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Title: strategy for fulfillment of the Plan of Action for Women in Development
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Title: strategy for fulfillment of the Plan of Action for Women in Development
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Creator: Chaney, Elsa M.
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    The strategy and framework for the fulfillment of the plan of action
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    Summary chapter: ESH initiatives to coordinate the responses and recommendations
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    Recommendations of services and technical units of training of FAO staff
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    Recommendations of the services on procedures and systems
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    Strengthening institutional linkages between regular programme and field
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    Inter-agency collaboration in the UN system and other agencies
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Full Text

])'lGt i-.'Pn

A Strategy for Fulfillment of the

Plan of Action for

Women in Development

Elsa M. Chaney, Ph.D.
ESHW Consultant

April 14, 1989

TROPICiAL .- :..: L T, '
519 li; ,',-, I -A
LAIIJL{v'iLLE, FL. 32u0Z


The c .nsiiIl tant is grateful to SIIlW for the support andi
friendship extended to htr during her stay at FAO.

She also appreciates the graciousness with which she was
uniformly received in the services and units she visited.

Table of Contents


T. 1 i r.r tv r II I'm1i in !- i r t ic;
Ful i nlmn nt of the Plain (ft Act i)n 1

II. Summary Chapter: ESH Initiatives to Coordinate
the Responses and Recommendations 3

III. Recommendations of Services and
Technical Units on Training of
FAO Staff 15

IV. Recommendations of the Services on
Procedures and Systems 25

V. Strengthening Institutional Linkages
between Regular Programme and Field 31

VI. Inter-Agency Collaboration in the UN
System and Other Agencies 33


I. ESH Memo and "Points for Discussion"

II. Recommendations of the FAO Council

III. Persons Interviewed for this Report

IV. List of IDWG/WID Members and Focal Points

V. Recommendations from the Expert
Consultation on WID

VI. Planned Activities of the Divisions

VII. Units not yet Reporting

I. The Strategy Framework for Fulfillment of the Plan of Action

The framework for implementing the Plan of Actio.n visionsios

progra.inm t s an:,l -[ ivi it i s at sevr, l l r- ls. Ph10, 1 ,r 1n.i i r st he

systematic enrichment of the global body of knowledge and concerns

into the concepts that shape FAO's approaches to the development

enterprise. Based on these concepts, FAO should promote policies that

support and enhance women's role as agricultural producers. Within
this policy framework, planning of specific activities, preferably

those with multiplier effects, should

draw women into mainstream FAO programmes and
projects, or

directly prepare them for full participation in FAO's

central activities. 1/

These general statements provide a framework or set of goals for

increasing and enriching the participation of women in FAO. The body

of the Plan of Action goes on to specify a wide range of specific

programmes and projects for achieving these goals.

In order for the work to commence, however, the Council of FAO

recommends that concrete priorities be set, along with a timetable of

activities. The same document (CL 94/REP) suggests particular

priorities related to the Plan of Action that ought to be included in
the work plans of the different divisions and technical units.

This report responds to the Council's requests and

recommendations, outlining the various measures taken by ESH not only

to set priorities and timetables for the ESHW service, but also to
elicit from all divisions in FAO their own plans for fulfilling the
Plan of Action.

1/ Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development, p. 2.

The report is divided into six sections. Section II is a summary

Chapter that outlines the main issues touched upon in the body of the
report. Section III synthetizes the ideas of the House on the

training of FAO staff, while Section !V ontlinps the concerns of the
divisions for moro rinrman' n t svstmni, 'hno in FAO procelllr s -

Sections V and VI contain the responses on two additional key issues
raised by the Council: the strengthening of institutional linkages

between regular programme and field projects, and the question of

greater inter-agency collaboration. A set of annexes includes a

summary of all the activities proposed to date by the divisions for
the remainder of 1989, and for the 1990-1991 biennium.

ESH in its approach to the other divisions suggested that the

Council mandates do not always involve the creation of additional

projects directed to women. It was suggested that in special

circumstances -- for example, to provide training for women in credit
so they can join in mainstream FAO credit projects are such projects
still are needed: however, such initiatives must be examined to see
whether they actually integrate, rather than isolate, women from the

principal project activities.

In the exercise carried out for this report, the aim was rather

to emphasize how the activities women already perform in agriculture,
fisheries and forestry can be recognized, supported and enhanced: the

extent to which boundaries sometimes set around women's collaboration

can be pushed outward without offending cultural and national
sensibilities, and how women and men, working together, therefore will

reap greater benefits from the development enterprise for themselves
and their families.

ESHW is, of course, only one unit: it will do its best to respond

to what has truly been an avalanche of suggestions and ideas, both

written and verbal. The present report is a first effort to provide
feedback: the meeting being scheduled for the IDWG/WID will be a
second, and there will be others- ESHW is grateful for the interest

and support shown in the common work we face to implement the Plan of
Action for WID.

II. Summary Chapter: ESH Initiatives to Coordinate Responses and

for Fulfillment of the Plan of Action of WID

In compliance with the recommendations and requests contained in
the Report of the Council of FAO CL 94/REP, pp. 16-19, ESH in late
February, sent a memo to all division directors. Their collaboration
was requested in the fulfillment of the joint requirement to design
all programmes and activities so that women are more effectively and

consistently integrated into the mainstream of FAO's ongoing .and
future endeavours. This memo and the Council recommendations are
appended as Annexes I and II. As well, "Points for Discussion", based
on the Council document and circulated with the ESH memo, are

The 94th Council asked that FAO set priorities and timetables, as
well as estimate budget requirements, for activities to support and
enhance women's participation in the programmes and projects of the
various technical units. To accomplish this, suggestions were

elicited from the divisions on three main points emphasized in the
Council document:

the training programme on women in agriculture that
is being planned for all FAO staff;

the strengthening of institutional linkages between

regular programme and field projects in relation to
the integration of women, and

the mechanisms needed to achieve a closer
collaboration, in each technical area, with other
agencies in the UN system that also are working for
the greater participation of women.

This consultant ESHW was sent to discuss with all the divisions
and several of the un'-' their r-syrines 't the Plan of Action. These
discussions were carried out over a period of approximately six weeks
in March and April. Seven divisions (AGR,

DDA, ESC, ESN (in two meetings) FI, FO and GII) brought together
representatives of all services for the meetings.

Most divisions and units were ready and open to exploring the

implications the Plan of Action on their work; difficulties in
securing interviews were related much more to time pressures and/or
temporary absence of indicated personnel (thf appointed focal points)
or difficulties in assembling t,> :-,l divi sion thin to reluctance to

enter into discussion on the issues suggested by the Council. Both
women and men interviewed proved, for the most part, knowledgeable and

informed on the situation and potential contribution of women, 47 men
and 16 women made up the interview group: a list is appended as Annex

III). A large number of persons echoed the remark of one staff member
that the "atmosphere is different now there is a much better

understanding of how women contribute to the success of the
development enterprise, and much more potential for progress now than
at any other time".

Both written and verbal response are included in this report

(responses from interview notes are always distinguished from written

replies). In this section, general observations and summaries are

made on the responses to the issues posed in the Council documents.
After that, each of the main questions is reported on and analyzed in
more detail.

Throughout, this report, follow-up activities are identified with

the symbol .

1. Focal Points and Core Groups on WID

One matter reiterated in the Council document is the desire to
have in each unit a focal point for WID issues. In most cases, there

already is a focal point person in place. Sometimes, but not always,
the same person also is a member of the Inter-Divisional Working Group
on Women in Development (IDWG/WID) (see Annex IV for a complete
listing of these persons).

In.several instances, persons who currently are focal points for
WID mention there is a tendency to settle "forever" on one choice and

not to ..:t2 t'e rc;p-nsil'lity. One person complains (with some

justice!) that_ after serving for ten years, it is time for someone
else to take on this task.

Insofar as the IDWG/WID is concerned, there is a great variety in
the levels represented. No division director has been named, and in

only one case is a service chief a member. Again, a glance at the
membership list for the past ten years suggests that some renovation
in membership night he in order ,r;: as i!: the cnse of focal persons,
a fairly substantial number has served for long periods of time (there

was some change in membership in 1988).

Presently, one core group on WID exists. It is located in
Fisheries, and has been in existence since late 1986. The group has

eight members, each representing a technical area in which women are
known to engage in fisheries activities. In FI, the convenor position

so far has been rotated three times. The core group reviews projects

to check whether women have been included and correctly targeted; it

creates materials (a set of guidelines, and a booklet Women in
Fishing Communities to make key staff aware of procedures to ensure
that WID issues are covered, have been produced along with other
tools: an audio-vidual presentation on women's activities in

fisheries, and a bibliography).

The suggestion to create more core groups in the services was
greeted somewhat cautiously, but specifically ruled out as "not
convenient" by only one division. With a plethora of task forces and
other meeting obligations, it is understandable that services display
a certain reluctance to act on this idea.

Two units indicate they are, however, ready to move toward the
formation of core groups (FO and DDF), the former suggesting that the
mandate will need to be very clear for such a group to be useful.
Additionally, AGR suggests that its five chiefs who attended the March
17 meeting are already, in effect, a core group, since they represent

the full gamut of AGR activities. The director says they can be
called together again in order to refine the AGR suggested activities;
thus, he believes, the creation of a core group would perhaps be

superfluous in this case.

Suggested follow-up:

Assess if IDWG/WID membership should be restructured to reflect a
greater representation of ppper-level personnel, especially service

Request divisions to name focal points for all technical units
where these are missing.

In the instances where focal persons are different from the
IDWG/WID members, they should be invited as observers to the IDWG/WID
meetings. Otherwise continuity and coordination of decisions taken
will be difficult.

Contact the focal persons for FO (Ms. Hoskins) and DDF (Mr.
Bilbesi and Ms. Raick) for a meeting on possible structuring of core

2. Training of FAO Staff

There was a great deal of interest expressed in the training

programme, along with some scepticism not on the advisability of
carrying out such an exercise, but on the logistic and budgetary
implications of so gigantic an undertaking.

Only two divisions suggested that training should be in the form
of better and more comprehensive briefings instead of a more formal
training programme. The general attitude was "We shall certainly plan
to participate"; "We agree about the need for staff training in this
field and are ready to participate": our division would be
pleased to participate".

The suggestions were many and varied- (see-Section III following);
the next task will be to give them careful consideration and
incorporate as many as possible in a coherent training design. Several
divisions were concerned that the training, since it will need to be
sustained on a continuous basis, be institutionalized, and not depend
exclusively on outside trainers. To this end, there were several

suggestions that AFPR be involved, and that FAO staff be incorporated

into the training team (both of these points have already been
included in ESHW's training strategy).

There also was almost universe concern that no opportunities he
lost to incorporate WID issues !:: ongoing traiingn exercises where

this is not already being done, ;nd to improve the quality of such
presentations; see Section III for specifics.

There was less receptivity to the idea of learning how to use
"gender analysis" as a tool in programme and project design, and a
polite curiosity about the "case method" that ESHW is contemplating

using as the core training methodology. While they were non-
commital, many indicated interest in receiving an invitation to the
"test" or model course to introduce this method to FAO. What was
almost universal was the problem of "coming to have people lecture at

us". Nor was there interest in having "a lot of reading assignments".
Except for the two instances in which divisions thought that detailed

briefings were preferable to courses, there were no opinions expressed

as to best length of course. One director would be interested to
learn more about the possibilities for training technical staff in
Wageningen or Torino; "the topic is very important, and in-service
training in Rome would not suffice". However, this division said it

could not pay for such an undertaking.

One unit comments that the recommendations on training from the
"Expert Consultation on Experiences of Institutional Changes
Concerning Women in Development", held in September, 1988 as a
response to Council Resolution 4/87, are "excellent", and should be
carefully considered. The section of the report containing these
suggestions is appended as Annex V.

Finally, several divisions indicate it would be "useful to know
what preliminary steps-and-plans ESHW has already 'set in motion' on
the training". Another respondent suggests that service chiefs should
be gotten "on board" early, both in order that they do not exempt

themselves from the training exercise and that they insist that their
people attend. Both of these ideas deserve carefu' -iuponi- -ot -ly
so that.thinking within FAO can be incorporated, but also that
interest and commitment to participate in the training can be built

over the next months.

Suggested Folloup

The ideas on training, as detailed in Section lIT, are at the
moment "raw material": they,should he worked into a coherent training

strategy that will, as much as possible, take thesf suggestions into


Someone needs to be assigned to research the following ongoing
training exercises to discuss the inclusion of appropriate training
modules, or the revamping of courses to integrate WID issues in the

entire training exercise; these include:

National Project Directors Course

Ms. P.M. Youall, AFP

Development Policy Studies and Training Services

Mr. F.Viciani, ESPT 1/

FAORs Global Course

Mr. P. Mengin, DDFO

Various extension training courses run by ESHE
Mr. W.D. Maalouf, ESHE

Project Formulation Course
Mr. D.J. Davies, AFPR

As soon as possible, a memo should be sent on ESH's plans for the
training. The ESHW representative shared informally what had been

planned (to the end of March), but this preview needs to be followed

up with more detailed and exact information.

When plans for the model or test course are firm, ESHW could ask
division directors to call a meeting of their service chiefs, and

visit each service to inform and receive ideas on the training.

1/ Work may go forward with ESP division on :rgr- 'ng -v'n's in
development indicators in their sectoral planning computer
systems, also used in training see p. 27 below.

The forthcoming visit of the Dutch representatives I/ could be
used as an occasion to follow up on several of the units that have
done the most thinking on training. These units have -already been

included in the schedule for the representatives: for continuity,
however, it is important that an FSHW ri-pretsentative accominlmv them.

3. Programme Activities

Here some general observations on regular programme activities
are outlined; the detailed suggestions from the services are included
as Annex VI.

The ESHW representative has been impressed by the seriousness
with which most divisions approached their own part in the Plan of

Action; that is, what kinds of programmes and activities they would
themselves carry out through their various technical units and groups.
In only a few cases have submissions had to be handed back, and this
has been done in an informal manner with the hope that acceptable

programmes would be forthcoming without drawing undue attention to the
laggards or to those who did not come up with good ideas on the first

round (this was probably because several divisions misunderstood the
exercise and recounted past activities rather than doing forward
planning for 1989, and 1990-1991, as the Council requires).

The greatest difficulty encountered by the ESHW representative
was that requests for responses to the Plan of Action are needed now,

while guidelines for the PBE exercise in detailed planning of
activities are usually sent in September; therefore, many divisions
and units while they, of course, know in a general way what they
will do in 1990 had not done detailed thinking on their specific
activities, much less on the way women's issues and interests could be
included. There was, however, universal understanding and sympathy
for the fact that information from this exercise is, in part, intended
for the report on progress in fulfilling the Plan of Action that the
Director-General must make to the Council in November.

1/ The ESHW service chief made a visit to several training
institutes in the Netherlands in March; the Dutch representatives
are coming to explore further the possible participation of the
Netherlands in FAO's training exercise.

In many cases this means that the activities suggested may be
vague and partial; that firm timetables and, in particular, budget
estimates are missing, and that careful follow-up will be needed
before the July 15 deadline, set for the reception of official Council
documents. A: : r that, follow-up will still he required so that

momentum is continued in the autumn as work plans for 1990 are
finalized. In one case, for example, the division director reports
that "no programmes directed toward women have been undertaken in the
past"; in the meeting with ESHW, various units in this division made
specific suggestions-on several appropriate activity areas, and the
director pledges that they will try to develop more specific

programmes in the areas identified for inclusion in the work plans for

the 1990-91 biennium. Careful follow-up of many units and services
will be required; ESHW has also suggested to PBE that a reminder be
included in the September guidelines.

The most urgent question in terms of planned activities is that
of budget commitments for carrying out the Plan of Action. In general
this is a question that the respondents do not address. As noted
above, it is of course difficult at this -time to assign realistic
dollar estimates from regular programme funds when the total gamut of
activities has not yet been planned and costed.

This also is a somewhat ambiguous issue; if the Organization now
is to "mainstream" women in its programmes and projects, should
special funds be set aside? Are not WID concerns instead entitled to
their fair proportion of training inputs, credit, and whatever else
the project provides to support and enhance women's participation?
Perhaps, as suggested by ESNP, a more logical approach would be to
estimate the "budget share" of WID concerns in the regular programmes
activities (in this regard, ESNP calculates that resources are
allocated to WID concerns in roughly the percentage women are present
in the target groups, ranging from a low of 25 percent in one
programme to a high of 80 percent in another). This would require
exact information about, and careful targeting of, project and

programme beneficiary groups. However, ESC says that in the case of
1is o-.a activities for the next biennium, "it would not be difficult
to subdivide them in order to provide a specific figure for WID".

This does leave open the need that still exists in many

activities, for special efforts directed toward women that prepare
them to enter mainstream programmes and projects on a more equal
basis: here, exact budgetary, commitments can he earmarked.

On the budget question, there also is great uncertainty from
where funds for fulfillment of the Plan of Action will come. If,

indeed, women's participation is a "normal" part of regular
programames and projects, are the different divisions responsible to
seek "extra" funds?- Is it up to ESHW to solicit funds from donors for
other services to ensure the inclusion of more women in the target

groups, and/or for special projects directed to women, or for both?

ESHW has, of course, its own programme of activities under the Plan of

Action, for which it must seek funding; however, the question of
fundraising for the Organization as a whole is not an idle one. O n e
service chief thinks ESHW should spend one-third of its time raising
funds for all units to increase their activities directed to women.
Many other divisions suggest that the ideas they have proposed will

depend on an increase in regular programme budget.

There also was comment from several divisions that they cannot
include women (or any "special concern") in an activity unless they
"have mandate" to do so. This was the case in a training course

where, it was asserted women in development could not be included
because the particular division "has no mandate to do so". In the
same way, a technical manual from a unit where rural women actually
carry out most of the sector activities covered (as the writer says he
recognizes) does not include any special mention of women's
participation "because there was no mandate". This leads the writer
of the manual into the familiar "the farmer, he" and indeed, in the
manual, one does not find on any of the 434 pages the smallest
recognition that the work in the sector being reviewed is largely
carried out by females. The fact that WCARRD and countless document-s-.
since have given numerous mandates to all divisions and units on women
in development, has to be made clearer: the exercise to carry out the
Plan of Action for WID should go some way in correcting such


There was a most interesting and unexpected aspect to the
suggestions: many units not only came up with ideas on programme

activities specific to their own technical mandates, but gave broader

advice and suggestions pn possibilities for introducing (or

strengthening) WID-related indicators, issues, activities ;nd concerns

in the overall procedures and systems of FAO. Most of these were

related to interventions in the project cycle, but there are ideas on

an array of the recurring, established and organized procedures,

including such activities as sectoral analysis and planning;

information and data systems; work plans and budget exercises;

monitoring and reporting systems, and the like. These are detailed
below in Section IV.

Insofar as project and programme ideas specific to the units are

concerned, there appears to be a near consensus among most of.FAO that

only in particular cases should "women's projects" or "women's
components" now be contemplated. A number of units suggest that their
programmes and projects, by their very nature, are directed toward

women, i.e., units in ESN as a "matter of routine integrate rather
than isolate women" in their activities; hence, they believe it would

be counterproductive to break out specific budget items as

representing their response to the Plan of Action. This is particu-

larly the case in such apparently gender-neutral activities as the

programmes aimed at building rural credit and banking institutions,
where it is said that women and men will benefit from the increased
capacity and efficiency of such institutions, and particularly the

informal ones, to address their credit needs; and/or in irrigation or

soil conservation, or other projects that are centered on natural,
rather than human resources.

The danger here is that women's contribution to and benefits from
development will again become obscured or ignored if it is assumed

that women are participating because they form part of the putative -------..-.
target group. For this reason, as FAO and other development agencies

attempt a better integration of women in their central programmes and
mainstream projects, it will became doubly important to assure that

there are specific measures taken to assure women's inclusion. Here,
the importance of examining and adjusting the- regular procedures and

systems particularly those governing the project cycle, become crucial-

Here also creative thinking enters into play: for example, AGSM
has carried out seminars in ten countries to train women on how to
access and manage credit. Either apart from, or attached to, regular
projects, such courses prepare women for mainstream activities. Tn the
same way, womfn often need special orientation and effort to assure

their full participation in soil conservation, irrigation projects,
and the like since these often imply drastic changes in agricultural

practices and/or the alteration of the familiar landscape of the
landholding (in the case, for example, of major soil treatments such

as bench terracing). Unless extension workers include women in the
discussions on how these procedures are intended to improve

production, and draw them into the activities, the women may find the
changes upsetting and may even oppose them.

Details on what the divisions and units are planning are appended
as Annex VI. In a few cases, there are blank spaces, indicating that

responses still are forthcoming. So far as further follow-up

activities (to those suggested immediately below) are concerned, these
are indicated in the appropriate place where more discussion and/or
input from a division or unit seems warranted.

Suggested Follow-up General

Follow-up in the next weeks on the services that have not yet
reported on planned activities for their units, or have reported only
partially. A detailed list is appended as Annex VII.

.Work with PBE on the guidelines that will be sent in September as
services begin to discuss their detailed work plans. Several

possibilities for such a "reminder" were discussed with the PBE
representative, including a letter from an appropriate official.

Add to the IDWG/WID meeting agenda an item on clarifying budget
responsibilities and strategies for fulfillment of the Plan of Action.

9 Clarify to units concerned that there are sufficient mandates,
including the Programme of Action, to enable them to move forward on
their own initiative to include women's issues in their programmes,
projects, ini publications wiithoir thr n.ood' for any sp.-cial m;ind; ir
from ESIIW.

Go through Annex VI, Planned Activities of the Divisions, for
more specific and detailed follow-up suggestions.

Highlight in the "cases" planned for the training, those projects
that appear to be gender-neutral because they center on natural
resources rather than people (see p. 12). Show how even building a
dam can have consequences for women in the project area.

4. Strengthening Institutional Linkages between Regular Programme
and Field

The responses to this question were not as numerous or full as on
the other issues raised. However, a number of the suggested
activities tend to reiterate and/or reenforce those already suggested
in other contexts. These are detailed in Section V below.

5. Mechanisms for Achieving Closer Collaboration with Other Agencies

With a few exceptions, the suggestions here were also not as
detailed as on the other questions. The replies are reported in
Section VI.

Suggested follow-up

It is suggested that both the institutional linkages issue, and
the collaboration with other agencies be made part of the Agenda for
the IDWG-/WID meeting so that more complete and coordinated responses
to both can be produced.

III. Recommendations of Services and Technical Units

on Training FAO Staff

The ESH memo requested comments on the most efficient and
expeditious way of accomplishing the training of all FAO professional
staff, both at Headquarters and in the field.

Many divisions and units had ideas on this topic. The responses
are summarized below:

A. Audiences in Headquarters

1. Most often mentioned is the necessity, in the respondents' view,

to tailor the training in content, methodology and strategy to the
various levels of audiences in FAO "because of the diversity of staff
functions" (GII). ESN points out that there are not only differences
among agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, but by type of responsibi-
lity: administrative, technical, general services, field and

Several other units besides ESN believe that administrative and
personnel officers should be included.

AGO also thinks that training courses should be considered for
"both poles of management"; in the spirit of the Council resolution
higher level managers should undergo some sensitization and ESH might

consider a Workshop(s) for Senior Management.

The other pole, however, is not to be neglected. AGO points out
that the "true continuity" of FAO lies at the lower levels CPOs
change, but operations assistants and clerks remain, -and--a- special
workshop, appropriately targeted, should be considered For them.

2. AGO further singles out CPOs as those for whom such a course
would have "considerable use". They suggest a brief seminar (brief is
emphasized) on WID in general, but on the Plan of Action in
partic llar, since CPOs deal writh pr. rs ;i rhro c-ritci.l iunc- r iin; :

they brief formulation missions:

they review project proposals;

they make periodic visits to their countries of

3. DDA thinks that because of the critical budget situation, and the
complex nature of training, FAO would not be able to cover
successfully all professional staff at Headquarters and field level by
1991. It suggests that the divisional focal points be trained first,
so that they can serve as trainers in their own right at Headquarters.


4. DDA mentions also that a WID item could be included in the next
global FAOR meeting. 2/ However, the idea here is not to train the
FAORs, but to consult them on project staff training.

5. FO believes it will be necessary to target carefully the key
people in the "critical units" in the House. These would include

all those in technical units who are going to design projects
in next two years;

FAORs, and programme officers, who "tend" 80 percent of

1/ ESH, at the moment, is contemplating the possibility-ef- training
a Core Group of 8-10 women and men from different divisions to
serve as resource 'persons (paired with a professional trainer)
for the regional and field training.

2/ None is planned at this writing per office of Mr. Mengin 4/3/89).

FI concurs, giving an opinion that training "all" staff is tob
ambitious, and suggests that two groups be targeted (with distinct

those staff employed in pro ject ident i f i ion,
formulation and monitoring;

policy and decision makers.

6. AGO reminds ESH not to forget the project formulation course,
which should have a WID component (from interview notes). FO'and FI
also consider that this course is a key point for WID training.

7. ESP reads C/R 1/94, para 2(c) as not necessarily involving "all
staff". The operative phase, in their estimation, is "the

professional staff concerned" (emphasis added by ESP). Therefore,
they regard selection of the "key staff concerned" to be an important
point for discussion.

B. Audiences in the Field

1. AGO considers sensitizing field staff as "most important", and

says this cannot be done through letters to project management staff.
They make the following suggestions:

that new CTAs and national project directors be
briefed on WID as they pass through Rome. The

suggestion is that ESHW oversee a scheduled weekly

training session that could be made a standard part
of the briefing.

FO and AGO note that the course for national project
directors' has been- resumed; and this would be an

important group to include. 3/

3/ ESHW is regularly called on the give a briefing for this course;
However, a more systematic and professional approach through a
training module is being contemplated here. Four courses per
year are now planned.

However, increasing numbers of national project
directors never come to Hqs; briefings in Rome would
reach only a meagree percentage". Therefore, AGO
suggests courses "soon" in the countries themselves,
either onn country basis where ;i "critical mass"

exists, or on a subregional basis.

That FAORs take the lead and act as principal focal
points for the training of project directors.

2. AGO also makes the point that national project directors are "not
an abnormality" that will disappear; more than 50 percent of AGO's

projects are managed by NPDs. The "New Dimensions" mandate calls for
delegating more and more responsibility to the countries.

Moreover, as AGO also points out, there is a large turnover in

project staff; NPDs often are hired for one project, and are not like
the old-style FAO managers who went from project to project.

For example, in China, there are presently 30 NPDS;
but in 6 months' time there will be 6-12 new ones:

Therefore, what is decided to be done (on training)
will need to be carried out on a continuous basis, as

NPDs are always entering and leaving the field.

4. Other AGO considerations relate to language (from interview

notes): there is no international staff in China, and the training for
the 30 NDPs will need to be in the language of the country.

the same is true for almost all the rest of Asia;
i.e., courses in Korea, Viet-Nam would have to be
given in the participants' own language.

5. ESHA and ESHL caution that training for member country nationals
and beneficiaries should not be too long postponed. They voice a
concern that emphasis on training of FAO staff may deflect from
training reaching these important levels.

6. There are several comments related to the difficulties in
training FAO field staff. AGPR underscored the fact (from interview

notes) that field staff are considered to be highly expert and "fully
trained"; therefore governments would only reluctantly release field
staff for any kind of training, and project directors also would be
loath to do so.

Field staff contracted for less than one year are not
eligible for training.

Governments would, apparently, require that salaries
for training days be covered by training budgets.

C. Objectives and Contents

Not as many units and divisions had suggestions on training
objectives and content. The responses are summarized below.

1. The most decided response comes from ESHA and ESHL not,
however, in the form of a written memo. They believe that the first

task or exercise of the training programme must be to make clear what
are the objectives of WID in FAO. This is so, they say, because FAO
has not been sufficiently appraised of developments in the concepts
and practice of WID, which is a rapidly-developing field; therefore

the objectives sometimes appear to be contradictory.

Specifically the two services believe questions such as the
following need to be addressed, and the FAO position precisely set
forth, at the beginning of the training exercise:

Is a WID objective to assist women in increasing

their income? This could mean unacceptable additions
to their-workload.

It is a WID objective to reduce women's workload;
This could imply less income.

Is a WID objective to design more appropriate

techno logy and to increas-e women' s share of inputs?

Again, this could imply adding to women's work


Is a WID objective to give women more say in using
the resources of the household? If so, does this

always imply they must produce more to earn cash


When ESHW says emphasis needs to shift to women in

agricultural production, does this imply that there

will be less emphasis on technologies and projects to
aid women in household and domestic duties?

How can WID objectives be successfully analyzed when

women's situation varies so greatly not only from one

region to another, but from one place to another
or within regions? Is "gender analysis" a possible

"recipe" here?

2. ESN would like to see the training programme carefully define
"women's projects", and show how to avoid that women's issues become

isolated from mainstream activities.

3. ESN also suggests that techniques of how to assess the

contribution of women-related components either in a programme element

of the RP, or a field project budget, be covered in the training,

using the respective divisional budgets and PLANSYS printouts in the

4. ESP would like the training to highlight regional differences.

This point also was made by ESHA and ESHL.

5. FO and AGO believe that a training course ought to include other
concerns such as WCAARD, environment, etc. FO points out that FAO

does not address key people on any of the cross-cutting issues, and

that it is therefore somewhat of an anomalv to have a course directed

solely to WID. 4/ The fact that little orientation is given to FAO

staff on any issues was deplored by a fair number of services and


ESHE (from interview notes) concurs, noting that. the specific

situation of technical people must be emphasized, and that examples

and exercises from their technical areas must reinforce the general

points on WID. FO concurs strongly in the question of subject matter


ESHA and ESHL want training courses to specify objectives and
identify problems.

FO would like to see the training built around case studies or
projects chosen for their positive and negative effects.

D. Strategies for Carrying Out Training Exercises

1. Several of the services and units stress the necessity of

consultation with the House on training.

ESHE (from interview notes) says training must be properly

presented to gain the support of the House. The following scenario

was suggested:

Each division director should call a meeting with

respective service chiefs;

The meeting should be attended by ESH personnel

involved in planning the training, to hear the

division's ideas;

4/ The "gender analysis" stra:t-- be '3 or3;-'erel by ESHW does, in
fact, consider what women and men do in the agriculture and rural
development activities, and therefore, the training would not
focus solely on women's activities.

What is being planned should get an early "stamp of


Other units would like,nn earlv report from ESHW on how plans nr
progressing. There is an almost universal interest and approbation of
the notion that ESHW would offer a "test" or model course on the case

method, using materials adopted from the Harvard Institute of
International Development's training methodology based on gender
analysis of actual projects. This (along with pilot courses planned
in September-October) is seen as an excellent opportunity for the
various units to give feedback on the course content and methodology.

ESN suggests that division directors need to appoint a
substantive person to deal with planning the training. FO also

believes that much of the training substance would need to come from
forestry people.

DDA would like to see FAORs involved in designing the field
training, and ROs playing an important role in the exercise.

2. Other units suggest that training needs to be reenforced:

ESN says training exercises should be planned so that
there is a chance to receive reenforcement, or an
"echo" of the training messages.

ESHE says training must be ongoing, and cannot be a

"one-time telling".

ESP suggests a training course consisting of a series

of seminars, there would be "core sessions" that all
would attend, and sessions appropriate to various
specialities. Staff would build up "credit points"
to a predetermined number.

3. Many units want active, participatory training:

ESP says the training should be based more on

discussion than on formal 1Pctires.

GII suggests they could collaborate in a video

programme that might be helpful (coordinated by ESH,
AFP and GII). 5/

Several other units stressed that no one will come to

be "lectured at", particularly by persons who are

"known quantities" to them; they sit still only for

eminent experts from the outside.

4. Many units suggest that WID modules "should be injected" in those

training courses and other orientation exercises already taking place.

These include the AFPR project formulation course; the national
project directors' course; the FAORs global meeting; conferences of
- the FAO regional offices, and briefings of new field officers and


5. Many units also concur with the notion that training of field

staff should be carried out "ideally with other agencies" such as UNDP
"that have similar mandates".

Finally, ESNA singles out particularly the "Expert Consultation
on Experiences of Institutional Changes Concerning Women in

Development" (FAO, Rome, September 21-23, 1988) as providing
particularly useful models and mechanisms for WID training (a copy is

appended as Annex V).

5/ This would not be a passive situation in which trainees would
view a video, but the use of video to tape trainees, for example,
at the end of the course when they would be asked to report on
how they would use "gender analysis" in their respective
programme and project responsibilities.

E. Training Materials

Several units mentioned that their various reference and
guidelines publications cQiuld he described in the broad sense as
training" material. These include, for example, Women in Fishing

Communities (FI Core Group, 1988); Restoring the Balance Women and
Forest Resources (FODP, 1987). Some units also have audio-visual
tools and bibliographies. These include Forestry and Nutrition: a
Reference Manual (FO/ESN, 1989); and The Development of Sheep
Production in West Africa (ESH/AGA, 1988).

IV. Recommendations of the Services

on Procedures and Systems

One of the interesting facets in the discussions carried out by
the ESHW with the divisions and units was the concern that the

implementation of the Plan of Action not only be considered in the

specific activities to be carried out by the technical units in the
next biennium, but. also as an exercise involving more permanent,

systemic change in a number of the organized and established

procedures of the Organization. It may be worth the effort to work

toward procedures that are more sensitive to WID concerns than to

constantly "repair" omissions because systems have not been properly

programmed. Above all, such an approach responds to the Plan of

Action mandate to give preference to mechanisms with multiplier

1. The Project Cycle

Most often cited in prior analyses of WID integration is the

project cycle system, particularly in its beginning phases. Many
persons also mentioned the project cycle in the present exercise. In

this regard, the system appears most open to intervention at the first
three stages:

the sectoral analysis stage is perhaps the best
opportunity, when a government is considering a
development programme in maize, forestry, cotton,

cattle, etc. Because no commitments have yet been

made to any competing interests, the system is the

most open to intervention the exercise has not yet
become a "zero-sum game"; 1/

1/ In game theory, a zero-sum game is one in which, if I win, you
lose because the goods/benefits in question are finite.

the project identification stage is another good
opportunity for intervention. Here all still is
flexible; no concrete project goods and benefits are

yet on the table:

the formulation or design stage is perhaps the last

possible point for successful intervention in the

project cycle. It is more difficult here, however,

unless careful prior work has been done because there
now are identifiable benefits, and an "I win you

lose" situation.

when the project comes up for final review before
entering the pipeline, or particularly after it is

funded, are the least successful points where the

project cycle system can be intervened. By then, so
much work has gone into making the project acceptable

to government and to fulfill all the exigencies of

FAO/UNDP/TCP/Trust Fund donors, etc., that any effort

to change the project to accommodate women probably

is counter-productive.

2. Guidelines

At present, the only guidelines employed in project review by DDF
that include any mention of women as participants and beneficiaries
are those of UNDP. None of the others, including TCP, GCP and Trust
Fund guidelines, give any reminders or assistance on this important

issue to those designing or reviewing projects.

There has been an effort through the years to write guidelines on
WID in many of the services; what is unclear at this juncture is to

what extent they are used, and how useful they are. -ESP notes that
the question of guidelines is not simply one of a few questions on
WID, but "essentially it means having WID concepts incorporated into
the body of thinking on policy formulation that provides the setting

for individual projects". AGOD second.. ..L tLLi.iin, cA. gLidelines or
other mechanisms, since both project formulation missions and project

review are "most important junctures for assuring that WID is taken
seriously" (emphasis in original).

Several services also meant inn th;lt r idel i[ne particular and

specific to a service would be useful. For example,, the various
groups in AGP, AGL, or AGA, which have certain commonalities, need to

depart from the same premises in project design. Otherwise,
monitoring and evaluation become impossible (AGP, interview notes).

3. Sectoral Analysis/Planning

Currently under discussion between ESP and ESHW are strategies
for the integration of WID indicators in the division's computerized
tools for project analysis (DASI) and for sector analysis (CAPPA).

These are systems ESP has developed and refined over the past six
years; they are being increasingly used in planning assistance to
governments and in training.

The two systems mentioned above already have strong components of
demographic and labour force factors by sex and age, allowing for more

realistic planning that is relevant to the local situation and farming
patterns. These systems are used in the field in the ESP training
prograanes for agricultural planners, which also place emphasis on the
role of women, particularly, in agricultural production, storage and
processing. Recent additions to training materials include attention
to women's part in fuelwood collection and use, household energy
management and family nutrition.

It is envisaged that a collaborative effort would be mounted,
beginning with an initial series of brainstorming sessions between
ESP, ESS and ESHW, and possibly including other services concerned. In
late 1989, ESP suggests that a consultant would be engaged to work
with the two services on modification of the sectoral planning models
and the training course.

4. Data and Information Systems

Discussions also are Far aivanncpr !th ESS -ivisioin on Framinfn ;i

comprehensive work plan to set up a data base on women in agriculture,
to be coordinated with efforts to create WID data bases in other UN
agencies. At this writing, a consultant has been contracted who will
be reviewing the available data in FAO, looking at national and
international data sources and pilot studies of socio-economic

indicators, and preparing a framework for compiling and disseminating
data on WIA on a systematic basis. The consultant also will be

advising on what future work needs to be done in the collection,

tabulation and publication of statistics and indicators on women in
agriculture and rural development.

5. Coding of FAO Projects

In 1986, FAO initiated a coding effort to test the extent to
which women participate in, and benefit from, both regular programme

activities and field projects. PBE coordinates the coding of the
former, while AGO, FID and FOD are collaborating on the latter (for
which PBE provided country-by-country project lists). In some cases,

divisions collaborate in the coding of their projects. By September,
1988, information from this exercise was 80 percent complete.

However, since that time, the coding work has encountered some

difficulties; because of the workload in AGO, for example, as well as

recent personnel cuts, this division reports that "the exercise is
often overlooked" and has, regrettably, fallen behind.

PBE suggests (interview notes) that coding be
completed for the 1988-1989 biennium; to do this

would require auxiliary help. The data are needed
for the UN COPA report, among other uses;

AGO also would like to ensure that new projects are

"quickly and accountable coded": but concurs that the

situation cannot be, corr( te('! Wi thourt niixi i rv
supp)o rt L

FO has circulated to the PLANSYS focal points in the

department ESH coding instructions for the regular

programme activities. Lists of ongoing and pipeline

projects also are being sent to each operations

officer for appropriate classification (based on

updating of the projects catalogue, recently compiled

for COFI).

6. WID/WIA Profiles

As a further step in the development of statistics and

information on women in agriculture, several services suggest the

publication of WID/WIAD profiles. These would be country-by-country

publications, on word processor to facilitate updating, short (ten to

twenty pages), and would outline the basic demographic, economic and
social situation of women (with statistics disaggregated by sex to

facilitate gender analysis), as well as specific data on women in

agriculture: their access to land, credit, inputs extension services,

markets, etc.

There is a model for these profiles; over the past two years, ESN

has produced, and is testing, nutrition profiles for 32 countries, and

could give suggestions on how to proceed with such an activity.

Suggested Follow-up

In the case of each of the services involved with these kinds of
systems, "brainstorming sessions" should be held among ESHW, the lead
service and other relevant services. At this time, follow-up sessions

would be timely particularly with ESS, ESP and DDF. Tn each case

consultants sho,: Le ;,.Uoht ,'o jre highly versed in the subject

matter of the division and they should be WID-sensitive.

Work toward the formation in DDF of a core group; suggest that
the first "order of business" be the modification of guidelines and
report formats u'oi in pr ijctr for, 'iiarion nnd review. Tn thif

connection, see Planning For Women Beneficiaries, hv consultant
Coralie Turbitt which reviews the project cycle and makes concrete

suggestions for languages in the GCP and TCP guidelines (Annex I of
her report).

Follow-up with AGP on common horticulture, seed and plant
protection service guidelines to be used-afterwards as a model for
other services.

Identify with ESP a consultant versed in planning who could begin
work about September on the design of indicators on women in

agriculture for sectoral planning systems.

Work closely with the soon-to-arrive consultant in ESS to assess
the data and-Thformation in FAO on women in agriculture, and to design

a work plan for an overhaul of the information systems to include WID

Engage a consultant to complete the 1988-89 coding of FAO
projects exercise.

Consider whether WID/WIA profiles might be useful: identify an
APO who could take this work on as a one-year assignment.

V. Strengthening Institutional Linkages between

Regular Programme and Field

Not all Iunits ';lddressed this issue. However, several have some

general comments that go beyond their own particular subject areas.

Some of the suggestions reenforce ideas already suggested in other


1. Several units have their link between regular programme and field
projects "built-in": for example-, the Development Support

Communication branch (DSC-GIIS) both formulates and implements

projects, and many DSC programmes have had women as beneficiaries,

"adopting communication methods and approaches to the special needs
and conditions of women in rural areas".

DDA is a similar situation; all funds allotted under RP non-staff

costs are for exclusive use in assisting local NGOs and village-level

organizations in project identification and formulation, preparation

of studies on priority issues, organization of workshops; exchange

visits, etc.

2. AGL stresses the importance of regular programme activities and

project documents clearly identifying the target groups; the number

and how women are to be involved should be known from be outset.

3. FOD mentions core groups within divisions as useful mechanisms in
linking regular programme and field projects. In Fisheries, all

ongoing and new projects are screened by the core group to "make sure

that women's roles in fisheries are not overlooked, and that
consideration women among beneficiaries adequately built in". The

core group also is responsible for the various publications on WID.

-The meeting on 4/4/89 with Forestry was "almost" a

core group. ESHW has suggested that a core group

might be formed to carry out activities similar to

those in Fisheries, with any other appropriate

activities added (the focal point for Forestry
believes that this might be a propitious time for

such a move.).

VI. Inter-Agency Collaboration in the UN System and Other Agencies

Overall. the respmon1.. s on rhis topic were n'ot compl rete ;indl, i.:

several c;is ,';, tht, divisions (did n t r eIl their remnrks on int r-

agency collaboration to WID. Many contact points have obviously been

left out; it would perhaps be an interesting exercise to try to

identify inter-agency groups or secretariats that either have standing
(or new) agenda items on WID, or working groups, and suggest -the
technical units to take a more active role in relating their field to

WID issues in these fora.

Such an exercise might be valuable in that it would provide

opportunities for agency personnel to discuss WID issues with persons
in their own specialized fields.

1. In the UN System

- ESP ays other agencies do not appear to be well informed about

FAO activities, not only in WID, but in many fields. This division

suggests more informal inter-agency groups (such as the WFC/UNICEF/ILO
effort to consider structural adjustment).

- Regarding coordination mechanisms, ESS mentions the ACC Task

Force on Rural Development and its Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation,
as well as the ACC Sub-Committee on Statistical Activities, as the

main bodies for achieving closer collaboration with UN agencies and
other international organizations related to women in agriculture and

rural development.

- ESN already maintains close collaboration through the Inter-

Agency Food and Nutrition Surveillance Programme, in collaboration
with UNICEF and WHO. This service also participates in the assessment
of the social dimensions of structural adjustment on the poor with the

World Bank. The exact bearing of these relationships on WID needs to
be clarified.

Cooperation in Development Support Communication (GIIS) matters
has no institutionalized mechanism in the UN system. There is a
collaboration with ESD/UNFPA in terms of messages; in other instances,
DSC activities center around tho disc iplinary and technological
aspects, rather than the content. DSC suggests that there be a
discussion among ESD, ESHW and DSC on the links between FAO and UNFPA,
in relation to WID.

While no formal mechanism exists between AGL and other agencies

or NGOs on WID matters, the division does "take due note of their
programmes and activities related to women". It was suggested that
further discussion with the designated officer (absent on maternity
leave) would be advisable.

FI suggests that formal liaison with UN agencies and
organizations is a matter for ESHW, with input from other divisions
through the IDWG/WID.

Other Agencies and NGOs

FI has distributed its audiovisual and publications on women in

fisheries to some development agencies, and suggests an even wider
distribution, would be appropriate.

AGP would like to have an inter-agency working group, with

designated representatives of participating organizations. From the
context, it is not clear if the idea is a working group on WID and
horticulture, integrated pest management and related issues.

GIL promises to bring up the question of more effective
collection and dissemination of WID information at the Technical
Consultation of AGRIS/CARIS Participating Centres (1990).

ESNA works with NGOs in surveillance activities, and with women's

organizations in project implementation. Closer collaboration will be
sought through the participation of such organizations in ESN
workshops, seminars and training programmes.

- DDA suggests that FAO work more closely with regional NGO
networks, that deal with women's issues, since they already are
actively involved. in research, data collection, workshops and in
providing lpgal and hnlcth Assisrance to women.

- FO is working an informal network of organizations to collect

case studies of projects that have successfully overcome constraints
for women participating in forestry. So far FO contracts have focused
on Africa, but in its work with the regional wood energy project, FO
is collaborating on establishing the same kind of case studies in
Asia. One film strip and video from Sudan are available on the topic
as well as several case studies in draft. The World Bank and other
groups are contributing funds and are adding new case studies. By
1990 it is hoped to have an adequate information base to hold an
informal meeting with this network to develop a more coherent strategy
on women and forestry based on the case studies. The Environment

Liaison Council (an African NGO) is planning to use these studies in a
workshop in Africa next year as well.

- ESNA has set a small informal planning meeting for late May to
consider what will be included in the Sixth World Food Survey. The
Council has asked FAO to insure that an analysis of data according to
gender be included, and ESNA says this will be discussed at the

Suggested Follow-up

Put inter-agency collaboration on the agenda for the forthcoming
IDWG/WID meeting.

In the next "round" of contacts with the divisions, ask for
information on the inter-agency task forces and groups with which each
unit collaborates, and explore the possibilities for greater
collaboration on WID issues.

Set up a discussion meeting among ESD, DSC and ESHW on the links
between FAO and UNFPA in relation to WID.

g Follow-up AGL suggestions with Ms. Heibloem on her return from

Work with DDA to form continuing contacts and links with NGO
regional networks that deal with women's issues.

Set up a systematic mailing programme for new publications on WID

from the various services to UN agencies, other international
organizations, NGOs and women's organizations.

- See Distribution List

Rafael Moreno
Director a. i., ESH

Strategy for Fulfilment of the Plan of Action for Integration of WID

In relation to our joint responsibility to set priorities and
timetable, as well as budgetary requirements in fulfilling the FAO Plan of
Action for Integration of Wanen in Development, I am pleased to send you
the attached "Proposed Points for Discussion" for your convenience in
responding to the mandates of the Council

A representative of ESHW will visit the various units in order to
discuss ESH's priorities and your unit's plans and suggestions in
implementing the Plan of Action. The enclosed.points are intended to form
the basis of a mutual exploration with ESHW's representative.. Following
this discussion, kindly send us your comments and the decisions of your
unit by March 22. Your collaboration is appreciated.

In general, the fulfilment of the Council mandates does not
involve the creation of additional projects directed to women. Now we are
at a juncture when only in sane special circumstances are such projects
needed and when even "women's components" in larger projects must be
examined carefully in order that they actually integrate, rather than
isolate, women frcm the principal project activities.

What we are aiming for now is the recognition of the activities
women already perform in agriculture, fishery and forestry; how their
participation can be supported and enhanced; the extent to which the
boundaries sometimes set around their collaboration can be pushed outward
without offending cultural and national sensibilities, and how women
therefore will reap greater benefits fram the development enterprise for
themselves and their families.


Jasiorowski, PGA Regnier, DDF Dada, FIP
Higgins, AGL Perkins, ESC Muthoo, FCD
De Lambilly, PGO Lunven, ESN Lanly, FOR
Brader, APP Hjort, ESP Kyrklund, FOI
Zehni, .GR Schumacher, ESS Lydiker, GII
Papasolcmontos, PGS Kojima,. FIO Samaha, GIL
Pea-Montenegro, DDA Krone, FII De Francisco Blanco, GIP
Gusten, DDC Henderson, FIR

UN 52/8; PR 4/72

cc: Dutia, ESD
Abbas/Zichy, ESD
-Moreno Chrono
Spring/Chaney Chrono
Randriamamonjy/ESHW Chrono
ESH Reg(3) --.

28 February 1989

Proposed Points for Discussion

Setting Priorities for the Fulfilment of the
Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development

1. Is there a persons) designated as your focal point for women in
agriculture and rural development? (Council Resolution 1/94/2e requests that
.- --.-.. allt. technical units in -the-Organization. name aa._ofifcer _-_if. they _have_-ot ...
done so already to co-ordinate with ESHW and the IDWG/WID). This will be
essential not only in the future, but currently for the task of setting
priorities for your own division/ service/unit/group in relation to the
Programme of Action. 'Would you consider the possibility of forming a Core
Group on WID in your unit?

2. What would you propose on the content/methodology/strategy for the
training of FAO staff? (CL 94/REP 75 and 81 and CR 1/94/2E recommended a
training programme for all FAO professional staff, both at HQs and in the
field, to be completed by the end of 1991). ESHW already has set in motion
the preliminary steps and plans toward the design of such a programme, and we
would appreciate your thinking on the most efficient and expeditious way of
accomplishing this.

3. How do you suggest we go about strengthening the institutional linkages
between the Regular Programme and field projects, in relation to the
integration of women in the mainstream project activities? (CL/94/75) How can
your service/unit address this issue? -.

4. In your field of technical competence, we will appreciate learning what
priorities you are intending to propose as your response to the Plan of
Action? What would be the timing for their implementation within the
framework of the Plan of Action, i.e., for 1989, and 1990-1991? What are the
budgetary resources you are earmarking? To facilitate your work plans to take
into account the Plan of Action, the following priority areas as recommended
in the Council are outlined below:

training as noted in No. 2 above;

S inclusion of gender analysis and issues in project design,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation (CL/94/75);

S assistance to Member Governments in introducing WID concerns in
policy formulation, in development projects, and particularly in
training decision-makers (CL 94/77);

promotion of rural women's access to credit programmes,
marketing, extension services, and training (CL 94/78).

policies and projects that promote employment opportunities for
rural women (CL 94/78);

projects that work through women's-groups and organizations

continuation of research on the juridical and legal status of
women as rUral producers (CL/94/78),


re-orientation and strengthening of curricula of training
programmes for agriculture and home economics [to reflect gender
issues] (CL 94/75);

5. What mechanisms in your technical area can be employed to achieve a
closer collaboration with other agencies in the UN system, other international
organizations, national organisms and' NCO to make'better use of existing data
-.. --...... studies-,- guidelines, and. training..-programmes .related-.to- women. in_agriculture_
and rural development? (CL 94/79)


Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development
Excerpt, Report of the Council of FAO CL/94 REP




Ninety-fourth Session
Rome, 15-26 November 1988



* .4.

Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development

73. In accordance with the decision taken at the Twenty-fourth Session of
rtl' FAO Conterence in 1987, the' Council reviewed the Plan of Actior: fr :ht
integration of Women in Development and the Summary of the Expert
Consultation on Experiences of Institutional Changes Concerning Women in
Development, as requested in Resolutions 3/87 and 4/87. The Council thanked
the Director-General for the comprehensive Plan of Actibn as well as for
having convened the- Expert Consultation.- The Council appreciated the_l.an.pf
Action presented by the Director-General, unanimously approved it and agreed
that it be implemented in a step-by-step process. In this respect, it was
pointed out that the Plan should be flexible enough to be adjusted according
to the specific conditions of the countries.

74. The Council expressed its satisfaction with the fact that the Plan of
Action embodied the two-pronged approach recommended by the Conference:
women-specific projects and programmes as well as those where women's
concerns were integrated.

75. The Council also recommended that FAO identify concrete priorities
and a timetable of activities for the implementation of the Plan of Action.
In this context, the Council recommended that priority be given to the
training of PAO staff on means for addressing women in agriculture and rural
development in FAO's activities including programmes and projects and their
planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Special attention
should also be paid to strengthening the technical aspects and the
institutional linkages between the Regular Programme and field projects, to
reorienting and strengthening the curricula of training programmes for
agriculture and home economics, and to developing information on
gender-issues which would be used to improve the design and implementation
of agricultural and rural development projects to benefit rural women.

76. The Council also recommended that high priority be given to the
strengthening of the Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development
Service (ESHW) including filling all vacant staff positions. It was also
recommended that all technical divisions of FAO participate fully in
including WID (Women in Development) concerns in their programme of work and
that focal points, with clear responsibilities, be designated in appropriate
technical divisions.

77. The Council also stated that Member Governments should take into
consideration the full integration of women in their development programmes.
It was also indicated that FAO should provide assistance to Member
Governments in introducing WID concerns in policy formulation, in
development projects and particularly in training decision-makers. To this
end, it was recommended that strong central focal points in related
ministries of government be promoted.

78. It was also stated that in those countries which so requested,
research should be continued on the juridical and legal situations that
affected women in their activities as rural producers. The Council also
stressed the promotion of employment opportunities for rural women and of
working through women's groups and organizations. The Council noted that -

9 CL 94/13; CL 94/13-Sup.1; CL 94/PV/9; CL 94/PV/10;,CL 94/PV/17. -

women played a very important role in agricultural production, particularly
in developing countries. It therefore urged that ways of encouraging rural
women's access to credit programmes, training, marketing, and extension
services be promoted.

79. The Council also recommended a closer collaboration with the sister
agencies within the UN system, other international organizations, national
agencies and NGOs and that efforts be made for the best and most efficient
use of existing data studies, guidelines, and training prOgrammes related to
agricultural and rural development.

80. The Council stated that the implementation of the Plan of Action
should take place within the mainstream of FAO activities and should be
funded from the Regular Programme, paying due attention to the
implementation of other key aspects of FAO core programmes. However, this
should not preclude the use of such extra-budgetary resources which could
become available during the course of.implementation. The Council stated
that the Programme of Work and Budget 1990-91 should take into consideration
the implementation of the Plan of Action. It asked FAO to prepare an updated
document that would guide the Organization in clarifying more specific
action areas needed to be presented to the next Conference, taking into
account the views expressed in the debate, with cost estimates that would
particularly reflect the work to be carried out using Regular Programme
resources and extra-budgetary funds. Systematic monitoring of progress was
also considered to be important as implementation of the Plan was

.41. The Director-General's representative indicated-that the Plan of
Action was requested by the Conference. As it embodied important policies
and programmes which went well beyond the present biennium, he considered
that it should be referred to the Twenty-fifth Session of the Conference.
Some members indicated that the report on this agenda item should be brought
to the attention of the experts assisting the Programme Committee and the
Finance Committee in reviewing the objectives and roles of FAO. It was also
indicated that those activities that would be accommodated in the Programme
and Budget proposals for 1990-91 would be given high priority as requested.
The Council expressed the view that the training programme should be
completed by 1991 and that the Plan of Action should become fully operative
by 1995.

82. A draft resolution, presented by the delegations of Mexico,
Argentina, Algeria, Colombia, Cuba, Nicaragua, Philippines, Spain and the
United Kingdom, received general support from the Council. Identified in it
were basic guidelines and priority areas to implement the Plan of Action.
The Council requested the Conference to approve the Plan of Action, taking
into account the views expressed by the Council, and adopted the following

Resolution 1/94



Recalling Conference Resolutions 3/87 and 4/87, 12/85, 4/83, 14/77, 10/75
and 6duncil Resolution-2/66,

Convinced that women's key role in rural areas and in food-related processes
requires that special efforts be made by Governments and by FAO in order to
ensure that such women have an equitable share in the benefits of
legislative, social, economic and technological progress,

Aooreciating the holding of an Expert Consultation on Experiences of
Institutional Changes concerning Women in Development, as requested in
Conference Resolution 4/87, and taking note of its conclusions,

Thanking the Director-General for submitting the Plan of Action for
Integration of Women in Development in response to Conference Resolution

1. Endorses the Plan of Action for Integration of women in Development
in FAO's substantive areas of competence, and urges the
Director-General that all units concerned perform thee tasks in
accordance, with the guidelines contained in Annex II;

2. Requests the Director-General to implement as soon as possible all
such features of the Plan of Action as are intended to make the staff
of the Organization, both at Headquarters and in the field, aware of
the content of this Plan. In this respect it considers priority
should be accorded to the following activities, which can be carried
out with existing resources;

(a) Bringing up to date FAO's operational and administrative
processes, as referred to in paragraphs 1 b) and 4 a) and b) of
Resolution 10/75, paragraph 2 of Resolution 12/65 and paragraph 5
of Council Resolution 2/66, in line with the terms of the Plan of

(b) Establishing basic guidelines for action to be taken by the
various units of the Organization at Headquarters and in the
field, ensuring that special attention be paid to the specific
needs and issues arising from the integration of women in all its
areas of competence, in accordance with the Plan of Action;

(c) Drawing up a two-year training programme for the professional
staff of FAO concerned, both at Headquarters and in the field,
aimed at achieving significant improvements in the attention paid
to women's special place in agricultural and rural development.
This programme should be based on the guidelines in the Plan of
Action and should incorporate a methodology to incl -- t'.e
specific issues of women in all aspects of FAO's activities;

(d) Adopting all such measures as may be required to increase the
access of '-cen to professional Cpora at Al 'eves1, i.. order to

eual!e geographical disri-ton. S=e:La efforts shcul' be
ma3e to encourage the prcrmo:on of women in all cosiZions -'ith
th- Organization;

(e) Designating an officer responsible for matters concerning Women
in Development in-every technical unit of the Organization, who
will also coordinate with the Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development Service, and with IDWG/WID
(Inter-divisional Working Grouo on Women in Development);

(f) Ensuring, in collaboration with Governments, that the Sixth World
Food Survey for the 1990s and the World Census of Agriculture
1990, include an analysis of data according to gender.

3. Requests the Director-General, when preparing the Programme of Work
and Budget for the 1990-91 biennium, to give special consideration to
_t the need to allocate resources for the implementation of the Plan of
Action, with the expectation that the training programme could be
completed by 1991 and the Plan of Action could be fully operational
in 1995;

4. Requests that FAO's main Committees include on the agenda of the next
sessions an examination of the issues arising from the participation
of women in the sectors for which these Committees are responsible,
with a view to making specific recommendations for action in order
that FAO may pay due attention to these issues;

5. Asks Governments to make all possible efforts to contribute to the
implementation of the Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in
Development in FAO's main fields of competence, complementing the
tasks of FAO with regard to the planning and execution of the Plan of

6. Urges member countries to put forward suitable women candidates for
posts falling vacant in the Organization;

7. Requests the Director-General to present a report on progress
achieved in fulfilling this Resolution to the Ninety-sixth Session of
the Council.

World Food Programme

Thirteenth Annual Report of the Committee on FQod Aid Policies and
Programmes of the UN/FAO World Food Programme

83. In presenting the Thirteenth Annual Report of the Committee on Food
Aid Pol-icies and Programmes (CFA), the Executive Director of the World Food
Programme (WFP) underlined that 1987, the Programme's 25th year of operat-
Lons, had been an exceptional year with many remarkable accomplishments. He
pointed out that in 1987 the Programme had been called on to meet the needs

10 CL 94/9; CL. 94/PV/ll; CL 94/PV/16; CL 94/PV/17.


Persons/Units Visited re
Implementation oF Plan oF Action

Unit Date

Mr, D.J. Davies

AFP 9.2.89

(with Ms. M. Randriamamonjy
- MR )

Mr. C.M.H. Morojele

Mr. M. N@grin

Mr. W. Lindley

Ms. S. Stack

Fisheries Core Group


E. Fagetti
S.P. Chen
A. Crispoldi
U. Tietze
G.W. Ssentongo
M. Martinez
J.L. Gaadet

Ms. E. Morris-Hughes
Mr. B. Thompson

Mr. P.T. Hussi
Mr. F. Winkelman
Mr. E.S. Seidler

Ms. J. van Acker

Mr. E.U. Conze
Mr. H. Braun

Mr. R. Lydicker
Ms. J. van Acker
Mr. T. Loftas
Mr. H. von Loesch

Mr. A. Chavez
Mr. R.J- Dawson
Mr. R. Thompson

ESS 10.2.89 (with MR)
16.3.89 (with MR)

TCP 21.2.89

ESHE 22.2.89

LEG 23.2.89

23.2.89 (with Ms. E. Seki)




(seen together)

AGS 1.3.89
AGA 1.3.89
AGS 3.3.89

GITS 7.3.89

AGL 7.3.89
AGL 7.3.89






(group meeting with MR)

(group meeting
Ms. M.J. Mermillod)





Mr. T- Tylor

Mr. A- Pena-Montenegro
Ms. N. McKeon
Ms. M. Colagrossi

Mr,. M.R. Bilbeisi
Ms. T.J. Raick

Mr. M.S. Zehni
Mr. M.F. Mouttapa
Mr. Z.D. Kalensky
Mr. A.W. El Moursi
Mr. G. Best
Mr. L.W. Faidley

Mr. T.J. Aldington
Mr. F. Bishav

Mr. O.A. Sabry
Mr. R. Sandoval

Ms. S. Balit

Mr. N. Bensoussan

Mr. R.J. Perkins
Ms. B. Huddleston
Mr. A.S. Kausar

Mr. V. Kouba

Mr. W.O. Baudoin

Mr. H.E.O. Robbel
Mr. M.A. Trossero
Ms. P. Porcinai
Mr. B. Ben Salem
Ms. M. Hoskins
Ms. K. Eckerberg

Mr. C.S. Ofori

Ms. D. De Marco



















(group meeting:

16.3.89 (seen together)


21.3. and








(group meeting)

(seen together)

(seen together)

(group meeting with
Ms. A. Spring)

(group meeting with
Ms. A. Spring)


various dates


List of IDWG/WID as of last (12th) Meeting
April, 1988

Alternates *

W. Ressei, AGA
C.S. Ofori. AGL
W. Baudoin, AGP
F. Mouttapa, AGR
L. Sonn, DDC
T. Raick, DDF
H.E. Ryan, ESC
E. Morris-Hughes,- ESN
F. Bishay, ESP
D.C. Alonzo, ESS
-A. Crispoldi-Hotta, FID
M. Hoskins, FOD
H. Von Loesch, GII
W. Mann, IAA
M. Hammam, WFP

Mr. T.E. Tyler, AGO

Mr. W. Maignan, AGP

Ms. N. McKeon, DDA

Mr. B. Thompson, ESN


Focal Points **
(named or confirmed)

April, 1989

W. Bessei, AGA
E.U. Conze, AGLD
C. Joly, AGLF
C.S. Ofori, AGLS
M. Heibloem, AGLW
T.E. Tyler, AGO
W. Baudoin, AGP
M.S. Zehni, AGR
L.W. Faidley, AGRD
M.R. Bilbesi, DDF
W. Lindley, ESHE
H.E. Ryan, ESCP
F. Bishay, ESPP
C.M.H. Moroiele, ESS
A. Crispoldi-Hotta, FID
M. Hoskins, FOD
H. Von Loesch, GII

Ms. T.J. Raick, DDF

Ms. F. Petry, ESPT

Ms. S. Balit, GIIS

* Alternates on April 1988 list are not true alternatives in the
sense that they necessarily substitute for an absent member of their
particular service. These are, rather, persons who were made
alternatese" when new names were substituted in the members list for
the meeting.

** Alternates For focal points are true substitutes For the persons


C.M.H. Morojele, ESS
J. Cortez, FIP
P. Porcinai-.FOD
S. Balit, GII


Missing from List

(as member very good group)

AFPR (training)

Focal Points

(probably W. Mann)
(probably M. Hammamm)
(Bensoussan by default)





Rome, Italy,
21-23 September, 1988

78. The experts recommended the implementation of a large-scale
training programme in women in development issues for staff within the
various development agencies at national, regional and local levels. This
recommendation was also applied to international organizations such as FAO.

79. It was recognized that training was needed both in the philosophy
and in the mechanisms of mainstreaming women in the development process.
Three areas of training were suggested, as follows: (a) the sensitization
of staff about gender issues in the planning for development as well as in
the evaluation of the impact of the development process; (b) the
understanding of the current role and future potential of women in specific
sectors of the economy; (c) the operational issues of how to approach
women as participants of governmental development programmes.

80. Training of women should consider definition and principles:
methods of planning and organizing training activities should be based on
accurate and participatory preliminary surveys on the roles and duties of
women; training activities should aim at establishing better communication
between the women themselves and between them and the rural development

8.1. Expected results should be clearly defined. These include:
promoting dialogue between planners, politicians, technicians and the rural
population in order to include women's concerns in the development plan;
establishing a two-way communication system between the beneficiaries and
decision-makers and technicians in order to institutionalize the re-
orientation and adjustment of training programmes to meet women's needs;
setting up effective and efficient mechanisms with rural services and
research to generate appropriate technologies to women; and securing an
equitable redistribution of resources and consequently balanced economic
and social power.

82. In order to develop a systematic strategy for staff training, the
following steps were proposed: (a) to identify the levels of staff members
who should be trained; (b) to outline the programme content for each level
and to select the most knowledgeable institution to offer the training;
(c) to develop appropriate methodologies and training materials for each

83. At the level of policy makers, the aim of training should be to
impart an overall sensitivity to equity issues in development and a general
understanding of the important role of women as workers in the agricultural
sector, so that appropriate policies and allocations be made in the
planning process.

k4. At the level of programme supervisory staff, an intensive course
is proposed on the role of women in different farming systems and the
- existing emerging technologies that could enhance their productivity.

85. At the level of field workers, a methodology was suggested that is
based on alternate periods of field and theoretical study as a practical
way to orient them to their future responsibilities and to help them to
acquire a deeper understanding of the population they are to serve.

86. At the grass-roots level, mechanisms should be established to
provide links between groups of women and sources of assistance. Rural
women very often do not have enough information on. existing services.
Training of rural women should take into consideration several important
aspects: (a) environmental, such as natural resources available; (b)
empowerment, decision-making capacities and increasing women's ability to
participate in organizations; (c) their multiple roles in domestic and
productive work; (d) access to productive resources and modern
technologies; and (e) credit lines and other agricultural services.
Training should also be integrated with income-producing projects and
employment that answers real needs. Training entities should identify
leaders in order to train them as monitors. These monitors should be
immersed in the situation of the peasants.

87. It was underlined that the extension systems in many countries
have not, as yet, recognized the important role of women in agriculture.
The systems do not focus enough on technologies relevant to women's work,
and specific efforts are still necessary for extension agents to reach
women farmers. Even when female staff are recruited, the tendency is
still to communicate the technical messages to the male contact farmers.
The Farming Systems Research and Extension approach needs to be more widely
used to cover all aspects of intra-household dynamics.

88. Training programmes on and for WID require appropriate
methodologies and background 'material including a wide range of
information. Statistics and quantitative data on women's contri-tioor to
economic activities are necessary; for this purpose, liaison with ILO and
other UN agencies is suggested.

89. Legislation affecting rural women must be taken into
consideration, and FAO should continue to study the legal context of women
in countries in which it is operating. FAO should also consider
disseminating information on legal structures and regulations affecting
women in a form accessible to them, including easily understood handbooks
for peasant women.

90. The need for training women in the decision-making process was
also underlined. Women already committed to and interested in promoting
women in development might need to upgrade their skills relating to
planning. It was suggested that those who have planning knowledge in
combination with a strong gender awareness be called upon to give such

91. In dealing with technical ministries and in sensitizing
policy-makers on the crucial economic role of women in agricultural
production, it is necessary to stress the importance of both the productive
role of women, providing statistics that can convince the planners of the
cuntrioution made by women, and their reproductive role as persons
responsible for household tasks.

92. It was suggested that a systematic effort be made at national
level for keeping records of women who have received specialized training.
The invisibility of highly trained women must be overcome. It was
recommended that women who have received such training be integrated on an
ongoing basis in FAO supported programmes and projects. It was felt that
women who are engaged in professions connected with rural development need
to talk about their own experiences and perceptions. Basic workshops
could be organized in this line at various levels with the utilization of
successfully proven communication techniques.

93. Specific suggestions were made on ways in which FAO might consider
to assist Member Nations:

(a) FAO should support strategies for overall training of existing
staff at all levels in WID issues;

(b) FAO could commission the preparation of training materials in WID
issues for the different levels of training;

(c) FAO could consider sponsoring the documentation on film of the
role of women in different farming systems;

(d) FAO should continue to support technical co-operation among
developing countries (TCDC) in this area of training;

(e) FAO could support Farming Systems Research and Extension on gender
issues and support technical workshops of development
administrators and agricultural scientists to discuss the emerging
successful technologies to support and enhance the participation
of women in agriculture.

94. The experts felt that the activities of FAO in WID topics should
be more widely publicized and disseminated.

Planned Activities of the Division



Give advice on, and review plans for, FAO staff exercise.

First consultations have been held between AFPR and ESHW.

1990-91 If given a mandate, will work to include a module on Women

in Agriculture in AFPR project formulation course.


Submission being redone: follow-up Mr. Kouba personally

30/3 and 7/4 sent materials.

Needs further follow-up.



In forthcoming "Fertilizer Week", include special item,
women in fertilizer projects.

1990-91 Attempt inclusion of women in all target groups involving
human resources.

Begin doing more to involve women in concrete way; for

example, in fertilizer programme, will assure women's

participation in input supply, credit, trials and

demonstrations through work with extension services.

Work to include women specifically in integrated plant
nutrition projects related to home gardens in Lesotho, the
Gambia, Tanzania.

Incorporate women in training of retailers (who sell
fertilizers, seeds, etc.) in Sri Lanka: will hire women

specialist to look after women's interests. Will later
extend this training to Nepal and Indonesia.

Extend programme to support female storekeepers in

agriculture service centers in Tanzania to Rwanda,
Ethiopia and Bolivia.

Make videotape of female "demonstration block" (use of
fertilizers) in the Gambia (through audiovisual unit in
Ministry of Agriculture).

Suggest specific study on women in fertilizers to Work
Group on Fertilizers, 1990 Commission on Fertilizers

Missing nothing submitted.
Followed Mr. Ofori personally 4/10.

Needs further follow-up.

1989 Develop very simple irrigation training manuals for
householder and give attention to women's special

1990-91 Carry out case studies on women in five large irrigation
schemes which AGLW currently is operating.

1989 Promote women's participation in identifying programmes
and projects for establishment of home and school gardens
For better balanced diet.

Support programmes of small scale market gardens as
income-generating activity, including floriculture and
mushroom production.

Publish technical manual on the potential and constraints
related to small scale mushroom cultivation in the

tropics. Special emphasis on women's participation at the
homestead level in South East Area.

1990-91 Formulate with ESHW collaboration guidelines on the
participation of women in relevant AGP projects and
activities, including horticulture,-seed selection, and
integrated pest management, with "core" elements that
would be common to each AGP group, and additional items
that would vary with the group's technical specialty.

Establish close liaison with a focal point officer in ESHW
who would assist all AG's-officers of the technical
divisions in the application of guidelines, and would
comment on/review relevant project documents.

Prepare a position paper on women in horticulture that
would be a basic reference document, with recommendations
for future initiatives (US$ 40.000).

Design a specific programme element for field projects
formulation, addressing women beneficiaries in particular,
including technical backstopping (US$ 75.000 per year).

Prepare appropriate training materials, including

technical booklets, manuals, video-tapes (IS$ 30.000 per

Invite women candidates to selected training courses
organized by scientific institutes and professional
association (US$ 5.000 per candidate per year).

Create fellowships for women candidates to be trained at
M.Sc. level in various disciplines relating to crop
production, protection, propagation.

Follow-up on guidelines for AGP projects: focal point
officer in ESHW, paper on women in horticulture.


1989-91 Develop, in consultaiton with ESH, several areas of

research and technology that take account of the specific

tasks performed by women and men:

research and technology in relation to women's
functions in agricultural production;
women's increasing awareness of environmental

concerns, and their participation in environmental

involvement of women in .environmental concerns in

relation to agriculture and rural development,
particularly the effects of environmental pollution on
nutrition and health;
participation of women in rural energy activities.

Nothing submitted.
Mr. Kouthon; he received a reminder and materials from

past submissions.

Needs further follow-up: AGS has no focal point and is not
represented on IDW/WID.

1989-91 Women will be direct beneficiaries under new subprogramme
on marketing extension, aimed at improving marketing
services to small farmers. Initially, the project will
concentrate on horticulture producers in Nepal, Burkina

Faso, Niger and Barbados.

1990-91 Funds permitting, AGSM will endeavour to reintroduce its
market extension training workshops in several regions,
using training manual, Learning from Rural Women: A Manual
for Village-Level Training to Promote Women's Activities
in Marketing (AGS 1985).

Channel credit through informal groups, including those in
which women are members, as an alternative to formal
financial institutions that often do not reach the people.

Advise on the formulation of, and backstopping to,
projects with credit/banking components, intended to
benefit rural people, particularly women.

"Promote, through seminars, workshops, and training
activities, better understanding among rural bankers of
problems related to the provision of financial services to
groups, such as women, who have never had dealing with

Continue support to market improvement in the Caribbean
(smaller Eastern Caribbean islands); provide improved
infrastructure for market women in terms of counters,
unbrellas, sanitary facilities.

1989 Support of agent training programme (US$ 89.000 TF funds).

Follow-up: clarify what is an "agent".

South Asian workshops on women and development (US$ 2B.000
TF funds). -

Support project formulation, evaluation, and training
programmes of village-based organizations in Africa, many
of which include both women and men. A constant concern
is to upgrade the quality of women's participation, (not
possible to break out women's component).

Consultancies to support women's activities in South Asia
(US$ 10.000 RP).

Diagnose of the effects of the economic crisis on the
community diningrooms organized in Villa el Salvador,
Peru, by the Center of the Peruvian Women "Flora Tristan",

1990-91 Continue Africa Programme: Continue South Asian Workshops

on WID (US$ 62.000 TF funds).

Women in Media Network for South Asia (US$ 200.000 TF

Consultancies to support women's activities in South Asia
(US$ 26.000 RP).

Has not yet submitted anything. In Alice Carloni's
absence, her alternate was not able to respond. Hand
carried materials to office 23/8.

Follow-up Ms. Carloni.

1989 Include in documentation for Committee on World Food

Security (CFS) in 1989 session, impact of structural
adjustment on food security, including impact on women,
and remedial action.

Take up issues related to women in commodities field in

1989 session of Committee on Commodity Problems.

1990 Undertake in 1990 session of CFS a comprehensive review of
WID issues in food security.

Include WID concerns in two Field-oriented ESC .programmes
taking into account relevant WID priority areas
recommended by the Council:

Food Security Assistance Scheme, aimed at assisting
developing countries to formulate national food
security policies and programmes, and to identify
support projects.
Commodity Policy at Country Level programme, advising
governments of developing countries on design and
implementation of their commodity specific policies-

1989-1992 ESDP initiate FAO programme in Bay of Bengal countries,
improve fishermen's incomes through access to credit at
reasonable rates; to establish and/or strengthen
fisherwomen's organizations, and to advocate
fihserfamilies and key village leaders in population
matters; to give women access to public health and family
planning service (US$ 1,088,600 over four years UNFPA).

1989 In collaboration with ESHW carry out country case studies
on women in forestry projects, as part of UNFPA/ESHW "Pre-
Project Activities on women, Population and Development"
(US$ 48,144 UNFPA).

1989-92 Initiate interregional advisory and technical backstopping
services on population, women and development:
collaborating units are ESHW and ESDP (UNFPA funding

1989-92 Facilitate active involvement of Ghanian women in
integrated, self-reliant population, women and development
activities: collaborating units are ESHW, ESDP ACO ~ nd
GII (US$ 350.000, UNFPA)

1989-92 Raise household incomes four provinces of China by 20

percent: improve key socio-economic indicators of well-
being, with particular emphasis on women's income in order

to impact population related variables: collaborating
units are ESH, AGP, ESDP, AGSM (US.$ 81.0,000, UNFPA).

1989 Complete pre-project activities in Morocco to introduce
in regular training programmes offered to women's clubs,
and to introduce small scale women's income, generation
e-'terprises: collaborating units are ESHW; AGO and ESDP
(US$ 108.687, UNFPA).

1989 Complete pre-project activities in Uganda, to determine
socio-economic, health-related and demographic situation
of rural women in selected districts; to develop a data
bank in the Ministry of Women's Affairs, and to formulate

pilot projects for improving the status of rural women;
collaborating units are ESHW, AGO and ESDP (US$ 120.000,

Note: Women in Agricultural development projects with integrated
population component are at various stages of development in
four countries f Asia, three countries of Africa and three
Central American countries, with funding from UNFPA, and the

Facilitate greater participation of women in such
activities as the production, processing and marketing of
rice and other commodities and the socio-economic
organization of food production and consumption, through
including and intensifying such considerations in FAO
commodity policy advisory services.

.109' Continue ongoing activities to take particular account of

the position of women when providing assistance to
governments on people's participation, cooperatives, and

other rural people's organizations.

1990-91 Pay attention to employment aspect and the impact of rural

technologies on women. Analyze in collaboration with
ESHW, the impact of technological change in pgr'-
processing on women's employment in the Asia region.

Allocate resources for field level investigations based on
outcome of Asia regional study above.

1989-91 Continue efforts to include women in agricultural training

in FAO projects; in past few years such training has been
open to women and men on an equal basis.

1989 Follow-up five seminars in Africa on improving the level
of agricultural extension support for women: training

materials will be produced on how both women and men
extension personnel can improve their work with women


1990-91 Extend seminars on women and extension support to French-
speaking Africa and Latin America.

Facilitate enrollment of women in agricultural training at

secondary and tertiary level in countries where ESHE has
carried out seminars.

In collaboration with ESHW, review curricula in two
regions (Africa and the Caribbean) for pre- and in-service
training in agriculture and rural development, and
recommend to institutions how to make relevant courses,

particularly in extension, reflect the realities of what
women do in agriculture, forestry and fishing.

Follow-up on curricula exercise.



1990/91 Follow-up Nigeria activity to improve situation of women
street food sellers (training) (RP funds).

Additionally, initiate. action to include women where
possible in development of draft project documents.


Continue preparation of "Nutrition Country Profiles",
giving attention to gender issues, gender-specific data
collection, analysis in-project design, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation.

Give specific attention to gender issues in food
surveillance activities.

Give specific attention to gender issues in development of
national food and nutrition policies.

Incorporate nutrition concerns into development projects,
with attention to WID.

In all documents, disaggregate data on nutrition and
nutrition-related indicators by sex, where appropriate.
Ensure, in collaboration with govPrnments, that the Sixth
World Food Survey, scheduled for the 1990s, includes an
analysis of data by gender.

As part of advice/assistance to improvement in food
protection and as follow-up to expert consultation on
street foods, review street foods activities in Nigeria to
determine socio-economic impact on women, and
recommendations for future work (US$ 12.000).



1989 Provide consultants for nutrition training for women in

development progrmmes, as well as support For the
training, Hondur s and Colombia (ITSS 2!.000) 1/

Include women in programmes to promote local nutritious
foods and prevent specific dietary deficiencies (US$

Support in-service nutrition training of field staff in
agricultural.colleges and universities (women's share US$

Include women targets in public nutrition education (USS

1990-91 Not in a position to derive useful figures for new
biennium; if no change in regular budget resources, above
approximations may apply.,

Continue to include gender issues in studies on labour
mobility, for example, in the Near East.

Give careful attention to gender issues in advice to
planning units, and in policy formulation.

Give special emphasis to selection of women government
officials in training courses on planning and sector
analysis conducted .at country level.

1/ ESNP claculations do not include staff time or travel, and the
preparation of studies and documents.

Give careful attention to gender issues in sectoral plans
prepared in collaboration with governments.

Explore the issues of gender particularly in decentralized
planning exercises carried out at the grassroots level.

1989 Publish Guidelines on Socio-Economic Indicators for

Monitoring and Evaluating Agrarian Reform and Rural
Development in three languages (careful attention has been
given to recommendations for the disaggregation of most
indicators by sex).

In collaboration with ESHW, prepare for setting up a data
base on women in agriculture, in coordination with women
in development data bases of other UN agencies.

Prepare modules on rural landlessness, disaggregated by
sex, to be attached to on-going censuses and surveys.

1990-91 In collaboration with member governments, carry out full
analysis by gender of data from the 1990 rounds of World
Census of Agriculture.

Organize two workshops on socio-economic indicators with

full consideration of the disaggregation of these
indicators by sex, and the related problems and
possibilities of data collection in the countries.

Prepare a manual for the collection of statistics on women
in agriculture, and organize two national training centres
(in an English- and a French-speaking country of Africa).

Fisheries contributed many comments on the other issues
contained in the "Points for Discussion".

Fisheries is not able to submit project suggestions at

this time, pending meeting of the Commission on Fisheries
during the second week in April. All project activities
for the 1990-91 biennium depend on this meeting for

Follow-up on FO submission.

1989-91 Provide public information support to ESHW and other units

of the house as they set their priorities in fulfillment
of the Plan of Action.

1989 Collaborate with ESHW on the production in three languages

of a popular version of the Plan of Action, with case
studies and background statistics on the situation of
rural women. This will be distributed at the FAO

Conference in November, and will be available as an
informational publication for general use.

Publish an article on women in agriculture in Newslink,
with information on the background of the Plan of Action.

1990-91 Continue with periodic articles in Newslink; materials for
a follow-up piece. have already been provided by FO and

Collaborate with GII editor-writer -hired for work on
popular version, Plan of Action.

1989-91 Collaborate with ESHW on formulating communication
components in on-going and new projects to benefit
grassroots wornmn,

1989 A case study being carried out on communication campaigns
for rural development in Lesotho deals largely with women,
as most of the farmers are female.

1989-90 Extend technical help in building national capability to
produce audiovisual materials and carry out applied

research on women in agriculture and rural development.
It has been suggested that an ESHW staff member or
consultant work with GIIS on building a DSC capability in
MOA/Nepal and in Ministry of Culture, Mali.

Follow-up with Ms. Balit.

1990-91 Work on visual aids for,information and training on WID,
as requested and within limits of staff.

1989-91 Continue work in several countries where women form up to
60 percent of the clientele and 50 percent of the
personnel: these include family planning education and
development in Burundi, Yemen and the Comoros Islands;
rural radio projects in Chad (with UNICEF), and a
communication unit for rural development in Mexico. In
the latter programme, for the first time women farmers are
participating in the production of training materials. (no
funds; funds must be provided by technical units).

1989 Publish a bibliography on women in development extracted

from AGRIS, 1986-88 (2,700 new items on-women and related
subjects have been added since 1985).

1990-91 Publish a bibliography on women comprising all relevant

FAO documents.

Produce ; monthly AGRIS-SDT profile on the topic of women

in agriculture and rural development (extra-budgetary
resources would be required).


1989-91 Continue training of women in income generation through

employment, as well as in harvesting and sale of several

wood and non-wood products in FAO projects.

Encourage present trends toward successful employment of

women in nursery work, and in planting and tending trees,

in FAO projects.

Develop materials useful in project design for improved

involvement of women in extension, employment, work with

women's groups, and identification of women's issues.

Publish a COFO paper on topic of women and forestry,

focussing on guidelines for member government to include

women's issues, particularly in food security and

conservation efforts.

Focus special attention on integration of women as

participants as well as beneficiaries in large-scale

interregional forest industry sector project on

"integrated wood energy systems for rural communities".

Some activities to be geared toward improved supply and

use of household energy.

Encourage small-village level forest-based industries, to

he managed by women in order to expand and intensify

income-generating activities for women in the large-scale

project, "Promotion and tech-^ '_ '';"-tn" tn smPll-

scale forest enterprises in Latin America"
I .

Promote appropriate technology to ease household work
burden of wom~n tr incr.e.j their productivity in both

above pr6jpcts

(Funding from RP sources approx. US$ 50.000).

Seek multidonor trust fund, similar to TFAP, for action
plan to further follow-up of Nairobi.


Engage consultant, and begin work on first of four planned

volumes on the juridical and legal situations that affect

women in their activities as rural producers. 1/

1990-91 Complete work on three remaining volumes.

Follow-up-dollar amount.,

1/ Volumes well cover women's rights to land; to acquire, sell,

exchange and mortgage land; rights to personal properly,

capacity to make contracts: credit, bank accounts, etc.:
to full membership in people's organizations; to equal pay

for equal labour; access to new technologies;

participation in training progrmmes.

-Ai-- ^

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