• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Cropping systems
 Livestock management
 Credit
 Marketing
 Appropriate technology
 Water management
 Extension and training
 Bibliography
 Appendix 1. Sample farming system...














Title: Assessing women's role in development : a preliminary workbook
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Title: Assessing women's role in development : a preliminary workbook
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Language: English
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Introduction
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Cropping systems
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Livestock management
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Credit
        Page 17
    Marketing
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Appropriate technology
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Water management
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Extension and training
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Bibliography
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Appendix 1. Sample farming system calenders and gender division of labor charts
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
        Page 33
        Page 33a
        Page 34
Full Text



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ASSESSING WOMEN'S ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT: A PRELIMINARY WORKBOOK






Developed by the Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology












AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20523


June 21, 1985


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Table of Contents

Introduction ............................................... 4-5

Agricultural Production............................ ... ...6

I. Cropping Systems .............................. ...6
A. Gender Division of Labor...............................
B. Time Allocation......................................... 6-7
C. Access to Land for Agricultural Production .............7
1. Ownership Patterns ...................................7-9
a. Family Farms ........................................7-8
1. Joint Ownership or Land Use Rights................... 7
2. Separate Ownership or Land Use Rights...............8
3. Single Ownership or Usufruct ........................
b. Women-Headed Households ..............................9
D. Income Generation................................ ...... 9
1. Cash Cropping............................................... 9-11
E. Out-Migration ..........................................11
F. Community Planning .....................................11

II. Livestock Management...................................12-16
A. Gender Division of Labor................................12
B. Time Allocation........................................ 12-13
C. Access to Livestock Production Resources...............13
1. Ownership Patterns.....................................13
2. Resource-Related Access Problems......................13
D. Income Generation... ................................... 13
1. Livestock Sales. ..................................... 13-14
2. Dairy Product Sales....................................14
3. Dairy Marketing............................................ 15
E. Extension and Training................................. 15-16
1. Veterinary Care............. .......................... 16
F. Community Planning.......................................16

III. Credit
A. Local Credit Programs......................................... 17
B. Access to Credit....................................... 17
C. Investment... ........... ...............................17
D. Community Planning.....................................17

IV. Marketing. ..................... .... .................. 18-19
A. Gender Division of Labor ...............................18
B. Time Allocation........................................18
C. Access to Marketing Resources..........................18
1. Marketing Cooperatives..................................18
2. Transport ............................................. 19
3. Community Planning.................................... 19
D. Income Generation......................................19
E. Community Planning.......................................19











V. Appropriate Technology................................20-22
A. Gender Division of Labor.......... ....................20
B. Time Allocation.......................................20
C. Access to Appropriate Technology........................20-21
1. Ownership Patterns .................................. 20
2. Distribution of New Tools and Equipment..............20-21
3. Affordibility. ....................................... 21
4. Durability........................................... 21
D. Income Generation.......... ....... ...................21
E. Extension and Training................................21-22
F. Community Planning.................................. o

VI. Uater Management.....................................23-25
A. Gender Division of Labor..............................23
1. Household Water Use ..................................23
2. Irrigation Water Use .................................23
B. Time Allocation.......................................23
C. Access to Water ........................................ 23-24
1. System Management Access Problems....................24
2. Ownership-Related Access Problems....................24
D. Water Management................................ 24
E. Income Generation. ........................... .......24-25
F. Extension and Training.................................25
G. Community Planning................................... .25

VII. Extension and Training .............. ............... 6-27
A. Extension Services....................................26
B. Training Programs.....................................26
C. Community Planning ................. .................... 27

Bibliography. ............. . .............................28-30

Appendix 1. Sample Farming System Calenders and Gender
Division of Labor Charts...................................31-34









Introduct ion!.

The Bureau of Applied Research in Anthropology at the

University of Arizona has developed a preliminary workbook for

professionals working in development. The purpose of this

workbook is to provide AID personnel and private development

practitioners with a set of guidelines for locating, generating

and incorporating information on gender-related issues into

development projects. The on-the-job focus of this workbook is

designed to help development practitioners to:

Decide what QUESTIONS to ask and HOW to ask them. The

questions in this workbook can be used to identify gaps

in data collection on gender-related issues and to design

new data collection formats. It can be used to analyze

already collected data, and to develop questionnaires.

The framework in this workbook presents a -systematic

way to sort through and organize this information in

terms of how it relates to development planning.

This workbook was developed on the basis of an evaluation

conducted at the 1985 Women in Development Workshop in Bangkok,

Thailand. Participants at the workshop indicated that they would

like a comprehensive and systematic workbook for field use that

would include detailed questions. Toward that end, we are

offering this workbook as a preliminary, partial draft which

covers gender-related issues in agriculture. Questions have been

drawn from the proposed 'Systematic Questions Framework" section

of the workbook under the topic of agriculture. Questions are

provided in the areas of: Cropping Systems, Livestock Management,

Credit, Marketing, Appropriate Technology, Water Management,


b "










and Extension and Training. A professional who is developing or

evaluating an irrigation project, for example, could read

and answer the questions in the sections on Cropping Systems and

Water Management. Topical biblidgraphies that list significant

material that was reviewed and drawn on for the Workbook can be

found at the end of the Workbook. When a question is directly

derivative, the citation is listed immediately after the

question.

In the future, the Workbook could be expanded to cover

additional topics such as Private Enterprise, Forestry, and

Education, and to include major sections on Project Analysis,

overall country Program Analysis, and country-specific sources of

information on women.

We would like to emphasize that the workbook presented here

is not complete. We encourage input from development

practitioners, including suggestions for additional questions,

sections, and topics. Please forward your comments to:

Bureau for Applied Research in Anthropology
Department of Anthropology
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona 85719







Agricultural Productiorn


I. CROPPING SYSTEMS

A.Gender Division of Labor

1. Create a farming systems calendar detailing which
agricultural tasks are done when and by whom. Specify as to
crop and technology used. (See Appendix 1, pp.33 for examples
of farming systems calenders.

2. What is the rate of participation of men, women and
children in farm, domestic and off-farm work during the
yearly production cycle? For farm, domestic and off-farm
work, who does what tasks?

3. What are the tasks that only women do and the tasks that
only men do? Is the division of labor rigidly or flexibly
divided along gender lines?

4. During an agricultural season, what are the gender
specific strategies for crop production, marketing, and
investment of income?

5. How would planned change alter the division of labor?
Would men or women be expected to take on more work or would
their workload be reduced? If demand for labor is increased,
what effects will occur during times of peak seasonal work
load? (See Appendix 1, p. 35 for a table detailing the
effects of change on the gender division of labor.)

6. Will improved technical production packages increase labor
requirements in areas that men or women specialize in? How
will proposed changes affect seasonal labor requirements for
men and women?

7. Have local women been asked about how this change will
affect their schedules? Do women anticipate that they will
have problems in taking on additional work during peak
seasons in the farm year?

B. Time Allocation

1. How much time do men, women and children spend on farm,
domestic and off-farm tasks?

2. What specific time constraints need to be overcome to
allow women to expand farm production activities? Do men or
women experience time conflicts over involvement in
subsistence versus cash cr'op production?

3. Will planned changes increase time allocation in
areas that men or women specialize in? Could this cause labor
bottlenecks? Could additional technical inputs alleviate this
condition?







C. Access to Land for Aqr.icjultur.al Production

1. What is the legal status of women regarding
-inheritance of land?
-purchase of land?
-sale of land?
-ownership of land?
-use rights of land?
-membership in cooperatives?

2. What is the risk of cash crop production leading to a loss
of land for women's and household subsistence farming? What
is the risk of the introduction of a money economy to
transformation of farmers to laborers (low-wage) dependent on
capital for existence? Would women and men be differentially
affected? (Pezullo 1982)

3. What are the effects of agricultural policy on producers?
Does it protect small farmers and their means of production
(for example, in terms of land tenure, subsidies, etc.)? Does
it favor large and/or commercial farmers? What do these
policies imply for women as subsistence and/or cash cropping
farmers, agricultural laborers, household producers?

1. Ownership Patterns

a. Family Farms

1. What .is the pattern of usufruct or land ownership on
family farms? Does the family own all the land jointly, do
the husband and the wife(-ves) retain separate access to
or ownership of their own fields (from inheritance, purchase,
etc.) or does one control all the land?

1. Joint Ownership or Land Use Rights

1. How is joint ownership recognized legally?

2. Do husbands and wives jointly purchase land? Is the wife
legally recognized as a full co-owner?

3. How are decisions made about what to plant on which
fields? Do husband and wife jointly decide for all fields or
does one decide for all fields? Are different individuals
responsible for different agricultural decisions?

4. What is the division of labor pattern on joint fields? Do
men tend certain crops and women tend others? Which crops are
tended by men and which by women?

5. How are the earnings from cash crops grown on joint fields
distributed within the family? How are the earnings allocated
and spent?







2. Separate Ownership or Land Use Rights


1. If husband and wife retain separate usufruct or ownership
of fields, do men tend to control more land than women?

2. Do husbands and wives jointly purchase land? Is the wife
legally recognized as a full co-owner?

3. How are decisions made about what to plant on which
fields? Do husbands and wives jointly decide for all fields,
does each decide individually for his or her fields, or does
one decide for all fields?

4. Are different crops grown on men's fields than on women's
fields? What are they? For example, are cash crops planted on
men's fields and subsistence crops on women's?

5. How is family labor allocated for men's and women's
fields? Is there an equal exchange of labor or does one work
more for the other than vice versa? Estimate the amount of
time men and women spend on their individual fields, on their
spouse's fields and on family fields.

6. What benefits do women receive for their work on men's
fields? What benefits do men receive for their work on
women's fields?

7. How are the earnings men receive from their agricultural
production spent? How are the earnings women receive from
their agricultural production spent?

3. Single Ownership or Usufruct

1. Which family member tends to control all the land?

2. If all the land is controlled by a man, what are women'
use rights? Are these recognized legally?

3. How are decisions made within the household regarding what
crops to plant, use of inputs, marketing, etc?

4. What are the cropping and division of labor patterns under
this system: for example, do women tend the subsistence crops
and men the cash crops?

5. What benefits do women receive for working land that is
controlled entirely by their husbands? How are earnings from
the land distributed within the family?

6. Under a system of male ownership or control of all land,
how can women acquire land of their own? What are women's
legal rights as land owners?







b. Women-Headed Households


1. What percentage (estimate) of farming households are
headed by women? In what percentage (estimate) of these is
there an absent husband (emigrant)?

2. Who makes the decisions regarding farming and agricultural
work in these households (what to plant, when to plant,
purchase of inputs, marketing, division of labor, etc.)? Are
different individuals responsible for different agricultural
decisions?

3. Who owns the land farmed by these households: husband,
male relative, female head, community? Who has usufruct
rights?

4. If the land is owned by someone other than the female
head, or if someone else has usufruct rights, what are the
rights of the female head to the land in terms of:
-legal rights?
-rights to production from land?
-rights to earnings from production?

5. What percent (estimate) of female-headed farming
households are involved in subsistence farming, and to what
extent? What percent (estimate) are involved in commercial
farming, and to what extent? How does this compare to farming
households where a man is present?

6. How does production from farms of female headed households
compare to the production from other farms?

7. How does the use of inputs (chemical fertilizer, improved
seed) on farms of female-headed households compare to other
farms?

8. What kind of agricultural technology is used by farms of
female-headed households? How does this compare to the
technology used by male farmers?

D..rIncome. Gener.ati..on.

1. Cash Cropping

1. What is women's involvement in cash cropping? Of women
involved in agriculture, estimate the level of participation
in cash cropping and the level of participation in
subsistence farming. How does this compare to men?

2. If men and women grow cash crops, what percentage of the
wages do women receive? How does this compare to the work
they do? (Compare the level of income return for men and
women in relation to their labor input).







3. How are the wages for cash cropping distributed, if at
all, within the family or kin group? (Charlton 1984)

4. How does cash cropping seasonally affect the amount of
income available to men and women? Do women receive large or
small amounts of income? How is it distributed throughout the
year?

5. Are women given equal access to cash crop resources,
especially regarding:
-training?
-cooperatives?
-credit?
-markets?

6. What constraints do women face which prevent them from
growing and marketing cash crops?

7. If planned policy changes include the introduction or
support of cash cropping, how will these changes affect
women's involvement in cash cropping or subsistence cropping?

8. In what ways will women become beneficiaries of
commercial agricultural policy changes? I. e., which of the
following benefits will be made available to women:
-new crops or other resource input?
-agricultural extension training?
-labor-saving appropriate technology?
-new income earning opportunities?

9. What assumptions are made that current commercial
agricultural policy and inputs will benefit women? Have the
women in the target area had previous experience with
development input? What happened and why?

10. How might the promotion of commercial agriculture affect
women's access to land and availability of land for
subsistence cropping? (Pezullo 1982)

11. Will increases in the labor needed for cash cropping
affect women's access to labor from other household members?

12. How does the move into cash cropping affect the decision-
making power of women
-in terms of farming (Which crops to plant, inputs,
expansion, etc.)?
-in terms of how household money is spent and used?

13. How do expenditure patterns differ for income generated
by major cash crop production and minor cash crop production?








14. Will an increase in land allotted to cash cropping affect
the family diet? Could changes in work load affect the
nutritional requirements of family members? Do families have
the cash and subsistence resources to cope with this?(Pezullo
1982)

15. Could the expansion of cash cropping and the introduction
of a money economy displace women farmers and force them into
wage labor? (Pezullo 1982)

E. t .i oQr sj .n!

1. What work-related migration opportunities exist for men
and women? How do these opportunities compare to
opportunities that exist in agriculture?

2. What effect has female out-migration had on agriculture
and the rural division of labor?

3. What effect has male out-migration had on agriculture and
the rural division of labor? How has it affected the
participation of women in commercial and subsistence
agriculture?

4. How does out-migration affect the decision-making power of
women:
-in terms of farming (which crops to plant, inputs, ex-
pansion, etc.)
-in terms of how household money is spent and used?

5. How will planned changes affect the workload of women in
areas where extensive male out-migration has already resulted
in increased involvement of women in agricultural production?

F. Community Planniri1

1. Are women involved in the local planning of agricultural
projects? Have women expressed interest in cooperating in a
community agricultural project?

2. Can planners organize a women's agricultural cooperative?
Have women community leaders -been identified to serve on such
a committee?

3. Have the women in the project area had any previous
experience with agricultural development projects? What
happened and why?






II. LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

1.Estimate what percentage of women and men own livestock. If
women do not have ownership of animals, estimate what
percentage of women have use rights.

2. Have women been asked if they see livestock production as
an area in which they would like to expand activities?

A. Gernder D1ivision of Latior.

1. Estimate the percentage of women that care for livestock.
What types of animals do they take care of?

2. What aspects of animal care are women primarily
responsible for? E. 9., which of the following activities are
women involved with on a daily basis:
-feeding?
-watering?
-herding?
-care of sick animals?

3. Is large livestock care thought to be primarily a male
activity? Do women actually do a portion of this work?

4. What proportion of the labor for processing products
produced from animals is contributed by women? E. g., are men
or women primarily responsible for the following tasks-
-meat production?
-wool production?
-egg production?
-milking and dairy production?

5. How would planned changes alter the amount of labor that
men and women expend on livestock care? Will men and women be
expected to do more work or less? If labor demands are
increased, what effects will occur during times of peak
activity during the farm cycle?

6. Will planned changes affect the current division of labor
for livestock care? Have local women been asked about how
this change will affect their schedules? Do woman anticipate
that they will have problems with taking on additional work
during peak seasons in the farm year?

B. Time Allocation.

1. Compare the time expenditure of men and women on livestock
production activities? Do women primarily structure their
time around farming or household activities rather than
livestock production? What time priority do women assign to
livestock activities?







2. Estimate the percentage of time that men and women spend
on animal product processing activities. How do they
schedule time for dairying and other activities?

3. What specific time constraints need to be overcome to
allow women to expand livestock production activities?

4. Will planned changes cause increased time allocation in
areas that men or women specialize in? Could this cause labor
bottlenecks? Could additional technical inputs alleviate this
condition?

c. Access to. Livestock. Production. Resour.ces.

1. Ownership Patterns

1. What rights do women have to livestock and how are these
related to the livestock rights of other family members? How
do these interrelated rights to livestock affect the
purchase, sale or care of livestock?

2. Are men or women reluctant to talk about ownership of
cattle? Have women been interviewed in the presence of others
or in private? Can women interviewers be employed to obtain
accurate data on women's livestock holdings?

3. Do women obtain animals through self purchase or
inher itance?

2. Resource-Related Access Problems

1. Evaluate the amount of land and labor that a household
needs to support large livestock or small ruminants. Are
there any areas in which women do not have access to
sufficient resources for the maintenance of larger animals?

2. What problems do women face in large livestock raising?

D. Income. Generati~orn

1. Livestock Sales

1. Who makes the decision about the sale of livestock:
husband, wife, female head? Do women have the right to sell
larqe animals without the consent of their husband or the
individual in whose herd the animal is kept? Can the husband
sell his wife's livestock? With or without her permission?

2. In households where the male head controls the sale of
livestock, who makes decisions about the sale of animals when
the husband is away? E. g.,
-the wife?
-the wife with help of male relatives?
-does the wife need to contact the husband?






3. Do women have the right to utilize income from the sale of
livestock without discussing it's use with their husband?

4. On what occasions do women sell cattle? E. g., do women
sell cattle for:
-purchase of personal jewelry?
-purchase of medicines for illness?
-purchase of grain in time of famine?
-other (Specify)?

5. Do women see livestock as a form of savings investment?
How is the cash from women's animal sales used? E.g.,
estimate what portion is spent on:
-school fees
-health care costs
-general family expense
-farm investments

6. How will planned changes in commercial livestock policy
affect women's involvement in livestock raising?

7. In what ways will women become beneficiaries of commercial
livestock policy changes? Which of the following benefits
will be made available to women:
-extension training?
-new animals or other input?
-labor-saving appropriate technology?
-new income earning opportunities?

8. What assumptions are made that current commercial
livestock policy and inputs will benefit women? Have the
women in the target area had any previous experience with
development input? What happened and why?

2. Dairy Product Sales

1. Estimate what level of output of the following dairy
products are kept for household use or sold by women:
-milk
-butter
-cheese
-yogurt

2. How does the amount of dairy products consumed at home and
offered for sale vary, in relation to each other, throughout
the year?

3. Do women control the use of dairy production income? What
items do women use dairy income for? Do women ever use dairy
income to purchase animals?.







3. Dairy Marketing


1. Is the sale of milk or other dairy products regarded as
improper? How will this affect attempts to form dairy cooperatives?

2. What problems do women face in dairy production for
marketing? E. 9., do they face:
-production fluctuation?
-poor hygeine during milking, separating, churning or
cheese-making?

3. What problems do women face in marketing dairy products?
E.g., do women have problems with:
-transportation?
-lack of capital?
-price fluctuation?
-unhygienic dairy products?
-uncooled storage?

4. Are women's dairy production activities limited by the
need to use livestock for work (ploughing, etc.)?

5. Where can women obtain the best prices for their dairy
products? Village markets? Dairy Traders?

6. Are women concerned about the market prices for dairy
products?

7. If national agricultural policies favor centralized modern
dairies will women's traditional income-generating activities
be affected? Will household nutrition be affected by women's
loss of income?

E. Extegnsion~ and Trairi in

1. Estimate the percentage of men and women who have received
training in the following areas:
-livestock husbandry
-poultry care
-dairy production

2. Is it possible to locate and train women livestock
extension workers?

3. Will men and women receive training in:
-genetic upgrading? -credit opportunities?
-veterinary practices?
-animal health control?
-vaccination?
-livestock management?
-nutrition and disease prevention?
-'up to date' butter and cheese making methods?
-cold storage facilities?
-cleaning equipment?
-marketing facilities?







1. Veterinary Care


1.Estimate the percentage of animals that men and women lose
to disease. To what causes do men and women attribute these
deaths?

2.Estimate the frequency of contact that men and women have
with representatives of local veterinary units or
agricultural societies. What types of information do men and
women receive in the area of livestock management, nutrition,
disease prevention, etc.?

3.Who pays for animal medicine and vaccination? Are women
able to afford to treat their animals?

F. Common, it.y. P.lanri.i'r!..

1. Are women involved in the local planning of community
livestock projects? Have women expressed interest in
cooperating in a community livestock project?

2. If animals are traditionally controlled by men, will a
woman's livestock project need the explicit or implicit
support of men?

3. If a project is planning to introduce a new animal, will
assignment of care-taking to women be acceptable in cultures
where man traditionally care for animals? Will women be able
to derive benefits in such a situation?

4. Can planners organize a cooperative women's livestock
committee? Have community women leaders been identified to
serve on such a committee?

5. Will women participate in defining dairy policy? Can
a village-level dairy cooperative be started?






III. CREDIT


A. Local. Credi.t. Proqr.ams.

1. How has the design of local credit programs (size and time
of repayment, hours of operation or location) affected
women?

2. Is there a traditional credit association in the area? Do
women have such an association?

3. Is there interest in new types of credit associations?
Which groups would join?

B. Access to Credit

1. What is the current status of women regarding access to
credit?
-How can women draw credit?
-Which women can draw credit widows, large
landowners, etc.?
-Do husbands and wives use credit separately? If so, do
women help their husbands pay back the husband's
loans, and do men help their wives pay back the wives'
loans?

2. Are there social customs that restrict women's access to
credit officials? What are they? How should this be addressed
in the project design?

C. Ir.vestment.

1. How does women's access to collateral affect women's
ability to invest in agriculture and technology?

D. Commuriy.ty PEl.arnIin_

1. Are women involved in planning for community credit oppor-
tunities?

2. How will planned changes affect women's access to credit?

3. Have planned changes included targeting women as the
beneficiaries of credit opportunities? What assumptions have
been made in believing that planning inputs will lead to
benefits for women?






IV. MARKETING

A. Gender Division of Labor

1. What is the rate of participation of men and women in
marketing? Is marketing primarily a woman's occupation? What
types of items do men and women specialize in selling?

2. During the yearly farm cycle, what are the gender specific
strategies for crop and livestock-related production
activities, marketing and investment of income?

3. How would planned changes affect women's marketing
activities? Would men and women have more or less access to
marketing opportunities?

B. Time Allocati.on

1. How much time do men, women and children spend on
marketing activities? Do women trade in small quantities
throughout the year while men trade larger quantities at
selected times or vice versa?

2. Do women indicate that there are time limitations on the
amount of trading that they can schedule due to other
household labor needs? How could planned change free up more
time for women's trading activities?

c. Access. to Market.in.) Resources.

1. Marketing Cooperatives

1. What types of cooperatives are there in the area targeted
by the project?

2. Are women legally entitled to join these cooperatives?
What are the criteria for joining a cooperative? Who are
currently members of the cooperatives? Who are in positions
of authority?

3. What kinds of services are provided by the cooperatives?
What kind of access do women have to these services?

4. Are the existing cooperatives involved primarily with cash
crops? Are there cooperatives for crops for home consumption?

5. Are there existing cooperatives that meet needs women may
have
-livestock
-subsistence crops
-cash crops?

10. What is the feasibility and/or the need for separate
women's cooperatives? What would be the benefits and
disadvantages of a separate women's cooperative?







2. Transportation


1. To what degree do men or women have access to animal or
motor transport to get their produce or goods to market? Does
lack of transportation limit the distance that women can
travel to trade?

1. Community Planning

1. Are women involved in local community planning of
marketing opportunities?

2. How will planned changes affect women's access to and
involvement in cooperatives?

3. If the project is to start a new cooperative, how have
local women been included in the planning process?
-Have they been asked what their needs are?
-Have they been asked to participate in designing the
project?
-How is their participation assured?

D. Income Generation

1. Who receives the payment for marketed goods: the husband,
the wife, either, or both?

2. Estimate at what rate men and women are able to accumulate
capital for further investment in marketing activities.

2. What is the impact of imported goods or locally produced
modern products on women's traditional marketing patterns and
income?

E. Community Plann.in.

1. Are women involved in local planning for expansion of
community marketing opportunities? Have women expressed
interest in expanding their trading opportunities?

2. If planned change efforts include the introduction of a
new product, will it be acceptable for women to sell this
type of product if it is similar to items traditionally sold
by men?

3. Will women participate in defining marketing policy?






V. APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY

1. What types of local agricultural technology do women use?
What kinds of new agricultural tools do they say they would
like to see introduced?

A. Gender. DPiv4.o of Labor

1. Which tasks that men or women do will necessitate
appropriate technological aids?

2. Will the new technology complement or interfere with
women's traditional organization of work? Is the new
technology for use by individual women or does it necessitate
the formation of cooperatives? If women's group cooperation
is needed, are existing groups cohesive enough to provide it?

B. Ti.me. Allocation

1. How much time do women spend on activities utilizing
traditional technology? Could the introduction of appropriate
technology shorten the amount of time that a woman spends on
these activities?

2. Could the introduction of appropriate technology have an
impact on women's time allocation for other agricultural or
household activities? Will it increase time spent because of
the introduction of new, related tasks?

C. Access to AQ1rorp -ate. Techn.oloy.

1. Ownership Patterns

1. Will there be private or communal ownership of new
technology? If men control it, will women be given continual
access? If the new technology is communally owned, will a new
community infrastructure need to be established? (Hoskins:n.d.)

2. Distribution of New Tools and Equipment

1. Estimate the degree to which both men and women have
access to new agricultural technology. To what extent are
women utilizing improved tools and equipment for:
-ground preparation (improved ploughs, tractors)?
-planting?
-weeding?
-harvesting?

2. At present, to what degree do women have access to tools
and techniques for the manufacture of this appropriate
technology?

3. If women do not have access to the means for creating or
repairing these items, will they be able to afford or locate
people to repair them?







4. If appropriate technology has been introduced, did it
replace a traditional technology controlled by women with one
that is now controlled by men? If so, what benefits do women
continue to derive?

3. Affordability

1. Will women be able to pay for this new technology or
obtain credit to purchase it? Will the overall benefits of
this new technology be greater than the cost? Can women use
this technology long enough to pay back any investment?
(Hoskins n.d.)

2. Does the new technology require locally available
resources (sun, water, land, animal labor, etc.) to run it?
Do women have access to these resources?

3. If the new technology requires fuel, will women be able to
afford owner or operator costs? (Hoskins No Date)

4. Durability

1. Will the new technology be functional under women's local
working conditions? Is the new technology durable enough to
withstand women's daily usage? (Hoskins: No Date)

2. If the new items or tools need to be replaced, will women
be able to make a replacement from local materials? Can women
use local knowledge or be taught how to replace new items or
tools? (Hoskins: no date)

D. Income. Generation

1. Will the new items or tools result in a marketable
agricultural surplus or other product that women can sell?

2. Will the new technology have a negative impact on women's
income-generating activities?

3. Will the new products be compatible with the traditional
marketing and distribution system? (Hoskins: No Date)

E. E j:gn.! ..e_ .r.s or .. .TZ..A.if.A-.LM.

1. Is the new technology simple and easily mastered by men
ard women?

2. Have women in the area been previously exposed to new
technology? What happened? Why? How can this information be
used to modify current educational efforts?






3. If women will be using the new technology, will the
techniques for using it be taught to them directly? Can women
get information and technical help from extension workers,
agency personnel, Peace Corps volunteers, or private
voluntary groups?

F. Con:it: lAnnn

1. How are women involved in local planning for the
introduction of appropriate technology?

2. In what areas do women perceive the introduction of
appropriate technology to be essential? E. g.,
-agricultural production?
-planting?
-weedi ng?
-harvesting?
-hau i ng?
-storing and harvesting of foods?

3. What major problems could appropriate technology help
women to solve? Can women be motivated to see appropriate
technology as a solution to their problems?

4. Will new appropriate technology have a positive impact on
women or a large cost-benefit ratio?

5. How will the introduction of new technology change
traditional patterns of women's access to resources?
Positively? Negatively? (Hoskins: no date)






VI. WATER MANAGEMENT

1. What are women's water needs? Have women been questioned
about the availability of water and water use practices? Do
women say that they would like to see water system
improvements?

A. Genjer. Dj.y.isi. ofj. Labor.

1. Household Water Use

1. Do men and women have different roles or areas of user
specialty in water system use?

2. Estimate the proportion of water that women supply through
portage or irrigation for the following activities:
-watering food crops
-watering domestic animals or poultry
-watering kitchen gardens
-watering tree crops

2. Irrigation Water Use

1. Have surveys of women's water use been taken? What
questions were asked? What do surveys show in each of the
following areas?
-volume of water usage
-distance to water source
-preferred sites of water use
-water use beliefs and practices

2. Have irrigation system improvements increased cropping
intensity and created a greater demand for women's labor?

B. Time. Allocation

1. What proportion of a woman's time is taken up by
activities involving water use? How much time is spent on
agricultural water use activities?

2. What specific agricultural water use time constraints can
be relieved by water system improvement activities?

C. Access to Water

1. Do men and women have problems in gaining and retaining
access to water? At present, do women receive sufficient
irrigation water?







1. System Management Access Problems

1. Are there gender specific operational problems with
irrigation systems? E. 9., do women have problems with:
-timing of water delivery?
-water quantity?
-water canal disrepair?
-lack of water for some fields?

2. What do women perceive as the most significant problems in
irrigating their fields?

2. Ownership-Related Access Problems

1. Is it possible to assign water rights to women for their
food crops?

2. If titling of irrigated land is introduced, will both men
and women be eligible for ownership of irrigated property?

3. If irrigation system improvements raise the value of land,
will efforts be made to see that women still have access?

D. Wat.e.r.. Mana..ee.ne.t.

1. Do women have community leadership roles in water
management?

2. Are women involved in water management as:
-acceptors of new technologies?
-users of improved facilities?
-managers of water supply and sanitation programs?
-agents of behavioral change in the use of facilities?

3.In what aspects of local water management are women in-
volved? E. g., do women:
-obtain water and see that it is available for local
use?
-select water sources?
-provide labor and funds for water system maintenance?

4. What are women's formal and informal roles in water user
associations? Are women eligible for formal membership? If
not, do women have any informal roles in water management
disputes?

E. Income. GeQeration.

1. How will women's income-generating activities be affected
by changes in the irrigation water supply?






F. Extenrson and Traininn.


1. Will women be trained in activities associated with the
management and maintenance of the community water supply?

2. What specific time constraints will need to be faced
before women can be trained to participate in water system
improvement activities?

6. Commuri ity P..anrri.i_.q

1. Are both men and women involved in the local planning of
community water system projects?

2. How high a priority do women place on water system
improvements? What is the relative need for water system
improvements in relation to other needs?

3. Will existing women's groups be identified for
incorporation into the program as recipients of inputs?

4. Can local community groups be mobilized to support women's
participation in water system planning?

5. What types of improvements would women recommend for
redesigning irrigated agricultural systems?






VII. EXTENSION AND TRAINING

A. Ex;tens.ion. Services

1. What extension services are available for women in the
targeted area?

2. Are training and extension services for women located in
areas accessible to the people who would most want them?

3. What is the goal of extension services for women and how
does it differ from the extension services for men?
(Dinnerstein, n.d. )

4. How are extension workers accepted by villagers? Are
extension workers currently contacting women? What is an
estimate of the frequency of contact?

5. What differences, if any, exist in the kind of training
and education that male and female extension agents receive?
(Dinnerstein n.d.)
B. Training. Pr.o.rs


1. What is the general information level of women concerning
agricultural methods and are they aware of and interested in
possibilities for improving their level of competence?
(Dinnerstein, n.d.)

2. How does women's training correspond to their contribution
to the economy particularly their contribution to the
agricultural sector? (Dinnerstein n.d.)

3. What kind of agricultural training, if any, do women want?

4. What are the constraints in the culture or religion which
would make it difficult for women to receive training from
male extension agents? How can this be dealt with within the
project?

5. What is the attitude of men and women toward women who
seek agricultural training and receive it? After women
receive the training, are they regarded as acceptable sources
of information or not? (Dinnerstein n.d.)

6. What are women's time contraints for attending training
sessions? How are sessions planned so as to minimize the
effects of these constraints?

7. What are the requirements for attending training programs?
Are women excluded because of these requirements?






C Comuri nity Plan niinq.

1. Are women involved in local planning of extension
outreach? Have women expressed interest in receiving
extension training?

2. Can planners organize classes of women for training? Have
women community leaders been identified to help in organizing
such classes?

3. Have the women in the project area had any previous
experience with extension outreach programs? What happened
and why?






BIBLIOGRAPHY


The following sources were used to derive workbook questions and
will provide further information on the topic.

Agriculture

Cropping

Burfisher, Mary E. and Nadine R. Horenstein. Sex .Roles. in. the
.N.i9e-ri an ... .a.r.. H-o.u.s-e.h.o.ld .ar.d t.h.e D.i.ffere ta.l acts .of
L.evel..opmen.t. Pr.o.Jects... Case Studies of the Impact of Large-
Scale Development Projects on Women. Study No. 2. New York:
International Programs: The Population Council. 1983.

Charlton, Sue Ellen. Women in Third World Develoemernt.
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 1984.

Cloud, Kathleen. Women.'.s. Produj-ct.iv.yitv in. A..r.icu.ltur.a.l
..ystems.. .Co..s.i eratio s f.o.r P.r.o.e.ct Des.irn.. Paper prepared
for the Harvard Institute for International Development Case
Study and Training Project. No Date.

D i n n e r s t e i n Myra. Pos.s.ible.. Quest.i..is. a:r Met.h.od io1.9o ic.a..
.C.o.r..si er....t.i.. .r.s .o.r. S.... .... .e...... o.. .o..... .e... .i... .. R...r.... ..e..... e.. l.o._p.... .... t..
Considerations foray urveyo WoTe- in R-ral Devel1Do pme-t.
Tucson, Arizona: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No
Date.

Overholt, Catherine, Kathleen Cloud, Mary Baughman Anderson
:and James Austin. .Wome. in Devel.pment:A Framework. for
J.P..oect. Anays3.1.. .. .Paper prepared for the Harvard Institute
for International Development Case Study and Training
Project. No Date.

Palmer, Ingrid. The. Nemow. Case: Case. Studies. of. the Impact of.
Lar Scale D p e ri Pro oR- Woe for
.L- 99.?. ..S............. .......... ..._ .r ..o.n ..W n:. A. S.er.e_..s fo..r
Pl..n.-3r! s... Working Paper t7. September, 1979.

Pezzullo, Caroline. Women and Develo.pment: Guidelines for
r-... r.3.... .e and. r. .ej .t.. P......!i..!.S. Santia3go, Chile: CEPAL/United
Nations. 1982.

Livestock

Henderson, Helen. The. Role of Women in L.i.vestock. Production.
In Vengroff, Richard (ed. ), Uper Volta: Environment.a
Uncer.tair.t.. aand. Li.vestock P.rP.duct.o... Lubbock, Texas:
International Center for the Study of Arid and Semi-Arid
Lands. 1980.

Henderson, Helen. Effects. of. the. More. and. Better.. Foods. Da.ir.y
!..o.!p9DeO .t. 9.o. -Wom-e.. Draft Report to More and Better Foods
Project, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC and the
National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. 1985.







Noble, Amanda L. and Michael F. Nolan. Sociolo .cal.
Constraints and Socia.l Possilit.i.es for Product.ion of G.oat..s
in. Western Keenya.. Small Ruminant Collaborative Research
Support Program Technical Report Series #18. Paper prepared
for U.S.A.I.D. 1983.


Zimmerman, Sonja D. The. Cheese Mak ers of. Kafr. Al.. Bahr.... The.
.le. .f. .E yWp.i. .omen in A.nimal Hu.sba..ndr:.. ...a .. i.r._.
Role of g4.t. .....-.?..'Y arid
PrJodujction. Cairo, Egypt and Leiden, Netherlands: Research
Centre for Women and Development, Women in Development Series-
Egypt. 1982.

Marketing

Din nerstein, Myra. Po.ss. l.e. QJuest.ions. and. Methodol.o.i.a. l..
Considerations for a Sj.y..y.y n ..men in. Development. Tucson,
Arizona: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No Date..

Henderson, Helen and Eric Arnould. G.e.nde.r .i.ffe.r.en.c.e. i.n
Agri cult ural. Pr.oduc. n.,.. Market. .Integration and
M.od02ernizat.io.n. University of Arizona: Bureau of Applied
Anthropology. 1983.

Credit

Dinnerstein, Myra. Possi..le. Que.t.ios. ar. Methodo.lo.qci. .l.
Considerations fo.r. a S..e. on .omen i Rral De..e.ve o.p. t...
Tucson, Arizon a: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No
Date.


Appropriate Technology

Carr, Marilyn. A .ror..iate. TechD..lo9 .Y. for.. A.f.r.ic. Women..
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: The African Training and Research
Centre for Women of the United Nations Economic Commission
for Africa. 1978.

Hosk.ins, Marilyn. Ap..ro.r.iate. Tech.!olog.Y. Efforts. in. the
Field: Issues Re consik ere. ..Part. 1... H.o .use.o..d. LeYvel.
A r.os. ..i.a. T.e.cno.l. .Y. fo.r. Wom.e.. Document Prepared for the
Office of Women in Development, U.S.A.I.D. No Date.

Henderson, Helen and Janice Monk. W.men!. n. Anr..opr..3..E te.
Te.c.h.no.l.. ..: N.eed.s an.. P.os.sibiliti.e.s. Barth, C. Richard (ed.),
Proceedings of the 1982 Rocky Mountain Council for Latin
American Studies. El Paso, Texas: Center for Inter-American
and Border Studies at the University of Texas at El Paso.
1982.









Pala, Achola L. Af.r.i.c.. Wome. in Rural Developmenti: Research
T.ed.s. a.r.d Pr.ioriti.es. Overseas Liason Committee Paper No.
12. American Washington D. C. : American Council on
Education. 1976.

Mater

Cloud, Kate. Women. an.d. a. t.e.rr Marnaq-emrent:. Ur.nder.sta 3 .d.rin s..
.Gle-aned Fro.m.y. My Asian Trip (Memo to Princi-pals Interested in
the Water ri. Mnaem et Synthesis II .Pron ect. 1982.
t..he. -. ..Ma.ia..e ... S.Y.... .... 1. .ject) 1982.

Cloud, Kate. Women's Roles in Irri.?q a .Pr.oduction Systems:
C l uv.e e t... eTo .. ..I. ...9. ..............-..........h. ........................
M.ovement.. Tow.ar an. Integrated. A.Apro.ach. The Women and Food
Information Network 2:1 (September). 1984.

Elmendorf, Mary. ..Woe.,. Water.. a:nd. W.as.te.. B.eyondA..A.. ess.. Paper
Available from the Water and Sanitation for Health Project,
1611 N. Kent St., Room 1002, Arlington, VA 22209.

Elmendorf, Mary L. and Ray mand B. Isel y. P...l.i.c .ard P.r .i.va.t.e
Roles. of. Womenr. in Wter S.u..SJI.. ard. S.ri.itatio.q Pro.arams. Human
Organizations 42: 3 (Fall), pp. 195-204. 1983.
Stan bury, Pamela C. Women_.'s .R.o.le.s .i. Ir..r i.. t.e. A r. .ic.. Jtur..e.
.1.9.8.4. ..i.a i.s.ct.c A. ... .s...i..s ...r.ks. ..., Dahod Tank Irrigation
Project, Madhya Pradesh, India. 1984.

Extension and Training

Dinnersteii, Myra. o.s.sib.1le. .Que.st.ios. and Me.t.hodo.lo.9ica.l.
Condfor a Sto o Wofeor _p
.C..o ._ ..i....e.r; ..t...i..o..r. .. . -. .....v e ..o.. ._ .. .e.. n_ i.... .. _..; .1. ..l.e..e..1.......e...t.
Tuscon, Arizona: Women's Studies, University of Arizona. No
Date.

Pala, Achola. African Women in. Rural Dievel o...merit: Research
.Tr.e.d s.. a.n_. P.r.i..or..ties. Overseas Liaison Committee Paper no.
12, American Council on Education. Washington D. C. 1976.


- .

















Appendi'-, 1



Sample Farming System Calenders


and

Gender Division of Labor Charts




































4


>I *





*. I


This section contains sample tables which present farming system

calendars and or gender division of labor charts. First, you will

find an example of a table as the author reported the data.

Second, you will find a sample worksheet which you can use to

organize field data and/or organize data that has already been

collected.













SAMPLE


THE MOSS!I DIVISION OF lABOR DURING TIIE WET SEASON AND TIlE DRY SEASON
(PIrcetltage of total hours spent on a given task attributabnle to encrl labor raiegory)


WET SEASON


WHALES


FIMALIES


8-14 15-60 61+1


P-14 15-60 6t1-


8-14 15-611 6U1


-1 15-610 611f-


I. AC(RICIIllI:rIAL PIODIIC:TION
A. Predominately male activities
Water crops
Coint rlct fences
uoard fields
(:o to agricultural work invitation
B. Activities lunlertankeo by hoth men and women
Pripnre fields
Sow seeds
Travel between fields
Harvest crops

C. Activities undertaken by both men and women in
different proportion by season
Weed

Spredl fertilizer
Transport of harvest
C;atlher inI wild crops
I 1 .1 VIlSTOC:!; i PROI III ION

A. Prodomnin tely male a'ctvlities
Small stock work
Large stock work
B. Activities undertaken by both men and women in
different proportion by season
Poultry work


1 68 6 II




3 /4' I


I 100 0 0 0 I)


21 0




41 0


(0 0 i ) 0) f1)i 0


Source: Delgado 1978


TABLE 5


DRYlll SEASON


lAI.I.S


IF:IIAI.rIS






1- . 1


Table 1. The Division of Labor During the Wet Season and the Dry
Season. (Percentage of total hours spent on a given task attributable
to each category)


Wet Season Dry Season

Males Females Males Females

8-14 15-60+ 8-14 15-60+ 8-14 15-60+ 8-14 15-60+

I. Agricultural
Production

Prepare fields

Sow seeds

Weed

Spread fertili-
zer

Travel between
fields

Water crops

Construct
fences

Guard
fields

Harvest crops

B. Livestock
Production

Large Stock
Wor k
Small Stock

Poultry Work

Source: Delgado, Christopher L. The Southen Fulani farm in.g System.
in Uper Vota: A New Model Eor I nte atin o
1.i U.y .P..e.... .....V....... '.. A N.ew.. ..Mo....e.1... F... r. ...i..^.e. .._.f..C2 .lp .*a..d ..L..i...v..e.s.t...c..k
Prouc.t.i..! in the West.. Afr.ican. Savannah.. Center for Research on
Economic Development. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of
Michigan.





4 ff.,


SAMPLE


Table 2--Changes in labor requirements by activity for
men, women, and the total farm

: Change in labor : Change in labor : Change in labor
Activity : requirement for : requirement for : requirement for
: women : men : total farm

Preparation 11 -4 0
Planting : 5 0 4
Weeding 2 N.A. 2
Harvesting 37 6 26
Post-harvest :11 -35 22
Storage 41 -12 37
Fertilizing : N.A. 2/ 2/
Staking :1/ N.A. 1/
Spraying .A. 3/ 3/

Total 17 6 14


N.A. not applicable

1/ Staking is a new activity, accounting for one percent of
women's total labor, post-project.
2/ Fertilizing is a new activity, accounting for seven percent
of men's total labor, post-project. We make the assumption that
this new activity will be undertaken by men.
3/ Spraying is a new activity, accounting for one percent of
men's total labor, post-project. We make the assumption that
spraying will be undertaken by men.

Source: Based on Bohannan and Bohannan, Vermeer and project
documents.



Source: Burfisher and Horenstein 1983: 35


__






v6 eS &


Table 2.



Activity


Changes in Labor Requirements by Activity for Men,
Women and the Total Farm

Change in Labor Change in Labor Change in
Requirement Requirement Labor
for Women for Men Requirement
for Total
Farm


Preparation

Planting

Weeding

Harvesting

Post Harvest

Storage

Fertilizing

Staking

Spraying


Source: Burfisher and Horenstein: 1983


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