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Title: Evaluation of the International Center for Research on Women Cooperative Agreement Program with AID PPC/WID : final report
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Title: Evaluation of the International Center for Research on Women Cooperative Agreement Program with AID PPC/WID : final report
Series Title: Evaluation of the International Center for Research on Women Cooperative Agreement Program with AID PPC/WID : final report
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Observations regarding institutionalization of WID in aid missions
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    List of contacts
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
Full Text







VN;o


EVALUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL
CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON WOMEN
COOPEATIVE AGREEMENT HLOGAM
WITH AmI PPC/WID


Final iaport


Contract No. PDC-0085-I-00-6098-00
Work Order No. 14




Team Meubers:

Malcolm B. Young
Shari Berenbach
Paul Holmes
Tulin Pulley
Tania Romashko




















December 1987


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CHAPTER 6: OBSERVATIONS REGARDING INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF WID IN
AID MISSIONS..................................................
A. Mission Awareness and Sensitivity..................................
B. Mission Systems and Procedures...............................
C. Factors Influencing Mission VID Progras ...........................
1. Mission Director and Senior Management Commitment to WID.......
2. The Commitment and Energy of the VID Officer....................
3. Undefined Roles for WID Officers and Comaittees.................
4. Workloads and Competing Priorities..............................
5. Changing Mission Portfolios.....................................
6. Accountability on WID Performance............................
7. Use of Gender-Disaggregated Data ...........................
8. Funding for WID Related Studies and Technical Assistance.........
D. AID/W Regional Bureaus and PPC/WID .......... ...................
E. Tollow-on VID Activities...........................................
Sumary of Findings......................................


CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS ...............................


A. Conclusions Regarding ICR~ Performance
and the Cooperative Agreement...................................
B. Conclusions Regarding Institutionalization
of WID Activities within AID....................................
Summary of Findings.......... ............................***********


APPENDIX: LIST OF CONTACTS


COUNTRY VISIT REPORTS
Submitted under separate cover, December 23, 1987.





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CHAPTER 6


OBSERVATIONS REGARDING INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF WID IN AID MISSIONS



While not explicitly required under the scope of work for this evaluation, during
the course of its extensive field interviews, the Development Associates evaluation
team observed a number of commonalities regarding AID's efforts to institutionalize
Women in Development activities in Missions and potential requirements and
opportunities for future WID related assistance. This chapter constitutes a
summary of those observations.


A. Mission Awareness and Sensitivity


All six of the Missions visited perceived themselves to be performing
satisfactorily under the WID mandate and, generally speaking, most Mission
personnel interviewed are sensitized to WID issues. In two of the Missions,
Dominican Republic and Pakistan, knowledge and awareness of WID concerns was
widely pervasive. In Guatemala and Bangladesh, there appears to be a solid
core of sensitized personnel and a growing interest in and awareness of WID
concerns. In Zaire and Ecuador, the team found pockets of support for and
interest in better integrating women in development activities.


All of the Missions endorsed the strategy of fully integrating women into
projects as opposed to promoting WID objectives through separate WID activities
or WID components in larger projects. Most "success stories," however, fell
into the two latter categories. The notable exceptions were the Small
Enterprise Development and the Low-Income Housing projects in Ecuador where
women are fully integrated beneficiaries and participants.


Nobody denied the absolute value of WID, but there is substantial disagreement
regarding the value of WID relative to other development priorities and
regarding "how to do WID" most effectively and efficiently. As a result,
concrete actions, systems and procedures lag behind awareness and sensitivity.


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B. Mission Systems and Procedures


There are few examples of-systems to institutionalize WID within the Missions,
and those that exist are not followed consistently. All Missions have WID
officers, though their approaches range from very knowledgeable, committed and
energetic to passive and reactive only to AID/W reporting requirements.
Several of the Missions maintained a fair sized collection of WID-related
material in their libraries, though there was little evidence that such
material was being used widely. Three of the Missions visited have WID
committees but none of them functioned formally, regularly or with clear
objectives or agendas. In some Missions, sex-disaggregated data has been
collected on a few projects as a result of individual project officer
initiative. In no Mission, however, is it being regularly or systematically
collected or used to inform project decisions. Many of the CDSSs, Action Plans
and PPs reviewed during this evaluation revealed only superficial or
boilerplate incorporation of WID concerns.


In the Dominican Republic, Pakistan and Bangladesh, WID related concerns are at
least usually, though not always, addressed during the project design, approval
and evaluation processes. In those Missions there have also been suggestions
that questions regarding progress on WID may be systematically incorporated
into future periodic project reviews. Such systems are not yet in place.


Though there is reason to be optimistic regarding the "institutionalization" of
WID in selected Missions, there is little reason to expect a wholesale
initiation of systems unless Mission Directors and their staffs are well
supported and held accountable on those efforts. Until such time as better
systems and procedures are in place, people and personalities will be the
critical variables affecting WID related performance.


C. Factors Influencing Mission WID Programs


Several factors common to the Missions visited, were heavily influenced how WID
is or is not incorporated into USAID projects and procedures. These factors
are described below.


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1. Mission Director and Senior Management Commitment to WID. The Mission
Director sets the tone and significantly effects how the WID officer and
others approach the issue. In both Guatemala and Pakistan, the evaluation
team found that new Mission Directors very quickly changed the Missions from
operations not particularly supportive of WID concerns to Missions engaged
in activities endeavoring to promote women's participation in Mission
programs and projects. The new Director in Pakistan has explicitly stated
his support for WID in writing. In both Missions, personnel are pursuing
WID objectives, admittedly as much to please the boss as to achieve more
substantive development objectives. There is room for optimism that systems
will be developed to better institutionalize WID in both Missions.


To a lesser degree, supportive senior management officers with
portfolio-wide responsibilities, such as the Program or Project Development
Officers, can have substantial influence even without exceptionally strong
or explicit support from the Mission Director. That situation was found in
Bangladesh.


On the negative side, just as changes to supportive Directors or senior
Mission personnel can have a positive influence on Mission WID programs,
new, less supportive senior officers could result in an explicit or de facto
deemphasis on WID. Such a personnel shift could also lead to staff officers
giving WID a lower priority than they otherwise would.


2. The Commitment and Energy of the WID Officer. All Missions have WID
Officers, but they approach their jobs with various degrees of knowledge,
commitment, energy and work loads. As examples, the prior WID Officer in
Bangladesh as well as the current WID Officer in the Dominican Republic
approached their tasks with zeal and perseverence despite heavy work
responsibilities in other areas. Those officers were largely responsible
-for heightening awareness in Mission personnel and assuring that WID issues
were addressed during project design, reviews and evaluations. They also
promoted ICRW's involvement in the Missions and ensured effective
follow-through. While the WID officers have very different operating
styles, both have been effective.


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By contrast, the evaluation team noted two examples where opportunities to
positively influence WID concerns in the Mission were overlooked due to
unenthusiastic WID Officers. In both those Missions, the WID Officer was
not a WID advocate, provided no support or guidance on WID issues, served no
monitoring or oversight function and did not circulate WID related
information. They did respond to AID/W requests for information on WID
issues. Most Mission staff did not even know who served as WID Officer in
the two Missions.


3. Undefined Roles for WID Officers and Committees. All Missions are required
to have WID Officers but they are given virtually free rein regarding WID
Officer selection and responsibilities. Technically, there were WID
committees in three of the countries visited but they were not meeting
regularly and had no formal responsibilities. Other Missions had no
committees and they are not required to by AID. New WID Officers receive no
training, guidance, materials or orientation to their roles. There is no
clear understanding of the objectives and responsibilities of WID Officers
regarding WID advocacy, project design, implementation and evaluation,
support on WID for technical offices, project approvals, and reviews.


In those Missions where senior management has indicated that a WID Officer
should not serve a "watchdog function," WID issues are not being regularly
addressed. On the basis of this evaluation it appears that a functional and
effective WID Officer must at least: a) have cross sectoral/program wide
responsibilities; b) assure that PIDs, PPs and broader Mission planning
documents adequately address WID concerns; c) serve as a resource base for
other Mission technical offices; and d) be active and an advocate rather
than passive and only responsive. The evaluation team encountered WID
Officers who were interested, knowledgeable, influential and well placed.
Others were well qualified but had little role in decision making. Still
others had clout but competing responsibilities overwhelmed their WID
roles.


4. Workloads and Competing Priorities. This factor was an issue in every
Mission. It seemed to effect WID activities in only one direction,
negatively. Missions consistently note that they are being forced to do


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more with less. This increasingly leads Missions towards a management by
crisis style. In such an environment, WID concerns seem unable to compete
favorably with other priorities. Even among officers who are supportive of
WID efforts, WID issues are relegated to the "I'll get to it as quickly as I
can" pile and overrun by design obligations and contractual deadlines.
Because WID issues seldom stop the programming and project process, Missions
are allowed considerable discretion about whether or how they are
addressed.


5. Changing Mission Portfolios. In an effort to comply with management and
political requirements and emphasize the need for macro economic policy
reforms, many Missions are moving towards fewer and larger projects, add-ons
to existing activities, sectoral and Non-Project Assistance (NPA) programs.
It is more difficult to incorporate WID concerns into on-going activities
and multimillion dollar sector support, CIP and construction projects.
These frequently do not have a human scale and provide few obvious targets
for WID. Such trends appear to be reducing the traditional opportunities
for incorporating WID into new projects. At the same time, if AID can
develop new and imaginative responses, this trend may open up new
opportunities for addressing WID in non-traditional ways through greater use
of policy dialogue and progress benchmarks.


6. Accountability on WID Performance. There are few incentives promoting or
sanctions enforcing satisfactory individual or overall Mission performance
on WID. Despite PPC/WID's ten year effort to institutionalize WID in
Missions, in most instances WID is still on the periphery. In a few of the
Missions visited, individuals deemphasized the fact that they had WID
related responsibilities because they perceived the WID assignment as
adversely affecting their careers. In no Mission was performance on WID
concerns perceived as an important element of the Performance Evaluation
Report.


AID is a hierarchical organization which responds better to directives
through established lines of authority rather than to substantive arguments
of a policy office. A few Missions explicitly noted that they are under no


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pressure to perform on WID so long as WID responsibilities are limited to
the purview of the PPC Bureau. AID might enhance WID performance at the
Mission level by further exploring ways to build in accountability along the
traditional lines of authority within Regional Bureaus.


7. Use of Gender-Disaggregated Data. Virtually all officers interviewed agreed
that better information on women's roles and responsibilities is a necessary
pre-condition to women's increased economic participation. Yet, with few
project-specific exceptions, the evaluation team found that
gender-disaggregated data is not being collected for Mission background
studies (such as CDSSs), project designs or project monitoring and
evaluations. Gender disaggregated data is perceived as something that would
be nice to have but, there is a general lack of understanding about what it
is, its value, how it can be efficiently collected and how it should be used.


Most Missions mentioned an interest in learning more about collecting such
data and willingness to participate in workshops and training on its use.
Two officers who had attended the recent Gender Resources Workshop in
Nairobi were disappointed that they did not learn more of the practical
implications of gender-disaggregated data. Though consultants can be used
to provide guidance, recommendations on collection or use of gender
disaggregated data will continue to be ineffective in the absence of greater
knowledge on these issues in AID.


8. Funding for WID Related Studies and Technical Assistance. Just as staff
resources are limited in most Missions, so too are financial resources.
Just as WID has a hard time competing against crisis activities, it has a
hard time competing with other demands for Project Design & Support (PD&S)
funding. Several WID Officers at both the Mission and regional levels noted
that they are handicapped in addressing WID because they lack resources to
fund studies, travel, collect data, disseminate documents, etc. In many
cases, partial central funding of WID related activities has been critical
to those activities being undertaken at all. ways might be explored to
provide additional funding directly to Regional Bureaus or Missions for WID
related work.


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Interestingly, from the Development Associates evaluation team's experience,
having or not having a specific WID strategy does not seem to be an important
variable influencing Mission performance. A strategy seems to be more a
manifestation of the interest and commitment that contributes towards progress
on WID activities rather than a direct cause of that progress. Similarly, a
"successful" WID project does not necessarily translate into demand to expand
upon that success. In Ecuador, ICRW has had two successful interventions in
Small Enterprise and Low-Income Housing (financed outside the Cooperative
Agreement) which have had no discernable spillover effect. In Bangladesh on
the other hand, positive experiences on the Female Scholarship and Women's
Enterprise Development Projects have encouraged the Mission to pursue and
expand those activities and more effectively incorporate women into other
projects.


D. AID/W Regional Bureaus and PPC/WID


There have been several recent developments in AID/W that bode well for future
WID activities. As a result of recent personnel changes, the AID Administrator
and all Regional Assistant Administrators are reportedly WID supporters. Each
bureau has a WID officer appropriately placed for that bureau. In the Latin
America Bureau, the Gender Handbook has been prepared, widely distributed and
well received. Training of Mission personnel, using the Manual as a guide, is
proceeding on schedule. Communications between the LAC Regional WID Officer
and the LAC Missions is the best of the Missions visited.


The Asia and Near East Bureau has recently formed a WID Task Force composed of
high level office representatives to develop a strategy for improving the
implementation of AID's WID Policy in the region. Two to four countries will
soon be targeted to improve Mission awareness and capability for dealing with
WID issues in program planning and project design and evaluation efforts.
These actions are being closely coordinated with the AA/ANE and with PPC/WID.


The Africa Bureau has recently approved and communicated, to all Missions in
Africa, its WID Action Plan "to improve the integration of WID concerns into
its programs". The Plan focuses on: sensitization and staff training; program
development; research, monitoring and evaluation and new program initiatives.
It incorporates such specific actions as:


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a. mandating that references to WID concerns are included in all CDSS and
Action Plan guidance;

b. better dissemination of WID literature;

c. establishing a Working Group; and,

d. implementation of a WID related research agenda.

The naming of an AFR Office Director as Regional WID Officer, and the holding
of a Gender Resources workshop in September 1987 are further evidence of
increased Africa Bureau commitment to WID.


A common theme echoed by every Mission visited is that PPC/WID might more
effectively promote women's concerns by playing a more operational and visible
role. All Missions believe that communications between them and PPC/WID should
be greatly strengthened. The WID officers in Missions visited in Asia and
Africa did not know who their PPC/WID backstop officer was and they did not
feel that PPC/WID understands the environment within which the Missions
operate. None of the people interviewed remembered a PPC/WID officer ever
visiting the Mission. The prevailing perception is that PPC/WID contacts the
USAIDs only to request reporting information. (The Development Associates
evaluation team is aware of recent cables summarizing services available to the
Missions through PPC/WID, but that is not the Missions' perception).


While the Missions will continue to take their directives from the Regional
Bureaus, they do believe that PPC/WID can perform a necessary and useful
function. Generally, the USAIDs would like PPC/WID to be more helpful and
supportive. The requests for support included: more information on positive
(and negative) WID activities, the range of WID related resources available to
the Missions, a list of other WID officers in the region to facilitate
communication with them; more practical tools and guidance about "how to do
WID"; and continued financial support for WID related training and technical
assistance.


E. Follow-on WID Activities


Most of the Missions visited will have a modest ongoing need for WID related
technical services. Except for a few specific examples, however, such as the


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training workshop in the Dominican Republic, none of the Missions expressed a
commitment to or urgency for such services and the list below should be
considered as illustrative only.


TABLE 3.2


POTENTIAL DEMAND FOR FUTURE WID-RELATED TECHNICAL SERVICES


Country


Type of Technical Assistance


1. Bangladesh










2. Dominican Republic



3. Ecuador


4. Guatemala


- Information/document dissemination
- Implementation plan reviews
- Local NGO training/workshops
- USAID workshops
- Research on host country policies
inhibiting women's employment
- Design of expanded female education
- Project interventions specifically related
to WEDP or MIDAS
- Training on use of gender data

- Information/document dissemination
- WID experience in other countries
- USAID training workshop

- Information/document dissemination
- USAID training workshop
- Background studies for new CDSS


Information document dissemination
WID experience in other countries
Development of gender data base


5. Pakistan





6. Zaire


- Local NGO training workshops
- Gender data training
- Research/survey methodologies
- Follow-on assistance for SDF and/or TADP
- Enhancement of female education activities

- USAID training workshop
- Development of women's extension component
in Central Shaba Project
- Background studies for new CDSS or for
Private Sector Support/Small Projects
Umbrella/Agricultural Research, Outreach
and Extension.
- Follow-on Assistance for Area Food
Production and Marketing Development Project


Note: Other activities are pending in two new countries: Mali and Yemen.


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A few things are worth noting regarding the above list. First of all, in
every case where Mission training was discussed, the Missions stressed how
little time the staff has and that any such training would have to be well
prepared and sensitive to their specific country's context and Mission
development priorities.


Second ICRW was discussed as only one source of such services. Some
Missions had effectively used alternative sources of assistance. In
Bangladesh, the ex-Ambassador's wife prepared a background document which
raised the legitimacy and visibility of WID concerns in the Mission. An
individual contractor developed the WID strategy for the Dominican Republic
and many Missions are making a concerted effort to make better use of local
expertise. Missions generally want to know more about the capabilities and
experience of the range of WID-related services available to them. Most did
mention, however, that the responsive contracting mechanism and financial
assistance available under the Cooperative Agreement were very influential
in a) seeking WID related services at all and b) utilizing ICRW.


Until such time as more Missions are either sensitized to WID or mandated to
better address WID concerns, no more than a modest demand for WID related
services can be expected. From the Missions' perspective, neither ICRW nor
PPC/WID is doing an effective job either of advising the Missions of the
services available to them or of marketing those services. The evaluation
team believes that both ICRW and PPC/WID could do a better job of utilizing
the experience gained under this Cooperative Agreement, and from other
sources, and applying that experience to more widely disseminated material
which could, at the same time, serve "how-to," advocacy and promotional
functions.


Summary of Findings


* How WID concerns are addressed is a function of several variables including
the commitment of the Mission Director and Senior Management, the commitment
of the WID Officer, definition of WID related roles and responsibilities;
workloads, changing portfolios, accountability, use of gender-dissaggregated
data and funding.


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While there is a general awareness and sensitivity to WID issues and
concerns, the degree of commitment to WID varies tremendously from Mission
to Mission and among individuals within Missions.

Virtually no systems are in place in Missions to reasonably assure that
women's concerns are addressed on a sustainable basis and independent of
individuals' commitment to address them. Until such systems are in place
and operationally independent, PPC/WID, the Regional Bureaus and service
providers such as ICRW will be critical to providing the information,
networking and technical support Missions will need.

More direct support and involvement of Regional Bureaus is needed and some
increase in that support and involvement seems to be taking place.












































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CHAPTER 7


CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS



The AID "Women in Development" policy adopted in October 1982, establishes a
mandate to integrate women's concerns within AID's programs. The policy emphasizes
that "overall responsibility for implementation of this policy rests with all of
AID's offices and bureaus, in all AID programs and projects." Nevertheless, the
Women in Development Office of the PPC Bureau (PPC/WID) serves as a focal point to
promote and support institution-wide efforts. Through a Cooperative Agreement,
signed in April 1985, ICRW has been an important partner to PPC/WID in recent years
in implementing the agency-wide policy.


In September 1987, PPC/WID contracted for an evaluation of the ICRW Cooperative
Agreement with Development Associates. The evaluation conducted through
Washington-based interviews, document reviews and field visits to six AID Missions
focused on the performance of ICRW, the impact of ICRW services on achieving the
broader goal of institutionalizing WID concerns within AID, and on elements within
the overall AID system which can contribute to or inhibit achieving this broader
goal. In order to affect sustainable integration of women in development concerns
within AID programs and projects or to institutionalize WID within AID, the
evaluation team believes that three levels must be influenced:


People, within AID must demonstrate sensitivity to women's concerns and
awareness of how women's integration can contribute to development goals;

Projects must effectively integrate women in their design, implementation
and evaluation; and

Procedures must be in place to ensure the regular consideration of women's
concerns within the overall systems and processes used by AID to promote
development.

Conclusions and recommendations derived through this evaluation are presented
below. The first set of conclusions pertain to the performance of ICRW and the
Cooperative Agreement. These are followed by conclusions and recommendations


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pertaining to PPC/WID's broader goal of institutionalizing WID within AID.


It should be noted that the goal of institutionalizing WID concerns within the
Agency is a responsibility of.PPC/WID and was not explicitly cited in the ICRW
Cooperative Agreement. Thus, while a central and appropriate aspect of the
evaluation, ICRW believes with justification that responsibilities in this regard
are beyond their terms of reference as set forth in the Cooperative Agreement.


A. Conclusions Regarding ICRW Performance and the Cooperative Agreement


Presented below are seven major conclusions regarding ICRW as an institution,
the performance of the first two years of the Cooperative Agreement with
PPC/WID, and recommendations regarding the Cooperative Agreement's final year.
It was decided not to include a number of detailed recommendations flowing from
previous chapters because the evaluation team believes there should be a shift
away from the provision of project specific training and technical assistance
and that the Cooperative Agreement should not continue beyond its planned
termination date of November 1988. Recommendations regarding that shift in
focus are included in the second section of this chapter.


1. ICRW is a small, well managed technical service provider, with particular
strengths in defining gender issues, elaborating sex-disaggregated data, and
contributing design suggestions on the basis of primary and secondary data
analysis.

Over the last five years, ICRW has taken important steps to strengthen their
Board of Directors, financial management and administrative systems. A
recently contracted management consultant team has provided ICRW with solid
recommendations for improved management systems, some of which have already
been implemented. ICRW has also recognized the need to expand the size of
their staff and to increase the use of consultants. Once addressed, this
will enable them to overcome staffing constraints and to more flexibly
respond to the increased demand for services. By bolstering these key
aspects of institutional capacity, ICRW is laying the groundwork for their
future growth. Principal challenges facing the organization include the
need to diversify funding sources and to raise unrestricted funds.


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ICRW is well respected by the international donor community, private
foundations and by other Women in Development organizations. AID Missions,
AID/Washington Bureaus and other donors have praised ICRW's technical
capacity in defining gender issues, elaborating sex-disaggregated data and
in contributing design recommendations on the basis of primary and secondary
data collection and analysis.


2. ICRW's field services and Washington-based activities, in almost all
instances, were well executed.

ICRW received particularly favorable reviews from AID Missions for their
field-based technical assistance. Mission assessments were, in most cases,
very positive with respect to the ICRW personnel's qualifications,
professionalism, and cross-cultural skills and their ability to complete
their assignments in a timely manner. The only concerns expressed pertain
to timeliness of services which in turn may be explained by the competing
demands on a limited number of staff. Reports were assessed as well written
and recommendations generally were considered to be sound and implementable.
Since field-based technical assistance was the principle means used by ICRW
to accomplish the goals of the Cooperative Agreement, the positive
assessment of their field assistance is no small accomplishment.


ICRW's performance of Washington-based activities (e.g., preparation of
issues papers, sectoral papers, seminars) was assessed as satisfactory to
well implemented. ICRW conducted desk reviews of Mission planning and
project documents and developed "issues papers" for the AID review process.
The issues paper were prepared on a timely basis, usually in one to three
days, and were rated as generally sound technically, though rarely
innovative or profound given the short turn around time. Since AID's
internal review process diluted the effect of ICRW's work, the evaluation
-team doubts the usefulness of ICRW's participation in desk reviews.


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3. For reasons not clear but acceptable to both AID and ICRW, ICRW did not
implement the methodology for project-specific technical assistance as set
forth in the Cooperative Agreement or their original proposal to AID.

Even though the services provided were well executed, ICRW did not implement
the methodology for project-specific technical assistance outlined in their
Cooperative Agreement Proposal and reflected in the Cooperative Agreement as
signed. While pieces of this methodology were employed, this was not
utilized in a coherent and consistent manner. Needs assessments were not
uniformly conducted, country workplans were rarely defined, Mission training
and sensitization did not parallel the technical assistance interventions,
and the same projects which received design assistance tended not to be the
ones to benefit from on-going implementation and evaluation assistance.
PPC/WID provided little feedback to ICRW, and written Action Plans and
Progress Reports included little reference to this lack of
follow-through. PPC/WID recognizes that this methodology was not fully
employed but believes that the services as provided were effective at
meeting Mission needs. Reasons why this coherent methodology was not
adopted can be attributed to a range of factors including: unrealistic
assumptions about Mission planning methods, short timetables for project
design and implementation, lower than anticipated demand for the services
offered, and project management preferences of PPC/WID and of ICRW.


Conclusions and recommendations from an earlier ICRW evaluation had pointed
to the minimal impact of short-term technical assistance as it was then
provided. Those recommendations may have influenced the methodology
presented by ICRW in their proposal for the current Cooperative Agreement.
In retrospect, however, the nature and services provided by ICRW under the
existing Cooperative Agreement were not significantly different than those
performed under their earlier contract with the Science and Technology
Bureau nor was the impact significantly different from earlier efforts.


4. The impact of ICRW's short-term project-specific technical assistance on the
institutionalization of WID activities within AID was minimal due to the
lack of follow-through by Missions and the failure to achieve 'spill-over'
effects on broader Mission policies and procedures.

On the basis of visits to six of the ten countries which received assistance
under this Agreement, the impact of short-term project-specific technical


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assistance on the institutionalization of WID activities within AID was
minimal. In a number of instances, specific projects and individuals have
been influenced by the ICRW interventions. However, there is little
evidence to link the short term (1-4 weeks) interventions with the broader
goals of institutionalization. Short term technical services aimed at
Mission-wide portfolio reviews or WID strategy development had a broader
impact, particularly on heightening awareness of WID issues in the Missions,
but fell short of institutionalizing new Mission systems or procedures. The
evaluation team concludes that short-term technical assistance can be an
effective intervention, but only when steps are taken to ensure effective
institutionalization and follow-through with recommendations.


Project-specific TA, however, even when conducted successfully and in the
context of long-term relationships, will have little spill-over effects
unless specific efforts are made to discuss and disseminate that experience
with the rest of the Mission. Such TA may have a very important impact on
specific projects. However, given the limited resources available, in the
absence of broader efforts toward institutionalization, the nature of
project-specific TA suggests that it may not be the most cost effective
means of influencing the institutionalization of women's concerns in AID's
72 Missions around the world.


5. There have been insufficient efforts to disseminate project-specific
experience gained through the ICRW Cooperative Agreement.

Though the provisions of the Cooperative Agreement with respect to
educational and informational activities were technically satisfied and the
products (e.g., sectoral papers, seminars, briefings) adequately prepared,
full value has not been obtained for the work performed. This is because
sector papers have not been widely disseminated, only one seminar and a
'brown bag' lunch have been conducted, and briefings have been scheduled
rarely. To enhance the dissemination of valuable lessons derived through
project-specific technical assistance, increased educational and
informational activities are necessary. PPC/WID and ICRW should have sought
greater 'spill-over' effects from individual project-specific technical
assistance throughout Missions and AID/Washington in addition to the broader
international donor community.


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6. A Cooperative Agreement was not the optimal mechanism for the provision of
the type of technical assistance provided by ICRW.

The Cooperative Agreement became a mechanism for accomplishing apparently
ad-hoc technical assistance to AID Missions, rather than the methodology
originally proposed. On the one hand, ICRW has made every effort to be
responsive to the requests of PPC/WID and the AID Missions in providing
services. On the other hand, the use of a Cooperative Agreement contracting
instrument would have normally implied a more discrete programmatic agenda
promoted by ICRW with the 'substantive involvement' of PPC/WID. An
examination of Cooperative Agreement activities suggests that ICRW's
emphasis on 'responsiveness' may have hindered their ability to plan and
implement the program as originally intended.


The responsiveness which was more appropriate for a contract than a
Cooperative Agreement, reflected the mutual interpretation of the Agreement
by PPC/WID and ICRW. In the day-to-day implementation of the Cooperative
Agreement, PPC/WID frequently served as the-gatekeeper to communications
between ICRW and the Missions and AID/W. PPC/WID, as part of its efforts to
be responsive to the requirements of AID/Washington and the USAIDs around
the world, has called upon ICRW to respond to apparently ad-hoc requests for
technical support.


7. The ICRW Cooperative Agreement during its final year is appropriately
focused on interventions influencing Mission portfolios and enhancing the
capabilities of Mission and AID/W personnel, in addition to continuing
project specific TA.

The 1987 modifications to the Cooperative Agreement reoriented activities
toward field technical assistance which influence the entire Mission
portfolio, and placed greater emphasis on information dissemination and
training activities. These modifications are consistent with the evaluation
findings regarding areas of potentially greatest impact, while recognizing
the need to continue providing some project-level technical assistance, both
to honor existing commitments and to be responsive to legitimate Mission
needs.


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RECOMMENDATION: During Year III of the existing ICRW Cooperative.Agreement
priority should be given to:

Technical assistance which impacts on a Mission's entire portfolio,
such as:

portfolio reviews;

Mission planning documents such as CDSS, Action Plans and sector
strategies;

the provision of hands-on training which prepares Project Officers
to collect and utilize gender-specific data;

Wide-spread and active dissemination of project-specific
lessons-learned including the distribution of:

sectoral papers prepared in conjunction with this Cooperative
Agreement;

other "how-to" and resource materials documenting the success and
failure of projects elsewhere;

information provided in a timely manner to officers developing
Action Plans or Sector Strategies for their incorporation; and

Carefully selected project-specific TA coupled with specific efforts
to discuss and disseminate experience.

B. Conclusions Regarding Institutionalization of WID Activities Within AID


In addition to assessing the implementation of the Cooperative Agreement, the
evaluation team was asked to consider the context in which the agreement exists
and then to offer insights or suggestions which pertain to institutionalizing
WID within the Agency. Thus, the conclusions and recommendations which follow
extend beyond ICRW and its current relationships with PPC/WID. The first such
conclusion is rather global in scope, but it is critical to institutionalization
of the Agency's WID Policy and to setting reasonable expectations for PPC/WID
and its agent organizations in the future. Those which follow address more
specifically actions which PPC/WID should consider taking.


1. AID's Women in Development Policy is not being implemented fully or
vigorously, and there is little enthusiasm and few incentives for doing so.
Without meaningful Agency-wide acceptance of responsibility for
implementation of this policy, the efforts of PPC/WID and its agents in
support of the policy will be marginally useful at best.

With several notable exceptions, the attitude of personnel within AID's
Bureaus and Missions with respect to WID issues is one of tolerant

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RECOMMENDATION: During Year III of the existing ICRW Cooperative.Agreement
priority should be given to:

Technical assistance which impacts on a Mission's entire portfolio,
such as:

portfolio reviews;

Mission planning documents such as CDSS, Action Plans and sector
strategies;

the provision of hands-on training which prepares Project Officers
to collect and utilize gender-specific data;

Wide-spread and active dissemination of project-specific
lessons-learned including the distribution of:

sectoral papers prepared in conjunction with this Cooperative
Agreement;

other "how-to" and resource materials documenting the success and
failure of projects elsewhere;

information provided in a timely manner to officers developing
Action Plans or Sector Strategies for their incorporation; and

Carefully selected project-specific TA coupled with specific efforts
to discuss and disseminate experience.

B. Conclusions Regarding Institutionalization of WID Activities Within AID


In addition to assessing the implementation of the Cooperative Agreement, the
evaluation team was asked to consider the context in which the agreement exists
and then to offer insights or suggestions which pertain to institutionalizing
WID within the Agency. Thus, the conclusions and recommendations which follow
extend beyond ICRW and its current relationships with PPC/WID. The first such
conclusion is rather global in scope, but it is critical to institutionalization
of the Agency's WID Policy and to setting reasonable expectations for PPC/WID
and its agent organizations in the future. Those which follow address more
specifically actions which PPC/WID should consider taking.


1. AID's Women in Development Policy is not being implemented fully or
vigorously, and there is little enthusiasm and few incentives for doing so.
Without meaningful Agency-wide acceptance of responsibility for
implementation of this policy, the efforts of PPC/WID and its agents in
support of the policy will be marginally useful at best.

With several notable exceptions, the attitude of personnel within AID's
Bureaus and Missions with respect to WID issues is one of tolerant


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RECOMMENDATION: Steps should be taken to identify and reinforce individuals
within AID Missions who demonstrate interest and initiative regarding WID
concerns.


More specifically, PPC/WID should:


Identify individuals who have demonstrated interest or have already
taken steps to incorporate WID concerns within their projects and
programs by establishing an informal network across Missions;

Circulate up-to-date literature on WID successes and failures; and

Send interested officers advance, or even draft copies of training
materials or sectoral papers prior to their finalization in order to
keep Missions thoroughly informed.

3. Mission leadership support significantly bolsters commitment to WID
initiatives.

In three of the six Mission's visited, Mission leaders were exceptionally
supportive of WID endeavors. Mission leadership, while ultimately resting
in the position of Mission Director, also included the Deputy Mission
Director, Program Officer and Chief of the Projects Office. Mission
leadership reflected priorities they perceived to emanate from the
Administrator's and Assistant Administrator's (AAs) Offices. Currently, all
three Bureaus are headed by Assistant Administrators who have expressed
their support for the active involvement of w6men within AID programs and
projects. This .top level support is vital to engender the commitment and
support for the institutionalization of WID.


In those Missions, where Mission leadership promoted WID concerns, the
priorities and emphases on WID were better recognized. The desire of staff
to be acknowledged by Mission leadership for their efforts to support WID
proved to be a powerful incentive. Where Mission leaders' interest in WID
efforts was minimal, there appeared to be less active promotion of WID
concerns.


RECOMMENDATION: In tandem with Agency-wide efforts, PPC/WID should actively
elicit the interest and support of Mission leadership, thereby promoting
Mission-level commitment to the AID Women in Development Policy.


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PPC/WID should:

Work with the Assistant Administrators' offices to develop an explicit
statement in support of the WID policy, including guidelines on how
Missions could best exercise this policy;

Target information and educational materials specifically for the
Mission leadership level. Examples include preparation of briefing
materials for Mission leadership and conducting executive sessions
that would concentrate on policy level and broader purpose-level
issues, as distinct from "how to" training targeted to Project
Officers; and

Schedule WID discussions during Mission Director conferences to
encourage 'peer exchanges' on how WID activities can contribute toward
overall AID program impact in a developing country.

4. Follow-through on WID related issues by Missions is a principal constraint
on the impact of WID interventions. Missions and AID/W seek more leadership
and resources from PPC/WID in this regard.

Top level Mission commitment must be coupled with specific, concrete means
to foster follow-through of WID objectives at the operational levels.
Mission personnel supportive of WID concerns indicated repeatedly that they
felt they needed assistance in integrating WID concerns in Mission projects
and systems following ICRW's recommendations.


Ultimately, once the Agency had adopted a firm commitment to its Women in
Development Policy, it is PPC/WID's role to provide leadership to the
Agency's implementation of the institutionalization of WID. Neither ICRW
nor other outside service providers can assume the leadership within AID
needed to bring about institutional change. Outside organizations can
provide valuable resources and assist PPC/WID to better accomplish AID's
broader goals. However, ICRW's role has been limited, as should be the role
of any outside service provider.


RECOMMENDATION: To foster follow-through of WID Objectives, PPC/WID should
work with appropriate Offices and Bureaus to introduce specific measures to:


Introduce clear, simple and specific requirements within Handbook 3,
thereby influencing the standard procedures for project design, review
and evaluation;

Provide hands-on training in the use of gender-specific data;

Provide additional information and documentation on projects which
successfully incorporate women;


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Actively solicit the recommendations and requirements of Project
Officers so that tools provided meet the needs of those expected to
carry-out the AID policy;

Review Mission planning documents with an eye for specific
proposed activities which could benefit from the experience of others;

Make available centrally funded assistance; and

Provide additional funding directly to Regional Bureaus or Missions
for WID related work.

5. The network of WID Officers based in the Bureaus and the AID Missions is a
valuable resource which is currently underutilized.

The WID Policy establishes a network of support throughout the AID system
that PPC/WID could call upon to promote the institutionalization of WID.
Given existing lines of authority, Bureau WID Officers are responsible for
coordinating efforts in tandem with Bureau priorities. They can seek the
support of Bureau leadership needed for effective commitment and
follow-through in Washington and in the field. Yet, communication and
coordination channels between PPC/WID and the Regional Bureau WID Officers
have not been fully utilized. Communication among the different Bureau WID
Officers is sparse, and the Bureau WID Officers are not fully informed of
what each other is doing to support the WID Policy. In effect, Mission and
Bureau WID officers form a potentially important network within the existing
AID system. Yet, currently, they do not have a common set of objectives or
receive any regular guidance which would enable them to do their jobs more
effectively.


RECOMMENDATION: In cooperation with the Regional Bureaus, PPC/WID should
seek means to better capitalize on existing lines of authority and the
network of Bureau WID Officers and Mission WID Officers for achieving WID
objectives. Specifically, PPC/WID should:


Suggest a list of expected functions and objectives for WID officers.

Prepare and disseminate a packet of training and orientation materials
for newly appointed WID officers;

Circulate the names of WID officers, highlighting key projects and
initiatives adopted by individual WID officers; and

Call upon WID Officers to facilitate the follow-through of WID
initiatives in AID/Washington and in the Mission.


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5. A Cooperative Agreement is not the appropriate mechanism for the provision
of technical services designed to institutionalize AID's WID policy.

In 1984, a cooperative agreement was selected by AID as the appropriate
mechanism for the provision of WID-related project-specific training and
technical assistance. In retrospect, that was a reasonable decision, and
from a narrow perspective the results have been consistent with what was
expected and desired. However, it is also clear that the results have not
contributed very much to achieving the long-term purpose of
institutionalizing AID's Women in Development Policy throughout the Agency.


Although PPC/WID and ICRW share a common goal and many objectives, their
institutional missions and contexts are quite different. The primary
responsibility of PPC/WID is to foster the implementation of AID's Women in
Development Policy within the Agency. ICRW, on the other hand, is primarily
a research and technical services organization focused on enhancing the
productive roles of women in developing countries. While the purposes and
objectives of the two organizations are compatible, they are not the same.
Thus, while the two shared the common objective of providing AID Missions
project-specific assistance, the underlying purposes were different, and
over time, the implications of these differences have become clearer.
Although ICRW has made serious efforts to be responsive to the project
specific needs of AID Missions and PPC/WID, it has never considered its
charge under the Cooperative Agreement to include being a proactive
instrument of the institutionalization of WID. While it is appropriate for
PPC/WID to seek outside assistance in its efforts to institutionalize the
WID policy, such assistance should be provided through precisely defined and
monitored contracts rather than the more loosely structured cooperative
agreement mechanism.


RECOMMENDATION: PPC/WID should seek outside assistance through precisely
defined and monitored contracts in its efforts to institutionalize AID's WID
policy.


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7. Subsidized assistance coupled with ease of administrative access
significantly contributes to Mission willingness to utilize a WID technical
services provider. Nevertheless, Missions seek more direct control over
service providers.

AID Missions visited by the evaluation team uniformly commented that the
availability of centrally funded services coupled with the administrative
ease of accessing the Cooperative Agreement contributed significantly to
their willingness to utilize the services of ICRW. There is reason to doubt
that if these services required full Mission financing that the Missions
would be willing to use the services of an organization focused on WID
concerns. Even though the original methodology involving greater emphasis
on educational activity was not fully developed, the Cooperative Agreement
mechanism appeared to stimulate modest Mission interest and use of WID
specific technical services. Typically, services provided under the ICRW
Cooperative Agreement paralleled those provided under contracts such as
Indefinite Quantity Contracts. On the other hand, Missions reported that
their lack of full control over the technical assistance provider and the
shared accountability of the provider with AID/Washington was less than
fully desirable.


On the basis of discussion with the Contracts Office, AID Missions and
PPC/WID, the evaluation team concludes that there may be several alternative
contracting arrangements which could appropriately meet PPC/WID's needs.
One option to consider may be the relatively new contracting mechanism,
commonly referred to as a "Mission Buy-in" contract. In this contract form,
core funding would be provided by PPC/WID to finance research, education,
promotion, and dissemination activities while partially offsetting the cost
of field services. The bulk of field activities, however, would be financed
through Mission buy-ins.


A contract, such as a Mission buy-in format, or other formats to be
identified, could provide PPC/WID with the technical services they would
require to meet the diverse needs of a project similar to the existing
Cooperative Agreement. This would allow PPC/WID more direct control over







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the activities conducted through core funding. Core funding could provide
the source of subsidy which may be essential to encourage Mission
participation. Ultimately, however, Mission buy-ins would allow the
Missions to delineate more explicit scopes of work and to outline the
expected outcomes and deliverables from field technical assistance.


RECOMMENDATION: PPC/WID should develop a contract mechanism which will
provide certain centrally funded technical services to Missions. Centrally
funded services should include:

Assistance to Missions in developing background documents supporting
CDSSs, sector strategies, and other Mission program planning documents;

Training and hands-on assistance in the collection and use of gender
specific data; and

Portfolio reviews and selected project specific technical assistance
coupled with a program of dissemination and education based on lessons
learned.

A mechanism should also be developed ( if possible the same mechanism) to
provide Mission's easy access to WID related services they define and fund.


Finally, it must be recognized that there exists a tension between the objectives
and mode of operation of PPC/WID with those of AID Missions. As a single issue
office, PPC/WID aims to promote the AID Women in Development Policy. The Missions,
on the other hand, encounter competing priorities for their staff time and
resources. This tension is manifested in the Mission's ambivalent attitudes toward
centrally funded, supply-driven projects such as this Cooperative Agreement, as
opposed to activities they generate, fund and control.


A number of Agency wide trends have further exacerbated these traditional
tensions. Decreasing staff size, tight budgets, and moves toward a focus on
programs and policy rather than projects have worked counter to AID's efforts to
directly involve women. Within this environment of scarce resources, Missions must
balance priorities among special interests (e.g., WID, human rights, etc.) while
satisfactorily meeting program and project performance targets Daily crises must
be resolved at the same time that long-term initiatives are pursued. Thus, an
effective strategy to enhance the institutionalization of WID within AID must fully
acknowledge and address the inherent tensions within the AID system.


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It is also important to recognize that AID Missions demonstrate different levels of
receptivity to integrating women's concerns within their programs and projects.
Efforts to promote the institutionalization of WID activities within AID have
tended to discuss strategies which assume homogeneity among the AID Missions and
assume that one methodology would be appropriate for all. However, there are
significantly different levels of receptivity to WID concerns among AID Missions.
The Development Associates evaluation team believes that among the factors which
influence the institutionalization of WID within a Mission, four may be considered
critical:


The extent of Mission leadership commitment;
The effectiveness of the WID officer;
-* The project or policy focus of the portfolio; and
The general level of awareness of Mission personnel toward WID concerns.

Missions which are rated favorably in terms of these indicators would have the
greatest likelihood of receptivity to introducing WID activities. Some Missions
would likely be considered moderately receptive, and others less so.


Thus, when developing its strategy on how to best promote the institutionalization
of WID activities within AID, PPC/WID should not only consider inherent tensions
within the AID system but also differentiate among Missions on the basis of levels
of receptivity to WID in order to effectively guide the efforts of WID assistance
in a targeted and focused manner. Ultimately, however, PPC/WID's strategy can
only attain-its intended impact within a context in which the Agency's Offices and
Bureaus have fully accepted their responsibility to implement the Agency's Women in
Development Policy.


Summary of Findings


Conclusions and recommendations are summarized in the following Tables 7.1 and 7.2.









3861D/12.87


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TAL? 7.1

CDN=MIOIs ON ICKV CDOPEUATIvZ AGUE T U I-11
11 --- -MATIONS IWM COOPIETZ AGRZEE M AI I=


CONCuISIONS ON I~W CA
YeAR I-II


1. IC W is a small, well managed technical service
provider. ICIW's strmenths lie in defining
gender issues, elaborating sex disaggrgatd
data and utilizing thee in incorporating WID
concerns i project design, implementation and
evaluations.

2. IC V's field serlces and ashington-based
activities in almost all instances were well
executed.

3. For reasons not clear but acceptable to A3D and ICKW
ICW did not implement the methodology
for project-specific lA as set forth in the
Cooperative Agreement or their original proposal
to AID.

4. The pact of ICW's short term project-specific
TA on the inatitutionaliuation of WID activities
withi AID wa minimal due to ack of follow
through by Nissions and the failure to achieve
"spill-ver effects" on broder Mission policies
and procedures.

5. There have been insufficient effort to disseoi-
nat project-specific experience gained through
the ICIS Cooperative Agreement.

6. A Cooperative Agreement was not the appropriate
mechanism for the provision of the type of TA
provided by ICSV.

7. The ICSw Cooperative Agreent during its
final year is appropriately focused o intar-
ventions influencin Mission portfolios and
enhancing the capabilities of Mission and
AID/W personnel, in addition to continuing
project specific TA.


UCO"I=WDAT!ONS ?OR IC&W CA
YEA III


During Tear III of the axistin ICZ Cooperative
Agreement priority should be given to:

* Technical assistance which impacts on a Mission's
entire portfolio such as portfolio revive and
provision of hands-on training which is zpected
to provide project officers with the essential
information and skills needed to collect and
utilize ender-specific data.

Wide-spread and active dissemination of project-
Sspecific lessons learned and sectoral papers
prepared in conjunction with this Cooperative
ACreemnt.

Carefully selected project-specific TA coupled
with dissemination of field experiences.


t




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TABLE 7.2

wwaCMIOu AND ON THE
1ISTITUTIONALZ= OnX 0? lID OAC!ITTS WnITH AZD


SimWS RECO9MID&TONS


1. AID's fID policy is not being mplemented fully
and there is little enthusiasm and feW incan-
tives for doing so. Without Agency-wide accept-
ance of responsibility for implementation of
this policy, the efforts of PPC/WID and its
agents will be marginally useful at best.


* AID should reiterate its commitment ad direct
resources toward developing and installing straight-
forard and efficient mechanisms to insure the
Agency's WD policy is carried out.


2. The initiative and interest of individuals has Establish an inter-Mission antwork of individuals
been the most significant variable influencing with WID interest and initiatives.
the integration of HID concerns ai AID progress
and projects. a ODissminate information on ID successes and
failures in AID and other agencies nd send copies
of training materials and "how to sector papers to
keep Missions thoroughly informed on progress of
WID issues.


3. Mission leadership support significantly Work with Assistant Administrators offices to
bolsters commitment to ID initiatives. develop guidelines on how Missions an best exercise
ID/ID policy.

Target infor.etion, educational materials,
executive sessions, and conferences at the Mission
leadership evel to concentrate oan ID policy
isres as distinct fro WD training efforts
targeted to Project Officers.


4. Follow-through by Missions is a principal con- a Introduce WID requireets n AI D's standard pro-
straint on the impact of ID interventions. cedures for project design, implementation and
Missions and ID/W seek more leadership and evaluation.
resources from PPC/WD.
Provide hedsoa training in the use of gender-
specific data.

Review Mission plannn documents and recommnd
specific essns learned frto other ID activities.

Provde central funds to Regional Bore and
Missions for VID-related work.


5. The network of WID Officers based in the Prepare a orientation packet for WID officers
Bureaus and AID Missions is a valuable including clear objectives, repected functions and
resource that is currently underutilized. usful training and/or reference materials.
Maintain an up-to-dat network of 7ID Officers
disseminating key projects and initiatives across
Missions.

Call upon ID Officers to facilitate the follow
through of VID initiatives in AfI/ashington ad in
the Missions.


6. A Cooperative Agreement i not an appropriate PPC/VID should seek outside assistance through
mechanius for the provision of technical precisely defined and monitored contracts in its
services designed to institutionalize AID's efforts to institutionalize AID's WID policy.
VID policy.


7. Subsidize assistance coupled with ease of
administrative access wa the attraction of
the Cooperative Agreement nd WID
technical assistance requested by the Missions
reflected services typically provided through
Contracts.


* uture technical assistance services can best be
performed through a centrally funded contract
mechanism. Suggested services include assistance in:
a) Developing CSS, sector strategies and Mission
planning documents.
b) Ends-on training in the use of ender-specific
data.
c) Portfolio review and project-specific TA
coupled with dissemination of field
experiences.




























APPENDIX:

LIST OF CONTACTS


DEZYRWP3CNT ABSOCUATZS. INC.







LIST OF CONTACTS
(In Alphabetical Order)

I. WASHINGTON-BASED CONTACTS
A. AID/Washington

Joan Atherton
PPC/PDPR/SP

Tura Bethune
AFR/DP/PAB

Jack Francis
LAC/DP/SD
LAC WID Officer

Jean Hacken
SER/OP/W/CO

Donald Kennedy
Project Development Officer
PPC/WID

Anna Maria Long
ANE/TS/HR
ANE WID Oficer

Carol Peasley
AFR/PD
AFR WID Officer

Helen Soos
AFR/PRE

Gloria Steele
AFR/TR/ARD

Joan Wolfe
Deputy Director
PPC/WID

B. International Center for Research on Women

Marguerite Berger, Staff Economist
Mayra Buvinic, Director
Sharon Camp, ICRW Board Member
Rita Gibbons, Administrative Officer
Nadine Horenstein, Staff Economist
Cecilia Jaramilla, Executive Manager
Susan Joekes, Staff Economist
Margaret Lycette, Deputy Director
Michael Paolisso, Staff Anthropologist
Sarah Tinsley, ICRW Board Chairperson


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a ,


C. Others

Jo, Albert
West Africa Projects Division
The World Bank

Arvonne Fraser
Hubert Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs

Michele Heisler
The Ford Foundation

Katrine Saito
East Africa, WID
The World Bank

Lorraine Sinnard
USAID/Costa Rica


DZY vZLoP rr AsSOCILTZs. INC.







II. COUNTRY VISIT CONTACTS


A. BANGLADESH

USAID/Bangladesh

Priscilla M. Boughton
Mission Director

Kay Calavan
Monitoring and Evaluation Officer

Michael M. Calavan
Deputy Director
Office of Project Development and Engineering

Colette Chabbott
Assistant Program Officer

H. Robert Kramer
Program Officer and Acting Deputy Mission Director

Donald W. Muncy
Deputy Program Officer
WID Officer

Mary L. McIntyre
Project Officer
Population and Health Office

Robert Navin
Project Officer
Food and Agriculture Office

B. Donald Reese
Director
Project Development and Engineering Office

Kevin Rushing
Project Officer
Food and Agriculture Office

Gary Vanderhoof
Private Enterprise Officer
Project Development and Engineering Office


DIYoWPMNTr ASSOCIATZS. INC.







Host Country

Taheerah Haq
Deputy Director, MIDAS (Micro Industries Development Assistance Society)

Rasheeda Khanan
WEDP Project Director
Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industry Council

Raka Rashid
Project Director/Consultant
Feasibility Study: Women's Participation in Local Markets in Bangladesh

B. PAKISTAN

USAID/Pakistan

Tahira Abdullah
Program Assistant

Jonathan S. Addleton
Assistant Program Officer
WID Officer

Peter Davis
Chief, Program Officer

Paul Gaudet
Deputy Mission Director

Richard Goldman
Deputy Chief
Agriculture and Rural Development Office

Robert W. Nachtrieb
Chief
Office of Project Development and Monitoring

Andra J. Herriott
Chief
Human Resources and Training Office

Laurie Mailloux
Social Screatist
Office of Project Development and Monitoring

Michael McGovern
TADP Project Officer
Regional Affairs Office, Peshawar

Myra Morgan
Design Officer
Agriculture and Rural Development Office


DXV LOFMXNT A.SOCIATZ INC.


:=mm--=







Alvin P. Newman
Chief, Water Resources Division
Agriculture and Rural Development Office

Asma Soufi
Training Advisor/Assistant WID Officer
Human Resources and Training Office

Stephen J. Spielman
Chief, Regional Legal Affairs Office
Project Director, Special Development Fund

C. ZAIRE

USAID/Zaire

William Anderson
Chief, Project Development Office

Donald Brown
Chief, Agriculture and Rural Development Office (ARD)

Dennis Chandler
Mission Director

Rudalpho Griego
Deputy Chief, ARD
WID Officer

Cheryl McCarthy
Project Officer ARD
Area Food Production and Marketing Development Project

Mbo Wassa Nkiere
Project Assistant, ARD
Area Food Production and Marketing Development Project

John Wiebler
Deputy Chief, Program Office

Host Country

Director Nkoy
Project Director
Government of Zaire, Ministry of Rural Development
Area Food, Production and Marketing Development Project


DIVELOPKISNT ASSOCIATES. INC.








D. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

USAID/DR

Anne Beasly
Project Officer
Private Sector Office

Claude Boyd
Education Officer

Rudy Ellert-Beck
Deputy Program Officer

Jack Eyer
Deputy Mission Director

Ken Lanza
Private Sector Officer

Deborah McFarland
WID Officer
Deputy Projects Officer

James Philpott
Program Officer

Toni Christiensen Wagner
Chief
Human Resource Development Office

Host Country

Areles Rodriguez
Investment Promotion Council

Pedro Jimenez
ADEMI

Mercedes Sayaguez, Stephanie Schere de Vela
INSTRAW


E. ECUADOR

USAID/Quito

Maruska Burbano
Project Officer
Private Sector Office


DAV LOPMZNT ASSOCIATED. INC.


I.=mm=





:-4 Rodrigo Lopez
ACCION/AITEC

Luis Alexander, John Mosher, Doug Clark
CARE

Elsa de Teran
Fundacion Mariana de Jesus

Santiago Escobar
ILDIS

Blasio Vermillo
UNEPROM

F. GUATEMALA

USAID/Guatemala

Maria Elena de Hernandez
WID Officer

Tom Kellerman
Acting Program Officer

Felipe Mantega
Chief
Private Sector Office

Roberto Perez
Engineer
Rural Roads Project

Elvira de Saenz
CAPS Training Officer

Richard Steelman
Deputy Project Development Officer

Harold Wing
Chief
Agricultural and Rural Development Office

Paul White
Deputy Mission Director








3778D/12.87


DI)JzOPMENT ASSOCIATES. INC.







- Michael Deal
Chief of Projects Office

- Lindsay Elmendorf
Project Officer
Housing Office

- Alberto Ruiz de Gamboa
Mission Economist

- William Goldman
Chief
Health Office

- Charles Van Hosen
Chief
Housing Office

- Bruce Kernan
Project Officer
Agriculture and Rural Development Office
4
- Jioconda Lopez
Training Office

- Patricio Maldonado
WID Officer
Program Officer

- Steffi Meyer
Project Officer
Projects Office

- Susan Moroz
Food for Peace Office

David Nelson
Advisor
Health Office

Scott Smith
Deputy Mission Director

Host Country

Jorge Landivar, Cesar Alarcon, Pilar Chavez
Fundacion Ecuatoriana de Desarrollo

Ruben Esperin
INSOTEC


DEZVLOPMZNT ASSOCIATrS. INC.




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