• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of abbreviations
 Background
 Agenda, attendance and documentation...
 Opening session
 Highlights of the technical sessions...
 Technical sessions
 Closing session
 List of participants
 Annotated agenda
 List of materials distributed
 Reports of the working groups I,...
 Statement by Dr. Visuri
 Back Cover














Group Title: Report
Title: Report of the meeting
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089871/00001
 Material Information
Title: Report of the meeting evaluating bilateral and multilateral experiences in the development and use of women in development (WID) guidelineschecklists : implications for national use in formulating agricultural projects for women
Series Title: Report
Alternate Title: Evaluating bilateral and multilateral experiences in the development and use of women in development guidelineschecklists
Physical Description: ii, 57 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ;
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
Place of Publication: Rome
Santo Domingo Dominican Republic
Publication Date: 1986
Copyright Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Women in rural development -- Miscellanea -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Rural development -- Miscellanea -- Congresses   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: "List of materials distributed": p. 47-50.
Statement of Responsibility: co-sponsored by FAO and INSTRAW ; convened at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland, 7-11 October 1985.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089871
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 29600015
lccn - 92217047

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    List of abbreviations
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Background
        Page 3
    Agenda, attendance and documentation of the meeting
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Opening session
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Highlights of the technical sessions on the six items
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Technical sessions
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Closing session
        Page 33
    List of participants
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Annotated agenda
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    List of materials distributed
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Reports of the working groups I, II, and III
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Statement by Dr. Visuri
        Page 57
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

Report No.101


FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
ORGANIZATION OF THE
UNITED NATIONS


UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL
RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN


FAO


INSTRAW


Report of the Meeting



EVALUATING BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL EXPERIENCES
IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT

GUIDELINES / CHECKLISTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR NATIONAL
USE IN FORMULATING AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS FOR WOMEN












Co-sponsored by
FAO and INSTRAW
Convened at the
Institute of Development Studies
University of Helsinki, Finland
7- 11 October 1985






























Report of the Meeting

EVALUATING BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL EXPERIENCES
IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT (WID)
GUIDELINES/CHECKLISTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR NATIONAL
USE IN FORMULATING AGRICULTURAL PROJECTS FOR WOMEN


INSTRAW-86











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page


List of Abbreviations 1


Background 3


Agenda, Attendance and Documentation 4


Opening Session 6


Highlights of the Technical Sessions on the Six Items 8


Technical Sessions 12

Item 1 Common Goals and Objectives in Achieving
Integration of Women's Concerns in
Sectoral Programmes 12

Item 2 The Place of WID Guidelines/Checklists:
Lessons Learnt from the Process of their
Development and Use 18

Item 3 Applications of Guidelines/Checklists
and Other Means at the National Level 22

Item 4 Major Elements for the Formulation of
Guidelines/Checklists at the National
Level 23

Item 5 Monitoring and Evaluation of WID
Guidelines/Checklists Accross Line
Ministries, NGOs and Institutions 26

Item 6 Follow-up Plan of Action for the
Development and Use of Guidelines/
Checklists, and Other Means for
Integrating WID Concerns 29











TABLE OF CONTENTS
(Cont.)

Page



Closing Session 33

Annex 1 List of Participants 34

Annex 2 Annotated Agenda 42

Annex 3 List of Materials Distributed 47

Annex 4 Reports of the Working Groups I, II
and III 51

Annex 5 Statement by Dr. Visuri 57





- 1 -


List of Abbreviation


ACC/RD


CIDA

CIRDAfrica


CIRDAP


FAO

FINNIDA

IDS

IFAD

ILO

INSTRAW


NGO

NORAD

OECD/DAC


PAN

PPP

SDC


SIDA

UNDP

UNESCO


UNFPA

UNICEF

UNIFEM

WAND


Administrative Committee on Co-ordination for
Rural Development

Canadian International Development Agency

Centre on Integrated Rural Development for
Africa

Centre for Integrated Rural Development for
Asia and Pacific

Food and Agriculture Organization

Finnish International Development Agency

Institute of Development Studies

International Fund for Agricultural Development

International Labour Organization

International Research and Training Institute
for the Advancement of Women

Non-Governmental Organization

Norwegian Agency for International Development

Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development/Development Assistance Committee

Programme Advisory Note

Panel on People's Participation

Swiss Development Cooperation and Humanitarian
Aid

Swedish International Development Authority

United Nations Development Programme

United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization

United Nations Fund for Population Activities

United Nations Children's Fund

United Nations Development Fund for Women

Women and Development Unit




-2-




WCARRD World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural
Development

WFP World Food Programme

WID Women in Development





- 3 -


I. BACKGROUND


One of the outcomes of the United Nations Decade for
Women has been the preparation and adoption of
comprehensive Women in Development (WID) Guidelines and
Checklists by many bilateral and multilateral agencies for
application in the planning, implementation and
administration of development programmes and projects. Some
work has also been done in monitoring and evaluating these
WID Guidelines/Checklists and in assessing their results.

The World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural
Development, held in Rome in 1979, recognized the vital role
of women in the socio-economic life in both agricultural and
non-agricultural activities as a pre-requisite for
successful rural development policies, planning and
programmes, and proposed specific measures for improving the
conditions of women. The Programme of Action for the second
half of the United Nations Decade for Women also included
specific proposals which still function as a valid guide for
improving the status of women in food and agriculture.

In view of the discrepancy between the considerable
contribution of rural women to rural development and the
limited scale of international development assistance they
receive, the Administrative Committee on Coordination for
Rural Development (ACC/RD) chaired by FAO, established in
1981 an Inter-Agency Panel on People's Participation (PPP),
with ILO as convenor. The task of the Panel was to promote
women in development in its programme. Two areas of action
that have been focused on so far are case studies on
successful WID activities ("Success Stories") undertaken by
ILO, and development of WID Guidelines and Checklists under
the leadership of FAO. FAO had prepared a paper on Review
and Analysis of UN Guidelines and Checklists on Women in
Rural Development, the discussion of which at the 1982
Meeting led to the need to consider the utility of WID
Checklists/Guidelines at national level, and to determine if
bilateral as well as multilateral experiences can be adapted
for national use.

A review of inter-agency experiences with WID
Guidelines was completed in 1983. In light of the findings,
the PPP at its Third Meeting in January 1984 recommended
that FAO plan and convene with the International Research
and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
(INSTRAW) a consultative meeting for evaluating the
usefulness of WID Guidelines/Checklists. Particular
emphasis was to be given to the national level of developing
countries, where the guidelines and checklists are to be
formulated and/or adapted in order to increase programmes
and projects for rural women within the broad framework of





- 4


agricultural development and food self-sufficiency. They
should also serve to strengthen national organizations and
institutes for women.

The work programme of INSTRAW includes the role of
women in food systems, rural development as well as water
and sanitation activities. Planning and programming
methodologies and techniques at international and national
level are important aspects of INSTRAW's work programmes
which also include activities in the design and improvement
of WID Guidelines.

Following the above-mentioned mandates, in October 1985
FAO and INSTRAW co-sponsored this Meeting in Helsinki
convened by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS),
University of Helsinki, which also served as consultant in
the preparation for the Meeting.

It was timed so that it would be one of the first
follow-up meetings to reflect the outcomes of the World
Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the
United Nations Decade for Women, held in Nairobi, Kenya, 15-
26 July 1985. The important part of the UN Decade
Conference document, "Forward Looking Strategies for the
Advancement of Women Towards the Year 2000" ("The Nairobi
Strategies"), adopted by consensus, relates to agriculture,
food and water. It contains a comprehensive set of items
aiming inter alia to establish multi-sectoral programmes to
promote the productive capacity of rural women and urging
that greater resources be granted to women in their ongoing
agricultural work in order to improve both food security and
the well-being of women. The Nairobi Strategies clearly
link the role of women to overall development objectives of
integrated rural development, food systems and food
security. Such an approach requires careful preparation and
updating of WID Guidelines and Checklists to be used at the
national level of developing countries, in bilateral and
multilateral co-operation activities as well as in public
and private investment.



II. AGENDA, ATTENDANCE AND DOCUMENTATION OF THE MEETING

FAO had the major responsibility for backstopping
technical and organizational aspects of the Meeting,
convened by the Institute of Development Studies, University
of Helsinki at FAO's request. The travel of participants
from developing countries was co-sponsored by INSTRAW.

The Meeting was held in Helsinki from 7-11 October 1985
in a conference hall secured by the convenor. The Finnish
International Development Agency (FINNIDA), the Netherlands
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Norwegian Ministry of
Development Co-operation and the Swedish Agency of






5 -


Development Co-operation joined INSTRAW in financing the
costs incurred by the participants of developing countries
as well as their own representatives.

Fifty participants attended. They were representatives
from developing countries with considerable experience in
WID issues, bilateral development agencies, United Nations
agencies as well as academic and non-governmental
organizations (NGOs). A complete list of participants is
given in Annex 1.

The meeting adopted the following Agenda:

Opening of the Meeting

Designation of the Office Bearers

Adoption of the Agenda

Technical Sessions

Item 1 Common Goals and Objectives in Achieving
Integration of Women's Concerns in
Sectoral Programmes

Item 2 The Place of WID Guidelines/Checklists:
Lessons Learnt from the Process of their
Development and Use

Item 3 Application of Guidelines/Checklists and
Other Means at the National Level

Item 4 Major elements for the Formulation of
Guidelines/Checklists at the National
Level

Item 5 Monitoring and Evaluation of WID
Guidelines/Checklists Across Line
Ministries, NGOs and Institutions

Item 6 Follow-up Plan of Action for the
Development and Use of Guidelines/
Checklists, and Other Means for
Integrating WID Concerns

In addition, small-group strategy sessions were
convened to elaborate on particular points of interest
(strategy, guidelines, training). For annotated agenda and
programme of work see Annex 2.


The meeting designated the following officers:





- 6 -


Chairperson The Honourable
Gertrude Mongella
Minister of State
(Tanzania)

Vice-Chairpersons Swarna Sumanasekera
Director
Women's Bureau
(Sri Lanka)

Elina Visuri
Head of Section
FINNIDA
(Finland)


Rapporteur Marja-Liisa Swantz
Director
Institute of Development Studies
University of Helsinki
(Finland)


The meeting recommended that the Rapporteur be assisted
by Gladys O. Mulindi, Chief Executive Officer, Maendeleo ya
Wanawake Organization, Kenya; Patricia Rodney, Programme
Officer, Women and Development Unit (WAND), University of
the West Indies, Barbados; Andrea Singh, Chief Technical
Adviser, ILO, India.

The documentation prepared for the Meeting included two
background papers:

Development of WID Guidelines/Checklists for Use at
National Level, prepared by IDS, University of Helsinki
on request by FAO;

Basic Considerations on WID Guidelines, prepared by
INSTRAW.

FAO and INSTRAW served as the technical secretariat.



III. OPENING SESSION

Dr. Elina Visuri, Chief of Planning and Research
Section, FINNIDA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, welcomed the
participants and underlined that the Meeting was one of the
first international meetings following the Nairobi
Conference to review and appraise the Decade for Women; it
was thus an important opportunity for planning follow-up
activities related to the agricultural sector. Finland had
a particular interest in the Meeting since it had
participated in OECD/DAC High Level meeting, which in 1983







adopted WID Guidelines/Checklists. However, it had yet to
translate its own WID Policy Statement into
Guidelines/Checklists. Dr. Visuri expressed hope that the
Meeting would be an important contribution to the field.

Dr. Marja-Liisa Swantz, Director, Institute of
Development Studies, welcomed the participants and expressed
appreciation on the good representation from the various
regions and countries. She commented on the excellent
timing of the Meeting, which following the UN Decade for
Women Conference had thus a greater basis for outlining a
plan of action related to WID Guidelines and Checklists.
She briefly raised the main points contained in the
background papers prepared by the Institute of Development
Studies which stressed the importance of the participatory
approach and consultations with rural women at the grass-
roots level.

Dr. Dunja Pastizzi-Ferencic, Director, International
Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of
Women, observed that the bilateral and multilateral agencies
had already accomplished much in the area of WID
Guidelines/Checklists, but that there was still a need to
address specific sectors, particularly agriculture. She
emphasized that greater knowledge about food production, and
an economic analysis of the role of women at the household
level were needed in planning and programming. This
information could then be passed on to national planners.
She elaborated on the points referring to planning and
programming, implementation, and evaluation stages of
projects that were raised in the background paper prepared
by INSTRAW. She pointed out areas in research, training and
information activities which needed to be discussed during
the Meeting in order to bring about changes in development
which would benefit women and the population as a whole.

Dr. Ruth Finney, Chief, Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development, FAO, said that the
bilateral and multilateral agencies were at different stages
in the development of Guidelines/Checklists. FAO, UNDP, WFP
and UNFPA were the first agencies to develop
Guidelines/Checklists. However, ten years was still a short
period for bringing about any radical change. She explained
that FAO's initiative grew out of the co-operation among the
UN agencies which are members of the Administrative
Committee on Co-ordination for Rural Development (ACC/RD),
of which FAO is the lead agency.

She stressed the importance of co-operative
arrangements not only among the United Nations bodies and
agencies, but also among all agents of development processes
at national and international levels. She noted that
Guidelines/Checklists can be effective only as part of a
larger information system one complemented by strategy or
goal statements, directives, responsible personnel,








resources and training, and involving monitoring and
evaluation procedures. Furthermore, it was necessary to
bear in mind who would use them, at what stage of the
project cycle, and with what authority and effect, as well
as the required complementary activities. She pointed out
that the main purpose of the Meeting was to consider the
potential use of WID Guidelines/Checklists at the national
level in developing countries for promoting recognition of
and support for women's activities in agriculture, which is
a pre-requisite for the realization of other development
goals, such as food security and self-sufficiency.



IV. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE TECHNICAL SESSIONS ON THE SIX ITEMS


Item 1 Common Goals and Objectives in Achieving
Integration of Women's Concerns in Sectoral
Programmes

1. An important role of women's units is to integrate
women's concerns in sectoral programmes through
identification of critical needs and priorities for
action, and communication of these to governments and
donor agencies.

2. Common goals were identified and it was noted that
increased efforts are needed to enable:

-participation by and empowerment of rural women and
reflection of their views in planning and
implementation of policies, plans, and projects;

men as well as women to address issues which are in
everyone's interest but have too often been called
"women's issues" and left to women alone;

women through training to analyse their own
situation and build a better data base.

3. In reviewing the Forward Looking Strategies relevant to
rural women's concerns and agriculture there was
consensus on:

-reviewing periodically short-term and long-term
goals in order to enable continuous evolution of
alternative strategies;

-applying empowerment strategies rather than welfare
orientation to develop clear policy statements for
women's equality and development;

mobilizing political support for women's issues at
the highest echelons of national government;






- 9


rendering WID concerns explicit in the mainstream of
development planning structures and sectoral
ministries would be more effective than women's
ministries or bureaus and units lacking authority or
influence and technical strength.


Item 2 The Place of WID Guidelines/Checklists:
Lessons Learnt From the Process of their
Development and Use


1. Flexibility was advocated between agencies and
governments during negotiation, implementation,
monitoring, and evaluation of WID programmes because it
allows consideration of national WID policies,
political factors, and motives determining national
priorities.

2. Guidelines should allow for flexibility so that they
can be adapted to the particular needs of a sector and
take into account unforeseeable factors.

3. WID Guidelines/Checklists are multipurpose: a tool for
developing project documents, monitoring and evaluation
of plans and programmes; material for training and
creating awareness; a policy statement and point of
leverage in negotiations with national counterparts;
and, a policy statement legitimizing authority for
action within an agency. Nearly all governments have
also issued WID policy statements since 1975.

4. WID concerns have to be included in the design and
formulation stages of a project because little can be
done to incorporate these in ongoing projects.

5. The integrated sectoral approach in promoting WID
concerns is to be emphasized. Major sectoral projects,
especially those in agriculture, have the greatest
potential impact on women and therefore should take
priority over women-specific projects or components.

6. Since checklists complement the guidelines and tend to
focus on technical fields such as fishery, agriculture,
irrigation, they help reluctant technicians to
introduce a "human element" into what is perceived as
purely technical projects.

7. The entire organization becomes part of the process of
promoting WID concerns when the responsibility for
applying the guidelines in formulating a concrete plan
of action is shared among the various units. Training





- 10 -


at all levels is required for the suscessful use of WID
Guidelines/Checklists and should be considered an
integral part of the programming process.


Item 3 Application of Guidelines/Checklists and
Other Means at the National Level


1. To increase productivity and agricultural production
the national structure needs to be adapted. Greater
productivity also depends on alleviating the burdens on
the female labour force (especially time constraints),
improving the quality of working women (skills and
access to production resources) and adapting the
channels of input and output delivery systems to the
actual production requirements of the small, marginal
and subsistence producers, where women tend to
predominate.

2. It is important that national women's machineries
collaborate with NGOs in furthering women's concerns.
NGOs should be involved in the participatory
approaches, which are essential and an integral part of
the planning process. Multilateral and bilateral
agencies should assist them in planning the national
country programme to be proposed to policy-makers.

3. Training in programming, monitoring, consciousness-
raising, management, and other aspects was emphasized.
In addition, short and long-term training aimed at
several levels was given priority.

4. The document of country profile on the status of women
should be updated periodically in order to better
depict their advancement in development. This
information should then be effectively disseminated
through educational processes.



Item 4 Major Elements for the Formulation of
Guidelines/Checklists at the National Level


1. Using the logic of economic benefit to promote WID
concerns is more efficacious than mere equity
arguments. Policy-makers and planner will then be more
responsive in allocating resources and will consider
women as a crucial part of the human resources required
for national food production plans.

2. The development of national WID Guidelines/Checklists
based on an analysis of the relevant sectors in the
Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies will render greater






- 11 -


significance to the process and will result in a
framework for agriculture and development. Local
officials at all levels should be involved. Thus, such
commitment by men and women working toward the same
goal of incorporating women's issues in national
policies will be more effective.

3. Participatory Action Research (PAR), wherein the rural
women are the main actors of the project cycle, has
gained popularity. This methodology should be
supported and included in the time frames of the plans
of governments, donors, and agencies.



Item 5 Monitoring and Evaluation of WID Guidelines/
Checklists Accross Line Ministries, NGOs and
Institutions


Recommendations pertinent to this crucial item include:


1. Donor funding should be aligned with the overall
development strategy of the country, e.g. to achieve
food self-sufficiency. Efforts should be better
co-ordinated so that women in isolated areas are not
neglected, and imbalances between sectors do not occur.

2. Similarly, there should be better inter-agency co-
ordination, better identification and utilization of
the co-ordination mechanisms so that they represent and
service women.

3. National women's units should be involved right from
the project identification stages so that inter-
ministerial co-operation for agricultural programmes is
promoted.

4. Projects being funded should have a measure of
"flexibility" that allows for consultation with rural
women and support services as needed.

5. International programmers should consider local
capacity and provide appropriate training expertise and
funding to be included within the project framework.

6. In all case efforts should be made to find means and
ways of alleviating the extra burdens being placed on
women who already have multiple roles of child care,
collection of water and firewood, food processing, etc.

7. Evaluation should be included from the start of a
project and carried out at frequent intervals
throughout the project cycle.









Item 6 Follow-up Plan of Action for the Development
and Use of Guidelines/Checklists, and Other
Means for Integrating WID Concerns


1. Priorities for future action included: promotion of
clearer understanding and greater training regarding
the formulation and adaptation of policy statements and
plans concerning WID and food security and self-
sufficiency; better analysis of direct assistance and
investment projects regarding WID issues; improved
utilization of development resources and management of
the project cycle, to be achieved by focusing on gender
issues and training in these at all levels; advisory
services for women's machineries regarding existing
policies, mandates, agreements; training at national
level in WID Guidelines/Checklists as part of an
information/management system; greater consultation
with rural women, NGOs and women's units at the early
stages of a programme. It is also necessary to test
any prototype guidelines at the national level.

2. It was recommended that advisory services be organized
for developing countries in the different regions.
Both INSTRAW and FAO, co-sponsors of this Meeting, were
prepared to consider related requests and invited
others present to collaborate. It would be vital to
draw upon existing resources and experiences.



V. TECHNICAL SESSIONS

Item 1 Common Goals and Objectives in Achieving
Integration of Women's Concerns in Sectoral
Programmes


The first session focused on the identification of
common goals and objectives, as well as on the lessons
learnt during the Decade for Women. The role of women's
units in integrating women's concerns in sectoral programmes
was highlighted. Identification of common goals was
considered vital so that sensible Guidelines/Checklists
could be developed. The need for group sessions to discuss
the wider-ranging effects of women's issues was deemed
essential.

Common Goals and Objectives

During the discussion the following goals and
objectives were identified:






- 13 -


Participation by and empowerment of rural women and
reflection of their views in planning and
implementation of policies, plans and projects.

Increased awareness by line ministries that basic
concerns in development are served by focusing on women
in agriculture.

Greater concern by the international community to
increase the scale and types of assistance that benefit
rural women.

Better understanding of the structure and processes at
the national level necessary to best reach rural women:
women's units, liaison committees, central planning,
etc.

Determination and affirmation of a basic strategy which
recognizes that women already are part of the
development process and should be listened to more
closely. More equality for women and more support for
their activities particularly in agriculture and food
self-sufficiency lead to more autonomy for nations and
resolve many of the crises they face.

Increased awareness and capability of women through
training to analyse their own situation and build a
better data base.

Enabling men as well as women to address issues which
are in everyone's interest but have too often been
called "women's issues" and left to women alone.

It was generally felt that the integration of women in
the development process should not be considered the sole
objective but rather a means of improving the overall
quality of life of rural women.


Post UN Decade for Women Considerations

The participants considered the situation of women
after the UN Decade for Women Conference. The relevant
provisions of the Nairobi Strategies were brought to the
attention of the participants. During the discussion the
following points were highlighted:

Integration of women's concerns in the development
process cannot be accomplished in a decade only. It
has to be an ongoing process, with flexible strategies
which can be adapted to the different stages. Periodic
review of short-term and long-term goals and objectives
is necessary in order to enable continuous evolution of
alternative strategies.





- 14 -


Structural changes in society resulting from
empowerment strategies and not from passive integration
of women in existing structures, emerged as an
important issue of the Decade.

In most countries, the decade has led to realization of
the need for research to build up a data base on
women's roles and activities in rural areas in order to
advocate their cause in the major sectors. In some
countries, urban professional women have benefitted in
particular, but there is still a need to identify and
strengthen channels of communications between rural and
urban women.

Many developed countries have been successful in
increasing women's participation and integration
through policies supported by legislation aimed at
affirmative (or positive) action to counteract past
discrimination. This tool or methodology could be
adapted and used to improve the participation of women
in Third World countries.


The Role. of National Women's Machineries

In considering the role of women's units, it was agreed
that they have taken many different forms in the various
countries over the Decade, including women's bureaus,
ministries, line ministries and planning divisions, advisory
and liaison committees, inter-ministerial groups, and
sponsored national women's organizations. They have both
succeeded and failed in attempts to achieve integration of
women in the major sectoral programmes of the line
ministries.

When elaborating on the role of women's units major
considerations were:

S support for research in order to improve the data base
on women for planning purposes

S identification of critical needs and priorities for
action, and communication of these to governments and
donor agencies

S promotion of legislation and policies which ensure
legal equality between women and men

co-ordination of women's activities and programmes at
the national level, and monitoring the results

S influencing development planning policies with a view
to equality and integration





- 15 -


identification of effective channels of communication
and mobilization of public opinion and government
support for improving the overall quality of life of
women

channeling financial support to voluntary agencies
working to improve the situation of women.

The participants devoted particular attention to the
means utilized by women's units to obtain support from other
groups striving for the same cause.

The participants underlined the importance of building
political support for the objectives of the women's units
especially of mobilizing it at the highest levels of the
national government, such as prime minister and ministers of
important line ministries. In successful cases this support
has a trickle-down effect which catalyses action and support
right through the lower echelons of public administration.
However, where professed support is less sincere, structures
with little authority, influence, financial support or
credibility have been created apparently to divert the
energies and objectives of women's movements.

Separate women's ministries or bureaus and units linked
to ministries outside the mainstream of development, such as
social welfare, are often less effective than units within
sectoral ministries in achieving integration of women's
concerns in relevant programmes. However, women's units
within line ministries lacking authority or influence are no
more effective than separate ministries or units. Likewise,
women's divisions in national planning structures are more
effective when they render women's concerns explicit in each
sectoral programme; whereas their strategy is weakened if
they are relegated to a separate chapter in the national
plan.

Advocacy strategies addressing women's concerns in
order to better achieve sectoral goals rather than welfare
objectives have been more successful in achieving women's
integration in the programmes of ministries. In some
countries, special attention has been paid to encouraging
co-operation among progressive young women's organizations
that are more dynamic and aware of rural women's problems
and needs than older, more conventional women's
organizations.

The importance of adopting empowerment rather than
welfare strategies or rural women was also emphasized.
Support was expressed for the organization of rural women,
for non-governmental organizations of educated women to work
as intervening agencies in rural areas, for using a
consultative process in determining their needs and
priorities, and for improving channels of communications
between urban and rural women.





- 16 -


Clear-cut policy statements, both national an
sectoral, in support of women's equality and development
were essential tools for fulfilling the lobbying an
monitoring functions of both governmental and non-
governmental women's units.


Summary of Background Paper

After definition of the main objectives in achieving
integration of women's concerns in sectoral programmes, thl
Director of the Institute of Development Studies introduced
the background paper prepared for the Meeting, "Development
of WID Guidelines/Checklists for Use at National Level".

The background paper presented work done by bilateral
and multilateral agencies in the development and use of WIp
Guidelines/Checklists. The paper promoted the formulation
and use of these Guidelines/Checklists at national level
planning and policy-making, with regard to projects i
agriculture, rural development and other related areas.

The paper provided an introduction to the subject
matter and presented issues that were to be discussed by the
participants of the Meeting. It should be noted that
Guidelines/Checklists are not an end in themselves but are a
means of achieving integration of women's concerns in
development programmes and projects. In order to discuss
the adaptation of these Guidelines/Checklists to the
national level, the Meeting had to address some broader
issues and determine:

- Who uses the Guidelines/Checklists?

- With what authority?

- With what effect?

S At what stage?

When are the Guidelines/Checklists most effective?

Guidelines are intended to provide a general framework
for bringing significant aspects of women's concerns to the
attention of development agencies. In a broad sense,
guidelines are indicators for translating policy mandates on
women and development into action at the programme and
project level. They can be used by planners, policy-makers
and project designers in governments and agencies. They
recommend or direct action at the programme or project level
and may be used both at headquarters or in the field.

Checklists are more specific and aim to provide a more
detailed memory aid, giving conceptual clarification and
practical suggestions. They are usually in the form of





- 17 -


questions prompting the reader to include women in very
specific activities.

The functions of Guidelines/Checklists are manifold,
but in general, they focus on the following broad issues:

1. Measuring, assesing, and monitoring the extent of
women's integration in development programmes. This
requires:

(i) collection during the project of socio-economic
data regarding political and economic
structures, division of labour, the structure of
the household and the decision-making process
therein, women's access to resources, etc.

(ii) assessment of the effects of the project on the
situation of women, in particular time
allocation, work load, income-generating
activities, health, control over food supplies,
self-sufficiency and access to resources;
determination of possible adverse side effects
of the project on women who are not in the
target group.

(iii) monitoring of women's participation in planning,
implementation and evaluation of the project.

2. Ensuring that women's interests are represented and
their needs met by projects.

3. Making the tasks of women more efficient; easing their
work load, etc.

4. Supplying information needed by agencies to orient
their programmes correctly.

Guidelines/Checklists have been used by bilateral and
multilateral agencies in evaluating the WID component in
three different kinds of development projects:

projects aimed at improving women's situation

projects with potential impact on or concern for women

projects with no recognizable direct impact on women or
of no identifiable concern for women.

Constraints in adapting and using Guidelines/Checklists
were carefully studied. Although the Guidelines/Checklists
cannot solve all kinds of operational problems, they can
indicate where the problems are, or at least signal
discrepancies between stated goals and the real situation.






- 18 -


Staff participation and training is needed in developing and
applying Guidelines/Checklists. This has been undertaken by
some agencies.

Another problem is that even if guidelines purport to
enhance women's situation in the recipient country, the
guidelines themselves have been created by and intended for
development planners. The women affected by the projects
often do not have the possibility of participating in
decisions concerning the projects, and their knowledge about
how to handle changes in the society in question may not be
taken into account.

Even given that Guidelines/Checklists were appropriate
for solving some of these problems, a wide range of
obstacles, including attitudinal, institutional, procedural,
and structural constraints, prevent these Guidelines/
Checklists from becoming operational.

Important elements that would need to be considered in
formulating WID Guidelines/Checklists for successful
implementation at the national level are:

researching the baseline data for planning and policy-
making

recognizing the importance of women's role in
development, which means avoiding the welfare approach

- applying when feasible the participatory approach

applying a flexible approach, i.e. avoiding rigid
categories which are not adaptable to the different
national conditions

monitoring, evaluation and updating constantly to
ensure appropriateness of WID Guidelines/Checklists

clearly relating WID Guidelines/Checklists to policy
goals.



Item 2 The Place of WID Guidelines/Checklists:
Lessons Learnt from the Process of their
Development and Use


Experiences at International Level

Representatives of several bilateral agencies,
multilateral and interregional organizations, including the
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the
Finnish International Development Agency (FINNIDA), the
Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Norwegian









Agency for International Development (NORAD), the Swedish
International Development Authority (SIDA), the Swiss
Development Co-operation and Humanitarian Aid (SDC), ILO,
UNFPA, UNESCO, CIRDAP and CIRDAfrica, FAO and WFP described
in detail their experiences in the development and
application of WID Guidelines. This elicited useful
commentary from the national participants. While some
agencies are still in the early stages of developing
guidelines, and they expected to benefit in particular from
the sharing of information and experience at the Meeting,
most agencies have by now gained practical experience that
permitted the group to arrive at certain conclusions and
recommendations. It is interesting to note that
multilateral agencies led the way in developing WID
Guidelines in the mid-1970's. In most cases the bilateral
agencies made an analysis of the structure and priorities of
their bilateral programmes and started developing applicable
WID Guidelines. In addition, the multilateral and bilateral
agencies derived valuable information from evaluation of
selected ongoing projects in Third World countries which had
been designed prior to the introduction of the Guidelines.

Relevance for National Level

National participants raised several issues and
provided some concrete examples based on their experience
with the application of donor agency WID Guidelines/
Checklists in their countries.

Guidelines/Checklists cannot in themselves solve, at
the national level, problems of inequality in access to
resources, such as land, education, credit, skills, nor
can they resolve deeply ingrained socio-cultural
obstacles.

In many countries there is an insufficient number of
women experts capable of designing or implementing
projects with WID objectives, especially in
agricultural projects.

Participants pointed out that donor WID policies may
contradict national WID policies. Furthermore,
political factors and motives determine national
priorities just as they do donor priorities. Hence
negotiation and implementation strategies of agencies
need to be flexible enough to take these realities into
account. Donors may provoke resentment if they are
seen as unilaterally trying to impose their own values
through rigid enforcement of guidelines.

In monitoring and evaluation of WID components, there
must also be flexibility in taking unforeseeable
factors into account. The example of a horticulture
project for women not meeting its objectives due to
severe drought was presented as example.





- 20 -


As a result of WID Guidelines, one participant had been
involved in the analysis of a potential fishery project
for women who traditionally processed and marketed fish
on a small scale. Through consultation with the women
themselves modifications were suggested that would help
prevent their total dislocation.

Women's organizations have a role to play, especially
in the consultative process and in helping to develop
innovative pilot projects. However, they cannot
substitute the national governments in terms of
resources or national capacity; care should be taken
in assesing their capacity and accountability when
utilizing them in the implementation stage.



Applicability, Use and Lessons Learnt

Following is a summary of the assessments concerning the
applicability of WID Guidelines/Checklists and lessons
learnt regarding their development and use:

Terms used for WID Guidelines vary among agencies and
include "guiding principles", "framework for
constructive help", "directives", "strategy", etc.
Their objectives, content and methodology vary
considerably as well.

WID Guidelines/Checklists have been found to have
multiple uses: a tool for developing project
documents, monitoring and evaluation of plans and
programmes; material for training and creating
awareness; a policy statement and point of leverage in
negotiations with national counterparts (nearly all
governments have also issued WID policy statements
since 1975); and, a policy statement legitimizing
authority for action within an agency.

In developing Guidelines/Checklists, an agency must
choose between a simplified approach and one that is
more comprehensive and multidimensional. A common
approach is development of different types of aids and
methodologies for use at different levels and programme
areas. Because WID objectives are complex and include
social as well as economic goals, a more
multidimensional and comprehensive approach was
considered essential by most participants.





- 21 -


Except for women-specific projects, few of the projects
evaluated took women's concerns into consideration. As
a result, practically no data base was available
against which to measure effects or change. 1/ Thus the
purpose of developing and promoting the use of WID
Guidelines/Checklists became clearer.

There is usually little that can be done to reorient or
restructure ongoing projects once they are well
established; therefore it was concluded that efforts to
include WID concerns are more fruitfully spent on
improving design and implementation of new projects.

Women's units are sometimes marginalized from the
mainstream of project development, e.g. placed within
the evaluation section, and are thus rendered less
effective than when they are actively involved in
project design from the very beginning.

It cannot be assumed that women-specific projects
automatically benefit women since methodology may be
weak, women may be marginalized by being placed in
special components attached to sectoral projects, and
their resources may be inadequate or the first to be
cut due to low priority. Major sectoral projects,
especially those in agriculture, have the greatest
potential impact on women and therefore should take
priority over women-specific projects or components.
Most agencies now stress the need of an integrated
sectoral approach.

Many agencies have not instituted a system of
checklists, viewing them too categorical and tending to
provide an easy way out of thinking and analysis.
Those that do use them to complement the guidelines
tend to focus on technical aspects (e.g. fishery,
agriculture) of project development. This is one way
of combatting the strong, widespread reluctance of
technicians to introduce a "human element" into what is
seen as purely technical projects.



1/ Although "reconstructed" data sometimes indicated a
positive impact, e.g. of drinking water projects, it was
concluded that the positive impact could have been greater
if WID Guidelines/Checklists had been used. However,
analysis of assistance programmes indicate that a majority
(60-90%) of many agencies' projects have no clear-cut target
group (e.g. harbour development, direct financial
assistance.)










Some agencies have developed guidelines as a means of
starting a process in their organization, and the
responsibility for further specification and concrete
plan of action are relegated to various other units of
the agencies. This ensures that the entire
organization becomes part of the process and that the
guidelines are well integrated.

Some insights were gained and a few important lessons were
learnt:

Incorporating economic analysis and arguments in the
methodology of WID Guidelines is more convincing than
equity or welfare objectives.

Using an integrated approach, training for the
successful use of WID Guidelines should become an
integral part of the programming process. Training can
continuously be imparted in many forms, such as to
programming officers at all levels; to national
counterparts to enhance their awareness and
receptivity; and for helping to formulate a common
vocabulary and conceptual/analytical framework.

When a project proposal that gives inadequate attention
to women's concerns is rejected at a high level of
authority, it provides a positive incentive to
programming officers to make efforts to promote women's
issues. At this stage, resources should be provided to
assist WID consultants in giving adequate coverage to
women's issues.

It should be accepted that comprehensive WID approaches
do require a time frame in the long-term work plan,
human resources, and priority. They should also be
perceived as an urgent matter for integration into an
agency's programme. The methodology of the guideline
should include analytical tools and statistical
measures for short and long-term goals and for
measuring change across sectors. As in the case of
credit, guidelines on cross-sectoral issues at times
become necessary.

The participation of women through a systematic
involvement of local women's groups, where feasible,
should be encouraged at all steps of the programme
cycle. However, establishing such targets should not
become a substitute for commitment and analysis nor
should they prevent conceptualization of WID issues on
a broader scale.


Item 3 Application of Guidelines/Checklists and
Other Means at the National Level








A decision was taken to address this item in the
context of small groups, focusing on:

1. Strategy and implementation at all levels for creating
awareness in the formulation of directives

2. Developing training programmes

3. Developing Guidelines/Checklists pertinent to general
and sectoral programmes, taking into consideration both
formal and informal approaches 1/



The reports of the small groups were presented the
following day at the plenary session and are given in Annex
4.


Item 4 Major Elements for the Formulation of
Guidelines/Checklists at the National Level


This session considered the usefulness of Guidelines/
Checklists at the national level, and ways to involve rural
women, line ministries and central planning units in the
formation of these. Examples were presented on (i)
consultations with women and feedback systems; (ii) cost-
benefit techniques; and (iii) roles of WID advisory and
co-ordinating committees.


Consultation and feedback systems

Direct consultations with groups of rural women by
bringing them together in camps/workshops with officials of
various levels and policy makers were realistic because
officials were more easily convinced of needs and priorities
when voiced by the rural women themselves. Consideration
should be given to allocating a portion of project budgets
for scheduling regular consultations and feedback sessions,
for information dissemination, and for provision of
supportive services like child care, which create an
opportunity for many rural women to participate.




1/ Discussion was structured around the Programme Advisory
Note (PAN), UNDP, as requested by the representative
attending this Meeting.






- 24 -


Participatory Action Research (PAR), wherein the rural
women play the leading role in problem identification and
project formulation and implementation, has gained
considerable support particularly in Latin America and Asia.
However, this methodology requires intensive work and long-
term commitment, support for which is not always available
within the time frames of the plans of governments or
donors.

Rural theatre groups which live and work closely with
rural women help to create in them awareness through
stimulation of creative reflection of their problems and
needs and thereby induce their demand for action and change.
Other traditional forms of communications, such as folk
songs, should also be explored.

Use of NGOs to organize consultations, provide follow-
up and carry out PAR and consciousness raising, to implement
projects, participate in advisory committees, and to
facilitate dissemination of information and feedback.

Dissemination of rural women's experience through
success stories and case studies, audio-visual
presentations, exchange visits and study tours.

Training of extension workers in techniques to
facilitate communication with and feedback from rural women.


Cost-benefit techniques


Hard data can be used to highlight economic
implications of addressing women's situations in terms of
the potential for increasing productivity and decreasing the
drain of foreign exchange. Governments are more likely to
be responsive to WID considerations in their decisions on
resource allocations if it can be demonstrated to them that
the returns on these investments will be augmented, that
inefficiencies in the production cycle can be overcome, and
that their own development priorities can be attained as a
result. It is, therefore, imperative that WID concerns be
formulated taking into account economic and efficiency
criteria rather than solely or primarily equity factors.
Such a formulation has a greater likelihood of attracting
scarce investment resources, linking women with the priority
sectors of national development plans, augmenting women's
access to production resources and social services, as well
as increasing incomes (yields) and employment
opportunities. Developing the skills to formulate such a
strategy is a vital requirement as it can be noted in the
example which demonstrated how such a strategy was










successfully used in North Yemen. 1/ Given the interest
generated by this model and its possible applications
elsewhere, particularly in light of the food crisis in
Africa, it was drawn to the attention of the participants
that a paper presenting a model of the African situation had
already been presented by FAO at an African Regional Inter-
governmental Consultation on WCARRD Follow-up, held in
Zimbabwe last September. FAO would make this paper
available to the participants upon request 2/.





1/ For the implementation of this strategy, a microcomputer
simulation model was developed analysing the effects of
the interrelationships between macroeconomic variables
and microeconomic conditions at the household level on
the attainment of national development goals in the
agricultural, health and education sectors. The model
considered interactive factors such as male emigration
rates and the labour composition of households left
behind, remittances and other foreign exchange earnings
as well as expenditures, (especially on food imports and
on expatriate technical personnel), resource allocations
at the aggregate and household levels affecting land and
labour productivity, etc. This model, which was
presented at the Cabinet level, demonstrated that
investments made to (a) overcome the time constraint on
female labour availability (through the expansion of
water resources and commercial fuel supplies) and (b)
improve the quality of female labour supply (through the
expansion and adaptation of agricultural services to
female producers as well as education at all levels to
the eligible female population groups) would serve to
increase agricultural production (labour and land
productivity as well as yields) and reduce the drain on
foreign exchange.




2 Strengthening rural development services and programmes
for women's contributions to food security: policies,
institutions and resources, Government Consultation for
Africa on the Follow-Up to WCARRD in the Africa Region,
Harare, Zimbabwe, 3-6 September 1985 (ARRD: AF/85/6 July
1985).









Advisory and co-ordinating committees


Action for an integrated approach can be taken at
various levels. National women's organizations and others
can lobby to incorporate women's concerns into national
policies by utilizing relevant sectors of the Nairobi
Forward Looking Strategies on agriculture, aforestation,
education and health. It can then provide a framework for
the development of national Guidelines/Checklists and lend
them added authority. International WID advisory and
co-ordinating committees have been effective in some cases in
involving line ministries to promote an integrated approach.
Women's units within central planning can also play a
similar role. Such actions should be increasingly
encouraged.

Based on a detailed national case, it was concluded
that regardless of the sector concerned, local officials at
all levels will be more committed if they are directly
involved in the process of developing or adapting WID
Guidelines/Checklists.


Item 5 Monitoring and Evaluation of WID Guidelines/
Checklists Across Line Ministries, NGOs and
Institutions


Monitoring and evaluation is a key ingredient in the
overall system of the development and use of WID Guidelines/
Checklists at both national and international levels.
Therefore considerable attention was first given to the
analysis and discussion of the system within which WID
Guidelines/Checklists can be effective.

The goal to be pursued and the relevant strategy must
be clear. Policy statements must be accompanied by an
implementation plan. In addition, separate guidelines for
WID policy development and project implementation are
required. Some countries were reported to have established
project planning and evaluation units in order to monitor
how sectoral projects affect national development.
Obviously, the units to be involved in development and
application of WID Guidelines need to be clearly specified;
relevant competence of staff should be achieved by continual
training and, resources made available to permit this.

Evaluation should not be done after-the-fact but
planned as part of an interrelated process that addresses on
the same items throughout the project cycle. Careful
formulation is vital; it is at this stage that baseline
data must be established if later monitoring/evaluation is










to be effective. For appropriate formulation the following
conditions should be first met:

S reiteration of the country's agricultural policies on
women as well as of its commitment to increase their
productivity and alleviate the food crisis

attention to relating women's projects with the
country's economic growth by increasing women's
productivity

synthesis of available data, statistics and information
concerning women's issues

S assessment by women's units and relevant line ministries
of available human resources and skills, and a plan for
improving these as needed

S specification of and agreement on roles and
responsibilities for inputs by relevant technical units

For building up effective monitoring and evaluation
mechanisms, a sense of partnership is essential among all
parties concerned. Identifying and utilizing co-ordination
mechanisms that can represent and serve rural women are a
means of positive action that should not be overlooked.

Within the international agencies, there are different
co-ordination mechanisms existing within a country.
Furthermore, this issue has been addressed by the OECD/DAC
group. Mechanisms operating in the countries were:

inter-agency meetings

monthly meetings of government and international
agencies, NGOs and institutions involved with major
projects (e.g. inter-agency water project co-ordination
by UNICEF and agriculture projects by FAO) which
provided information on the new and ongoing activities

a government unit to co-ordinate UN and bilateral funds
and programmes

UNDP: UN resident co-ordinating officer

National Planning Office to co-ordinate geographical
and sectoral distribution of donor funds and overall
policies.

Recommendations pertinent to this crucial item
included:










1. Donor funding should be aligned with the overall
development strategy of the country, e.g. to achieve
food self-sufficiency. Efforts should be better
co-ordinated so that women in isolated areas are not
neglected, and imbalances between sectors do not occur.

2. Similarly, there should be better inter-agency
co-ordination, better identification and utilization of
the co-ordination mechanisms so that they represent and
serve women.

3. National women's units should be involved right from
the project identification stages so that inter-
ministerial co-operation for agricultural programmes is
promoted.

4. Projects being funded should have a measure of
"flexibility" that allows for consultation with rural
women and support services as needed.

5. International programmers should consider local
capacity and provide appropriate training expertise and
funding to be included within the project framework.

6. In all cases efforts should be made to find means and
ways of alleviating the extra burdens being placed on
women who already have multiple roles of child care,
collection of water and firewood, food processing, etc.

7. Evaluation should be included from the start of a
project and carried out at frequent intervals
throughout the project cycle.

It was requested that an exercise be conducted in which
a group could work towards a prototype for a general
guideline and consider its relationships to aspects of the
system in which guidelines are best used. Accordingly, a
review was made of the session's discussions, relating
individual points step by step to a general system, which
includes inter alia the following aspects:

strategy/goal statement

- directive or mandate issued

S determination of structure to be implemented

S identification of collaborators to be consulted at all
levels

development of general/sectoral guidelines and stages
of the project cycle






- 29 -


checklists by sector and by stage of the project cycle

training modules to be designed and implemented case
studies, success stories, films, designed and
implemented

monitoring/evaluation in terms of basic goals and
baseline data.

It was stressed that the group could refer to the
"Nairobi Strategies" to formulate a statement on the overall
goal and strategy for food security and self-sufficiency,
which would be the first step in developing a prototype.
The importance of linking policy/planning with
implementation was emphasized; the involvement of both
policy makers and technical personnel is thus required in
the formulation of guidelines/checklists. It should not be
exclusively the work of WID units.

FAO materials and experience were then used to
illustrate formats and processes that could be adapted when
developing the system to suit a particular organization/unit
at international or national level. In addition, "Guiding
Principles for the Design and Use of Monitoring and
Evaluation in Rural Development Projects and Programmes",
the result of the Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation, the
United Nations ACC Task Force on Rural Development under
FAO's leadership, was utilized as an example of the specific
points to be included in WID Monitoring and Evaluation.

Before the Meeting proceeded to Item 6, a lengthy
informal session was held for participants interested in
further details on the CIDA approach, which stresses staff
training in new management techniques for more efficient use
of development funds and is based on improved understanding
and consideration of gender issues and related data from the
initial stage of project design. These aspects were
outlined earlier under Item 2, "The Place of WID
Guidelines/Checklists: Lessons Learnt from the Process of
their Development and Use".


Item 6 Follow-up Plan of Action for the Development
and Use of Guideline/Checklists, and Other
Means for Integrating WID Concerns


Agencies had been called upon to provide examples of
policy statements, guidelines and checklists which could be
considered for adaptation by others after the Meeting. The
exchange of materials was thus promoted and it was
recommended that this be continued after the Meeting, with
the sponsors as co-ordinators of this procedure.





- 30 -


Furthermore, it was urged that national machineries
learn as much as possible about the policies, guidelines,
checklists of bilateral and multilateral agencies, to better
assess the extent to which the various programmes accord
with their own priorities and so that they are facilitated
in formulating acceptable proposals. Dissatisfaction over
proposals prepared with scarce resources was expressed, and
many efforts were often rejected for not meeting the
criteria which were not clearly comprehended in the first
place. The staff of national machineries were sometimes
unaware of even those broad mandates already sanctioned by
their governments, concerning certain types of
programmes/projects. It was urgent that these directives
be summarized and more widely circulated a possibility
which INSTRAW was prepared to investigate.

It also became clear that women's units were either
uninformed about national policy statements prepared for
local, regional and international fora or did not
effectively apply the policies. These government policies
should be more clearly identified, otherwise it could happen
that donors will be aware of such statements whereas
national units will not be informed.

In light of these urgent considerations especially
after Nairobi, there was request for a special session.
The participatory exercise imparted greater experience in
the formulation and adaptation of WID Guidelines/Checklists
within a systems framework which considers both the donor
and recipient country simultaneously in the process. This
short session only outlined some of the experimental
techniques that could be utilized or adapted. In Sierra
Leone and Zimbabwe, FAO will shortly be presenting two
inter-governmental meetings on project preparation for
representatives from central planning, agriculture
ministries and women's units. Reports of these meetings
will be made available to participants to exemplify related
project design issues.

Since the Nairobi Stategies and the immediate follow-up
was of concern to all, paragraphs 174 to 188 of Document
L.5/Add. regarding food, water and agriculture were reviewed
at the beginning of the session I/. This section suggests
elements that could be used in the introduction to any
general set of WID Guidelines, including those used in the
project cycle. The paragraphs in particular can help
create a link between what normally might be considered


I/. At that point in time, the document was in the draft
stage and so the numbering of paragraphs will change in
the final version.






- 31 -


isolated "women's issues" and economic concerns which are
more readily accepted by planners. For example, the
paragraphs include inter alia key statements regarding new
development stategies, the need for growth policies that
would equitably distribute resources, the needed
multisectoral approach, the World Conference on Agrarian
Reform and Rural Development, held in Rome in 1979, and its
"still valid" recognition of "women's vital roles in the
socio-economic life in both agricultural and non-
agricultural activities as a prerequisite for successful
rural development policies, planning and programmes...."
(para. 176).

Mention is made of the Lagos Plan of Action, the
involvement of rural women and NGOs, the importance of
targets for extension, and of access to land and technology.
Two especially relevant paragraphs are 178, which urges
governments to give priority to women's participation in
food production and food security programmes and to develop
related plans of action, and paragraph 182, which urges that
projects be assessed in terms of technical and economic
viability as well as social grounds with appropriate gender-
specific statistics and information utilized to reflect
accurately women's contribution to food staples.

A small group volunteered to draft a general statement
based on the above-mentioned paragraphs to serve as a
prototype introduction to general guidelines for
agriculture. INSTRAW highlighted additional documents
which could be cited. Third World participants then gave
examples of national policy statements which could be used
in the adaptation of any such general guidelines.

An exercise followed on the importance of setting
priorities concerning baseline indicators at the pre-project
phase. It was stressed that data should not be collected
unless they were to be used; therefore, very careful
planning concerning their relevance and use was needed
first. The interrelationship of variables should also be
considered as well as their appropriateness for monitoring
over time. Decisions about the collection of baseline data
should be governed as well by economic and time factors and
commitment for their collection and analysis, otherwise
local populations would be ill-served by the interests of
women seeking to improve their situation.

As there was insufficient time to undertake an exercise
on checklists for a specific technical subject for which
many examples from FAO had already been made available it
was suggested that a small group meet to develop, using a
WID framework, a prototype on "fertilizers", which had been
a subject of considerable interest outside the formal
session. It was clear that direct assistance as well as





- 32 -


investment or technical assistance was an important area for
follow-up. An additional group agreed to meet on "the
participatory approach", to develop a prototype WID
Guideline.

Priorities for future action included: promotion of
clearer understanding and greater training regarding the
formulation and adaptation of policy statements and plans
concerning WID and food security/self-sufficiency; better
analysis of direct assistance and investment projects
regarding WID issues; improved utilization of development
resources and management of the project cycle, to be
achieved by focusing on gender issues and training in these
at all levels; advisory services for women's machineries
regarding existing policies, mandates, agreements; training
at national level in WID Guidelines/Checklists as part of an
information/management system; greater consultation with
rural women, NGOs and women's units at the early stages of a
programme.

Both INSTRAW and FAO, co-sponsors of the Meeting, were
prepared to consider related requests and invited others
present to do so, too. It was clear and agreed upon that
trials at national level to adapt and apply
guidelines/Checklists in agriculture were necessary if
follow-up was to be successful, and that the role of
advisory services drawing on existing resources and
experience would be vital.

The participants felt it was necessary to test any
prototype guidelines at the national level of developing
countries. To this end they recommended to the co-sponsors
of the Meeting to organize, as soon as possible, in
collaboration with other relevant bilateral and multilateral
organizations and in closest consultation with the national
governments concerned, the advisory services for developing
countries in different regions (Africa, Asia, Pacific,
Western Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean). It was
recommended that the advisory services include the following:

Preliminary assessment of the situation of women in a
particular country and/or region, with particular
attention given to specific sectors of development,
especially agriculture.

Elaboration of preliminary outline of WID Guidelines/
Checklists for overall national development purposes
and/or specific sectors.

S Organization of national and/or regional workshops with
the participation of providers of advisory services,
FAO and INSTRAW as well as of nationals responsible for
decision-making in development, professionals with in-
depth knowledge and experience in particular sectors of
development, women's machineries, NGOs and other









relevant organizations. The workshop would comment on
and improve the proposed national WID Guidelines/
Checklists and propose in which particular development
sectors they would be tested.

Such an approach would provide an opportunity for
consultation and dialogue with groups of women,
assuring the participatory approach in programme and
project development, particularly during the pre-
feasibility stages, as well as in central planning and
line ministries.

It is of utmost importance that, during advisory
services and following the workshops, institutions at
national and/or regional level be identified and their
expertise used for eventual upgrading of and training
in advisory services for the follow-up of WID
Guidelines/Checklists. This practice will further the
cause of countries' policy of self-sufficiency, which
should be supported by the entire international
community.

Bilateral donor agencies, according to their scope of
activities in particular regions, should support
and share actively in the proposed activities to be
organized by FAO, INSTRAW and other interested United
Nations bodies and organizations.



VI. CLOSING SESSION

The draft report was reviewed and changes were noted.
The participants were given three weeks to forward any
further comments on the draft to the Rapporteur, Dr. Marja-
Liisa Swantz, Director, Institute of Development Studies,
Helsinki.

The representatives of FAO and INSTRAW concluded the
technical sessions and thanked all the representatives of
the international agencies, the participants from the
countries, the Director and staff of the Institute and
bilateral agencies that provided travel funds for the
participants, and other facilities. Ms. Helvi Sipila,
Director and Technical Adviser, United Nations Development
Fund for Women (UNIFEM), was able to attend the session and
was requested to share her views regarding women and
development in general, and information on UNIFEM in
particular.

The participants extended their thanks, Dr. Swantz
responded, and Dr. Elina Visuri, Chief of Section, Ministry
for Foreign Affairs, Finland, concluded the session (her
statement is given in Annex 5).








ANNEX 1


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS



y. Mr. Salehuddin Ahmed
Programme Officer (Research)
Centre on Integrated Rural Development
for Asia and Pacific
"Chameli House"
17 Topkhana Road
GPO Box 2883
Dhaka 2
Bangladesh

^&. Ms. Rufina R. Ancheta
Chief
Home Economics Division
Bureau of Agricultural Extension
Diliman
Quezon City
Philippines

S3. Ms. Monica Book
Secretariat
Institute of Development Studies
University of Helsinki
Annankatu 42 D
00100 Helsinki
Finland

4 4. Ms. Anne-Marie Estanis Clunie
Minister de l'agriculture des resources
naturelles et du developpement rural
ODPG
Desronville
Gonaives
Haiti

5. Ms. Danielle Colombo
Executive Vice President
AIDOS
Via del Moro 22
Rome 00153
Italy

6. Ms. Rekha Dayal
Consultant
DANIDA
7 Golf Links Area
New Delhi 110003
India





LV


35 -


7. Ms. Ruth Finney
FAO
Chief, Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development Service
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome
Italy

Consultant to the Netherlands Ministry
of Foreign Affairs
Department of Development Cooperation
Operations Review Unit
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
PO Box 20061
2500 EB
Bezuidenhoutseweg 67
The Hague
The Netherlands

S9. Ms. Mona Hamman
Policy Development Officer
World Food Programme
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome
Italy

10. Ms. Ana Ruth Zuniga Izaguirre
V Trade Union Advisor
7 A Calle 548
Tegucigalpa
Honduras, C.A.

11. Ms. Devaki Jain
V/ Director
Institute of Social Studies Trust
5 Deendayal Upadyay Marg
New Delhi
India

12. Ms. Ann-Christian Karna
L Programme Officer, Rural Development
FINNIDA
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Mannerheimintie 15C
00260 Helsinki
Finland

13. Ms. Pirkko Kiviaho
V Council for Equality
P.O. Box 275
00170 Helsinki
Finland





- 36 -


/14. Ms. Aud Kolberg
Executive Officer
Planning Department
NORAD
Ministry of Development Cooperation
PO Box 8142 Dep.
0033 Oslo 1
Norway

S15. Ms. Riikka Laatu
Assistant Programme Officer
FINNIDA
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Mannerheimintie 15C
00260 Helsinki
Finland

16. Ms. Johanna Maula
/ Secretariat
Institute of Development Studies
University of Helsinki
Annankatu 42 D
00100 Helsinki
/ Finland

J 17. Ms. Olga Navia Melbourn
CIDA Consultant
252 Remic Avenue
Ottawa, Ont. KlZ 5W5
Canada

8. Mr. Franc Mes
Deputy Director
Operations and Evaluation
Americas Branch
Canadian International Development Agency
200 Promenade du Portage
Hull Quebeck
Canada

Honourable Gertrude Ibengwe Mongella
Minister of State
Office of the Prime Minister
PO Box 3021
Dar-es-Salaam
United Republic of Tanzania

0. Ms. Tswelopele Cornelia Moremi
Assistant Coordinator of Rural Development
Rural Development Unit
P/B 008
Gaborone
Botswana










21 Ms. Yasmin Morenas
/-- FAO, Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development Service
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome
Italy

22 Ms. E. Mputa
\Personnel Assistant
Agricultural and Rural Development Authority
Ministry of Lands, Agriculture and Rural
Resettlement
PO Box 8439
Causeway
Harare
Zimbabwe

/ 23. Ms. Laeticia Theresa Mukurasi
CIRDAfrica
Arusha International
Conference Centre
PO Box 6115
Arusha
Tanzania

P 24. Ms. Gladys O. Mulindi
Chief Executive Officer
Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organization
PO Box 4412
Nairobi
Kenya

25. Ms. Dorothy Chiyoosa Muntemba
SCoordinator Women's Programmes
National Commission for Development Planning
PO Box 50268
Lusaka
Zambia

263 Ms. Bernadette Ndabikundze
Scholarship Holder of FINNIDA
University of Helsinki
Lampuotilantie 36 D 76
00630 Helsinki
Finland

S27. Ms. Ulla Olin
Principal Advisory Division
UNDP
1 United Nations Plaza
New York, New York 10017
United States of America





38 -

28. Ms. Pastizzi-Ferencic
Director
INSTRAW
Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson No. 102-A
Apartado Postal 21747
Santo Domingo
Dominican Republic

29. Ms. Kajsa Pehrsson
SIDA
Office of WID
(Utredningsbyran, Kvinnoenheten)
S-10525 Stockholm
Sweden

30. Ms. M. Petritsch-Holaday
Social Affairs Officer
INSTRAW
Apartado Postal 21747
Santo Domingo
Dominican Republic

Ms. Hilkka Pietila
Finnish UN Association
Unioninkatu 45 B
00170 Helsinki
Finland

2. Ms. Tuuli Rouhunkoski
National Agricultural Extension Organization
Centre for Country Women and Homemakers
Lonnrotinkatu 11
00120 Helsinki
Finland

J33. Ms. Patricia Rodney
Women and Development Unit Programme Officer
WAND
Extra-Mural Department
The University of the West Indies
The Pine
Barbados

J34. Ms. Marit Roti
Senior Project Officer
Ministry of Development Cooperation
NORAD
PO Box 8142 Dep.
0033 Oslo 1
Norway









35.


Ms. Erica S. Schaub
Collaborator WID
Directorate of Swiss Development
Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid
Eidg. Department fur auswartige Angelegenheiten
Eigerstrasse 73
3003 Berne
Switzerland


S36. Mr. John Sigona
Secretariat
Institute of Development Studies
University of Helsinki
Annankatu 42 D
00100 Helsinki
Finland

7. Ms. Pirjo Siiskonen
V Pellervo Seura
Simonkatu 6
00100 Helsinki
Finland

38. Ms. Mari Simonen
W/ Special Assistant to the Executive Director
UNFPA
220 East 42nd Street
New York, New York 10010
United States of America


9'. Ms. Andrea Singh
Chief Technical Advisor
Rural Women's Employment Projects
ILO
7 Sardar Patel Marg
Ne Delhi 110021
ndia

0 Ms. Helvi Sipila
Director, Technical Advisor
.L[ -C AA41 United Nations Development Fund f
SHlsi nki


Finland

Ms. Inger Kristina Stoll
Senior Officer
Ministry of Development Cooperation
PO Box 8142 Dept.
0033 Oslo 1
Norway


C)L s


or Women


-AA AA-4


I


( %\ 2 L


O Uo tgo,

l tdcu^ 41.





- 40 -


2. Ms. Swarna Sumanasekera
V Director
Women's Bureau of Sri Lanka
Ministry of Women's Affairs and
Teaching Hospitals
No. 5 Milepost Avenue
Colombo 3
Sri Lanka

/43. Ms. Elina Suominen
Programme Officer
United Nations Environment Programme
Patomaentie 13-15 A 8
Helsinki 64
Finland

44. Ms. Marja-Liisa Swantz
Director
Institute of Development Studies
University of Helsinki
Annankatu 42 D
00100 Helsinki
Finland

45. Ms. Randi Tasserud
/ Senior Project Officer
Ministry of Development Cooperation
NORAD
PO Box 8142
0033 Oslo 1
Norway

46. Ms. Serim Timur
/ Programme Specialist
Population Division
Sector of Social and Human Sciences
Unesco
7 Place de Fontenoy
75700 Paris
France

Ms. Anja Toivola
Head of Development Bureau
Finnish Red Cross
Tehtaankatu 1 A
00140 Helsinki
Finland










48... Ms. Nancy Velarde
SNutritionist
Rural Development Centre
Swedish Agricultural University Uppsala
Institute of Nutrition
PO Box 551
752 63 Uppsala
Sweden

9./ Ms. Elina Visuri
Chief of Section
FINNIDA
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Mannerheimintie 15 C
00260 Helsinki
Finland








ANNEX 2


ANNOTATED AGENDA


Monday, 7 October


09.00 10.00

10.00 11.00


11.00 11.15


Registration


Opening
by Dr.
Section,
Minsitry
Finland.


of the meeting and Welcome
Elina Visuri, Chief of
Research and Planning,
for Foreign Affairs,


Statement by Dr. Dunja Pastizzi-
Ferencic, Director, International
Research and Training Institute for
the Advancement of Women.

Introduction to the theme by Dr.
Ruth Finney, Chief, Women in
Agricultural Production and Rural
Development Service, amd Vice-
Chairperson, FAO Interdivisional
Working Group on Women in
Development.

Designation of the Office Bearers.


Adoption of the Agenda


11.15 11.30

11.30 12.30


12.30 14.00

14.00 15.00


Break


ITEM 1 Common Goals and Objectives
in Achieving Integration of Women's
Concerns in Sectoral Programmes

- Where are we after the UN Decade
for Women Conference?

- Role of women's units

- Means utilized to achieve support
from other units for rural
women's concerns


Lunch


ITEM 1 (continued)


Discussion






- 43 -


15.00 15.30


Summary of Background Paper by Dr.
Marja-Liisa Swantz

ITEM 2 The Place of WID Guidelines/
Checklists: Lessons Learnt from the
Process of their Development and Use
(Initiation of discussion)

-Experience of bilateral and
multilateral agencies: Who uses
them? At what stage? With what
authority? With what effect?


-Can these
replicated
level?


experiences be
at the national


-Relevance of WID Guidelines/
Checklists for national
machineries: Who will use them?
At what stage? With what
authority? With what effect?

- Assessment of other means for
use by national machineries.


15.30 16.00

16.00 17.00


Break


ITEM 2 (continued)


Discussion


17.00 19.00

19.00 22.00


Free time

Film and dinner


Tuesday, 8 October


9.00 10.30


ITEM 2 (continued)


Discussion


10.30 11.00

11.00 12.30


Break


ITEM 3 Application of Guidelines/
Checklists and Other Means at the
National Level


Small-Group Sessions

Action required for:

- Creating awareness





- 44 -


12.30 14.00

14.00 15.30



15.30 16.00

16.00 17.30









17.30 19.30

19.30 21.00





Wednesday, 9 October

09.00 10.30



10.30 11.00

11.00 12.30


- Formulating directives

- Developing training programmes

- Developing formal and informal
approaches for including WID
concerns in sectoral programmes

Lunch

ITEM 3 (continued)

Discussion

Break

ITEM 4 Major Elements for the
Formulation of Guidelines/Checklists
at the National Level

Involving rural women

Involving line ministries

Involving central planning

Free time

Reception by the Ministry of Health
and Social Affairs at the Swedish
Club.





ITEM 4 (continued)

Discussion

Break

ITEM 5 Monitoring and Evaluation of
WID Guidelines/Checklists Across
Line Ministries, NGOs and
Institutions

Assessment of the most
appropriate monitoring and
evaluation system for women's
integration


- Effectiveness of Guidelines/














12.30 14.00

14.00 15.30


- 45 -

Checklists

- Effectiveness of other means and
mechanisms

Lunch

ITEM 5 (continued)

Discussion

Free time

Tour of the city, shopping


Thursday, 10 October


09.00 -10.30


10.30

11.00



12.30

14.00



15.30

16.00


- 11.00

- 12.30


ITEM 6 Follow-up Plan of Action for
the Development and Use of
Guidelines/Checklists, and Other
Means for Integrating WID Concerns

- Roles and resources of national
machineries, bilateral and
multilateral agencies.

- Recommendations

- Priorities and timetable

Break

ITEM 6 (continued)

Discussion

Lunch

ITEM 6 (continued)

Discussion

Break

Plenary Discussion

Evening Free


- 14.00

- 15.30


- 16.00

- 17.30






- 46 -


Friday, 11 October

09.00 10.30

10.30 11.00

11.00 12.30

12.30 14.00

14.00 15.30

15.30 16.00

16.00 17.30


19.00 21.00


Small Group Strategy Sessions

Break

Plenary Discussion

Lunch

Group Session

Break

Acceptance of the Report

Closing Session

Ballet, "Kalevala"











ANNEX 3


LIST OF MATERIALS DISTRIBUTED


From FAO

1. "Guidelines for the integration of women in
agricultural and rural development projects", FAO,
Rome, May 1977, Document No. W/K6542.

2. "Inter-divisional working group on women in
development", Director-General's Bulletin, 26 April
1976, No. 76/18 FAO.

3. "Women in agricultural production and rural
development", Sub-programmes 2.1.5.4., FAO.

4. "Guidelines for women in land and water development",
Land and Water Development Division, FAO, Rome, 1982,
No. W/P7586.

5. "Guidelines for the formulation of ESPT training
projects", Development Policy Studies and Training
Service, 5 Pages.

6. "Checklist for a women's component in fisheries
projects", 4 pages.

7. "Review and analysis:UN Guidelines/Checklists on women
in rural development", ACC Task Force on Rural
Development, March 1983,FAO, 41 pages.

8. "Checklist for women in development for programming
and project formulation", July 1981, 4 pages.

9. "Role of women in plant production and protection
activities", 3 pages, Guidelines to be used by AGP
Officers.

10. "Checklist for integration of rural women in dairy
training activities", 1 page.

11. "Sector: Crop protection, to improve crop productivity
and production stability."

12. "Agricultural activities involvement of women, 1
page.

13. "Recommendations of Government Consultation on the
role of women in food production and food security",
Harare, Zimbabwe, July 1984, FAO 13th Regional
Conference for Africa, 6 pages.










14. "Women in food production", Report of the expert
consultation held in Rome, 7-14 December 1983, FAO
Rome, March 1984, 150 pages.

15. "Learning from rural women: A manual for village-
level training to promote women's activities in
marketing", FAO, Rome, 1985, 44 pages.

16. "Rural Development Newsletter 5", June 1985, ACC Task
Force, 32 pages.

17. "Integrating women in agricultural projects: Case
studies of ten FAO-assisted field projects", Alice
Carloni, FAO, Rome 1983, 103 pages.

18. Women in Agriculture Series:

1. "Follow-up to WCARRD: The role of women in
agricultural production", Rome, Italy, 7-14
December 1983, 16 pages.

2. "Women in rice-farming systems", Rome, 1984,
106 pages.

3. "Women in food production and food security in
Africa", Rome, 1984, 101 pages.

4. "Women in developing agriculture", Rome, 1985,
105 pages.


From INSTRAW

1. "INSTRAW News", Women and Development, Vol. II, No. 1-
2, June 1985.

2. "Facts on the United Nations International Research
and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women".

3. INSTRAW contribution for the Consultative Meeting.

4. "Women and Food Systems in Africa".

5. Specimens of INSTRAW publications to be sent to
participants on request.



From Institute of Development Studies

1. "Development of WID Guidelines/Checklists for Use at
the National Level", commissioned by FAO and INSTRAW,
21 August 1985, 20 pages.











From FINNIDA

1. "National programme of Finland for promoting equality
between women and men".

2. "Principles for the improvement of the status of women
in developing countries by Finnish Development
Cooperation", Helsinki, 1980, 19 pages.

3. "Women in development", FINNIDA, Ministry for Foreign
Affairs of Finland, 23 May 1985, 2 pages.



From IFAD

1. "Guiding principles for the design and use of
monitoring and evaluation in rural development
projects and programmes", The United Nations ACC Task
Force on Rural Development, Panel on monitoring and
evaluation, Rome, December 1984, pages 53-60, "Women
in Development".


From the Netherlands

1. Vragenlijst (Veld) Onderzoek Vrouwen, 10V 230784, 10
pages.


From the United Nations

1. "Strategy of the Implementation of the International
Development Strategy for the Third United Nations
Development Decade", Report of the Secretary-General,
United Nations 29 August 1985, A/AC, 219/36.

2. "Food, water and agriculture", paragraph 174, 116/12.


From UNFPA

1. "Interim guidelines for UNFPA policies and programmes
in the field of women, population and development",
Women and Youth Section, May 1980, 28 pages, United
Nations Fund for Population Activities.

2. "UNFPA assistance to women, population and development
projects 1979 1984", Women and Youth Section,
United Nations Fund for Population Activities, January
1985.





50



From the Norwegian Agency for International Development
(NORAD)

1. Norway's Strategy for Assistance to Women in
Development, June, 1985, 80 pages, The Royal Norwegian
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Development Cooperation,
1985.

From CIRDAP

1. "Rural Women in Development: Role of CIRDAP".

2. "Note on Guidelines and Checklists".










REPORTS OF THE WORKING GROUPS I, II AND III 1/


Report from Working Group I: Stategy Formulation and

Implementation at all Levels


Most of the structures and delivery systems in operation at
the national level are not adequately adapted to the
production requirements of small, marginal and subsistence
farmers, where women tend to predominate as key factors in
the food system. Because of the growing concerns with
promoting food security in national development plans and
because of the scarcity of investment resources, it is the
responsibility of WID practitioners to demonstrate to policy
makers that their objective of increasing productivity and
agricultural production depends on alleviating the burdens
on female labour force (especially time constraints),
improving the quality of working women (skills and access to
production resources) and adapting the channels of input and
output delivery systems to the actual production
requirements of the small, marginal and subsistence
producers.

The main point here is that arguments based on equity
are not as influential as arguments based on grounds of
efficiency and economic benefits. On discussing
experiences of the individual countries, the group realized
and agreed on various issues, and the recommendations made
were:

1. It was important to have a unit with women's issues
placed in a central planning ministry.

2. National women's machineries do exist in most
countries, but are not always very effective.
Collaboration with the NGOs in furthering women's
concerns is also important. Therefore, there was a
great need for strengthening the national women's
machineries and the NGOs by:




1/. Related to Item 3: Application of Guidelines/
Checklists and Other Means at the National Level.









training the officers in formulation of project
proposals including implementation, monitoring and
evaluation, In addition, training the extension
officers who help with project formulation at the
grass-roots levels and equipping them with
technical know-how to change project modules to
avoid repetition of same modules.

giving the officers the technical training needed
in dealing with socio-economic planning, in order
to shift away from the prevalence of the social
welware approach.

3. Where those national women's machineries have not been
effective, the following steps can be taken:

situation analysis to find out how much progress
they have made in integrating WID issues and
determine obstacles and areas which have been
neglected or ineffective

inventory of all women's organizations,
international organizations, including those in
the UN systems and any other organizations working
towards the integration of women in the
development process

articulate their needs and wants clearly into
meaningful strategies and also agree on what to do
to avoid disagreement among themselves.

4. INSTRAW and other multilateral agencies should conduct
or initiate such training. Existing national and
regional training institutions should be utilized and
strengthened with funding and staff assistance.

5. Once these machineries are strengthened, INSTRAW and
other multilateral agencies should assit in planning
the national country programmes well in advance, using
the criterion of the advancement of the status of
women in deciding whether or not these programmes are
to be proposed to donor agencies or policy planners.

6. Women are not usually represented at the policy
planning or even at the national project/programme
planning level. Furthermore, rural women in most
cases can be very clear about what they want, but when
their "voiced needs" get to the national planning
level, the planned strategies do not reflect these
needs. This being so, trained, competent women with
political will to further women's issues be appointed
in high positions so that proper planning and co-
ordination is facilitated.









7. For both men and women comprehensive education
including leadership training and legal matters should
be started by developing proper curriculae and simple
training materials.

8. During missions, donor agencies be urged to pledge
funds to rectify structural imbalances in production
patterns and reduce factors that impede growth of
productivity of women.

9. There was a need to heighten awareness at all levels.
This can be done by:

social preparation at all levels, to be included
in every project

sensitizing planners of the contributions women
can make; this training should be given to both
men and women and it should include methods for
planning projects at all levels (from the grass-
roots to the national level) as well as ways to
improve communication among the parties involved

at this point a question was raised concerning the
identification of the entities responsible for
initiating women's programmes. The following
groups were identified:

national women's machineries
planners at ministries, and at provincial,
district and grass-roots levels
government civil servants
non-governmental organizations

10. With these groups in mind, seminars/workshops and
exhibits can also be used as a means for creating
awareness. If the national machineries and any other
organizations concerned with women's issues have well-
articulated strategies and messages, these messages
could be disseminated through mass media as a strategy
to create awareness.

11. After realizing and confirming that directives are
found at international, national and regional levels,
and that these lack monitoring and accountability,
there should be a follow-up on those directives in
order to measure the monitoring rate and determine who
was accountable for those directives.










Report from the Working Group II: Developing Training

Programmes

The following points were given emphasis in
discussions:


1. Training had to be both short and long term and had to
be aimed at several levels:

planners and administrators

grass-roots level

2. Some of the strategies for training at the grass-roots
levels were that:

a percentage of project funding (e.g. 5 percent)
should be available for awareness building

there be inter-regional sharing of expertise by
providing funds for women to travel and observe
experiences of other groups.

3. Donors need to adopt a policy of using local resources
with a WID research/training/implementation capacity
in their project development cycle as these resources
are probably more relevant than donor-based resources.

4. As a consequence, donors should build up local
resource rosters.

5. Projects should include funding for production of
documentation and its dissemination to the target
group.

6. It was pointed out that generally training materials
did not exist and were very expensive to develop.
Appropriate materials need to be developed, and they
should be targeted to groups and situations.

7. This led to the need to develop a strategy to:

identify target groups

determine the best method to reach each group

develop techniques and means to deliver the
material.

The target groups listed below should be given
priority, not necessarily in the following order:









1. Planning ministries and sectoral agencies
recipient and donor

2. General Public
university curriculum, mass media

3. Women's groups at the grass-roots level
starting point of the process

4. Intermediate-level operational staff
recipient and donor

8. Priority must be given to consciousness raising, and
mechanisms could be guidelines and checklists.
Training on their proper use is required.

NOTE:

Time did not permit the discussion of some underlying
issues.


Report from the Working Group III: "The Process of Project
Cycle and Guidelines/Checklists and the Possibility of
Developing a Prototype"

The discussions of Working Group III was structured
around the Programme Advisory Note (PAN) provided by the
UNDP Representative. The group considered general/non-
sectoral issues which are important to identify at the
planning and programme/project formulation stage to ensure
the integration of WID concerns.

Several general recommendations emerged which can be
summarized as follows:

1. All countries should produce a country profile
document on the conditions of women; this would
consist of both statistical data and qualitative
problem-oriented analysis, as well as evaluation of
data. Care should be taken to ensure that
data/information for this profile is obtained from all
relevant sources, including those which are less known
and not readily available through the official
channels.

2. There should be a mechanism to regularly update the
above-mentioned country profile.

3. Once the country profile is produced, it has to be
effectively disseminated to all potential users; to
achieve such dissemination, an educational dialogue
should be actively carried on (e.g. organize
seminars/workshops at different levels and with
different audiences to discuss the content of the










country profile). It was noted that this "dialogue"
is often as important as the profile per se.

4. There is a need to identify and compile an inventory
of all resources and organizations relevant to WID
within each country; such an inventory can be part of
the country profile.

5. It is essential that planning uses participatory
approaches and includes consultation with NGOs as an
integral part of the process.

6. There is a need for proper baseline data and
feasibility/opportunity studies, both of which have to
include data differentiated by gender.

7. There is a need for training all those involved in
planning and project formulation.

8. The need for political commitment and related
legislation as a prerequisite for the application of
guidelines was underscored.

9. Beneficiaries and the planned effects of
programmes/projects have to be clearly identified
prior to implementation, since part of this effort has
to go to identifying women among the beneficiaries and
the effects on women.

10. It is important to differentiate technical co-
operation from direct financial and commodity aid
(e.g. fertilizer) as these have very different effects
on how WID concerns and Guidelines can be
pursued/applied.


INSTRAW should have the responsibility and resources to
compile, update and disseminate an inventory of available
resources in regard to WID worldwide. The inventory would
include sources for WID information, resources for training,
and other resources. It should be noted that several WID
inventories already exist but are not yet easily accessible.






- 57 -


ANNEX 5


STATEMENT BY DR. ELINA VISURI

After thanking FAO and INSTRAW for organizing this
seminar in collaboration with the Institute of Development
Studies, University of Helsinki, as well as the participants
for their active contribution to the sessions, Dr. Visuri
noted that this meeting had given unique opportunity for WID
experts of different backgrounds to come together.

The group was heterogeneous:participants came from
donor agencies, international organizations and from
national women's machineries, planning ministries and NGOs.
Their needs were different, depending e.g. on the size of
agency and the resources available to them. Therefore,
also their working methods varied; for example, very
sophisticated management and planning systems were presented
by some while others had to work with strict time and other
limitations.

Regarding the theme of the Seminar, she believed that
better planning methods were needed for WID projects, and
that the meeting had been of help in defining the problems
and in the clarification of the various approaches available
to resolve them, whether it was in the form of guidelines or
checklists or information on other processes which improve
project planning.

She wished everyone success in their WID activities,
hoping that participants could use the experience of this
Meeting in improving the work of their own organization.


















































































United Nations International Research
and Tfi;ning Institute for the Advancement of Women
(INSTRAW)


Aventda Ctsar Nicoll Penion 102-A
P O Box 21747
Santo ominr;o. Dominican Republi
Te~ ,, CA 326i1283 WRA SA
PFone: (809) o85-2111




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