' The key issue underlying
the women in development con-
cept is ultimately an economic
one: misunderstanding ofgen-
dcr diffErences, leading to
inadequate planning and
designing ofprojects, results in
diminished returns on
A.I.). Policy Paper
Women in )cvclopment
y -" .. A.I.D.'s Women in Devclopment Policy of 1982
requires incorporation of gender in all A.I.D.
The project/program documents in the fbrm of:
rh Disaggregation of data by gender
G e d Gender distinctions in termninlogy
.Inclusion ofexplicit strategies to involve\ womel
o Use of gender disaggregated beci limiarks in
Inform ation o) Di ,gaii liatii
A.I.l).'s Women in I)cvclopmeit Policy stresses
that gender omic s constitute a key iar iable in the
Fram ek socio-cconomic condition of any collltry -- orl
that can be decisive in the success or failure of de-
Pocket Guide vielopment projects. Misunderstanding of gender
PGdifferences, leading to inadequate planning and
design of projects results in dilminished returns
A set of Key assumptions of the Gcndec hifi motion
guidelines and Framework (GIF):
resources for Both micro and macro Ic\cels are important for
incorporating program ng
gender Both sociocultinal and cconomli I;lrols nltlst
Sonsidra be considered
in A.I.D. Male anld female participant im,,oh cimct
in A .clDlenhances programming
de element For more detail see the complete Gender Informa
activities tion Fraimewvork document availallc from:
Otfice of Women in Development
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Agency for Intclrnational Developncllnt
Washington. I).C. 20523-0041
Identify where Gender might intervene in social
and economic production systems to be affected
by development activities.
Allocation of Labor
(For Household, Agricultural and Non-Farnm
Who is responsible for which tasks by gender
What is the allocation of labor time?
Is shared labor available?
Do these time and labor allocations vary by
economic class, position in the household
Fuel Wood, Building Upkeep, Child Care,
Food Preparation, Other
Tasks by Crop, Tasks by Animal, Other
Small Scale Enterprise, Trading, Wage Labor,
Sources of Income
Agricultural and non-farnl total income by
To what extent are inputs, technical
assistance, and credit available and used by
women and men?
Where, how, and by whom arc goods
Who controls each type of income?
Who is responsible for which elements of family
expenses and provisioning?
How could changes to individual incomes affect
ability to meet family obligations?
Access to and Control of
What resources (land, labor, credit, training) are
required for current productive activities?
Who controls which resources to what extent?
How does that affect ability to increase
4 4st iw rc ri, T'1' 7
Analyze the implications of significant gender
differences for development design or adaptation
of existing activity.
What are the key differences between men's and
women's constraints to participation in
-Access to credit
What special skills and knowledge, based on
gender roles, can be used to increase economic
-Specialized agricultural knowledge
-Working in groups
Disaggregate data by gender whenever possible
Indicate how you will collect and use data that are
needed or unavailable
Use gender distinctions in terminology
In Project Assistance
Disaggregate by gender
-Project objectives where appropriate
-Benchmarks for project monitoring and
Incorporate gender considerations
-Throughout project document design
-In technical, financial, institutional, economic,
and social soundness analysis
-In project implementation, monitoring, and
Describe plan to incorporate gender considera-
tions in explicit terms
-Strategies to involve women where gender
analysis indicates they are active in program or
-Benefits for women and men
Include decision points in project implementa-
tion to allow project adaptation as new data
In Nonproject Assistance
Disaggregate by gender
-Objectives where potential beneficiaries arc
-Benchmarks for monitoring and evaluation
Examine gender considerations in: technical,
institutional capability, economic, and social
feasibility analysis sections.
Include gender disaggregated impact monitoring
at the household level.
Specify decision points when the program can be
modified to offset adverse effects on women
In Project/Program Design and
Include gender considerations in scopes of work
for: technical, institutional, social soundness and
financial analyses, in project and nonproject
Incorporate gender issues analysis in scopes of
work for evaluation team members.
Indicate responsibility to address gender con-
siderations in the scopes of work for design and
evaluation team members.
In Requests for Proposals
Include a requirement to address gender
Specify in criteria for selection of proposals:
-Assessment of how gender issues are addressed
Project Rationale and Description
Problem: Consider how gender affects the
problem to be addressed.
-Develop strategies to incorporate women (based
on technical, financial, economic, social sound-
ness, and administrative analyses) where women
or both women and men play a role in activities.
-Assess the consistency between project elements,
purpose, inputs, outputs, social, and other
-Indicate strategies to collect gender-disaggre-
gated baseline data where they are unavailable.
Cost Estimate: Estimate funds needed for
collection of gender-disaggregated baseline data,
training/materials development, project person-
nel, and other project elements that enable
participation of both women and men.
-Identify male and female training participants,
criteria for eligibility, and strategy for recruit-
ment, where project analyses indicate female
personnel are important.
-Include appropriate project personnel to
provide technical assistance to both men and
Summaries of Analysis
Technical Assessment: include gender as a variable
in technology needs assessment, analysis of
cultural suitability, and potential impacts of the
Financial Analysis: review intra-household
differences in incomes and expenditures; examine
women's and men's financial ability to participate
Economic analysis: specify costs and benefits for
male and female household members in terms of
opportunity costs of labor, access to productive
resources, status, and ability to meet family
Social Soundness Analysis:
-Examine men's and women's roles in activities
the project will affect and assess whether project
inputs are appropriate according to the social
and economic organization of activities.
-Examine prerequisites for participation in
project and how gender-based constraints will
affect ability of appropriate household members
-Examine the distribution of benefits to women
and men and how benefits affect incentives to
-Assess impact, short- and long-term, direct and
indirect on: women's and men's income, ex-
penditure patterns, division of labor, allocation
of land, and other productive resources.
-Describe the implementing institution's ability
and experience in reaching both men and
women; examine implications for project
-Indicate what steps might be necessary, if any, to
improve agency's ability to provide technical
assistance to women.
Review of Progress Toward Achieving
A.I.D. Strategy Objectives: Program
Identify key gender differences by sector
-What are labor force participation rates, rates
of productivity, farm and non-farm income
sources, intrahousehold expenditure patterns?
-What data are available to assess impact of
gender differences on progress toward A.I.D.
goals and objectives?
Incorporate gender data in background informa-
tion and review of current projects and programs
(descriptions, implementation plans, and impact
Assess gender disaggregated data availability
-What are the implications for monitoring and
adapting current mainstream programs? How
will needed data be collected?
Implications for Future Program Action
Describe modifications planned for existing
programs to address gender consideration, where
Strategies, Objectives, Targets, and
Assess how gender variables affect long-term
development strategies in sectors where women
or women and men are active.
Establish and include gender in short-term targets
and benchmarks for progress in meeting
Mission Management and Monitoring
Review current progress and future steps to en-
hance mission capability to address gender issues
-What are the benchmarks for measuring the
institutionalization of gender issues in Mission
-What is the strategy for collection of gender
disaggregated data needed for adaptation of
current and future projects?
Country Development Strategy
Problem Analysis and Description
Identify significant gender differences in produc-
tivity/income data and analyses in subsectors;
where data are insufficient, include specific
strategies to obtain them.
Describe gender-based constraints to and
opportunities for participation in economic
Disaggregate nutrition data by gender.
Disaggregate agricultural data by gender,
considering gender roles and constraints in food
self-provisioning; analyze implications for
Describe significant gender differences shown in
health, nutrition data and analyses.
Describe significant gender differences shown in
education and training data, considering gender-
based constraints and their impact on national
Discuss whether difficulties in reaching women as
well as men have affected government and donor
Definition of Mission Assistance
-Review current and planned projects in sectors
where women or women and men are active for
gender inclusion in project descriptions, imple-
mentation plans, and impact analyses to assess
ways in which projects increase women's and
men's economic productivity and improve their
access to social services.
-Mission Programming Strategy: plan or review
activities to institutionalize inclusion of gender
issues in program and project design, imple-
mentation, monitoring, and evaluation.
* Develop strategies for collection of needed data.
* Establish benchmarks for measuring
* Conduct training to enhance A.I.D. and host
country development planners' skills in and
awareness of gender issues as appropriate.
* Initiate policy dialogue with government on
-Summarize actions taken or planned that will
remove constraints or take advantage of oppor-
tunities, thereby ensuring the full involvement
of the men and women targeted for assistance.
Project Identification Document
Problem Statement: consider how gender affects
social and economic aspects of the problem to be
Statement of Expected Project Achievements: as-
sess the feasibility of achievement of objectives,
given gender differences in roles and responsi-
bilities as well as access to project resources and
Outline of the Project and How it
-Identify strategies that are appropriate to male
and female roles and responsibilities where the
project will affect women's and men's activities.
-Identify technical issues in the project design
that will affect or be affected by men's and
women's roles and responsibilities.
-Review project components for consistency with
the social and economic organization of activi-
ties the project will affect as well as constraints
and opportunities entailed in that organization.
-Include strategies to obtain gender-disaggre-
gated data and feedback from both men and
women in project monitoring and evaluation
systems where their activities will be affected by
Factors Affecting Project Selection and
-Include known information about key gender
variables in analysis of factors affecting project
-Consider who benefits from the project and how
- Identify gender considerations related to ability
to participate in project.
-Assess differential impact of project by gender.
-Examine how the proposed approach will affect
men's and women's economic roles and improve
-Assess the technical expertise and experience of
proposed recipient country implementing
agency in reaching women; consider developing
such capacity as part of the project, if needed.
-Examine budget estimates for consistency with
needs and opportunities described in Social and
Economic Consideration sections.
-Summarize gender-disaggregated data needs for
Project Paper (PP) or pre-PP study.
-Indicate how such data will be collected and
-Recommend PP team composition necessary to
ensure that gender issues are effectively