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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Women in land and water develo...
 Project identification and project...
 Monitoring and evaluation














Title: Guidelines
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089867/00001
 Material Information
Title: Guidelines women in land & water development
Alternate Title: Women in land & water development
Women in land and water development
Physical Description: 12 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations -- Land and Water Development Division
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Land and Water Development Division, FAO,
Land and Water Development Division, FAO
Place of Publication: Rome
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Water resources development -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women in rural development   ( lcsh )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "W/P7586."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089867
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 26198724

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Women in land and water development
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Project identification and project formulation
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Monitoring and evaluation
        Page 12
        Page 13
Full Text




GUIDELINES


WOMEN IN


LAND & WATER


DEVELOPMENT


LAND AND WATER DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
FAO, ROME 1982


w/P7586





















CONTENTS





1. INTRODUCTION


2. WOMEN IN LAND AND
WATER DEVELOPMENT

2.1 The Role of Women
in Soil Conservation
and Management
2.2 The Role of Women
in Water Resources
Development and
Management
2.3 The Role of Women
in Fertilizer and
Plant Nutrition


3. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION


4. PROJECT FORMULATION

4.1 General
4.2 Large Scale Projects
4.3 Smaller Scale Projects
4.4 Training Projects and
Seminars


5. MONITORING AND EVALUATION






- 3 -


1. INTRODUCTION



Despite the fact that in many countries women take an active part in basic
agricultural production, too often land and water development projects do
not take women into account as participants in the development process.

Re-reading a project document having in mind "does this and how does this
possibly affect women (either directly or indirectly)?", one may well find
that the project will have an adverse or at least unexpected effect on
women right from the start. If, for example, women are to be fully involved
in all aspects of the project (including technology) and the project does
not simultaneously consider measures to decrease parts of their
non-agricultural tasks (e.g. fetching water for household use), the women's
total workload will increase prohibitively. If women do not have time
available to be involved in the development process, they will
automatically be left out.

The key question is: In what way does the success of the project strategy
as a whole depend on the role of women? Understanding of the way in which
the women's role contributes to the achievement of the project objectives
should guide project design and implementation. Where women are
traditionally doing the work, they should be consulted on the design of the
technical package to ensure their interest in adopting the recommended
practices.

The degree of involvement of women in the field activities of projects
depends on the social traditions and conditions prevailing in individual
countries. AGL can underscore the role of women and the importance of their
involvement in the development process, but the Government must endorse
their inclusion in development assistance projects.

Guidelines that take better account of women's concerns have been developed
for all stages of project development and implementation;they indicate:

- the background information on women to be gathered by missions during
project identification (section 3)
- the inclusion of women's concerns during project formulation for
large scale projects (in accordance with the UNDP guidelines),
smaller scale projects (TF, TCP) and training projects (section 4)
the monitoring and evaluation of the project activities as related to
women (section 5).







- 4 -


2. WOMEN IN LAND AND WATER DEVELOPMENT



2.1 THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN SOIL CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT

In many countries man's activities in damaging natural forests and grasslands have resul-
ted in severe and accelerated erosion. The alarming rate of deterioration of agricultural
land and water resources through land degradation and soil erosion in particular is
creating enormous problems in the agricultural development especially of the developing
countries. The Soil Resources, Management and Conservation Service (AGLS) has, as one of
its main activities, programmes geared to assisting countries to develop and implement
soil and water conservation policies. The approach is multidisciplinary with particular
reference to:
a. transfer of soil conservation practices
b. watershed management
c. provision of advice, incentives and technical assistance
d. research programmes
e. institutional aspects
f. special technical considerations regarding vegetation cover and desertification
g. general economic, financial and investment aspects
h. shifting cultivation.

With regard to points d, e and g no limitations exist on the part of AGLS to women's
participation. These activities are often carried out by AGLS Headquarters' staff in
cooperation with other international and national institutes and governments.

In general terms, soil conservation at the field level (points b, c, f and h) can be
grouped into:
cultural measures (all farming practices where vegetation helps to minimize soil
loss)
physical measures (construction works).

Cultural Measures

In many countries women take an active part in agricultural practices. More attention
should be focused on the role of women in soil management and, where appropriate, their
role should be reflected in and supported by the project document. Their involvement in
cultural practices such as mulching, crop rotation, contour farming, strip cropping,
companion crops, and general farm management should be assessed to ensure an efficient
project approach. Their participation will depend largely on the local situation,
tradition and social conditions.

Physical Measures

This broad category usually includes labour-intensive construction works such as
artificial waterways, cutoff drains, terraces and contour bunds. Due to the (heavy) type
of labour, the involvement of women is usually limited unless men are absent (male
migration). Recruitment of workers is often left to the local project officials. Where
appropriate, it should be brought to their attention that some tasks (for instance
establishing a grass cover on the steep walls of terraces, and maintenance) could be
performed by women.









5 -



2.2 THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT


The Water Resources, Development and Management Service (AGLW) is responsible for all
activities concerning the assessment, development and utilization of water for agriculture
as well as the interrelationships between agriculture and water resources.


The Service's main activities are related to:
a. hydrology, hydrogeology, survey and assessment of water resources
b. engineering and economic aspects of surface and groundwater development, operation
of irrigation and drainage systems
c. on-farm water management, determination of crop water requirements, water quality,
irrigation and drainage techniques and methods.


So far, little separate attention has been paid to women in water resources development
and management. Based on women's traditional role in agricultural production, AGLW
underlines the necessity of involving women in all aspects and phases of its projects
wherever applicable and needed.


In irrigation and drainage projects, particular attention should be paid to involving
women not only in technological aspects but also in aspects like farmers' organizations,
farmers' training and credit facilities.


Where there are activities which involve the development of water resources for agri-
cultural purposes, this offers a valuable opportunity for the simultaneous introduction of
domestic water supply. The development of water resources can increase the hazards to
human health through exposure to water borne diseases. This calls for safeguard measures
throughout all phases of water resources development projects.


In the light of women's responsibilities for household water supply, the following points
should be taken into consideration:
- the role of household members in collection and utilization
women's needs regarding quality of water they require, and location of taps
- the training of women in drinking water related technology.



2.3 THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN FERTILIZER AND PLANT NUTRITION


The Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Service (AGLF), among other activities, deals with the
following two FAO Special Action Programmes:
the Fertilizer Programme (FP) (20 years old): an action oriented programme that
gives training to farmers and extension workers on how to use fertilizers and
related inputs. The Programme also deals with aspects such as the organization of
the fertilizer distribution system, storage, transport and credit facilities.
the International Fertilizer Supply Scheme, which channels fertilizer aid to
developing countries.
The target group of the FP is the small farmer and the objectives are increased yields and
income.

The degree of women's involvement in the field activities of Fertilizer Programme projects
depends on the social conditions and traditions prevailing in individual project countries
and areas. The role of women in field crop production may differ considerably from country


I I








- 6 -


to country, and even within the same country. The role and involvement of women in
agricultural fieldwork and in extension services should be assessed and quantified and
assistance provided as appropriate in the light of women's responsibilities.


A constraint to greater involvement of women in Fertilizer Programme work is that many
countries do not have female staff either within their Ministries or, more specifically,
working with the local Extension Services.


Although projects should be encouraged to work with female counterparts as much as poss-
ible, this again is a government decision and is related to the lack of female staff in
the local Extension Services.




3. PROJECT IDENTIFICATION



In project identification, the key question for the mission to consider is: How does the
achievement of the national development objectives depend upon the role and contribution
of rural women; and, in turn, how can the project support this role?


The identification mission should contact the national machinery for women in development,
identify national expertise (potential consultants and counterpart staff) and investigate
the existing data base on women.


Furthermore the mission should gather information on:
- the division of labour by sex in tasks related to the scope of the project
- the role of women in decisions likely to affect the success of the project
- the estimated percentage of household income contributed by women and its sources
- the estimated percentage of female headed households
- the extent to which existing extension services reach women
- the existence of grass-roots level women's groups which might serve as vehicles for
project activities.




4. PROJECT FORMULATION



4.1 GENERAL


During the project formulation the role and involvement of women in agricultural fieldwork
and in extension services should be assessed and quantified. The respective findings
should be presented at the obligatory roundtable meeting with the concerned counterpart
authorities.


The presentation of the respective findings should be combined with proposals on how to
consider the women's role in the project document (e.g. number of female extension workers
to be assigned as counterpart staff to the project, special training for women). With the
consent of the counterpart authorities, reference to such matters can then be incorporated
in the project document.









- 7 -


In these guidelines three types of project formulation are considered:
- large scale projects (UNDP)
smaller scale projects (TCP, TF)
- training projects.


Especially in large scale projects it is strongly recommended that"a socio-economic study
on women be carried out at the earliest possible stage, because so far very little is
known on women in land and water development and the impact of AGL projects on them. Such
a study should preferably be carried out by national staff. Only if national staff is not
available should assignment of international staff be considered.


Ideally, the larger interdivisional formulation missions should include an officer on
women in development. If such an officer is not included, the participants of the mission
should be briefed on the subject. Also a national could be identified to provide potential
inputs for rural women for the consideration of the mission.


For smaller scale projects a full scale socio-economic study may not be possible nor the
inclusion in the mission of an officer on women in development. However, in this case the
mission should gather background information on the women's role in agriculture as
indicated in section 4.3. The mission should be briefed on the subject before leaving.


Section 4.4 indicates separate guidelines for training projects as their circumstances are
different.



4.2 LARGE SCALE PROJECTS


The following guidelines take better account of women's concerns in project formulation,
according to the UNDP standards (the paragraph numbers are those of the UNDP project
formulation document).

102. Development Objective


Indicate if women are implicit or explicit target audiences.

104. Immediate Objective


Indicate if women are the direct/indirect beneficiaries, users, consumers or
executors of the project and how they might be designated as such.

105. Special Considerations


Two particular groups have been identified for special consideration: women and the
poorest. This results in the low income women being a group for very special
consideration. In designing a project consider the potential impact of the project
on the low income women. Consider not only how to avoid a negative impact on this
group but also how to increase their participation in the development process.
Identify organizations and individuals within the country who can provide appro-
priate guidance on these matters.


Consider under the "special considerations" the following possibilities:








8 -



1. adaptation of the project's institutional framework so that women can
participate in advisory and/or decision making capacities in relation to the
project, indicating its expected results.

2. opening up opportunities for women to serve as (paid) natidrnal and local
staff and/or as beneficiaries of the institutions which the project may be
establishing.


106. Background and Justification

The background should explain the origin and context of the project. Indicate the
role of women and men in the previous (and present) agricultural development,
giving special attention, where applicable, to:

A. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) tasks and labour input in the
entire crop production and post-harvest processing (divided per crop)
B. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) tasks and labour input in the
production of household food
C. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) labour input in:
domestic water supply
domestic fuel supply
other household tasks (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning)
D. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) labour input in other.production
tasks (e.g. village industries, handicrafts)
E. the percentage of household income as contributed by women, men and
children, its sources and categories of expenditure (women/men/children)
F. the education level and functional literacy of women, men and children.

The background should provide a first rough picture of these subjects. A more
in-depth study should be carried out in the earliest stage of the project (see
"Outputs").

NB Of use in the collection of background information is a report prepared by
ESH: Preparation of baseline studies on women in rural households (1981,
W/P2333).

The justification should explain why the project is needed and how it is expected
to make an effective contribution to the achievement of the relevant development
objective. Justify why women need to be included in land and water development in
general and in the project specifically and why they need (extra) attention based
on their:
labour contribution
contribution to family nutrition
contribution to family income and expenditure pattern
education level/status and literacy
as described in the background.

107. Outputs

One of the outputs of the project should be (wherever applicable) a socio-economic
report on the impact of the project on women. The study therefore needed should


.







- 9 -


preferably be carried out by a national institute or staff member; if national
staff is not available an international staff member or a consultant should be made
available. The report should describe the situation before project implementation
and the changes during implementation and give indications on the future situation,
regarding:
A. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) tasks and labour input in the
entire crop production and post-harvest processing (divided per crop)
B. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) tasks and labour input in the
production of household food
C. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) labour input in:
domestic water supply
domestic fuel supply
other household tasks (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning, etc.)
D. women's, men's and children's (boys/girls) labour input in other production
tasks (e.g. village industries, handicrafts, etc.)
E. the percentage of household income as contributed by women, men and
children, its sources and categories of expenditure (women/men/children)
F. the education level and functional literacy of women, men and children
G. employment situation (women/men/children)
H. decision making structures (women/men/children)
I. nutrition and health.

Specifically for the project the report should contain information on:
number of people trained and type of training (women/men)
number of people employed by the project or government (as a result of the
project) (women/men).

Furthermore, the report should provide outlines (dependent on the situation) for:
an extra project component
a follow-up project
a supporting TCP project
when needed, to stimulate the full participation of women and to adjust or
eliminate adverse or unwanted changes affecting women caused directly or indirectly
by the project.

For an in-depth study on the above mentioned subjects at least 6 m/m will be
needed. If no national staff is available to.carry out the socio-economic study,
the (e.g.) sociologist (mentioned under "Inputs") should therefore be either a
consultant (6 m/m) or an international staff member. The latter could then
additionally assist in the implementation of proposals resulting from the
socio-economic study and monitor and evaluate the progress of the project. One of
the major tasks of the consultant or international staff member should be to train
national staff in collection of baseline data, preparation of a socio-economic
study, etc.

108. Activities

Indicate in which activities women are or should be (especially) involved (e.g. in
training, extension, credit, farmers' organization, cooperatives). Check if
additional activities are needed to involve women fully, as indicated in the
development and immediate objectives of the project.







10 -



As each output requires an activity, one of the project's activities should be the
preparation of the socio-economic study described under "Outputs". This study
should be executed in the earliest project phase (Preparatory Activities) in order
to be able to adjust the workplan according to the recommendations, if necessary.


109. Inputs


The inputs required are to be established in relation to the activities. Make sure
that sufficient personnel and funds are available to meet particularly activities
related to women.


Assignment of International Staff (UNDP inputs)


It should be stated in the job description of the Project Manager/Team Leader that
he/she is responsible for the coordination and supervision of the "women's
component" of the project.


If the project needs a training/extension officer, it should be stated in his/her
job description that women are to be included in the activities, and how. If no
trained national staff is available a sociologist for example (staff member or
consultant) should be assigned to carry out the socio-economic study, and to train
national staff in this respect.


Assignment of National Staff (government inputs)


Assure that sufficient national staff is made available to carry out the socio-
economic study and to meet the women related activities.


General


Indicate which percentage of the inputs is specifically dedicated to women.


110. Preparation of Work Plan


Include the preparation of the socio-economic study in the earliest stage of the
work plan.


112. Development Support Communication


Indicate how the project will try to reach the groups mentioned under "special
considerations" the women and the poorest with emphasis on the low income
women. Include specifications on the media to be used (audio-visual aids, etc.).


113. Institutional Framework


Identify institutes which will deal with the women's component of the project.
Indicate who is responsible for the monitoring and evaluation of the women's
component.


. S





- 11 -


114. Prior Obligations and Prerequisites for Project Implementation

Investigate if there are any (legal) restrictions to involving women in the
development, related to e.g. access to land, inheritance, credit and cooperatives.

116. Budgets


Check whether sufficient funds are designated to carry out all the women-related
activities (staff, socio-economic studies, training, extension). Indicate which
percentage of the budget is especially dedicated to women.



4.3 SMALLER SCALE PROJECTS


The participants in the project formulation mission should be briefed in advance on
aspects of women in development.


The information to be gathered on women by such a mission should include where possible
and appropriate the following:
- the tasks performed by women in food and cash crop production and related
processing
- the tasks performed by women in the household
- the anticipated impact of the project on women's tasks and possible conflicting
demands on women's time especially during the peak season
- the percentage of household income contributed by women and its sources.


The mission should identify national organizations and individuals within the country who
can provide guidance in these matters. For more detailed information please refer to
section 4.2. The information gathered should be taken into account in the design of the
project to ensure that women are given assistance appropriate to the tasks they
traditionally perform.



4.4 TRAINING PROJECTS AND SEMINARS


A constraint to increasing participation of women in training activities is that it is
generally the host government rather than FAO who selects the candidates. The problem is
compounded by the lack of trained female technicians. For this reason, training workshops
designed exclusively for women might be needed.

The mission should discuss with the relevant government authorities the possibility of
including women as participants together with men or the possibility of organizing
separate training activities for women. It should be borne in mind that in many countries
it is inappropriate for male extensionists to work with women.


In the light of women's roles in production, action is needed to increase the supply of
trained female technicians and extension workers to work with female producers.




.- V


12 -



5. MONITORING AND EVALUATION



Concern with the impact of the project on rural women should be built into the project
design. The information obtained from such monitoring should be used during further
implementation to increase the benefits to women and to reduce negative impacts.


The type of questions to be covered in monitoring project operations include:
- percentage of funds earmarked for women
percentage of funds actually distributed to women
percentage of project inputs distributed directly to women (equipment, seeds,
fertilizer, credit, land, training)
is the implementation of the women's component on schedule relative to the rest of
the project?
- have village women been consulted in the project identification, formulation,
decision making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation?


The type of questions to be covered in monitoring project performance include:
A. Target Group
-the percentage of women among participants in project activities by type
ratio of female participants to total potential female participants (defined as
females of eligible age within project area)
socio-economic group of female participants.
B. Project Outputs
percentage of women among persons trained
percentage of women among persons for whom jobs created
percentage of women among persons receiving land allotments (if relevant)
percentage of women among persons receiving credit (if relevant)
percentage of women among members and leaders of groups organized.


The type of questions to be covered in monitoring project impact include:
A. Economic Impact
percentage increase in yield of women's production activities (as relevant to
stated targets)
percentage increase in income from women's production activities
percentage increase in individual income of female participants
net change in female employment (type, increase/decrease)
percentage decrease in women's other productive activities.
B. Nutritional Impact
disaggregate nutritional indicators by sex.
C. Social Impact
changes in the division of labour by sex (including workload)
changes in the distribution of production resources (male/female ratio) (land,
credit, technology, inputs)
changes in income distribution (male/female)
changes in the distribution of knowledge and skills (male/female)
change in women's community participation.







114. Prior Obligations and Prerequisites for Project Implementation


Investigate if there are any (legal) restrictions to involving women in the
development, related to e.g. access to land, inheritance, credit and cooperatives.

116. Budgets

Check whether sufficient funds are designated to carry out all the women-related
activities (staff, socio-economic studies, training, extension). Indicate which
percentage of the budget is especially dedicated to women.



4.3 SMALLER SCALE PROJECTS

The participants in the project formulation mission should be briefed in advance on
aspects of women in development.

The information to be gathered on women by such a mission should include where possible
and appropriate the following:
- the tasks performed by women in food and cash crop production and related
processing
- the tasks performed by women in the household
- the anticipated impact of the project on women's tasks and possible conflicting
demands on women's time especially during the peak season
- the percentage of household income contributed by women and its sources.


The mission should identify national organizations and individuals within the country who
can provide guidance in these matters. For more detailed information please refer to
section 4.2. The information gathered should be taken into account in the design of the
project to ensure that women are given assistance appropriate to the tasks they
traditionally perform.



4.4 TRAINING PROJECTS AND SEMINARS


A constraint to increasing participation of women in training activities is that it is
generally the host government rather than FAO who selects the candidates. The problem is
compounded by the lack of trained female technicians. For this reason, training workshops
designed exclusively for women might be needed.

The mission should discuss with the relevant government authorities the possibility of
including women as participants together with men or the possibility of organizing
separate training activities for women. It should be borne in mind that in many countries
it is inappropriate for male extensionists to work with women.

In the light of women's roles in production, action is needed to increase the supply of
trained female technicians and extension workers to work with female producers.




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