................... 24
E. Income Generation........................................ 24-25
F. Extension and Training.................................. 25
G. Community Planning....................................... 25
VII. Extension and Training................. ................ 26-27
A. Extension Services....................................... 26
B. Training Programs.................................................. 26
C. Community Planning...................................... 2
Bibliography................................................. 28-30
Appendix 1. Sample Farming System Calenders arnd Gender Division of Labor Charts.................................... 31-34
3




In tr oduct i on
The Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology at the University of Arizona has developed a preliminary workbook for
professionals working in development. The purpose of this workbook is to provide AID personnel and private development practitioners with a set of guidelines for locating, generating and incorporating information on gender-related issues into development projects. The on-the-job focus of this workbook, is designed to help development practitioners to:
Decide what QUESTIONS to ask and HOW to ask them. The questions in this workbook can be used to identify gaps in data collection on gender-related issues and to design new data collection formats. It can be used to analyze already collected data, and to develop questionnaires.
The framework in this workbook presents a -systematic way to sort through and organize this information in
terms of how it relates to development planning.
This workbook was developed on the basis of an evaluation conducted at the l985 Women in Development Workshop in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants at the workshop indicated that they would like a comprehensive and systematic workbook for field use that
would include detailed questions. Toward that end, we are offering this workbook as a preliminary, partial draft which
covers gender-related issues in agriculture. Questions have been drawn from the proposed 'Systematic Questions Framework' section of the workbook under the topic of agriculture. Questions are provided in the areas of: Cropping Systems, Livestock Management, Credit, Marketing, Appropriate Technology, Water Management,
4




and Extension and Training. A professional who is developing or evaluating an irrigation project, for example, could read and answer the questions in the sections on Croppin9 Systems and Water Management. Topical biblidgraphies that list significant material that was reviewed and drawn on for the Workbook can be found at the end of the Workbook. When a question is directly derivative, the citation is listed immediately after the question.
In the future, the Workbook could be expanded to cover additional topics such as Private Enterprise, Forestry, and Education, and to include major sections on Project Analysis, overall country Program Analysis, and country-specific sources of information on women.
We would like to emphasize that the workbook presented here is not complete. We encourage input from development practitioners, including su99estions for additional questions, sections, and topics. Please forward your comments to:
Bureau for Applied Research in Anthropology
Department of Anthropology
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85719
5




I. CROPPING SYSTEMS
A.Pendr1 iviinn of Lbo
1. Create a farming systems calendar detailing which agricultural tasks are done when and by whom. Specify as to crop and technology used. (See Appendix 1, pp.33 for examples
of farming systems calenders.
2. What is the rate of participation of men, women and children in farm, domestic and off-farm work. during the yearly production cycle? For farm, domestic and off-farm
work, who does what tasks?
3. What are the tasks that only women do and the tasks that only men do? Is the division of labor rigidly or flexibly
divided along gender lines?
4. During an agricultural season, what are the gender specific strategies for crop production, marketing, and
investment of income?
5. How would planned change alter the division of labor?
Would men or women be expected to take on more work or would their workload be reduced? If demand for labor is increased, what effects will occur during times of peak. seasonal work.
load? (See Appendix 1, p. 35 for a table detailing the
effects of change on the gender division of labor.)
6. Will improved technical production packages increase labor requirements in areas that men or women specialize in? How will proposed changes affect seasonal labor requirements for
men arid women?
7. Have local women been asked about how this change will affect their schedules? Do women anticipate that they will have problems irn taking on additional work during peak.
seasons in the farm year?
B. Time. Allocton
1. How much time do men, women arid children spend on farm,
domestic and off-farm tasks?
2. What specific time constraints need to be overcome to allow women to expand farm production activities? Do men or women experience time conflicts over involvement in
subsistence versus cash crop production?
3. Will planned changes increase time allocation irn areas that men or women specialize in? Could this cause labor bottlenecks? Could additional technical inputs alleviate this
condition?
G




C. Access. to. Lanid for. Aqr i ciliitra.1 Produict ior:.
1. What is the legal status of women regardirn9
-inheritance of land?
-purchase of lard?
--sale of land?
-ownership of land?
-use rights of land?
-membership in cooperatives'
2. What is the risk of cash crop production leading to a loss
of land for women's and household subsistence farming? What is the risk of the introduction of a money economy to transformation of farmers to laborers (low-wa9e) dependent on capital for existence? Would women and men be differentially
affected? (Pezullo 1982)
3. What are the effects of agricultural policy on producers?
Does it protect small farmers and their means of production (for example, in terms of land tenure, subsidies, etc.)? Does it favor large and/or commercial farmers? What do these policies imply for women as subsistence and/or cash cropping
farmers, agricultural laborers, household producers?
1. Ownership Patterns
a. Family Farms
1. What is the pattern of usufruct or land ownership or, family farms? Does the family own all the land jointly, do the husband and the wife(-ves) retain separate access to or ownership of their own fields (from inheritance, purchase,
etc.) or does one control all the land?
1. Joint Ownership or Land Use Rights
1. How is joint ownership recognized legally?
2. Do husbands and wives jointly purchase land? Is the wife
legally recognized as a full co-owner?
3. How are ,decisions made about what to plant on which
fields? Do husband and wife jointly decide for all fields or does one decide for all field's? Are different individuals
responsible for different agricultural decisions?
4. What is the division of labor pattern or joint fields? Do men tend certain crops and women tend others? Which crops are
tended by men and which by women?
5. How are the earnings from cash crops grown or joint fields distributed within the family? How are the earnings allocated
and spent?
.7




2. Separate Ownership or Land Use Rights
1. If husband and wife retain separate usufruct or ownership
of fields, do men tend to control more land than women?
2. Do husbands and wives jointly purchase land? Is the wife
legally recognized as a full co-owner?
3. How are decisions made about what to plant on which fields? Do husbands and wives jointly decide for all fields, does each decide individually for his or her fields, or does
one decide for all fields?
4. Are different crops grown on men's fields than on women's fields? What are they? For example, are cash crops planted on
men's fields and subsistence crops on women's?
5. How is family labor allocated for men's and women's fields? Is there an equal exchange of labor or does one work.
more for the other than vice versa? Estimate the amount of time men and women spend on their individual fields, on their
spouse's fields and on family fields.
G. What benefits do women receive for their work on men's fields? What benefits do men receive for their work on
women's fields?
7. How are the earnings men receive from their agricultural.
production spent? How are the earnings women receive from
their agricultural production spent?
3. Single Ownership or Usufruct
1. Which family member tends to control all the land?
2. If all the land is controlled by a man, what are women'
use rights? Are these recognized legally?
3. How are decisions made within the household regarding what
crops to plant, use of inputs, marketing, etc?
4. What are the cropping and division of labor patterns under this system: for example, do women tend the subsistence crops
and men the cash crops?
5. What benefits do women receive for working land that is controlled entirely by their husbands? How are earnings from
the land distributed within the family?
G. Under a system of mall ownership or control of all land, how can women acquire land of their own? What are women's
legal rights as land owners?




b. Women-Headed Households
1. What percentage (estimate) of farming households are headed by women? In what percentage (estimate) of these is
there an absent husband (emigrant)?
2. Who makes the decisions regarding farming and agricultural work. irn these households (what to plant, when to plant, purchase of inputs, marketing, division of labor, etc.)? Are different individuals responsible for different agricultural
-decisions?
3. Who owns the land farmed by these households: husband, male relative, female head, community? Who has usufruct
rights?
4. If the land is owned by someone other than the female head, or if someone else has usufruct rights, what are the
rights of the female head to the land in terms of:
-legal rights?
-rights to production from land?
-rights to earnings from production?
5. What percent (estimate) of female-headed farming households are involved ir subsistence farming, and to what extent? What percent (estimate) are involved in commercial farming, and to what extent? How does this compare to farming
households where a man is present?
6. How -does production from farms of female headed households
compare to the production from other farms?
7. How does the use of inputs (chemical fertilizer, improved seed) or farms of female-headed households compare to other
farms?
8. What kind of agricultural technology is used by farms of female-headed households? How does this compare to the
technology used by male farmers?
D..i.come. Gerer.ati.o.
1. Cash Cropping
1. What is women's involvement in cash cropping? Of women involved in agriculture, estimate the level of participation in cash cropping and the level of participation in
subsistance farming. How does this compare to men?
2. If men and women grow cash crops, what percentage of the wages do women, receive? How does this compare to the work they do? (Compare the level of income return for men and
women in relation to their labor input).
9




3. How are the wages for cash cropping distributed, if at all, within the family or kin group? (Charlton 1984)
4. How does cash cropping seasonally affect the amount of income available to men and women? Do women receive large or small amounts of income? How is it distributed throughout the year?
5. Are women given equal access to cash crop resources, especially regarding:
-training?
-cooperatives?
-credit?
-markets?
6. What constraints do women face which prevent them from growing and marketing cash crops?
7. If planned policy changes include the introduction or support of cash cropping, how will these changes affect women's involvement in cash cropping or subsistence cropping'
B. In what ways wifl women become beneficiaries of
commercial agricultural policy changes? 1. e., which of the following benefits will be made available to women:
-new crops or other resource input?
-agricultural extension training?
-labor-saving appropriate technology?
-new income earning opportunities?
9. What assumptions are made that current commercial agricultural policy and inputs will benefit women? Have the women in the target area had previous experience with development input? What happened and why?
10. How might the promotion of commercial agriculture affect women's access to land and availability of land for
subsistence cropping? (Pezollo 1982)
11. Will increases in the labor needed for cash cropping affect women's access to labor from other household members?
12. How does the move into cash cropping affect the decisionmaking power of women
-in terms of farming (Which crops to plant, inputs,
expansion, etc.)?
-in terms of how household money is spent and used?
13. How do expenditure patterns differ for income generated by major cash crop production and minor cash crop production?
10




14. Will an increase in land allotted to cash cropping affect the family diet? Could changes in work load affect the nutritional requirements of family members? Do families have the cash and subsistence resources to cope with this?(Pezullo
1982)
15. Could the expansion of cash cropping arnd the introduction of a money economy displace women farmers and force them into
wage labor? (Pezullo 1982)
E.
1. What work-related migration opportunities exist for men
arid women? How do these opportunities compare to
opportunities that exist in agriculture?
2. What effect has female out-migration had on agriculture
arid the rural division of labor?
3. What effect has male out-migration had on agr iculture and the rural division of labor? How has it affected the participation of women in commercial arid subsistence
agriculture?
4. How does out-migration affect the decision-making power of
w omenr:
-ins terms of farming (which crops to plant, inputs, expanision, etc.)
-in terms of how household money is spent and' used?
5. How will planned changes affect the workload of women in areas where extensive male out-migration has already resulted in increased involvement of women in agr icultural production?
F. CPomnity plnarina
1. Are women involved in the local planning of agricultural projects? Have women expressed interest in cooperating in a
communi ity agricultural project?
2. Can planners organize a women 's agricultural cooperative?
Have women cpmmuniity leaders-'been identified to serve on such
a committee?
3. Have the womnr in the project area had any previous experience with agricultural development projects? What
happened arid why?




II. LJVESTOCK MANAGEMENT
1.Estimate what percentage of women and mer, own livestock. If women do not have ownership of animals, estimate what
percentage of womer, have use rights.
. Have women been asked if they see livestock production as
an area in which they would like to expand activities?
A. Gender Elivisior of Labo'
1. Estimate the percentage of women that care for livestock.
What types of animals do they take care of?
2. What aspects of animal care are women primarily
respor,sible for? E. 9., which of the following activities are
women involved with on a daily basis:
-feeding?
-water irg?
-herdirg?
-care of sick. animals?
3. Is large livestock. care thought to be primarily a male
activity? Do women actually do a portion of this work?
4. What proportion of the labor for processing products produced from animals is contributed by women? E. 9. are men
or women primarily responsible for the following tasks-meat production?
-wool production?
-eg9 production?
-milking arid dairy production?
5. How would planned changes alter the amount of labor that men and women expend on livestock care? Will men arid women be expected to do more work. or less? If labor demands are increased, what effects will occur during times of peak
activity during the farm cycle?
6. Will planned changes affect the current division of labor for livestock, care? Have local women, beer, asked about how
this change will affect their schedules? Do womjb, anticipate that they will have problems with taking on additional work
during peak. seasons in the farm year?
B. Lime Allocatior,
1. Compare the time expenditure of men and women on livestock.
production activities? Do women primarily structure their
time around farming or household activities rather than livestock production? What time priority do women assign to
livestock activities?
12




2. Estimate the percentage of time that men and women spend on animal product processing activities. How do they
schedule time for dairyirng arid other activities?
3. What specific time constraints need to be overcome to
allow women to expand livestock production activities?
4. Will planned changes cause increased time allocation in areas that men or women specialize in? Could this cause labor :ottlenecks? Could additional technical inputs alleviate this
cord it ion?
C. Access. to. Livestock. P.oduiction. Reso..r.ces.
1. Ownership Patterns
1. What rights do women have to livestock, arid how are these related to the livestock. rights of other family members? How do these interrelated rights to livestock affect the
purchase, sale or care of livestock?
2. Are men or women reluctant to talk about ownership of cattle? Have women been interviewed in the presence of others or in private? Can women interviewers be employed to obtain
accurate data or, women's livestock holdings?
3. Do women obtain animals through self purchase or
inheritance?
2. Resource-Related Access Problems
. Evaluate the amount of land and labor that a household needs to support large livestock. or small ruminants. Are there any areas in which women do riot have access to
sufficient resources for the maintenance of larger animals?
2. What problems do women face in large livestock raising?
D. I ome. GenDer.atior.
1. Livestock Sales
1. Who makes the decision about the sale of livestock: husband, wife, female head? Do women have the right to sell larqe animals without the consent of their husband or the individual in whose herd the animal is kept? Car, the husband
sell his wife's livestock? With or without her permission?
2. In households where the male head controls the sale of livestock., who makes decisions about the sale of animals when
the husband is away? E. 9.,
-the wife?
-the wife with help of male relatives?
-does the wife need to contact the husband?
13




3. Do women have the right to utilize income from the sale of
livestock without discussing it's use with their husband?
4. On what occasions do women sell cattle? E. 9., do women
sell cattle for:
-purchase of personal jewelry?
-purchase of medicines for illness?
-purchase of grain in time of famine?
-other (Specify)?
5. Do women see livestock. as a form of savings investment?
How is the cash from women's animal sales used? E.g.,
estimate what portion is spent on.
-school fees
-health care costs
-general family expense
-farm investments
6. How will planned changes in commercial livestock policy
affect women's involvement in livestock raising?
7. In what ways will women become beneficiaries of commercial livestock policy changes? Which of the following benefits
will be made available to women:
-extension training?
-new animals or other input?
-l.abor-saving appropriate technology?
-new income earning opportunities?
B. What assumptions are made that current commercial livestock policy and inputs will benefit women? Have the
women in the target area had any previous experience with
development input? What happened and why?
2. Dairy Product Sales
1. Estimate what level of output of the following dairy
products are kept for household use or sold by women:
-mi 1 k
-butter -cheese
-yogurt
2. How does the amount of dairy products consumed at home and offered for sale vary, in relation to each other, throughout
the year?
3. Do women control the use of dairy production income? What items do women use dairy income for? Do women ever use dairy
income to purchase animals?.
14




3. Dairy Marketing
1. Is the sale of milk or other daiiry products regarded as
improper? How will this affect attempts to form dairy cooperatives?
2. What problems do women face in~ dairy production for
marketing? E. 9., do they face:
-production fluctuation?
-poor hygeine during milking, separating, churning or
cheese -ma king9?
3. What problems do women face in~ marketing dairy products?
E.g., do women~ have problems with:
- tr a nsport at ionr?
-lack of capital?
-pr ice fluctuation?
-unhyg ieni c dairy products?
-uncooled storage''
4. Are women 's dairy productions~ activities limited by the
need to use livestock for work (ploughing, etc.)?
5. Where can womer obtain the best prices for their dairy
products? Village markets? Dairy Traders?
6. Are women contcerrned about the market prices for dairy
pro duic ts?
7. If national agricultural policies favor centralized modern dairies will women's traditional income-generating activities be affected? Will household nutrition be affected by women'/s
loss of income?
E. E xnionad TID irAi
1. Estimate the per centage of men~ and women who have received
training in the following areas:
-livestock husbandry
-poultry care
-dairy production
2. Is it possible to locate arid train women livestock.
extension workers?
3. Will men and women~ receive training in:
-genetic upgrading? -credit opportunities?
-veterinary practices?
-animal health control?
- va cc inrat ion?
-livestock management?
-nutr ition arnd disease preveratiorl'
-' up to date' butter andi cheese making methods?
-cold storage facilities?
-cleaning equipment?
-marketing facilities?
15




1. Veterinary Care
1.Estimate the percentage of animals that mern and women lose to disease. To what causes do men ard women attribute these
deaths?
2.Estimate the frequency of contact that mern and women have with representatives of local veterinary units or agricultural societies. What types of information do men and women receive in the area of livestock management, nutrition,
disease prevention, etc.?
3.Who pays for animal medicine and vaccination? Are womer,
able to afford to treat their animals?
F. C!pn .P 1 a ri r inq..
1. Are women involved in the local planning of community livestock projects? Have women expressed interest in
cooperating in a community livestock, project?
2. If animals are traditionally controlled by men, will a womar's livestock project need the explicit or implicit
support of men?
3. If a project is planning to introduce a new animal, will assignment of care-taking to women be acceptable ir, cultures
where man traditionally care for animals? Will women be able
to derive benefits in such a situation?
4. Can planners organize a cooperative women's livestock.
committee? Have community women leaders been identified to
serve or such a committee?
5. Will women participate ir, defining dairy policy? Can
a village-level dairy cooperative be started?
16




III. CREDIT
A. Local1 Credit Pr~oq rams.
1. How has the design of local credit programs (size and time of repayment, hours of operation or location) affected
women?
2. Is there a traditional credit association in the area? Do
women have such an association?
3. Is there interest iv, new types of credit associations?
Which groups would join?
B. Access to Credit
1. What is the current status of women regarding access to
credit?
-How carn women draw credit?
-Which women car, draw credit widows, large
landowners, etc.?
-Do husbands ard wives use credit separately? If so, do
women help their husbands pay back the husband's loans, and do men help their wives pay back the wives'
loans?
2. Are there social customs that restrict women's access to credit officials? What are they? How should this be addressed
in the project design?
C. Irvestmert.
1. How does women's access to collateral affect women's
ability to invest in agriculture and technology?
.....C...........
I. Are women involved in planning for community credit opportun i ties?
2. How will planned changes affect women's access to credit?
3. Have planned changes included targeting women as the beneficiaries of credit opportunities? What assumptions have been made in believing that planning inputs will lead to
benefits for women?
17




IV. MARKET ING
A. Gender Divis ion of Labor
1. What is the rate of participation of men and women in marketing? Is marketing primarily a woman's occupation? What
types of items do men and women specialize in selling?
2. During the yearly farm cycle, what are the gender specific strategies for crop ard livestock-related production
activities, marketing and investment of income?
3. How would planned changes affect women's marketing activities? Would men arid women have more or less access to
marketing opportunities?
B. Time. Al1locat-ion.
1. How much time do men, women and children spend on marketing activities? Do women trade in small quantities throughout the year while men trade larger quantities at
selected times or vice versa?
2. Do women indicate that there are time limitations or, the amount of trading that they can schedule due to other
household labor needs? How could planned change free up more
time for women's trading activities?
C. Access to Marketin. Resources
1. Marketing Cooperatives
1. What types of cooperatives are there in the area targeted
by the project?
2. Are women legally entitled to join these cooperatives?
What are the criteria for joining a cooperative? Who are currently members of the cooperatives? Who are in positions
of authority?
3. What kinds of services are provided by the cooperatives?
What kind of access do women have to these services?
4. Are the existing cooperatives involved primarily with cash crops? Are there cooperatives for crops for home consumption?
5. Are there existing cooperatives that meet needs women may
have
- livestock.
-subsistence crops
-cash crops?
10. What is the feasibility arid/or the need for separate women 's cooperatives? What would be the benefits and
disadvantages of a separate women's cooperative?
18




2. Transportation
1. To what degree do men or women have access to animal or motor transport to get their produce or goods to market? Does lack of transportation limit the distance that women carn
travel to trade?
1. Community P 1 an rn irng
1. Are women involved ir local community planning of
mar ketirng opportunities?
2. How will planned changes affect women's access to and
involvement in cooperatives?
3. If the project is to start a new cooperative, how have
local women been, included in the planning process?
-Have they been asked what their needs are?
-Have they been asked to participate in designing the
project?
-How is their participation assured?
D. Icome. Geer.at i.o
1. Who receives the payment for marketed goods: the husband,
the wife, either, or both?
2. Estimate at what rate men and women are able to accumulate
capital for further investment in marketing activities.
2. What is the impact of imported goods or locally produced modern products on women's traditional marketing patterns and
income?
E. Community 1pari.Ein_9
1. Are women involved in local planning for expansion of community marketing opportunities? Have women expressed
interest in expanding their trading opportunities?
2. If planned change efforts include the introduction of a new product, will it be acceptable for women to sell this type of product if it is simFlar to items traditionally sold
by men?
3. Will women participate in defining marketing policy?
19




V. APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY.
1. What types of local agricultural technology do women use?
What kinds of new agricultural tools do they say they would
like to see introduced?
A. Gender Division of Labor
1. Which tasks that men or women do will necessitate
appropriate technological aids?
2. Will the new technology complement or interfere with women's traditional organization of work? Is the new technology for use by individual women or does it necessitate the formation of cooperatives? If women's group cooperation is needed, are existing groups cohesive enough to provide it?
B. Ti~me. Al1locat-ior.
1. How much time do women spend or activities utilizing traditional technology? Could the introduction of appropriate
technology shorten the amount of time that a woman spends on
these activities?
2. Could the introduction of appropriate technology have ar impact on women's time allocation for other agricultural or household activities? Will it increase time spent because of
the introduction of new, related tasks?
C. Access to.Appr it Technolo,4v
1. Ownership Patterns
1. Will there be private or communal ownership of new
technology? If men control it, will women be given continual access? If the new technology is communally owned, will a new
community infrastructure need to be established? (Hosk.ins:n.d.)
2. Distribution of New Tools and Equipment
1. Estimate the degree to which both men and women have access to new agricultural technology. To what extent are
women utilizing improved tools arid equipment for:
-ground preparation (improved ploughs, tractors)?
-planti ng?
-weeding?
-harvesting?
.At present, to what degree do women have access to tools ard techniques for the manufacture of this appropriate
technology?
3. If women do riot have access to the means for creating or repairing these items, will they be able to afford or locate
people to repair them?
20




4. If appropriate technology has been introduced, did it replace a traditional technology controlled by women with one that is now controlled by men? If so, what benefits do women
cortirue to derive?
3. Affordability
1. Will women be able to pay for this new technology or obtain credit to purchase it? Will the overall benefits of this new technology be greater than the cost? Cart women use
this technology long enough to pay back any irvestmert?
(Hoskins n.d.)
2. Does the new technology require locally available resources (sun, water, land, animal labor, etc.) to run it?
Do women have access to these resources?
3. If the new technology requires fuel, will women be able to
afford owner or operator costs? (Hoskins No Date)
4. Durability
1. Will the new technology be functional under women's local working conditions? Is the new technology durable enough to
withstand women's daily usage? (Hoskins: No Date)
2. If the new items or tools need to be replaced, will women
be able to make a replacement from local materials? Cart women use local knowledge or be taught how to replace new items or
tools? (Hoskins: no date)
D. Income" Generat i.i.n
1. Will the new items or tools result in a marketable
agricultural surplus or other product that women can sell?
2. Will the new technology have a negative impact on women's
income-generat ing activities?
3. Will the new products be compatible with the traditional
marketing ard distribution system? (Hoskins: No Date) E. Extension anid Tra i r in I
, ._............... ........ ... .r.! ... ........L r. ...
1. Is the new technology simple and easily mastered by men
arid women?
2. Have women in the area been previously exposed to new
technology? What happened? Why? How can this information be
used to modify current educational efforts?
21




3. If women will be using the new technology, will the
*techniques for using it be taught to them directly? Can women
get information arnd technical help from extension workers, agency personnel, Peace Corps volunteers, or private
voluntary groups?
F. Cpnpynty Planrinq4
1. How are women involved in local planning for the
introduction of appropriate technology?
2. In what areas do women perceive the introduction of
appropriate technology to be essential? E. g.,
-agricultural production?
- wee dinr?
-harvesting?
- hauin irg?
-storing arnd harvesting of foods?
3. What major problems could appropriate technology help women to solve? Can women be motivated to see appropr iate
technology as a solution to their problems?
4. Will rnew appropriate technology have a positive impact orn
women or a large cost-benefit ratio?
5. How will the introduction of rnew technology change traditional patterns of women 's access to resources?
Positively? Negatively? (Hoskirns: rno date)




V1. W AT ER l MANAGEMENT
1. What are women' s water needs? Have women been questioned about the availability of water arnd water use practices? Do women say that they would like to see water system
improvements?
A. Gender. PlyisioRn of. abor
1. Household Water Use
1. Do men and women have different roles or areas of user
specialty in water system use?
2. Estimate the proportion~ of water that womer supply through
portage or irrigation for the following activities:
-watering food crops
-watering domestic animals or poultry
-watering kitchen gardens
-watering tree crops
2. Irrigatiorn Water Use
1. Have surveys of women's water use beer taken? What questions were asked? What do surveys show in each of the
following areas?
-volume of water usage
-distance to water source
-preferred sites of water use
-water use beliefs and practices2. Have irrigation system improvements increased cropping
intensity and created a greater demand for women's labor?
B. Tim .llocatio.
1. What proportion of a woman's time is taker up by activities involving water use? How much time is spent on
agricultural water use activities?
2. What specific agricultural water use time constraints carn
be relieved by water system improvement activities?
C. Access to WatrZ
1. Do mern and' women have problems in gaining and retaining access to water? At present, do women receive sufficient
irrigation water?
23




1System Management Access Problems
1. Are there gender specific operation problems with
irrigation systems? E. 9., do women have problems with:
-timing of water delivery?
-water quatity?
-water canal disrepair?
-lack of water for some fields?
2. What do women perceive as the most significant problems in
irrigating their fields?
2. Ownership-Related Access Problems
1. Is it possible to assign water rights to women for their
food crops?
2. If titling of irrigated land is introduced, will both men
arnd women be eligible for ownership of irrigated property?
3. If irrigation system improvements raise the value of land,
will efforts be made to see that women still have access? D. QjtRMnaq en
1. Do women have community leadership roles in water
management?
2. Are women involved in~ water management as:
-acceptors of new technologies?
-users of improved facilities?
-managers of water supply an~d sanitation programs?
-agents of behavioral change in the use of facilities?
3. In what aspects of local water management are women insvolved? E. g., do women:
-obtain water and see that it is available for local
u se?
-select water sources?
-provide labor and funds for water system maintenance?
4. What are women's formal andi informal roles in water user
associations? Are women eligible for formal membership? if riot, do women have any informal roles in water management
d ispu't es?
E. Income. Q3nerAtior:
1. How will women's income-generating activities be affected
by changes in the irrigation water supply?
24




F. Extension and TrIpnInn9
1. Will women be trained in activities associated with the
management and maintenance of the community water supply?
2. What specific time constraints will need to be faced
before women carn be trained to participate in water system
improvement activities?
1. Are both men and women involved in the local planning of
community water system projects?
2. How high a priority do women place on water system improvements? What is the relative need for water system
improvements in relation to other needs?
3. Will existing women's groups be identified for
incorporation into the program as recipients of inputs?
4. Can local community groups be mobilized to support women's
participation in water system planning?
5. What types of improvements would women recommend for
redesigning irrigated agricultural systems?
25




VII. EXTENSION AND TRAINING
A. Extensiont Services
A.............e........... .........i.....s..
1. What extension services are available for women in the
targeted area?
2. Are training and extension services for women located in
areas accessible to the people who would most want them?
3. What is the goal of extension services for women and how does it differ from the extension services for men?
(Dinrerstein, n,.d. )
4. How are extensions workers accepted by villagers? Are extension workers currently contacting women? What is an
estimate of the frequency of contact?
5. What differences, if any, exist in the kind of training and education that male arid female extension agents receive?
(Dinnersteir n.d.)
B. Tr.irirq9 Proqrams 2p1
B ...........q... .o.r= s
1. What is the general information level of women concerning agricultural methods and are they aware of and interested in possibilities for improving their level of competence?
(Dinnerstein, n.d.)
2. How does women's training correspond to their contribution to the economy particularly their contribution to the
agricultural sector? (Dirnersteir n.d.)
3. What k.ird of agricultural training, if any, do women want?
4. What are the constraints in the culture or religion which would make it difficult for women to receive training from male extension agents? How car this be dealt with within the
project?
5. What is the attitude of mer and women toward women who seek. agricultural training and receive it? After women receive the training, are they regarded as acceptable sources
of information or not? (Dirrnerstein n.d.)
6. What are women's time contraints for attending training sessions? How are sessions planned so as to minimize the
effects of these constraints?
7. What are the requirements for attending training programs?
Are women excluded because of these requirements?
26




C. Commuj1riity Pla ri
1. Are women involved in local planning 9 of e tension outreach? Have women expressed interest in receiving
extension training?
2. Can planners organize classes of women for training? Have women community leaders been identified to help in organizing
such classes?
3. Have the women in the project area had any previous
experience with extension outreach programs? What happened
and why?
27




BIBLIOGRAPHY
The following sources were used to derive workbook questions and will provide further information or, the topic.
Agriculture
Croppin9
Burfisher, Mary E. arnd Nadine R. Horernstein. Sex Roles in the
Ni ei an T iv F a rm Hou s eh ol1d a nd t he Difrnil1mat
..3 e.r..... 9i . .. ....m. .H.... .u sh ....... .t.. DAJ..E...e. r i. .i. ......m... ........f
!eve ...lopment P..cts.......Case Studies of the Impact of LargeScale Development Projects on Women. Study No. 2. New York:
International Programs: The Population Council. 1983.
Charlton, Sue Ellen. Women .. i. Third World Develo2,ert.
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 1984.
Cloud, Kathleen. Women's.. Productivity i ... A.9i.cu1..t u. r a I.1
.S~~~~~y...s..t...e. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .. .!..;. .~.rL .i ..r ..i...... f.... ..r _e.~. .!e. ..i . .. .........................
%..stems: Considerations for Pri9ect Desia.. Paper prepared for the Harvard Institufor or International Developmernt Case
Study and Training Project. No Date.
Dinnrerstein, Myra. Possible Guestionrs a nd Methodological
Considerations for a urveyon Women in Rural D e e 1 o pjmet
..C o~ ..2 .. K..Y. .o ..S:..r. e .J........e...... ..:... ........... .E.... ..o.. .r..... _t
Tucson, Arizona: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No
Date.
Overholt, Catherine, Kathleen Cloud, Mary Baughman Anderson a n d James Austin ..D. .imen Development:A Framework for Pr ..o t.. AD.r:.l...%i..s..Paper prepared for the Harvard Institute
for International Development Case Study and Training
Project. No Date.
Palmer, Ingr id. The .Nemow Case:;.. Case Studies. of. the Impact. of Laret SeJK eeio.pmeit. Pro jcts. on Women: A Series for
.Pla...ners. Working Paper *7. September, 1979.
Pezzullo, Caroline. Women and Development: Guidelines for Pa.od..e. d..P.roJAc..t...i.. Santiago, Chile: CEPAL/United
Nations. 1982.
Livestock
Henderson, Helen. Th...e Role of .Women in Li..vestock. Productio.
In Vengroff Richard (ed.), Upper Volta: EDvironment Uncertainty d: L.ivestock P.. ..r..ct.io..n. Lubbock, Texas:
International Center for the Study of Arid and Semi-Arid
Lands. 1980.
Henderson, Helen. Effects.......he More. and Better.. Foods Dairy.
.Comp..o9..Lt. on Women.... Draft Report to More and Better Foods Project, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC and the
National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. 1985.
28




Noble, Amanda L. and Michel F n. n Socio.. cal.........
c......onstrairts and.....S..oc.ial ...P.s il.... .sesi.iotdis..u.C..tio.r:.ofdo....G.o-a.t9s.
in. Western Ke enya-.. Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Support Program Technical Report Series #18. Paper prepared
for U.S.A.I.D. 1983.
Zimmermanr, Sonja D. The Ch .e.se. Make...s o..f Kaf.. A...l Bahr..... T.h.
r~ol of ..-..-.-.~ .- -... ..............
.W..........en i n _H ... ........ i
Production. Cairo, Egypt and Leiden, Netherlands: Research Centre for Women and Development, Women in Development SeriesEgypt. 1982.
Marketing
Dinnerstein, Myra. P.s.s.i...e. QJ..e.s.tions and Methb.od.o.o.9.ic l...
Considerations for a Surv.y oy Women in Development. Tucson,
..C...o..r..si ......................._o.. ~ J .....y.....o.r. ------..... .i ,...........1...o..p.@er.t. u s n
Arizona: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No Date.,
Henderson, Helen and Eric Arnould. .GDe n-n ..de r....._e.e es. .D.ifr
Agricultural Production, Ma.. In.9_rati and
.9 i....J..Lt;J.........P...o. ..............,.. M- ar .et. .Inr te.q.r..at.i.or. -----.9Moderni.ation. University of Arizona: Bureau of Applied
Anthropology. 1983.
Credit
Dinnerstein, Myra. P.s..s..ible.. Q..sti.. and M...t e..9 1..93.i..1..
Considerations for auyeonWmeiin Rural Deve lopmen...
..C.~~~_k W mr-.;.e_. .. .~:.. .t.o.. ....L .e.. or.W..Le..r. ",i **r.:.. ----. *..*.[ ..........o... ...;..t........W
Tucsorn, Ariz-ona: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No
Date.
Appropriate Technology
Carr, Marilyn. A.Z. .. .e Technol.. y. .. A..fli..r. W .me ...
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: The African Training and Research Centre for Women of the United Nations Economic Commission
for Africa. 1978.
Hoskins, Marilyn. Ap.. i.... Techr.rlo.9y Eff.9rts.. n. t ..e
.Field: Issues R eonsidered.... Part II... .Ho se h o. e.e
. .9. ..- T.e nolq.9.... .. men. Document Prepared for the
Office of Women in Development, U.S.A.I.D. No Date.
Henderson, Helen and Janice Monk. .Wom. e rd. .W. .q... ..te
.TechnoloqY: Nee..9.s.. .....n.....ds.. 2i Possibilities. Barth, C. Richard (ed.),
Proceedings of the 1982 Rocky Mountain Council for Latin American Studies. El Paso, Texas: Center for Inter-American and Border Studies at the University of Texas at El Paso.
1982.
29




Pala, Achola L. African Women. in Rural tlevelop2ment: Research .Trends a... .d Priorities. Overseas Liason Committee Paper No.
12. American Washington D. C. : American Council on
Education. 1976.
Mater
Cloud, Kate. Women. Water..... Mana..qeme.t. .Uderst.. ..9.
.h .. ...rK .... . .. .A... ... ....... .... ... ...... .. .o.. e. )2 r sin
C l o ude. K ater -. ... ?.. r...... ... .... ................r....e..... ......
Gle-a-ned. Fromni M-Y As-ian. Tr-ip (eot rnipl neetd i
the. Water. Maria 'e ert Sre-i.I-I. ro_1ect) 1982.
Cloud, Kate. Women's Roles in Irrigated Product ion Systems:* iMovement T o war._ a ...nI ..t e..ratedApr.9t. The Women and Food
.. o.....e.m e~ t .. T ..w-........ .....L. t e..r-. ... ... -..c.. h.. h .. r
Information Network 2:1 (September). 1984.
E e n d o r f, M a r y. 9.o.per,.. W.ate....r ..W.s te:.. Bey.o! .Accegg ss. Paper
Available from the Water and Sanitation for Health Project,
1611 N. Kent St., Room 1002, Arlington, VA 22209.
Elmendorf, Mary L. and Raymand B. Isely.p.t i..c a..-nd P.v.....i.vat3.t.e
Roles of Women in Water SupplyadSntto rgas ua
... ......... .. ..... .... . .. . .. ... ...:.........". .. .. . : .. .. ... .r.......-........ r. P .o .._.........H m r
Organization 42: 3 (Fall), pp. 195-204. 1983.
Stanbury, Pamela C. Women's Roles in Irr.i... qat1. 6 r3i ci1 .ture:
S t rL, J r y m e 1 a C ... ........... .. l........... ..... r. ------,. .A X ~ .c J.. .t.J r .e .
.1.......I .i .9......... .. .. .1.y... .p.,.. Dahod Tank Irr igation
Project, Madhya Pradesh, India. 1984.
Extension and Trainin9
Dinnerstein, Myra. FPo...ssible Q..uestions and. Methodolo9ic..al.9...
Conidrai* f or a*-S1 on Wome,....... ._..... ......... . .r.yey .. n i. yra.. R.u.leve1 lop A)e.n.t.
Tuscon, Arizona: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No
DElate.
P a 1 a, Achola. African.... Women.. in Rural D.evelo.ment: Resear...c.h.
Trends. and Priorities... Overseas Liaison Committee Paper no.
12, American Council on Education. Washington D. C. 1976.
30




fAppendix. 1
Sa~mple Farming System Caleriders
arnd
Gender Division of Labor Charts
31




This section contains sample tables which present farming system calendars and or gender division of~ labor charts. First, you will find an example of a table as the author reported the data. Second, you will find a sample worksheet which you can use to organiz~e field data and/or organlize data that has already beer, c ole cted.
32




Table 1. The Division of Labor During the Wet Season arnd the Dry Season. (Percentage of total hours spent orn a given task attributable to each category)
Wet Season Dry Season
Males Females Males Females
8-14 15-60+ 8-14 15-60+ 8-14 15-60+ 8-14 15-60+ I. Agricultural
Prod u c t i o rn
Prepare fields------- ---- -- --Sow seeds
Weed
Spread fertilizer
Travel between
fields
Water crops
Construct
fences G u a r d fields
Harvest crops B. Livestock
Production r
Large Stock
Wor k
Small Stock
Poultry Work
Source: Delgado, Christopher L. The Southen Fulani farminiq Systemn in Super Volta: A New Model Fo r Integratir of Crop ard Livestock Production ..in the West African Savannah.. Center for Research on Econ, omic Development. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan.
33




SAMPLE
Table 2--Changes in labor requirements by activity for
men, women, and the total farm
: Change in labor : Change in labor : Change in labor
Activity : requirement for : requirement for : requirement for
: women : men : total farm
Preparation 11 -4 0
Planting' 5 0 4
Weeding 2 N.A* 2
'Harvesting 37 6 26
Post-harvest 11 -35 22
Storage : 41 -12 37
Fertilizing : N.A. 2/ 2/
Staking 1/ N.-A. 1/
Spraying : 3/
Total 17 6 14
N.A. not applicable
1/ Staking is a new activity, accounting for one percent of women's total labor, post-project.
2/ Fertilizing is a new activity, accounting for seven percent of men's total labor, post-project. We make the assumption that this new activity will be undertaken by men. 3/ Spraying is a new activity, accounting for one percent of men's total labor, post-project. We make the assumption that spraying will be undertaken by men.
Source: Based on Bohannan and Bohannan, Vermeer and project
documents.
Source: Burfisher and Horenstein 1983: 35
3ja




Table 2. Chang~es in~ Labor Requirements by Activity for Men,
Women arnd the Total Farm
Activity Chang~e in Labor Change in Labor Change in
Requirement Requirement Labor
for Women for Men Requirement
for Total
Farm
Preparation-- --- - -- -
Planting-- --- - -- -
WeedJing - - -- -
Harvesting- - - --- -
Post Harvest
Storage - -- - - -
F e rt ili zin --- -- -- - --- -
Staking-- --- - -- - -
Spraying- - - --- -
Source: Burfisher arnd Horenstein: 1983
34













SAMPLE


THE MOSS!I DIVISION OF lABOR DURING TIIE WET SEASON AND TIlE DRY SEASON
(PIrcetltage of total hours spent on a given task attributabnle to encrl labor raiegory)


WET SEASON


WHALES


FIMALIES


8-14 15-60 61+1


P-14 15-60 6t1-


8-14 15-611 6U1


-1 15-610 611f-


I. AC(RICIIllI:rIAL PIODIIC:TION
A. Predominately male activities
Water crops
Coint rlct fences
uoard fields
(:o to agricultural work invitation
B. Activities lunlertankeo by hoth men and women
Pripnre fields
Sow seeds
Travel between fields
Harvest crops

C. Activities undertaken by both men and women in
different proportion by season
Weed

Spredl fertilizer
Transport of harvest
C;atlher inI wild crops
I 1 .1 VIlSTOC:!; i PROI III ION

A. Prodomnin tely male a'ctvlities
Small stock work
Large stock work
B. Activities undertaken by both men and women in
different proportion by season
Poultry work


1 68 6 II




3 /4' I


I 100 0 0 0 I)


21 0




41 0


(0 0 i ) 0) f1)i 0


Source: Delgado 1978


TABLE 5


DRYlll SEASON


lAI.I.S


IF:IIAI.rIS