Group Title: Preservation Planning Project : Background report : narrative, assumptions and charges
Title: Preservation Planning Project : background report : narrative, assumptions and charges
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Title: Preservation Planning Project : background report : narrative, assumptions and charges
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: DiTriolio, Frank
Kemp, Carla
Kesse, Erich
McKinney, Susan
Primack, Alice
Scott, Wendy
Publication Date: 1989
Copyright Date: 1989
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089881
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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PRESERVATION PLANNING PROJECT.
BACKGROUND REPORT
Narrative, Assumptions and Charges.



PRESERVATION PLANNING PROJECT STUDY TEAM.

Frank DiTrolio
Carla Kemp
Erich Kesse, Chair
Susan McKinney
Alice Primack
Wendy Scott









PRESERVATION PLANNING
BACKGROUND REPORT
Narrative.


PROJECT -


INTRODUCTION.

The Preservation Planning Project Background Paper was written by the
Project Study Team between February 15 and March 15, 1989. The Background Paper
sets forth the foundation for the further work of the Study Team and its Task
Forces in assessing the state of and planning for preservation at the University
of Florida Libraries. As a foundation document it reviews the history of the
institution and its collections; storage environment and physical condition of
materials; the history of preservation; and current trends of importance.





THE INSTITUTION AND ITS COLLECTIONS.

The University of Florida (UF) traces its beginnings to the takeover of the
private Kingsbury Academy in Ocala by the state-funded East Florida Seminary in
1853. The Seminary consolidated with the state's land grant Florida
Agricultural College to become UF in 1905, and moved to Gainesville in 1906 with
an enrollment of 102. Following World War II, the student body and faculty grew
rapidly, and now is counted among the ten largest universities in the U.S. with
approximately 35,000 students and 3,500 faculty. Among the 106 institutions
reporting statistics to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), it has the
third largest faculty, the fifteenth largest number of full time graduate
students, and ranks sixteenth in the number of full time students. It continues
as a land grant institution and is the only member of the Association of
American Universities in Florida.
Since the early 1970's, UF has been transforming itself from a primarily
undergraduate university into a graduate research and teaching institution.
Students pursue graduate degrees in 86 Ph.D. fields. Interdisciplinary studies


Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 1.









and research are coordinated through its more than 100 centers, institutes and
bureaus, including the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for
African Studies. Sponsored research awards exceed $135,000,000 annually.
The University of Florida built its first library building, now part of
Library East, in 1925. An addition in 1932 added a wing of five stack levels.
By the mid 1940's, a temporary wooden annex was constructed to relieve crowding.
And by 1950, a further addition doubled the size of the facility which rapidly
growing collections soon filled.
In the 1960's, plans were made for the construction of a research library to
house advanced research materials. Lack of adequate funding prevented the
research library from being constructed as designed, and the actual structure,
Library West, was significantly smaller than planned. The resulting lack of
space impacted the plan for a research library almost from initial occupation of
the new building, and, by 1977, the college ard research collections were
merged.


Today, the University of Florida Libraries (UFL) form the largest
information resource system in the State of Florida, with more than 2,700,000
cataloged volumes, in excess of 35,000 current serials, 19,000 machine readable
data files, over 2,500,000 microforms, and other extensive archival and library
resources. Current expenditures for library materials, excluding Health and
Law materials, are over $3,500,000.
Collections are accessed through a NOTIS based online catalog, which has
been operational for 6 years and currently contains over 1,000,000 records. The
NOTIS system is also utilized for acquisitions, serials control, and
circulation. The UFL is a member of the Association of Research Libraries
(ARL), the Research Libraries Group (RLG), and participates in the OCLC/SOLINET
network.
In order to support a wide variety of undergraduate, graduate and research
programs, the UFL acquires, processes and stores a large amount of documentation
in a seemingly endless array of physical formats. In addition to books, serials
and newspapers, the UFL collects materials in almost all audiovisual, microform,
paper, and machine readable formats. With the continuous upgrading and creation
of academic programs, the UFL must not only continue acquiring materials in
traditional formats, but must also keep abreast of formats driven by new
technology. Each of these formats has different properties and requires
particular preservation and conservation measures in order to maintain
durability and ensure longevity.
The Libraries have strived for excellence in an environment of low state
revenues and financial competition among State University System (SUS)
institutions. Fluctuating annual appropriations have been a significant factor
in budgeting and continuation of services. Without a stable base of
appropriations, it has been difficult to build collections and plan programs.
Increasing costs of library materials, information access and preservation
compound this problem. Pressures to provide more services and to expand
collections to meet new information and program needs are also increasing.
Against the backdrop of limited resources and growing pressures, the
Libraries are vital to research and teaching programs of the University. In
adopting a mission to provide access to all forms of recorded knowledge which
support instructional, research and public service programs, the Libraries have
defined certain goals. Among these, the Libraries plan to achieve more
effective collaboration between library staff, faculty and administration, to
build and maintain collection development and management programs, to expand


Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 2.








reference and information retrieval programs and the Libraries' role in
education, and to assure effective control and preservation of library
collections. Collection management services, including preservation, though
still developing, are provided in all areas of research and teaching.


Administration of the Libraries is divided into three large areas:
Administrative Services, Collections and Services, and Science and Technical
Services. The Organizational Chart details these divisions (cf, Appendix 1).
The Preservation Office reports directly to the Associate Director for Science
and Technical Services, with a coordinating line to the Associate Director for
Collections and Services.
The UFL are made up of a humanities and social sciences library housed in
two buildings, a science library, and discipline oriented branches in
Architecture and Fine Arts, Education, and Music, as well as a Journalism
Reading Room. There are several renowned collections, reflecting concerted
efforts in a variety of subject fields. Two independent libraries, the Legal
Information Center and the Health Science Center Library, add their
bibliographic records to the online catalog.





ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS.

Lack of space and inadequate environmental conditions have plagued the
collections from the start. Materials have been stored in off-site locations
and in unoccupied campus buildings. These facilities provided little or no
climate control. Even in those facilities designed as libraries, materials have
been subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Air conditioning was not
installed in the Libraries until 1950 or later. The stack area of Library East
was not ar conditioned until 1982. The Heating, Ventilation, and Air
Conditioning (HVAC) systems now in use in a number of sites are inadequate, and
materials continue to be subjected to generally high and rapidly fluctuating
temperatures and relative humidity (RH).
All buildings have experienced either leaks or HVAC malfunctions involving
water damage to buildings and library materials. High RH has contributed to
mold growth in the collections. These environmental factors seem to have
contributed to the deterioration of master microfilm negatives stored in Library
West. A 1988 survey of the microfilm collection found that 80% of all negatives
are in various stages of deterioration. There have been occasional small fires
in the buildings, including one in 1988 started by a burning ballast in a light
fixture mounted in flammable ceiling tiles of the Baldwin Library. Insects,
including carpet beetles, cockroaches, powder post beetles, silverfish and
termites, were discovered in Library East in 1987. The building was fumigated
and a regular extermination program for all acquisitions and collections is now
in place.
As UF grew, departmental libraries were established in a number of areas
including: Agriculture, Architecture and Fine Arts (AFA), Chemistry, Education,
Engineering, and Music. The AFA Library was moved to its present location in
1964, and the Music Library in 1972. The Education Library moved from its
original location in Norman Hall to the new wing in 1980. In 1987, the Science
materials and the Map Library were moved into the Marston Science Library. Each


Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 3.








move entailed major shifts of materials. These moves, combined with shifts
accommodating growth of collections, resulted in and continue to cause wear and
tear of materials beyond that resulting from normal circulation and use.
All libraries have had open stacks, with complete public access to materials
except for special collections. Borrowing has been restricted to those
associated with UF except by special application. In 1982, complaints about
lack of order in the stacks generated monetary support for a major shelf-reading
project. Since that time, the budget has been adequate to hire student
assistants for routine stack maintenance, but resources for further care have
not been adequate to provide routine cleaning and dusting. Even basic
housekeeping has not been at an acceptable level in the buildings.
Traditionally, damaged books have been routed to the Conservation Unit but there
is abundant evidence that damaging repairs have been performed by untrained
staff throughout the Libraries.
The UFL is a major net lender. This resource sharing puts other pressures on
the collections. Titles which are used frequently may require purchase of
additional copies, and the increased handling of materials causes deterioration
of their physical condition.






HISTORY OF PRESERVATION.

In the late 1930's, the Libraries were involved with the preservation of
library materials through participation in two Work Project Administration (WPA)
activities. With assistance from the UFL, the WPA Historic Records Survey
Project transcribed rare items in the City of St. Augustine and in St. Leo's
Abbey for deposit in the Library. From 1939 to 1941, the WPA Book Repair
Project provided book binding equipment and salaries.
Preservation microfilming, established primarily for Florida and Latin
American materials, has been a long standing program of the UFL. A microfilm
camera was purchased in 1945 and filming of current Florida and Caribbean
newspapers was begun. Policies were first set in 1959 when a Committee on
Microfilming of Florida Newspapers was formed. In the early 1950's, the UFL
assumed responsibility for collecting Caribbean publications under the
Farmington Plan. Travel grants in 1956 and 1961 made it possible to acquire or
microfilm Caribbean materials.
Influenced by the growing importance of preservation in research libraries,
the UFL set up a Preservation Committee in 1984. A consultant, E.R. Gilbert,
was hired to produce an overview of the Libraries' physical facilities and
recommend an integrated conservation program. His recommendations, however,
were too general for concrete implementation.
In early 1985, the Committee itself set about producing a background report
which would study present and past preservation activities within the Libraries,
and produce assumptions and recommendations for a long range preservation plan.
As a part of its study, the Committee conducted a condition survey of
collections. Based on the physical condition survey conducted at Yale, it was
restricted to the Latin American Collection, the Education Library and the Dewey
900's. Survey findings alerted the UFL that a substantial portion of the
collection was acidic and brittle. While various drafts of the background
report were completed, a final version was never produced. In all, the work of
the Committee was shelved as a more pressing system-wide implementation was


Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 4.








taking place -- Collection Management.
In 1986, the Libraries sent a member of the Committee, Erich Kesse, to
Columbia's School of Library Service, Preservation Administration Program. A
Preservation Office was officially established in 1987 and was assigned
responsibility for Commercial Binding, Conservation and Reprographics Units, as
well as the definition of a Brittle Books Program. The Preservation Office
undertook a host of activities touching on all aspects of preservation and
conservation in its first year. Among its achievements, the Reprographics Unit
doubled its output of micrographic products without increase in staff.
Procedures in all Units were up-graded to meet national standards. In addition,
a Brittle Books Program was instituted and over 50,000 volumes were surveyed for
brittleness in various collections and at circulation check-points. This survey
found that 10% to 17% of the collections, or more than 270,000 volumes, are
embrittled.






CURRENT TRENDS.

Preservation today is a defined subfield of the archival and library
sciences with an established body of trained professionals and technicians, an
ethical code, and published information resources. Preservation programs have
adopted increasingly standardized organizational structures and program
components with similar methodologies. They network through national and
international organizations, with coordinating assistance from the National
Preservation Program Office at the Library of Congress. Increasingly, the
involvement and impact of the more than 58 programs in the United States has
become international, with full and equal participation, primarily in the
International Federation of Libraries and Archives (IFLA).
Technological advances have swept preservation from its conception among the
arts and crafts of the trade movements in the late nineteenth century toward
interdisciplinary sciences. Organic chemistry, materials engineering and optics
are a few of the sciences which have become allied with preservation. Mass
deacidification and paper strengthening techniques are now capable of extending
the longevity and durability of book and paper materials. Optical technology,
used in reformatting materials, has refined photomechanical duplication
processes, micrographic practices and products, and engendered a revolution in
image capture through digital and optical imaging systems.
Preservation has become the concern of the late 1980's just as bibliographic
instruction (BI) was the concern of the early 1980's. More than BI or any other
developments within archives and libraries, preservation has a sense of urgency
ensured by widespread embrittlement of books and papers. Numerous granting
agencies with millions of dollars in program activity matching funds have added
a sense of opportunity. Further, preservation has become a popular, as well as
professional, concern. Paper production and publishing trends toward the
manufacture and use of alkaline paper and durable book structure reflect, to
some extent, this popular concern and the awareness of a more educated market.








Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Backrqound Report. Page 5.









CONCLUSION.


The Preservation Planning Project Study Team presents this Background Report
because commitment comes from a common understanding of past activities and
conditions. This common ground is enhanced by the development of planning
assumptions which follow. The library staff is in the best position to identify
needs. Therefore, task force charges defining objectives and strategies to
investigate collection condition, environmental conditions, organization and
procedures, disaster control, and resources and instruction are also attached.
"A good preservation program is really a whole-health life style for library
collections; and like good living requires an earnest commitment, discipline,
attention to detail, and resources. The payoff is longevity."*







































* Jan Merrill-Oldham. "The Preservation Program Defined" In Preservation: A
Research Library Priority for the 1990s. Washington, DC : Association of
Research Libraries, 1987.





Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 6.







PLANN NNG ASSUNIT IDNS


1. The Library's collec ti onIs are import--ant.
They are one of its most important capital investments, currently growing in
value by several million dollars per year. Collections support teaching and
research programs, and are an irreplaceable resource that is part of a
national and international research library inventory. Preservation of the
collection is essential to maintaining this investment.

2. The co 1 1 c ection2s have a pr-eser-vat i onc
pro blem
Florida's sub-tropical climate accelerates deterioration at rates exceeding
those experienced in more northern climates. Surveys conducted in the past
have varied greatly in methodology and results, but all point up
deterioration of the collections. Data gathered from scientific survey of
collections will inform planning decisions. This data will be most
meaningful if it considers as many formats and distinct divisions of
collecting as possible. Survey and study of HVAC systems, in light of
format storage requirements, is necessary to an understanding of building
improvement needs.

3. The Librar- es are commit ed to a
Pr-eserTva-t ion Program-
To this end, they have established a Preservation Office and hired a
Preservation Officer. Fiscal resources will be limited. Proposed
expenditures, particularly those using internal funds, will have to be
demonstrably cost effective to compete with pressing needs throughout the
Libraries. The Libraries' overall planning must be efficient to insure that
the vital work of collection development, access, management, and
preservation can occur. Some external funding for preservation activities,
particularly preservation microfilming, is available through external
granting agencies and private donors.

4. Pr-eservat ion goals have been define ied
Preservation is a discipline in its own right and requires information
resources and exchange which assure currency of treatments to best preserve
materials. Patron and staff awareness of preservation concerns augments
preservation activities and reduces damage to materials. Participation in
preservation activities will be system-wide, including all units of public
and technical services. Long range preservation planning for the longevity
of collections is dependent upon defined and integrated Preservation/Curator
relations.

5. Th-er-e is a space cr isis.
Space is or will become a critical issue in all areas within 1 to 2 years.
Major shifts will occur. As plans are defined, preservation consideration
must be incorporated.

6. Disasters wi 1 1 count inue to happen -
Whether human or natural, disasters will threaten the collections. A
working Disaster Plan which defines contingencies and responses must be
developed to offset the potential effects.







Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 7.











COLLECTION CONDITION TASK FORCE


HelenJane Armstrong
Frank DiTrolio (Chair)
Barry Hartigan
Ray Jones
Peter Malanchuk
Rosa Meza
Bcb Sinaerman
Jan Swanbeck
Ed Teague



An accurate knowledge of the physical conditions of the collections is essential
for preservation program planning. Such data is necessary for short and long
term planning, specific treatment recommendations and writing grant proposals.
The condition of library materials has been documented at several research
institutions during the 1980's. A significant portion, up to 32%, has been
found to be embrittled, acidic or in need of treatment. To arrive at an
accurate statement of physical condition, the Collection Condition Task Force
is charged to:

1. Develop appropriate methodologies and criteria for examining all physical
formats based on the selection of a statistically valid sample to obtain
results which are applicable to the collection as a whole;

2. Assess the current physical condition of collections in all libraries and
special collections;

3. Analyze data to determine percentages of the collections in need of
preservation;

4. Establish written guidelines for selecting items for preservation, and
outline preservation priorities.




















Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 8.











DISASTER CONTROL TASK FORCE.


Robena Cornwell
Trudi DiTrolio
Paul Lowrv
Susan McKinney (Chair)
Mona Mosier
Barbara Oliver
Carol Turner



Disasters will continue to happen in the UFL. In order to respond quickly and
effectively to these events, the Disaster Control Task Force is charged with the
following:

1. Assess current vulnerability by identifying potential disasters, both
natural and human, which threaten collections;

2. Establish a disaster plan incorporating prevention, preparedness and
response. Continue to work on and expand the UFL Disaster Plan which was
begun in 1983;

3. Prioritize collections for recovery. Identify priorities system-wide. Map
collection areas and materials requiring special care for recovery, and
identify valuable, special, unique, and rare items within collections;

4. Analyze data and recommend how the UFL can upgrade facilities, staff
training, etc. to achieve an acceptable level of preparedness in the future.



























Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 9.











ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS TASK FORCE


Gary Cornwell
John Freund
Wendy Scott (Chair)
Shirley Snyder
Carl Van Ness
R. Max Willocks



The environment in which library materials are housed may be the single
most critical factor in determining the lifespan of those materials. The
Environmental Conditions Task Force is charged with the following:

1. Gather data to assess:
a. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems in the UFL. Review
previously gathered data. Survey temperature and relative humidity
patterns in selected locations;
b. Sources of heat, moisture, and light that may damage materials;
c. Housekeeping: dust, dirt, cleaning schedules, and special problems;
d. Support structures, including: shelving, cabinets, exhibit cases and
book returns;

2. Analyze data to determine the impact of conditions. Review the major
problems and apparent causes. Develop recommendations for change.






























Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 10.











ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES TASK FORCE.


Lynn Badger
Rich Bennett
Vivian Carlson
Carmen Hurff
Carla Kemp (Chair)
Elaine Yontz



The Organization and Procedures Task Force will evaluate the organizational
mechanisms at the UFL for the articulation of policies and the coordinated
implementation of preservation and related programs. The Task Force is
charged with the following:

1. Identify preservation functions. Brainstorm and list all activities,
policies and decision-making which have bearing on preservation;

2. Develop methodology and mechanisms to examine preservation activities and
support;

3. Gather data;

4. Analyze data. Review and evaluated for patterns, functional needs not met,
soundness of implementation, appropriateness of methods, usefulness of
policies, strong points in current program, allocation of resources, etc.;

5. Develop recommendations for improvements in the organization and
administration of preservation activities.


























Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 11.











RESOURCES AND INSTRUCTION TASK FORCE


Suzanne Brown
Stephanie Chase
Alice Primack (Chair)
Christina.Hanson
Kari Horowicz
Suzy Shaw


A preservation program requires a wide variety of information resources, an
aware and knowledgeable staff, and cooperation from library users. The
Resources and Instruction Task Force is charged with the following:

1. Identify preservation information, instructional materials, services, and
sources of expertise on local and national levels;

2. Identify and analyze current training, continuing education and exposure of
library staff to preservation issues;

3. Identify current patron education and awareness activities in the UFL, and
analyze them for inclusion of preservation concerns;

4. Determine information and instructional need for staff and users. Recommend
programs for preservation education and awareness.































Preservation Planning Project. Study Team.
Background Report. Page 12.






THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES


Provost and
Dice President
Uniersty for Academic
Affairs
Libraries ffa
Committee
Director of
Libraries
(Dale Canelas)


Assistant Director
for Administrative
Services
(Carol Turner)

Rccess Services
Department

(Rich Bennett)


Budget and
Business
Services Office
(Barbara Oliver)


Development
Office

(Barbara King)


Systems
Office
(Bill Covey)

2-1989


Associate Director
for Collections
and Services
(Sam Gowan)
I


Architecture and Fine Arts
Library (Ed Teague)

Education Library
(Suzanne Brown)

Music Library
(Robena Comwell)
Interlibrary Loan Unit
(LeiLani Freund)
Journalism Reading Room
(Priscilla West)


Department of Reference Department of
Collection Department Special
Management Collections
(Sam Gowan) (Christina Hanson) (Robert Singerman)
(Sam Gowan) (Acting)
African Studies Baldwin Library
(Peter Malanchuk)
Humanities Unit Belknap Collectio
(Frank DiTrolio) (Marcia Brookba
English (John Van Hook) Mary Jane Dai
P.K. Yonge Librar
Germanic Studies (Gus Harrer) Florida History


-Latin American Studies
(Rosa Mesa)
Sciences Unit
(Barry Hartigan)
Social Sciences Unit
(Ray Jones)
S, Education (Suzanne Brown)
Architecture and Fine Arts Unit
S(Ed Teague)
.Documents Unit
(Jan Swanbeck)
% _Maps
(HelenJane Armstrong)


Associate Director
for Science and
Technical Services
(Max Willocks)


n
ink and
icoff
y of


(Elizabeth Alexander)
Price Library of Judaica
(Robert Singerman)
Latin American Collection
(Peter Stem)
Rare Books and Manuscripts
(Sidney Ives)
University Archives
(Carla Kemp)
Map Collection
(HelenJane Armstrong)
Preservation Office
(Erich Kesse)


Acquisitions
SDepartment

(Pam Cenzer)


Catalog
S Department
(Dot Hope)
(Acting)


Documents
SDepartment
(Jan Swanbeck)



Marston
Science Library

(Carol Drum)


Personnel
Office
(Lynn Badger)


I






THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
GAINESVILLE. FLORIDA 32611


OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR

May 21, 1986





MEMORANDUM

TO: Members of the Software Study Committee:
Alice Primack, Chair
Denise Beaubien
Bruce Emerton
Erich Kesse
Colleen Seale

FROM: R. Max Willocks, Deputy Director N '




Thank you for agreeing to serve on the Software Study Committee. The
charge to the committee is attached. A paper, "Points to Consider," is also
attached. I believe it will be of some help to the committee. The committee
should complete its work with recommendations to me within four months. I
hope it can be finished sooner. I would like to meet with the committee part
of the time, so I am asking the Chair to give me notices of the meeting times.





RMW:bb


EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER









CHARGE TO THE SOFTWARE COMMITTEE:
(Software is interpreted to include laser disks.)


Study the library's need to purchase software and prepare proposals on
the following subjects:

1. Should we purchase software? What kind?
2. If so, where should we house it?
3. Should software circulate to the public?
4. If so, how shall we protect the copyright agreements?
5. Shall we ask for all software to be'cataloged and entered into FOCUS?
6. Must we make back-up copies? How?
7. Must we provide microcomputers on which to use the software?
S8. What funds should be used to purchase software?




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