Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Feature article: Bringing fishermen...
 Pending grant program projects
 Pending national program proje...
 Completed grant program projec...
 Completed national program...
 Appendix I
 Appendix II
 Appendix III
 Appendix IV

Group Title: Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program
Title: The Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089862/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program fisheries research and development : report 2000
Series Title: Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program
Alternate Title: Fisheries research and development
Physical Description: ii, 91, 31 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- National Marine Fisheries Service
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service
Place of Publication: Silver Spring Md
Publication Date: 2000
Subject: Fisheries -- Research   ( lcsh )
Fisheries -- Research -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: "August 1, 2000."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089862
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 45612755

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Feature article: Bringing fishermen and scientists together
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Pending grant program projects
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Unnumbered ( 45 )
    Pending national program projects
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Unnumbered ( 51 )
    Completed grant program projects
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
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        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Completed national program projects
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Appendix I
    Appendix II
    Appendix III
    Appendix IV
Full Text



National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Marine Fisheries Service

The Saltonstall-Kennedy
Grant Program:
Fisheries Research
and Development

/: ir\Efrj:r\
i A

August 1, 2000

The Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program:

Fisheries Research and Development

Report 2000

August 1, 2000



Norman Y. Mineta

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
D. James Baker, Under Secretary

National Marine Fisheries Service
Penelope D. Dalton, Assistant Administrator
Office of Sustainable Fisheries
Bruce C. Morehead, Acting Director

Prepared by:
Financial Services Division
Michael Grable, Chief
Silver Spring, MD

Cover Design: Barbara Comstock, NMFS, OSF, NSIL, Pascagoula, MS
Cover photo credit: Bennie Rohr, NMFS, SEFSC, Pascagoula, MS

The Saltonstall-Kennedy
Grant Program: Fisheries
Research and Development


August 1, 2000

Norman Y. Mineta, Secretary

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
D. James Baker, Under Secretary

National Marine Fisheries Service
Penelope D. Dalton, Assistant Administrator


I. INTRODUCTION ............................... ....... ............. 1

II. BACKGROUND .................................................... 2

Bringing Scientists and Fishermen Together .................................... 5

IV. PENDING GRANT PROGRAM PROJECTS ............................. 9
Fisheries Utilization ...................... ....... ............... 9
Marine Recreational Fisheries ..................... ... ....... ........ 10
Management Alternatives and Fisheries User Conflicts ................. 10
Fisheries Bycatch .............................. ................ 21
Product Quality and Safety ................................... 26
Aquaculture .... ...............................................31
Habitat Conservation .................................................38

V. PENDING NATIONAL PROGRAM PROJECTS ............................. 41
Fisheries Utilization............................................ .41
Management Alternatives and Fisheries User Conflicts .................. 41
Fisheries Bycatch.................................... ........... 43
Product Quality and Safety .................... .... ................ 44
Aquaculture ...................................... ........... 44

VI. COMPLETED GRANT PROGRAM PROJECTS...............................47
Fisheries Utilization......... ................................... 47
Marine Recreational Fisheries.................................... 52
Management Alternatives and Fisheries User Conflicts ........... ....... 53
Fisheries Bycatch ................................ ............... 61
Product Quality and Safety ................ .......................... 69
Aquaculture ..................................................... 75
Habitat Conservation ..................................... ....... 80

VII. COMPLETED NATIONAL PROGRAM PROJECTS .............................85
Management Alternatives and Fisheries User Conflicts .................... 85
Fisheries Bycatch ...............................................88
Product Quality and Safety ........................................ 89
Aquaculture ............................................... 90
Habitat Conservation ............................................ .91



JUNE 21, 1999




This report to Congress on the Saltonstall-Kennedy (S-K) Grant Program, administered by the
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA), U.S. Department of Commerce, covers fiscal year (FY) 2000. The report contains
information on the S-K Program regarding its legislative authority, the application solicitation
and grant selection process, recipients, and funding information.

A notice was published in the Federal Register on June 21, 1999, to solicit applications
contingent on the FY 2000 allocation. The application review process was initiated in FY 1999,
and 20 grants totaling about $1.68 million were awarded in FY 2000.

Appendix I contains addresses of NMFS Headquarters and Regional Offices from which
information regarding the S-K Program may be obtained. Appendix II contains the Federal
Register notice soliciting applications for the FY 2000 program. Appendix III contains a list of
applications approved for funding from the FY 2000 S-K solicitation, and Appendix IV contains
a list of applications disapproved.

This report is submitted pursuant to the S-K Act, as amended, which requires that the following
information be submitted annually to Congress:

1. The fisheries development goals and funding priorities for a national program of
research and development for the next fiscal year (Page 2)

2. A description of all pending fisheries research and development projects (Page 9)

3. A list of those applications approved and disapproved and the total amount of
grants made for the current fiscal year (Appendices III and IV)

4. A statement of the extent to which available funds were not obligated or expended
by the Secretary for grants during the current fiscal year (Page 3)

5. An assessment of each project that was completed in the preceding fiscal year
regarding the extent to which objectives of the project were attained and the
project contributed to fishery development (Page 47)


The S-K Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 713c-3), established a fund (known as the S-K fund) that
the Secretary of Commerce uses to provide grants or cooperative agreements for fisheries
research and development projects. Under this authority, grants and cooperative agreements are
made annually on a competitive basis to assist in carrying out projects related to U.S. commercial
and recreational fisheries.

The S-K Grant Program funding priorities are based on the NOAA Strategic Plan, which was
developed in consultation with the public. The funding priorities and the NOAA Strategic Plan
are consistent with the goals and objectives of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act). The objective of the S-K Grant Program is to
address the needs of fishing communities (as defined in the Magnuson-Stevens Act) in
optimizing economic benefits within the context of rebuilding and maintaining sustainable
fisheries, and in dealing with the impacts of conservation and management measures. Such
conservation and management measures include those associated with the recovery of Atlantic
cod (Gadus morhua) and other overfished species. The solicitation for proposals under the Grant
Program, including funding priorities, application requirements, and proposal evaluation criteria,
is published each year in the Federal Register (Appendix II).

Proposals received in response to
the notice are evaluated by
appropriate private and public
sector experts for their technical
merit. Comments are then solicited
from representatives of various <
fisheries constituencies selected by .
the NOAA Assistant Administrator
for Fisheries. These individual
panelists rank proposals in terms of
importance of the problem or need
for funding and provide .
recommendations on the level of
funding. After proposals have been
evaluated and ranked,
eva d ad r NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS Historical
recommendations for funding are Photo Collection
developed and submitted to the
Assistant Administrator, who
determines the projects to be funded.

In addition, 15 U.S.C. 713c-3(d) provides authority for the Secretary of Commerce to carry out a
national program of research and development (National Program) to address aspects of U.S.

fisheries that are not adequately addressed by projects assisted under the Grant Program. NMFS
expects to fund one award under the National Program from the FY 2000 allocation dealing with
sustainable fisheries, as directed by Congress. For FY 2001, NMFS plans to make funds
available only under the competitive Grant Program, unless otherwise directed.

The S-K fund is capitalized through annual transfers by the Secretary of Agriculture to the
Secretary of Commerce of amounts equal to 30 percent of the gross receipts collected under the
customs laws on imports offish and fish products. Table 1 indicates the total duties collected on
fishery products; the total receipts in the S-K fund for FY 2000; the amount appropriated to
offset some of NOAA's costs related to operations, research, and facilities (ORF); and the
amount allocated for the S-K Program, including the competitive Grant Program, the National
Program, and program administrative costs. In FY 2000, the S-K allocation was $1.92 million.
However, an additional $0.75 million was available for use from unobligated carryover funds and
unanticipated prior year recoveries. For FY 2000, approximately $0.19 million of S-K funds will
not be obligated by the end of the fiscal year.

Table 1. S-K Fundingfor FY 2000 ($ in millions)
Funding Item Amount
Total Duties Collected on Fishery Products $233.07
Total S-K Transfer 69.92
ORF Offset 68.00
S-K Allocation 1.92
Carryover* 0.75
Total Amount Available for S-K 2.67

S-K Program Obligations/Commitments
Grant Program 1.68
National Program** 0.30
Program Administration 0.50
Estimated Unobligated Balance*** 0.19
Total 2.67

*Includes unanticipated prior year recoveries and FY 1999 balances not previously obligated.

**Includes $300,000 for the Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation for activities related to
sustainable fisheries (award pending).

***Unobligated balances will be returned to the S-K Program to fund already-identified costs for
the FY 2001 grant cycle, which was initiated in FY 2000.

As indicated in Table 2 below, the available S-K allocation has decreased even as the total S-K
transfer has generally increased. However, increases in the S-K allocation would require a
corresponding reduction in critical ORF funds.

Table 2. S-K Funding, 1993-2000 ($ in millions)

Available S-K

Allocation as
% of Transfer



Total S-K





Collaborative research efforts between social and biological scientists and commercial fishermen
are increasingly being viewed as essential to sustainable fisheries for several reasons. First,
collaboration mitigates the mistrust that sometimes exists between the fishing industry and
fisheries managers. When scientists work side-by-side with fishermen, whether it be rigging
experimental fishing gear on a commercial vessel or noting the historical observations of long-
time fishermen regarding fisheries abundance trends or valuable habitat areas, a greater
appreciation and respect for science and fishing can result. Second, sometimes collaboration is
the best way to arrive at a mutually satisfying management solution to a problem (e.g., bycatch).
Third, collaborative research can be used to accomplish the goals of providing economic
assistance to the fishing industry during commercial fishery failures while obtaining useful
socioeconomic or oceanographic data through the "hiring" of fishermen and commercial fishing

The U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) released in April 2000 a report entitled Fishery
Management: Problems Remain with National Marine Fisheries Service's Implementation of the
Magnuson-Stevens Act. The report recommended, among other things, that the Secretary of
Commerce direct the Director of NMFS to "Increase the involvement of the fishing industry, its
expertise, and its vessels in fishery research activities in order to expand the frequency and scope
of NMFS's data collection efforts." The report also concluded that until NMFS can "more
consistently involve others in its research activities, and improve communications with fishing
communities and the industry," industry criticisms of agency management decisions are likely to

NMFS recently has been using more private vessels for research. In fact, as mentioned in
Appendix II of the GAO report, private vessels contributed to 41 percent of the agency's total
research days at sea in 1998. According to the September 1998 NOAA Fisheries Data
Acquisition Plan, "Many missions are ideally suited for fishing vessels, such as gear test studies,
bycatch studies, and exploratory fishing [as well as] standardized stock abundance surveys that
use gears less sensitive to changes in vessels, such as traps, purse seines, and longlines."
However, the Plan cites several challenges to the widespread use of fishing vessels, including
availability of suitable vessels (especially during a fishing season) and sampling standardization
issues. NMFS also has expressed interest in involving fishermen in survey design to a greater
extent to improve fishermen's understanding of research methods.

The innovative research and development projects funded by the S-K Program often set the stage
for more widespread applications of scientific practices or new technology. During the 1990s,
the S-K Program funded numerous successful grants that brought fishermen and scientists

together to find solutions to problems such as the need for effective turtle exclusion devices.
More recently, several S-K Grant projects in the New England region that were completed
between June 1, 1999, and May 31, 2000, brought scientists and fishermen together to help
address the needs of fishing communities. This article provides an overview of some of these
projects and highlights some common lessons learned by the principal investigators. None of
these projects represents a perfect model for collaborative research between fishermen and
scientists, but they highlight useful steps in that direction.

Onboard Data Collection

Captain Edward Boynton of the F/V Sissel B., Gloucester, Massachusetts (MA), collaborated
with Dr. Linda Deegan of the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, MA, on an
S-K project entitled "Establishing the Food Web Links between Estuaries and Nearshore
Fisheries of New England" (NA76FD0106; for more information, see page 81). One of the
objectives of this project was to bridge the gap between fishermen and scientists by performing a
collaborative scientific study in order to understand each others' work methods. Twenty-six days
of sampling were performed on the F/V Sissel B. The vessel's crew recorded (among other
things) water temperature, salinity, clarity, and flow. Captain Boynton later sorted trawl catch by
species and weighed and froze each sample group. Staff at the MBL analyzed the samples taken.

Captain Boynton made the following conclusions in the project's final report: "By working with
the scientists, this fisherman has more understanding of how difficult and time-consuming it is to
understand the mechanics of our ecosystem." Captain Boynton felt that the project
"demonstrated that fishermen and their vessels can be incorporated into research programs," and
he recommended that (1) more research projects should use vessels owned by fishermen,
particularly during times when areas are closed to fishing activities; and (2) scientists should be
aboard the fishing vessel when samples are collected.

Another recently completed S-K project, entitled "Bycatch Reduction Project," featured
collaboration between scientists and commercial fishermen on fishing boats. This project
(NA76FD0110; for more information, see page 64) was carried out by the Manomet Center for
Conservation Science in Manomet, MA, and the project's objective was to work cooperatively
with the fishing industry to develop selective trawls to reduce groundfish bycatch and discards in
the Northeast. All gear trials and underwater video filming took place on chartered commercial
fishing vessels. Using vessels in this way was designed to "increase fishermen's inputs, benefit
from their expertise, foster industry acceptance, and aid in eventual dissemination of the gear
developed." The project also was designed to "provide a vehicle by which fishermen who want
to try new gear can take observers to collect catch and bycatch data...." In addition, the project
featured a network of advisors consisting of commercial fishermen, gear technologists, scientists,
fishery managers, and conservation group representatives.

One of this project's major findings was supported by a videotape produced by a commercial
fisherman. This videotape showed squid and scup entering a trawl net at the same time but
clearly separated in the water column, with
squid entering the top part of the net and the w h w v h
"Here at Manomet we have worked very hard to
scup entering much lower down. These develop strong working relationships not only with
behavioral observations suggested that it commercial fishermen, but also with managers and
might be possible to separate squid from other regulators. We really believe that if we are going to
species during the capture process by isolating be successful we have to have fishermen involved in
Su p o t n f the research with us rightfrom the start. Not only does
the upper portion of the net from the lower
that improve the research by bringing fishermen's
part. This important piece of evidence would unique perspectives to design and development, but it
not have been available to the investigators supplies a skipper and crew that have unique practical
without a close working relationship with knowledge of the gear, the grounds, and how the
commercial fishermen and without the fishing is conducted in those areas. Equally important
f an et t e is that the fishermen who participate in the process
fostering of an environment that encouraged firsthand go back to the dock and spread the word
scientific investigation by members of the about how the new gear works. I have no doubt that
commercial fishing community. This the key to success in this form offisheries research is
collaborative research methodology will be based purely and simply in science/industry
continued in a new S-K Grant made to partnership and collaboration." Chris Glass,
Manomet Center for Conservation Science
Manomet (NA06FD0183; for more
information, see page 21).

Face-to-Face Communication

The Gloucester Fishermen's Wives Association (GFWA) completed an S-K project designed to
create a series of oral histories of fishermen's experiences at sea (NA76FD0112; for more
information, see page 55). In addition, these oral histories were intended to collect traditional
ecological knowledge of fish spawning and habitat and to begin to develop a historical record of
fisherman-scientist interactions. Twenty-eight interviews were conducted with commercial
fishermen, and six interviews were conducted with NMFS social and biological scientists. The
investigators found that although fishermen cannot often provide quantitative information for
numerical fisheries assessment, they do harbor a wealth of information on where fish migrate,
aggregate, and spawn. This "spatial" environmental knowledge should be documented and
corroborated through geographic information system techniques, according to the investigators,
to allow other layers of information to be eventually overlaid (e.g., bathymetry, sea surface

Although the GFWA project was not able to fully develop a history of fisherman-scientist
interactions, it did identify through its interviews the following barriers to effective interaction
and collaboration:

Because scientists usually work in settings (i.e., laboratories, offices, research vessels)
where they are not in constant contact with marine resource users, the scientists do not get

the opportunity to become familiar with the communities that must live with the
management options generated by scientific data.
Fishermen often lack the time and educational resources to learn about fishery science,
which sometimes leads to management options being rejected outright by fishermen when
the options conflict with the perceptions and observations of fishermen.

However, scientists interviewed stated that they learned a great deal from their interactions with
fishermen at sea, and the scientists were impressed by the fishermen's overall knowledge of the
distribution, ecology, and behavior of fish species. Fishermen interviewed stated that they were
impressed with the biological knowledge of scientists, the rigor and hard work that the scientists
put into their sampling procedures, and the interest of the scientists in the observations of

The University of New Hampshire (UNH) completed an S-K project similar in intent to the
GFWA project. The UNH project, entitled "Collaborative Decision-Making Workshops"
(NA76FD0103; for more information, see page 53), was created to provide at least 200 fisheries
management stakeholders in New England with instruction in collaborative decision-making
techniques. Participants in the seven workshops included state and federal agency
representatives, clammers, lobster fishermen, draggermen, gillnetters, and New England Fishery
Management Council members. Some notable concerns that emerged during the workshops
included a belief by some parties that bringing a proposal with multi-stakeholder support to a
government agency could be a waste of time because the government sometimes did not seem to
listen to the stakeholders' ideas. In addition, although the workshop participants were effectively
introduced to the concepts of collaborative decision making (i.e., separating people from the
problem; focusing on interests, not positions; inventing options for mutual gain), some
participants were skeptical about the feasibility of hiring a neutral facilitator to help address
divisive issues.


Several recently closed S-K projects in the New England region brought fishermen and scientists
together to collect and analyze fisheries data, test experimental fishing gear, collect personal
observations on fisheries habitat, and foster collaborative working relationships. Projects that
united fishermen and scientists on commercial fishing vessels seemed to yield the most
productive and concrete results, but the oral history and collaborative decision-making projects
also yielded insights into the sometimes difficult relationships between fishermen and scientists.
When fishermen and scientists have the opportunity to work side-by-side or even meet in a
neutral setting to discuss environmental observations or decision-making techniques, stronger
relationships between these parties (which have very similar interests but sometimes opposing
missions) can result. NMFS can learn from successful S-K projects that bring scientists and
fishermen together as we continue to strengthen our collaborative research efforts with the
fishing industry.


This section contains a description of all pending (ongoing) projects under the S-K Grant Program, along
with the name of the grantee, grant number, project title, federal funding level, recipient funding level
(i.e., cost share), and the NMFS contact, addresses of whom are in Appendix I. The projects are listed by
grantee within each subject area.


Grant No.:
Project Title:


Coastal Enterprises, Inc., Portland, ME
NA86FD0106 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Maximizing the Value of the Northeast's Marine Harvest, A Resource Guide to
Secondary and Byproduct Markets
Federal: $99,708 Recipient: $22,500

Description: To investigate domestic and export markets for secondary products and byproducts of
species typically harvested in the Northeast. Specifically, this project will catalogue byproduct market
opportunities; investigate byproduct markets through a survey and interviews; conduct technical
evaluations of products; and conduct an economic analysis of price, quantity, packaging, and distribution.
Results of the investigation will be made available in a resource guide.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK
NA06FD0172 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Utilization Options for Bitter Crab
Federal: $76,669 Recipient: $16,111

Description: To (1) identify the chemical compounds) responsible for the flavor found in bitter crab and
develop a bitterness scale for product evaluation; (2) develop processing methods that can be used prior
to cooking, during cooking, or during cooling and/or subsequent handling to eliminate, reduce, or mask
bitter flavors; and (3) develop a secondary product from picked crab meat should results from earlier
tests be only partially successful.

,,------- I_.__ _


Grant No.:
Project Title:

Palau Conservation Society, Koror, Palau
NA77FD0043 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Sustainable Sport Fishery Development for Palau: Demonstration Project
Federal: $103,284 Recipient: $10,000

Description: To evaluate the local sport fishery system with the involvement and assistance of the tourist
sport fishermen, and to implement national and state management systems designed to support the sport
fishery system. This project is the successor to an earlier S-K project which established the viability of
small-scale sport fishing in Palau.


Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI
NA06FDO180 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Age of Loligo with Respect to Season, Location, and Depth
Federal: $48,007 Recipient: $9,294

Description: To identify the timing and location of different spawning periods of Loligo. This research
will be part of a collaborative effort with the NMFS's Northeast Fisheries Science Center in Woods
Hole, Massachusetts. The main set of samples was collected by NMFS during their fall, winter, and
spring surveys from the mid-Atlantic bight, Southern New England, Georges Bank, and the Gulf of
Maine. Summer and fall inshore samples were also obtained. The squid from representative subsamples
has been weighed and measured, and their sexual maturity has been determined. The resulting 915 pairs
of statoliths will be used to age the subsamples. These data will provide the necessary detail to identify
the timing and location of the different spawning periods. This work is an extension of previously
funded S-K research.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA
NA06FDO182 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Community-Based Area Management Strategies and Capacity Reduction Programs for
the Sea Scallop Industry
Federal: $179,565 Recipient: $76,914

Description: To develop a collaborative or community-based adaptive response program to permit
communities and individuals associated with the northwest Atlantic sea scallop fishery to plan for area
management strategies and capacity reduction programs. The study also proposes to develop a
framework to allow communities and individuals to be more involved in area management and capacity
reduction programs. This is the only way to ensure that the needs of the communities and individuals are
adequately considered in area management and capacity reduction programs.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Maryland, Cambridge, MD
NA96FD0071 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Test of Two Stock Hypotheses for Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Using Otolith Elemental
Federal: $88,374 Recipient: $22,207

Description: To determine the spatial and temporal stability of elemental fingerprints classified for
Mediterranean and western Atlantic bluefin tuna nurseries using results from a previous year S-K project
on otolith microconstituent analysis. Juvenile otoliths collected over two years and among several sites
within each nursery will be analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry will also be
evaluated to determine the elemental fingerprints associated with the first year of life.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Maryland, Cambridge, MD
NA96FD0073 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Recruitment Dynamics of Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis)
Federal: $92,789 Recipient: $21,871

Description: To investigate the influence of physical factors, excluding temperature, on northern shrimp
recruitment. The match-mismatch hypothesis in relation to shrimp recruitment will also be investigated.
A stock-recruitment model, incorporating the effects of significant environmental and ecological
variables, will be developed. In addition, potential overfishing definitions of northern shrimp, with
explicit consideration of the impact of environmental and ecological variation, will be explored.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Rhode Island Lobstermen's Association, Wakefield, RI
NA96FD0074 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Tagging Study to Improve Biological Information Concerning the Overfished Status of
the American Lobster
Federal: $70,508 Recipient: $37,500

Description: To enhance data collection for American lobster stock assessment purposes. Fishermen
will tag and v-notch sublegal and legal female lobsters (60,000) during the year. Upon recapture,
information concerning growth, movement, molting probability, and egging frequency will be collected.
Biologists from the University of Rhode Island and the Rhode Island Department of Environmental
Management will analyze the data and provide biological information to the Atlantic States Marine
Fisheries Commission Lobster Technical Committee. The data will be used in the eggs per recruit model
for Area 2 and may also prove useful for Areas 3 and 6.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Maryland, Cambridge, MD
NA96FD0076 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Density-Dependent Growth and Reproduction of Chesapeake Bay Striped Bass
Federal: $88,702 Recipient: $23,404

Description: To estimate the age and year class-specific growth rates of Chesapeake Bay striped bass
juveniles, pre-migrant sub-adults, and migratory females. Evidence for density dependence in growth
will also be examined. In addition, fecundity and age at first maturation for females of year classes
varying in initial abundance will be estimated, and the density effects on these rates will be tested.
Finally, the importance of these density-dependent effects in calculating biological reference points and
overfishing thresholds will be evaluated.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Delaware, Lewes, DE
NA96FD0079 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Genetic Monitoring of Oyster Stock Enhancement in the Chesapeake Bay
Federal: $68,835 Recipient: $24,819

Description: To use a genetic marker to distinguish Louisiana oyster seed outplanted in the Choptank
River from resident oysters. Oyster seed of Louisiana origin were planted in the Choptank River at
several defined sites in 1997. The survival and reproductive success ofoutplanted oyster seed will be
evaluated in 1999 and 2000. This is a unique opportunity to capitalize on an ongoing stock enhancement
program, and will provide direct information on its efficacy. The information obtained will be of
immediate regional relevance and will highlight the value of genetic monitoring in shellfish and finfish


Grant No.:
Project Title:

Community Economic Development Center of Southeastern Massachusetts,
New Bedford, MA
NA96FD0080 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Fishing Industry Cooperative Enterprises Co-Production Training Program
Federal: $103,202 Recipient: $94,344

Description: To develop an innovative training program for the transition of displaced fishers to
aquaculture, hydroponics, and other related professions, while promoting hybrid striped bass aquaculture.
This three stage comprehensive training program will be implemented on a continuous basis, with each
stage lasting three months. The stages will be presented in the following sequence: (1) basic concepts
(12 students); (2) apprenticeship (8 students); and (3) internship (4 students). Bristol Community
College will provide education assistance and aquaculture courses. Eastern Fish Farms, Inc. will provide
both the hydroponics/aquaculture training program and facility supervision. The demonstration facility
will be -,..otructed coincidental to program start-up with funds from the Hitachi Foundation.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Maryland, Cambridge, MD
NA86FD0110 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Inter-Laboratory Investigation of the Feasibility of Otolith Microconstituent Analysis to
Characterize Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Stock Structure
Federal: $105,548 Recipient: $27,371

Description: To address whether inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICPMS)- based otolith
microconstituent analysis can resolve Atlantic bluefin tuna stock structure issues. Protocol and
standardization procedures will be developed. In a double blind test between two ICPMS laboratories,
compositional differences between western Atlantic and Mediterranean bluefin tuna otoliths will be

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Delaware, Lewes, DE
NA46FD0329 NMFS Contact: F/NEO
Rapid Detection of Genetic Variation for Fisheries Stock Identification
Federal: $91,284 Recipient: $12,388

Description: To develop a simple and rapid procedure for quantifying DNA sequence variation in
regions ofmitochondrial and nuclear genomes. This screening method will allow for efficient selection
of genes for amplification and efficient selection of individuals for further examination by restriction
fragment length polymorphism analysis or direct DNA sequencing.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Charleston, SC
NA06FD0300 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Evaluation of an Alternative Harvesting Methodology for Horseshoe Crabs and
Determination of Juvenile Life History Parameters in a Nursery Habitat
Federal: $52,994 Recipient: $5,998

Description: To compare the methodology of hand harvesting to current harvesting methods and a
control group at three sites in South Carolina. Hand harvest of spawning animals 30 minutes after time
of predicted high tide may allow most animals to successfully spawn before being harvested without
affecting harvesting totals. Juvenile horseshoe crabs in three nursery habitats will be studied to
determine growth rates, survivability, age class structure, and behaviors. Preliminary experimental
design work for each study has been completed by the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources.
Information obtained within these studies will be presented to the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries
Commission's (ASMFC's) Horseshoe Crab Technical Committee for dissemination and management
use. These research needs are specified within the ASMFC Horseshoe Crab Fisheries Management

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Texas A&M Research Foundation, College Station, TX
NA06FD0301 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Assessment of Natal Origin and Stock Structure of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna using Otolith
Elemental Fingerprints
Federal: $61,165 Recipient: $18,334

Description: To continue sampling efforts to complete the assessment of spatial and temporal "stability"
of otolith elemental fingerprints and to quantify trace element signatures of juvenile bluefin tuna from
2000 and 2001 from both the western and eastern Atlantic. This research builds on two previously
funded otolith microconstituents studies funded by the S-K Program. First-year support was obtained to
develop otolith handling and cleaning protocols and standardization of procedures for otolith
microconstituent analysis of Atlantic bluefin tuna using ICPMS. A second-year of support has been used
to examine spatial and temporal scales to determine whether differences in elemental fingerprints are
consistent over time or within a given spawning ground. This current research project is the next logical
step in evaluating the reliability of elemental fingerprints for discriminating stocks of Atlantic bluefin
tuna. By collecting specimens from several year classes and regional nurseries, the reproducibility or
stability of trace element signatures can be rigorously tested. In addition, samples from two additional
age classes will also provide the necessary data to construct a database of elemental fingerprints that can
be used in the future to determine the natal origin of Atlantic bluefin tuna.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA
NA97FD0063 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Development of Hypervariable, Nuclear-DNA Markers for Population Structure Analysis
of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna
Federal: $125,866 Recipient: $21,539

Description: To develop a minimum often single-copy-nuclear (scn) DNA loci and 20 microsatellite
DNA loci specific for Atlantic bluefin tuna using procedures developed previously by the grantee. For
scnDNA loci, a bluefin tuna genomic library will be used to generate fragments 0.5-2.0 kilobase pairs in
length. Appropriately sized, single-copy fragments will be sequenced to develop primer pairs for
amplification using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplified loci will be digested with a suite of
restriction endonucleases to identify polymorphic locus/enzyme combination. For microsatellite DNA
loci, radiolabeled tri-and tetra-nucleotide probes will be used to identify candidate loci from a genomic
DNA library. Candidate loci will be sequenced to identify PCR primer pairs, and amplification with
individual primer pairs will be optimized. For both types of DNA markers, 20-30 individuals sampled
from the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea will be screened to document polymorphism and
identify allelic variants.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC
NA97FD0064 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Genetic Variability in Bigeye and Yellowfin Tuna
Federal: $80,000 Recipient: $13,120

Description: To assess samples of larval tuna obtained from the Gulf of Guinea for genetic variation at
both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA loci. Nuclear markers will include both restriction fragment length
polymorphisms and microsatellite loci. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine whether the
genetic variation observed in single samples is representative of that found in the adult population. Also,
samples obtained at different seasons or in successive years will be compared to determine seasonal and
temporal variation. Ultimately, these results will be used to develop a monitoring scheme for the
assessment of tuna reproduction in the Gulf of Guinea, off the west coast of Africa. In addition, the data
will be useful for establishing monitoring schemes for other tuna spawning areas for other large pelagic

Grant No.:
Project Title:


South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Charleston, SC
NA97FD0066 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Sampling and Evaluation of White Spot and IHHN Virus in Commercially Important
South Atlantic Penaeid Shrimp Stocks
Federal: $136,931 Recipient: $42,494

Description: To screen samples of native shrimp for white spot and infectious hypodermal and
hematopoietic necrosis (IHHN) viruses. Based on statistically rigorous protocol, shrimp samples will be
collected during existing sampling cruises and archived. All samples will undergo an initial screen for the
viruses by polymerase chain reaction, a technique successfully used by these researchers to identify
viruses in local crustacean stocks. Suspect samples will be further analyzed by histopathology. Viral
identification and pathogenicity will be confirmed in controlled bioassay studies. All data will be entered
into an existing inventory relational database and analyzed statistically to evaluate incidence and

Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) (left) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares) (right)

distribution. Results summarizing the viral disease status of indigenous stocks will be disseminated in
presentations, reports, and publications.

Grantee: University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR
Grant No.: NA97FD0069 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Project Title: Management of the Red Hind Fishery in Western Puerto Rico through a Regional
Demographic Analysis
Funding: Federal: $144,100 Recipient: $91,364

Description: To develop and parameterize a population model for managing red hind (Epinephelus
guttatus) in western Puerto Rico (PR). Red hind are one of the most commercially important species of
the Caribbean, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Increasing fishing pressure has caused substantial reduction
in size and structure of the stock that threatens to collapse the fishery. The University of Puerto Rico
researchers will work cooperatively with the State Fisheries Laboratory to develop a scientifically based
management plan for this fishery. Information from adult demography, larval settlement patterns, and the
genetic structure of adults and settling larvae will be combined into a single cohesive management
framework. This project, which relies heavily on local fishermen, will furnish government managers and
lawmakers with data to chart stock recovery and evaluate location, numbers, and size of proposed Marine
Fishery Reserves across PR. Since red hind share a suite of life history characteristics with other large
serranids, the demographic information and management strategies generated in this project can be easily
extended to other threatened grouper fisheries.

Grantee: North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Grant No.: NA87FD0100 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Project Title: Reproduction of Bluefin: Assessing Maturity Using Sex-Specific Compounds
Funding: Federal: $128,145 Recipient: $23,066

Description: To develop the means to biochemically identify the sex and maturational status of individual
bluefin tuna, using routine immunoassay of sex-specific hormones and proteins present in blood and
muscle tissue samples. These substances vary seasonally with sex and maturation in all teleost fish
studied to date, and can serve as indicators for age at maturity and sex ratio in a population. An antiserum
and immunoassay for bluefin vitellogenin, the egg-yolk protein precursor specific to maturing female fish,
will be created. Muscle and plasma samples will be analyzed for estradiol-17B and vitellogenin to
identify mature females, and testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone to identify mature males. Detailed
histological examination of the gonads will be conducted to definitively identify the sex and state of
maturation of individual fish. The hormone and vitellogenin profiles of these fish will be used to identify
levels of these substances characteristic of each specific stage of maturation, and to develop a length-
based maturity schedule.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL
NA77FD0077 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Monitoring the Socio-Economic Impacts of Federal Regulations on Gulf of Mexico
Commercial Shrimp Fishermen
Federal: $68,750 Recipient: $70,785

Description: To provide regulatory agencies with information for evaluating the effects of policy changes
on user groups. The project will monitor the effects of regulations on shrimp fishermen by
noting the changes in five key areas: social, economic, occupational, physical, and psychological well-

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK
NA06FD0171 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Population Structure ofRougheye, Shortraker, and Northern Rockfish Based on Analysis
of Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Microsatellites: Completion
Federal: $135,466 Recipient: $28,624

Description: To combine the use ofmitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite variation to
characterize additional collections of rougheye and northern rockfish and complete analyses of shortraker
rockfish. With S-K funding (in part), the PI has developed PCR-based techniques for analysis of variation
in rockfish mtDNA. Preliminary analysis of North Pacific rougheye revealed strong genetic heterogeneity
among collections offish in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands. These differences indicate a
population structure that most likely results from reproductive isolation. In contrast, a cursory
examination of shortraker rockfish revealed little variation and, hence, no basis for making conclusions.
Preliminary analysis of mtDNA and microsatellites from northern rockfish show variation, but sample
sizes are too small to infer population structure. Population structure is often revealed from patterns of
genetic variation. To accomplish this, we have developed primers to amplify rockfish mtDNA regions
that we have not analyzed and have developed primers to analyze variation at available microsatellite loci.
An increased number of collections and individuals and the addition of microsatellite analysis will provide
improved information that should more clearly delineate the nature of stock structure of these rockfish
species in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK
NA96FD0054 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Population Structure ofRougheye, Shortraker, and Northern Rockfish Based on Analysis
of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Microsatellites
Federal: $151,018 Recipient: $25,783

Description: To use mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite variation to characterize the
population structure of rougheye and shortraker rockfish, and conduct a preliminary survey of northern
rockfish. Primers will be developed to amplify unanalyzed rockfish mtDNA regions and to analyze
variation at microsatellite loci. With S-K funding (in part), the Principal Investigator has developed
polymerase chain reaction-based techniques for analysis of variation in rockfish mtDNA. Preliminary
analysis of north Pacific rougheye rockfish revealed strong genetic heterogeneity among collections of

fish in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands, indicating a population structure most likely resulting
from reproductive isolation. An examination of shortraker rockfish revealed little variation, providing no
basis for conclusions. Northern rockfish have been sampled, but not yet analyzed. An increased number
of collections and individuals and the addition of microsatelite analysis will provide improved information
to more clearly delineate the stock structure of these species in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Washington, Seattle, WA
NA96FD0055 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
The Effects of Fishery-Induced Directional Selection on Run Timing in Sockeye Salmon
Federal: $80,903 Recipient: $8,467

Description: To (1) quantify selection pressure on run timing by comparing the temporal pattern of
escapement with that of the total run (catch plus escapement) in five fishing districts for the last 35-40
years; (2) examine whether the selective pressure on run timing increases with the systems by compiling
the data on total run and compare predicted change to absolute change per system; (3) estimate the
heritability of run timing within these populations; and (4) measure the potential correlated effects of
selection for run timing on selection for spawning time through two related field studies.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Squaxin Island Tribe, Shelton, WA
NA96FD0130 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Rebuilding Naturally Spawning Coho Salmon Stocks--An Assessment of Bycatch
Reduction Measures and Spawning Escapement Stock Composition in the Southern
Puget Sound (Fishery Management Area 13 D-K)
Federal: $141,768 Recipient: $141,768

Description: To estimate the stock composition and the abundance and distribution of hatchery and
naturally-spawned coho salmon contributions to the Tribal commercial coho salmon fishery. The Squaxin
Tribe will sample 100% of the fishery in 1999 and 2000. All salmon will be examined for marks and
coded wire tags. Scale samples will be collected. Adult sampling weirs will be installed on Skookum
Creek and Mill Creek, which feed Area 13 D-K. Fish caught in the weirs will be examined to assess the
straying rate of hatchery-origin coho salmon in Area 13 D-K creeks to estimate the stock composition of
the spawning escapement. In addition to collecting mark, tag, and scale data at the weirs, other selected
creeks in Area 13 D-K will be surveyed to recover coho carcasses. Those fish will be examined for marks
and coded wire tags. Scale samples will be collected to determine origin.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA
NA76FD0213 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Pacific Salmon Captive Broodstocks: Comparison of Reproductive Performance of Full-
Siblings Reared in Fresh and Saltwater
Federal: $47,964 Recipient: $26,023

Description: To compare and analyze the effects of freshwater and saltwater captive broodstock rearing
on reproductive performance of chinook salmon. Full-sibling adults and their progeny will be raised, with
one-half raised in saltwater and the other half in a freshwater environment. The researchers will isolate
important factors such as broodstock weight and size, progeny survival, and fertilization rates to determine
optimum rearing methodology.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission, Olympia, WA
NA76FD0405 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Estimation of the Stock Composition of Chum Salmon Fisheries in Puget Sound,
Washington: An Improved Technical Basis for Fisheries Management-Year 3
Federal: $134,856 Recipient: $33,413

Description: To collect tissue samples from chum salmon fisheries in various fisheries in Puget Sound,
Washington, which will be subjected to genetics based stock identification analyses to determine stock
composition. These data will aid in describing migration timing and distribution of contributing Puget
Sound chum stocks, and provide improved in-season and post-season estimates of stock abundance. This
study will quantify the extent to which non-local stocks contribute to the terminal fisheries.

o-.NOA, Nati l Marie F eris Service, NMFS Hstoric. .- Pho C;.olle

NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS Historical Photo Collection

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
NA96FD0094 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Economic Assessment of the Domestic Fisheries Development Potential in the
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)
Federal: $40,068 Recipient: $4,795

Description: To determine why domestic fisheries have not developed to fully utilize the pelagic fishery
resources of the CNMI and to determine ways to further develop domestic fisheries. The ultimate goal is
to identify methods to expand capacity, reduce production costs, expand or identify markets, and promote
feasible value-added processing of fishery products. These goals will be addressed through the following
objectives: (1) development of focus groups of domestic fishermen; (2) development of domestic capacity
database; (3) analysis of vessel production costs; (4) analysis of labor-leisure choice decisions made by
fishermen; (5) identification of market constraints; (6) investigation of infrastructure constraints; (7)
finance and legal constraint investigation; and (8) report of findings.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Regents of the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA
NA96FD0208 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Restoration of the White Abalone in Southern California: Population Assessment, Brood
Stock Collection, and Development of Husbandry Technology
Federal: $244,806 Recipient: $105,841

Description: To develop the basic husbandry and culture techniques and a biological habitat model for
white abalone. The study will include a field work component and a laboratory/culture component. In the
field work component, live, individual broodstock abalone will be located using a manned submersible
and collected by hand using scuba divers. Existing bathymetry data will be entered into a geographic
information system to generate a map identifying optimal search areas for white abalone habitat. The
bathymetry data and flora and fauna data collected during the survey will be used to develop the habitat
model to help researchers identify optimal areas for future white abalone outplanting and restoration work.
The husbandry and culture techniques will be developed in the laboratory/culture component. These
techniques may help establish white abalone as an important aquaculture food product for the current
abalone aquaculture industry, and provide individuals for use in restoration.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Regents of the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA
NA86FD0070 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Evaluation of the Sustainability of the Sea Cucumber Fishery in California
Federal: $93,124 Recipient: $43,376

Description: To provide a biological basis for the management of a sustainable sea cucumber fishery in
the northeast Pacific, especially in California. This will be achieved by documenting historical changes in
standing stocks of Parastichopus californicus and P. parvimensis and estimating the effects of the fishery
on the standing stocks; characterizing the size structure of populations of both species; and collecting data
on demographic and population parameters crucial to fishery management.


Grant No.:
Project Title:

New England Aquarium Corp., Boston, MA
NA06FD0177 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Increasing Juvenile Cod Bycatch Survival in a Northwest Atlantic Longline Fishery
Federal: $99,457 Recipient: $88,307

Description: To (1) augment the survival data already collected on juvenile cod bycatch caught by
demersal longlines, (2) quantify mitigated survival of juvenile cod bycatch caught by demersal longlines
when treated by immersion in solutions of potassium chloride, (3) quantify the degree of physiological
stress experienced by juvenile cod bycatch caught by demersal longlines through the analysis of biological
parameters in the blood, and (4) continue to solicit advice from longline fishermen relative to increasing
the survival ofgroundfish discards.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Manomet, Inc., Manomet, MA
NA06FD0183 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Development of Cod Excluder Devices for Northwest Atlantic Trawl Fisheries
Federal: $71,500 Recipient: $40,600

Description: To test the effectiveness of a new bycatch reduction device (Ex-It) in reducing the
inadvertent catch of undersized fish in the northwest Atlantic. The study will focus primarily on retention
of juvenile and undersized cod. This will be an international venture involving the Manomet Center for
Conservation Sciences, Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, Maine Department of Marine
Resources, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, commercial fishermen, and industry input from
Nordurnet, Iceland. Sea trials on board chartered commercial fishing vessels will be conducted in the
Gulf of Maine and in Canadian territorial waters. Selectivity parameters of trawl nets with and without
the Ex-It bycatch reduction device will be determined. Trials with different grid spacings will be
conducted to determine the most appropriate configuration for small-cod exclusion. Video observations
will be made on the behavior of fish in the vicinity of the bycatch reduction device, and detailed
behavioral analysis will be carried out. Reports and videotapes will be made available to all interested
parties. Recommendations on the effectiveness of the bycatch reduction device will be made available to
fisheries managers in both the USA and Canada.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, Boston, MA
NA96FD0072 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Developing a Low Impact Sea Scallop Dredge
Federal: $35,388 Recipient: $10,994

Description: To verify whether bay scallops and sea scallops respond to certain acoustic stimuli, and
ascertain if a dredge could be developed that would take advantage of this behavior. Observations of bay
scallops in situ have shown that they react to certain acoustic stimulation and will swim vertically off the
sea bottom. The dredge would be of a type that lightly skims over the sea bottom, thus reducing impact to
the benthos which would, if associated with bay scallop harvesting, include eel grass.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


New England Aquarium Corporation, Boston, MA
NA86FD0108 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Increasing Survival of Juvenile Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Haddock
(Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in the Northwest Atlantic Demersal Longline Fishery
Federal: $163,244 Recipient: $127,386

Description: To build upon the selectivity work already conducted and investigate how different hauling
strategies might affect wound size and juvenile groundfish survivability. Preliminary survival statistics
from current longline work suggest that survival of juvenile bycatch is correlated to hooking wound
magnitude and that effective selectivity against juveniles can be accomplished using modified circle

NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS Historical Photo Collection


.94 lan.eanr .r st... (L.1, CAL .p. T*X

Grant No.:
Project Title:

New England Aquarium Corporation, Boston, MA
NA77FDO105 NMFS Contact: FINER
Leatherback Turtle Movements in Relation to New England Pelagic Fisheries
Federal: $81,225 Recipient: $0

Description: To identify whether fishing practices can be modified to reduce incidental capture of
leatherback turtles. Satellite tags will be placed on leatherback sea turtles on the New England pelagic
fishing grounds. The tags will be used to follow the turtles' movements, diving patterns, and interactions
with pelagic swordfish longline and drift gillnet fishing activities, in relation to oceanographic conditions.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Maine Department of Marine Resources, Augusta, ME
NA76FDO101 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Using Observers to Monitor Status of Atlantic Herring Spawning Stocks and Groundfish
Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine
Federal: $ 71,220 Recipient: $ 5,332

Description: To sample the extent of bycatch associated with mid-water trawling and surface purse
seining for herring to see if groundfish constitute more than 5% of the catch, the current regulatory limit
established by the New England Fishery Management Council. Observers will take 20 trips to sea of at
least 5 consecutive days on a single fishing vessel, subsampling the catch and counting and weighing all
species other than herring. The resulting data will be statistically analyzed to determine the percent

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Atlantic Gillnet Supply, Inc., Gloucester, MA
NA76FDO107 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Effectiveness of Acoustically Reflective Gillnet in Reducing/ Eliminating Marine
Mammal Bycatch
Federal: $170,860 Recipient: $79,700

Description: To prepare a monofilament gillnet enhanced with acoustically reflective material and test its
efficiency during sea trials, both alone and in combination with pingers, to determine whether marine
mammal bycatch can be avoided.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
NA46FD0325 NMFS Contact: F/NEO
Reduction of Flatfish Bycatch in the Small Mesh Bottom Trawls Used in the New
England Whiting Fishery: An Investigation of Fish Behavior and an Evaluation of
Separator Trawl Technologies
Federal: $84,232 Recipient: $57,550

Description: To investigate fish behavior in relation to bottom trawls using a low-light video camera
system, and to develop hypotheses on species- or species group-specific behavioral patterns based on the

video data. The results of these behavioral analyses will be used to design innovative techniques for
separating flatfish from groundfish in small mesh trawls. Alternate-paired tow comparisons aboard
fishing vessels will be conducted to evaluate a separator trawl design.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, Inc., Tampa, FL
NA87FD0099 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Enhancing Industry Contributions Toward Bycatch Reduction in the Shrimp Fisheries of
the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic
Federal: $486,342 Recipient: $54,500

Description: To address the bycatch issue in the southeastern shrimp trawl fishery by working
cooperatively with the shrimp industry to enhance their contribution to the development, evaluation, or
modification of existing or new bycatch reduction devices (BRDs). With BRD regulations being drafted
and/or implemented, only now are the gears being used extensively. The day-to-day knowledge and
experience of commercial fishers can provide valuable insights towards addressing current inadequacies
of available BRDs. To support industry contribution in the development of the most efficient BRDs, the
Foundation will solicit proposals from industry representatives to develop or modify BRDs, and will work
with the successful applicants to complete tests and evaluations of modified BRDs or new designs.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Fisheries Information Services, Juneau, AK
NA06FD0170 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Tools for Reducing Inadvertent Take and Bycatch Wastage of Skates and Sharks in
Hook-and-Line Fisheries
Federal: $3,400 Recipient: $850

Description: To develop detailed information about bycatch of skates and sharks in observed hook-and-
line fisheries off Alaska. The first work product will be a compilation and analysis of data demonstrating
seasonal and areal trends of such bycatch over the past eight years. The second work product will be a
detailed summary of utilization of such bycatch over the same time frame.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Washington, Seattle, WA
NA96FD0120 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Reducing Seabird Bycatch in the North Pacific Longline Fisheries
Federal: $180,000 Recipient: $20,090

Description: To establish an industry-university collaboration to test a subset of required seabird bycatch
mitJ; ion devices on active commercial longline vessels using specially trained fishery observers. This
work will be conducted in two fisheries during the 1999 and 2000 fishing seasons: The Individual
Transferrable Quota sablefish and halibut longline fisheries operating in the Gulf of Alaska; and the
Pacific cod fishery operating in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands area. Two required mitigation devices
will be compared to a control in each fishery. The data collection and analysis strategy focuses on linking
seabird abundance and behavior data during gear deployment to observed hooking rates. In addition, the

species-specific interactions of seabirds with longline fishing gear on active fishing vessels will be
characterized. The investigators will work with the industry and resource management agencies in
developing recommendations for specific seabird bycatch avoidance regulations and performance
standards based on project results. Recommendations for future research projects and research protocols
will also be developed.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK
NA76FD0037 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Quantitative Evaluation of Species Specific Flatfish Behavior: Basis for Bycatch
Reduction and Selective Trawl Development
Federal: $62,076 Recipient: $12,415

Description: To analyze existing videotapes of fish capture archived at the University of Alaska Fishery
Industrial Technology Center, to quantify species-specific flatfish behavior. This information will provide
a more comprehensive understanding of how individual flatfish species are captured and how the capture
process can be adapted to separate flatfish species.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA
NA06FD0278 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Evaluate Tangle Nets for Selective Fishing
Federal: $78,377 Recipient: $23,468

Description: To fish tangle nets at several locations and estimate catch per set, species composition, and
immediate mortality of all species caught. The tangle net is analogous to a small meshed gill net, but
rather than killing the fish, it entangles the fish by the teeth or maxillary bones. The fish are able to
continue respiring and can be released live from the net. The investigators will compare our results to a
conventional gill net to evaluate reductions in bycatch. All fish released from the tangle net will be tagged
for later recovery at hatcheries and on spawning grounds for estimation of their long-term survival.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Pfleger Institute of Environmental Research, Oceanside, CA
NA06FD0447 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
A Device for Greatly Reducing Fishing Mortality for Protected Giant Seabass (Stereolepis
gigas) and Jewfish (Epinephelus itajara)
Federal: $19,211 Recipient: $15,999

Description: To create a device (see below) that returns fish back to the bottom using detachable (and
recoverable) weights, eliminating unintentional mortalities. California's giant seabass and Florida's
jewfish are both very large protected species that are incidentally caught by recreational and commercial
hook and line anglers. When brought to the surface, the air in the swim bladder of these fishes expands
greatly, making the fish so buoyant that it cannot swim back to the bottom when released. Good-
intentioned anglers often pierce the body wall and swim bladder to vent the excess air. However, when
the fish swims away, it usually dies from the injury.


Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA
NA06FD0178 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Improvement of Oxidative Stability of Encapsulated Fish Oil in Food Powders
Federal: $92,073 Recipient: $33,798

Description: To study the physical effects on lipid oxidation of fish oil in encapsulated systems. Lipid
oxidation of powders is principally determined by the physico-chemical properties of the emulsion
droplets and encapsulating matrix, the presence of antioxidants, and the processing condition. The
information gained from this project will lead to future technological innovation for increased utilization
offish oil in commercial food products. These innovations will be of considerable benefit to U.S.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
NA06FDO179 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Industry Pilot to Evaluate the Ammonia Ion Selective Electrode for Use as a Simple,
Rapid Determination of Seafood Quality
Federal: $99,265 Recipient: $28,510

Description: To implement a pilot program to transfer ion selective electrode technology to the seafood
industry. Ion selective electrode methodology has been successfully developed for routine monitoring of
volatiles in seafood (AOAC 999.01) for quality, particularly characteristics of initial decomposition.
Organization of the 6-month pilot will be accomplished with the cooperative efforts of the National
Fisheries Institute, which will solicit the 8-10 companies for their involvement in the project. All meters,
probes, and reagents necessary will be assembled in a kit form and donated by Orion Research, Inc.
Additional chemical, microbiological, and sensory testing, as well as verification of industry results, will
be done at the Food Science and Nutrition Department at the University of Rhode Island, the Rhode Island
Department of Health, and/or NMFS Sensory to add to the existing seafood database. Results will be
statistically analyzed, and information will be disseminated through participant survey and informal

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS
NA06FD0298 NMFS Contact: F/SER
A Histamine Dipstick Test for Spoilage in Fisheries Products
Federal: $57,023 Recipient: $23,723

Description: To incorporate a recombinant enzyme (the investigators currently are in the process of
cloning and expressing kidney diamine oxidase) into a second-generation histamine dipstick, which then
will be compared to the standard AOAC test in a method validation study. Scombroid poisoning is a form
of chemical poisoning that occurs when consumers ingest spoiled tuna and related fish. It typically is
associated with high levels of histamine produced by bacterial decomposition of these fish. Because odor
and appearance do not reliably indicate this type of spoilage, a simple test for histamine that can be used
in widespread quality-control testing of fisheries products is needed. The investigators have developed
and published such a rapid test in the form of a dipstick. Before this dipstick can be produced on a large
scale in a form suitable for widespread use, however, the histamine-specific enzyme component must be
produced in large quantities and optimized for the currently allowed FDA levels for histamine.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA
NA97FD0062 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Reduction in the Vibrio vulnificus Load in Oysters by a Novel Short-Term Combination
Biodepuration Treatment
Federal: $173,111 Recipient: $133,283

Description: To conduct studies on oysters naturally contaminated with Vibrio vulnificus and undergoing
biodepuration on a pilot scale. Pooled bacteriophage specific for V vulnificus and anti- V vulnificus
protein will be used to reduce the microbial burden to levels deemed safe when such oysters are eaten raw.
Prior investigations have resulted in the isolation of nine bacteriophage specific for V vulnificus. Pools of
these phage have successfully reduced V. vulnificus populations in vitro and in vivo among live oysters
artificially contaminated with the organisms. These data suggest that pooled phage could be successfully
used in the biodepuration of oysters destined for raw consumption. A protein has also been isolated from
Oyster tissue. This protein specifically acts against V vulnificus, significantly reducing its populations
both in vitro, and in vivo with oysters artificially contaminated with the organism. The protein has been
partially characterized and at least three fragments have been sequenced. Populations of V vulnificus
were found to be markedly reduced when this protein was jointly used with pooled phage in the
biodepuration of oysters artificially contaminated with V vulnificus.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS
NA97FD0067 NMFS Contact: F/SER
A Histamine Dipstick Test for Spoilage in Fisheries Products
Federal: $52,875 Recipient: $22,207

Description: To further develop a sensitive, accurate, rapid, and convenient dipstick for determining
histamine levels in seafood products and make it commercially feasible. The researchers have developed
and published such a dipstick test. Before this dipstick can be produced on a large scale in a form suitable
for widespread use, however, the histamine-specific enzyme component must be produced in large
quantities and optimized for the currently allowed Food and Drug Administration levels for histamine.
Scombroid poisoning occurs when consumers ingest spoiled tuna and related fish. It is typically
associated with high levels of histamine produced by the bacterial decomposition of these fish. Since odor
and appearance do not reliably indicate this type of spoilage, a simple test of histamine for use in
widespread quality control testing of fisheries products is needed.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK
NA96FD0052 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Evaluation of Ozone for Ready-to-Eat Seafoods
Federal: $80,715 Recipient: $16,143

Description: To (1) determine ozone concentrations necessary for inactivating microbial biofilms on
seafood equipment and reducing microbial counts on raw material used for ready to eat (RTE) production;
(2) evaluate the effect of ozone on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated seafoods; (3) measure shelf life
characteristics of ozone treated RTE seafoods; and (4) compare ozone and chlorine treatments for RTE
production in a commercial operation.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK
NA96FD0053 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Seafood HACCP Validation Using the ATP Bioluminescent Assay
Federal: $63,133 Recipient: $7,939

Description: To (1) compare adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescent assays to aerobic plate count
methods to determine surface contamination levels on processing lines, equipment surfaces, and utensils
after sanitation by plant personnel; (2) compare contamination load on surfaces after different processing
and sanitation shifts and correlate residual sanitizer (chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds)
concentration on surfaces with ATP bioluminescence levels; (3) determine if the ATP bioluminescent
assay distinguishes microbial contamination of raw materials from non-microbial ATP for use as a control
point at receiving; and (4) conduct in-plant workshops and demonstrations of the ATP bioluminescent
assay and determine if microbial quality of raw products improves after training of plant personnel.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Washington, Seattle, WA
NA86FD0393 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Harmful Algal Blooms and their Impacts on Shellfisheries and Finfisheries in Western
Federal: $216,551 Recipient: $38,668

Description: To provide approaches to the study and mitigation of harmful algal blooms. A field guide to
the common phytoplankton in western Washington waters will be developed and published. The guide
will contain light microscope and scanning electron microscope photographs of many phytoplankton
species and short descriptions of characteristics. The guide will include many harmful species and serve
as a guide for health managers who are examining water samples on site. Also, the researchers will
continue their monitoring program for harmful algal species on Washington coastal beaches and the Puget
Sound Basin. This data will allow researchers to better understand the temporal and spatial variability of
various harmful species in the region.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
NA06FD0448 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Development of Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus,
Yellow Head Virus, Taura Syndrome Virus, and Infectious Hypodermal and
Hematopoietic Necrosis in Penaeid Shrimp
Federal: $75,393 Recipient: $47,671

Description: To develop a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method (real-time PCR) for screening shrimp
viruses. This method can be employed at points of entry so that imports can continue and the U.S. shrimp
industry will be protected. This method also can be used to screen U.S. shrimp and marine products that
are being exported to the growing number of countries requiring certification. Viral diseases in marine
shrimp have become prevalent and caused severe economic losses in many countries. Several virulent
viruses have been spread to other countries through trade in live and commodity shrimp and infected farm
shrimp and wild stocks. Following the lead of its major trade partners in the Americas, the U.S.
government may ban imports of shrimp from countries known to have viral epizootics. Such a ban would
constitute a trade barrier that would adversely affect a $12 billion industry in shrimp importation in the

Grant No.:
Project Title:


PacMar, Inc., Honolulu, HI
NA86FD0067 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Development of a HAACP-Based Strategy for the Control of Histamine for the Fresh
Tuna Industry
Federal: $199,513 Recipient: $34,622

Description: To develop a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based approach to the
problem of histamine formation in fresh tuna which integrates the industry linkages (fishing
vessel/processor/distributor) in an effective, efficient, and practical system capable of ensuring public
safety and compliance with FDA seafood regulations. This will be achieved by (1) evaluating
epidemiological data on histamine toxicity in Hawaii; (2) developing fishing fleet profiles in terms of
fishing methods, post-harvest handling methods, and potential risk of histamine production; (3) verifying
the post-harvest handling procedures by using temperature loggers deployed at sea to record the
temperature history of fish aboard fishing vessels; and (4) determining the importance of gear type, post-
handling methods, and fresh tuna quality grades as indicators of histamine concentration.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA
NA57FD0012 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
A Predictive Index for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Events on the Northern California
Federal: $42,007 Recipient: $0

Description: To investigate whether a predictive index developed for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
in northwest Spain can be applied to northern California. In addition, the hypothesis that the onset of PSP
in northern California is linked to the relaxation of upwelling, and the transport of established blooms to
the shore with warm stratified offshore waters, will be tested.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
NA67FD0500 NMFS Contact: F/SF2
A New Toxic Dinoflagellate Affecting Cultured and Wild Estuarine Fish-Year 2
Federal: $149,953 Recipient: $38,932

Description: To characterize the ecological distribution, algal physiology, disease effects, and toxin of a
toxic dinoflagellate recently discovered in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary. The data will provide critical
information needed to assess the impact of this toxic dinoflagellate on wild and cultured fish populations.


Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
NA06FD0181 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Stress and Performance of Finfish in Open-Ocean Aquaculture
Federal: $69,979 Recipient: $13,548

Description: To characterize the dynamics of stress response, identify practices that induce stress, and
develop culture technology-including use of anesthetics-to mitigate stresses of handling and
transportation. The project will produce new technology that improves the health and survival of culture
flatfish. The basic rationale is that handling and transportation of cultured marine flatfish to grow-out
sites stresses them and reduces their performance capacity. Performance capacity includes the ability to
resist disease, maintain metabolic homeostasis, and adapt to further perturbations.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA
NA96FD0075 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Influence of Host Genetic Origin and Geographic Location on QPX Disease in Hard
Clams (Mercenaria mercenaria)
Federal: $212,998 Recipient: $68,120

Description: To examine variation in the expression and pathogenicity of QPX disease in relation to
genetic origin and geographic location of hard clams. The research will focus on identifying a strains) of
hard clams resistant to QPX disease. The main objectives of the project are to (1) compare clam growth
(size), condition, survival, and QPX prevalence and severity in five hatchery-reared strains of hard clams
at three regionally separated QPX endemic locations; (2) determine the significance of the effect of strain
and region on hard clam growth, condition, survival, and QPX disease through time; and (3) determine the
best strain for culture in QPX endemic areas, and recommend strains for future efforts toenhance
resistance to QPX through selective breeding.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA
NA96FD0078 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Aquaculture Regulation: Economic and Legal Models for the U.S. Exclusive Economic
Federal: $92,935 Recipient: $26,107

Description: To develop a framework for analyzing access system design for ocean mariculture
operations and to characterize an economically optimal access system. An economic analysis will be
conducted to complement current efforts by academia, public interest groups, Federal agencies, and the
U.S. Congress to develop laws and regulations governing ocean mariculture in the U.S. Exclusive
Economic Zone.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
NA76FDO143 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Development of Commercial Aquaculture of Black Sea Bass
Federal: $99,385 Recipient: $15,246

Description: To evaluate the potential for raising black sea bass from eggs to juveniles as a commercial
aquaculture endeavor. The researchers will collect broodstock, evaluate natural and artificial spawning,
conduct photoperiod studies, and analyze the effects of salinity changes and various diets for black sea
bass. Each phase of the investigations will follow procedures proven successful with other species. Eggs
in excess of the study requirements will be provided to others interested in black sea bass aquaculture.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD
NA76FDO145 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Optimization and Clearance Studies of a New Hormone-Based Spawning Induction
Technology for Aquacultured Finfish
Federal: $132,546 Recipient: $77,826

Description: To optimize an efficient, reliable, and physiologically sound technology to induce ovulation,
spawning, and sperm production in farmed fish using hybrid striped bass. This work will provide
information to facilitate the regulatory approval of the technology, making it accessible to commercial
hatcheries and finfish growers.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
NA76FD0149 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Toward Sustainable Aquacultural Production Systems: Promoting Optimum Media for
Nitrifying Bacteria in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems
Federal: $120,700 Recipient: $0

Description: To explore the potential for establishing a selective or optimal medium for nitrifying
bacteria in recirculating system aquaculture. Five minerals, critical for the bacteria but rarely added to
diets for fish, will be the focus of this research. The results of this research may lead to the development
of sustainable recirculating systems for the mass production of a variety of species.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Bioshelters, Inc., Amherst, MA
NA66FD0017 NMFS Contact:. F/NER
Renovation of Phosphorous and Other Aquacultural Wastes Using Constructed Wetlands
with Planted Peat and Rockwool
Federal: $65,559 Recipient: $7,160

Description: To filter the discharge water from an aquaculture facility using an artificial wetland
constructed from peat and rockwool, and planted with reed canary grass. The primary objective is to
remove phosphorous. The experiment will evaluate the use of doping agents, lime, iron, and aluminum
sulfate in removing phosphorous. The intent of the project is to create an inexpensive technique which the
aquaculture industry will readily adopt, with widespread water quality benefits to the receiving waters
downstream from aquaculture facilities.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX
NA06FD0299 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Development of Hatchery Technologies for Snapper
Federal: $169,987 Recipient: $33,938

Description: To address the development of larval rearing technologies for the production of juvenile
snapper for off-shore operations. Results from this project are expected to (1) diversify the number of
cultured species available to the mariculturist, (2) expand our understanding of larval rearing requirements
of snapper, and (3) advance commercial technologies for the production of fingerlings. The proposed
research will build on previous projects that successfully developed maturation techniques forthe year-
round spawning of yellowtail snapper as well as mass production techniques for other marine species such
as red drum. Yellowtail snapper is one of several snapper species that are listedas '"overfished" and
displays positive potential for development in the mariculture industry. We have maintained spawning
populations of wild fish since 1992 and currently have an Fl population of laboratory-reared fish
spawning three times per week producing 250,000 eggs/spawn. Initial protocols for larval rearing using
live and prepared feeds have resulted in overall survival of 3% from egg to advanced juvenile.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
NA97FD0068 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Flounder Sex Determination: Biotechnology for Controlled Breeding in Fishery
Enhancement and Mariculture
Federal: $68,465 Recipient: $48,432

Description: To provide information and technologies critical to generating predictable sex ratios in
flounder restocking efforts and producing monosex stocks of faster growing females for mariculture. The
means to control sex determination in summer and southern flounders will be developed. In addition,
markers and timing of sex determination in flounder will be determined to characterize the developmental
periods during which temperature irreversibly exerts its effect.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Charleston, SC
NA77FD0078 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Hard Clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) Mariculture in U.S. Waters: Evaluating the Effects
of Large-Scale Field Outgrowth Practices on Clam Growth, Nutrition, and Inshore
Estuarine Creek Communities
Federal: $138,570 Recipient: $ 38,914

Description: To conduct several experimental field studies, in conjunction with a large- scale operating
clam enterprise, to (1) evaluate the potential effects of food and flow on individual (seed) clam growth at
various stocking densities within creeks and among seasons; (2) manipulate pen and clam densities and
configurations to examine the effects of large-scale clam mariculture on inshore creek communities; and
(3) utilize stable isotope ratios to provide insight into clam diets and food web structure.

Grantee: Qutecak Native Tribe, Seward, AK
Grant No.: NA66FD0045 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Broodstock Selection and Hatchery Development of Purple-Hinged Rock Scallops
(Crassodoma gigantea) for Marine Aquaculture
Funding: Federal: $69,795 Recipient: $35,145

Description: To develop sources of purple-hinged rock scallop seedstock suitable for use in suspended
culture and develop or demonstrate cost-effective approaches for advancing environmentally sound
private aquaculture development.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Taylor Resources, Inc., Shelton, WA
NA06FD0231 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Rock Scallop Culture in the Off-Shore Environment
Federal: $91,179 Recipient: $54,938

Description: To develop technology and methodology to culture the rock scallop to maturity and
commercial harvest in high-energy, off-shore environments in an ecological and economically viable and

cost-effective manner. Researchers will test a new technology (Scallop Spar-see below) for a range of
engineering considerations including installation, submersion, towing, system integrity, and harvest
functions. In addition, the disc culture surfaces will be evaluated for survival of scallops, ability to attach
to the surface, growth rates, and stocking densities. A separate set of hatchery culture studies will be
carried out that include broodstock collection and conditioning, spawning and larval production, and
juvenile seed and grow-out methods.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Pacific Shellfish Institute, Olympia, WA
NA06FD0280 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Probiotics to Increase Shellfish Hatchery Production
Federal: $99,986 Recipient: $36,132

Description: To improve the production efficiencies and profits of national production of shellfish seed
using beneficial bacteria to displace disease-causing bacteria. The recipient will use its large collection of
shellfish hatchery bacteria and other bacteria, as well as new isolates, to select those bacteria with the
strongest probiotic effect. The selected bacteria will be tested by the recipient to determine whether the

bacteria can prevent bacterial disease in oyster seed and larvae using a laboratory challenge system. If
successful, the project will provide candidate probiotic bacteria for use in a future commercial-scale test.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Pacific Shellfish Institute, Olympia, WA
NA96FD0194 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Manila Clam Mortality and Health Evaluation
Federal: $168,111 Recipient: $32,410

Description: To initiate the establishment of production standards and a health baseline for intensive clam
production on the west coast of the United States. These activities will form the basis of an integrated
health management program for manila clam and support the production of healthy clams from all regions
of the country. The baseline data on manila clam health will also be used to assist state and tribal shellfish
biologists in assessments of public and tribal clam resources. The researchers will monitor clam growth,
survival, yield, health, and environmental conditions at sites of intensive clam production. Adult and seed
clams will be examined for the presence of infectious diseases, and experimental studies at a clam
production facility will be conducted to expose clams to defined freezing and freshwater exposures. This
latter study will allow growers to identify high-risk beds and manage them to reduce impacts of low
temperature and excessive freshwater exposure. Finally, the recipient will set up a clam mortality
response team to address grower concerns about clam morbidity and mortality and help identify the causes
of such episodes. Completion of these tasks will enhance the competitiveness of adult clams and seed
clam production in world markets, increase domestic supplies, and reduce the need for imported clams.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Black Pearls, Inc., Holualoa, HI
NA06FD0303 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Re-Training of Hawaiian Micronesian Fisherfolk as Pearl Culture Seeding Technicians
Federal: $97,903 Recipient: $29,880

Description: To provide basic training in all aspects of oyster biology and pearl farm husbandry and
seeding ofmabe pearls. Trainee technicians will be contracted to BPOM. Black Pearls, Inc., will provide
the basic training, and a master seeding technician then will provide an intensive training course at the
BPOM farm site, including one-on-one supervision of seeding. Results of seeding trials will be used to
select the two most promising candidates for further training. These candidates then will continue on-the-
job training at the BPOM farm site and assist in maintenance and conditioning of the oysters for a second
set of seeding trials. Mabe and round pearls will be harvested to evaluate shape, color, and nacre quality.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Regents of the University of California, Davis, CA
NA96FD0206 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Life History of an Exotic Sabellid Polychaete Pest in Cultured Abalone in California
Federal: $112,064 Recipient: $25,945

Description: To describe the life history of the fan worm which infests cultured abalone. All life stages
and reproductive ability at temperatures experienced in California will be identified. Life stages of fan

worms reared in situ and in vitro will also be identified, as will the timing of each developmental stage
and the reproductive potential. Generation times at several temperatures between 9 and 230C will be
determined. Using a combination of light and electron microscopy, and fertilization experiments, it will
be determined whether the sabellid is capable of self and/or cross fertilization. The potential risk
associated with the release of precompetent larval and embryonic stages will also be examined. In order
to assess the possibility that infested abalone may have been outplanted, the researchers will survey
several outplant sites for infested abalone and other gastropods. If found, mark and recapture studies will
be conducted using initially uninfested gastropods to determine rates of fan worm transmission in the
field. Based on the findings, changes will be recommended in abalone husbandry methods to aid in
eradication of the fan worm from aquaculture facilities and reduce its potential establishment in the wild.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Coral Reef Foundation, Koror, Palau
NA86FD0068 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Culture of Marine Fish for the Home Aquarium Industry
Federal: $32,640 Recipient: $10,420

Description: To identify species of marine fish appropriate for the aquarium trade and develop "low-tech"
mariculture methods to raise these species for sale in the marine aquarium trade. It is anticipated that this
work will encourage increased involvement of Pacific Islanders in this industry by expanding the number
of species available for culture.

Abalone (left) and adult sabellid (fan) worm (right)

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Regents of the University of California, Oakland, CA
NA86FD0069 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Development of Rock Scallop Grow-Out Techniques
Federal: $48,088 Recipient: $6,815

Description: To develop recommendations on rock scallop grow-out methods by conducting laboratory
experiments, dissections, and pilot field studies. Laboratory work will examine behavioral and
developmental mechanisms responsible for final attachment. The field studies, to be done in collaboration
with California aquaculturists, will further refine potential grow-out techniques identified in the laboratory
for use in various culture systems.


Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
NA97FD0065 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Conserving and Enhancing Essential Fish Habitats by Differentiating the Specific
Sources of Fecal Pollution in Estuarine Waters
Federal: $89,922 Recipient: $13,192

Description: To develop and test innovative methods to determine the specific type and extent of human
and non-human fecal pollution, and produce tools to identify the specific animal sources of fecal pollution
in estuarine waters. Estuarine waters are the habitat of numerous marine species, including molluscan
shellfish. This habitat is increasingly impacted by fecal bacteria, signifying a decrease in water quality,
and potential risk of human and resource disease. The researchers will expand on previous research
showing that selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristics accurately discriminate between human
and non-human sources ofE. coli. The investigation involves: (1) isolating E. coli from predominant
agriculture and wildlife species; (2) determining ribotype (DNA fingerprint), multiple antibiotic
resistance, and serotype profile; (3) correlating specific profiles with animal source; and (4) defining the
significant fecal pollution sources within the study site.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA
NA97FD0070 NMFS Contact: F/SER
The Effect of Bank-Barrier Reef Lagoon Habitat Loss on Post-Settlement Juvenile and
Sub-Adult Coral Reef Fishes
Federal: $85,790 Recipient: $43,261

Description: To (1) quantify the extent and patterns of lagoon habitat use by post-settlement and juvenile
reef fishes; and k-, quantify the impacts of habitat loss on post-settlement and juvenile fishes in lagoon
habitats and sub-adult fishes in adjacent coral reef habitats. Tropical marine near shore habitats,
specifically bank-barrier reef lagoon habitats, are important nursery areas for coral reef fishes. These
habitats are threatened by numerous activities, especially coastal development, which may cause habitat
loss due to sedimentation. Resource managers must know which of these habitats are essential fish
habitats so that appropriate conservation strategies can be formulated. There are two major theories on

processes that control the total number of coral reef fishes; recruitment limitation and habitat limitation.
The results will show which habitats are essential early life stage habitats for the observed species; i.e.,
whether the loss of lagoon habitats has an effect on sub-adult abundance on adjacent coral reefs. This
information will be directly applicable to current fisheries management issues and useful to local and
Federal agencies, commercial and recreational fishermen, and private citizens and citizen groups.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Washington, Seattle, WA
NA76FD0036 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Recruitment Limitation in Alaska Red King Crab: The Importance of Early Life History
Federal: $115,175 Recipient: $21,532

Description: To examine settlement behavior and habitat use ofjuvenile red king crab (Paralithodes
camtschaticus) in order to quantify nursery habitat suitable for management and protection.


This section contains a description of all pending (ongoing) projects under the S-K National Program,
along with project number, project title, federal funding level, and the NMFS contact.


Grant No.:
Project Title:

Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation, Anchorage, AK
NA86FD0580 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
An Ocean of Answers
Federal: $150,000 Recipient: $0

Description: To investigate the development of a permanent endowment for the Alaska Fisheries
Development Foundation to support the goals and objectives of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery
Conservation and Management Act by (1) conducting a feasibility study and donor survey; (2) designing a
capital development campaign; (3) designing an educational outreach campaign; (4) creating an
endowment instrument and a plan for perpetuity; and (5) exploring funding assistance available from state
and local governments and other funding organizations.


Project No.:
Project Title:


97-SE-21 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) Mark/Recapture and Age Composition Studies in the
Northern Gulf of Mexico
Federal: $195,000

Description: To assess the status and determine the age structure of red drum stocks in the northern Gulf
of Mexico. The proven and accepted estimation technique of mark and recapture will be used to assess
the current size of the adult stock. Estimates indicate that if 10,000-20,000 red drum are tagged within a
relatively short time, and then approximately 50,000 fish are examined for the presence of tags, a
reasonably precise estimate of the adult red drum biomass can be developed for use in quota and resource
allocation decisions. The goals are to improve red drum fishery management and optimize commercial
and recreational utilization of the resource.

Project No.:
Project Title:

97-AK-01 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
ADF&G/NMFS Bottom Trawl Calibration Study
Federal: $134,800

Description: To conduct an experiment to detect fishing power differences between the net and vessel
configuration used by NMFS during their Gulf of Alaska (GOA) triennial groundfish surveys and the net
and vessel configuration used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) during their annual
GOA crab survey. The results of this experiment will allow both NMFS and ADF&G to augment each
survey by allowing direct comparisons of the respective databases. For example, being able to fully
incorporate the ADF&G survey database into the annual status of stocks process would greatly enhance
the management of important groundfish species such as walleye pollock, Pacific cod, and many flatfish

Project No.:

Project Title:


97-AK-02 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Monitoring and Evaluation of the Halibut and Sablefish Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ)
Federal: $71,820 Recipient: $4,500

Description: To correlate existing NMFS Restricted Access Management Division and Alaska
Department of Fish and Game/ Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission database information to provide
a detailed analysis of changes in the distribution of quota shares in the Alaska halibut and sablefish IFQ
program to fulfill the stewardship responsibilities of NMFS, and the statutory requirements of the
Secretary of Commerce and the North Pacific Fishery Management Council.

Project No.:
Project Title:


97-AK-03 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Development of an Experimental Approach to Testing the Efficacy of Steller Sea Lion
Fishery Exclusion Zones
Federal: $24,900

Description: To develop an experimental design for the evaluation of Steller sea lion fishery exclusion
zones which, when implemented, will increase the likelihood of recovery of threatened Steller sea lion
populations in Alaska, and reduce the conflicts between the fishing industry and the Steller sea lion
recovery program.

Project No.:
Project Title:

97-AK-06 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
IFQ/CDQ Program Research Support
Federal: $50,000

Description: To improve the automated systems that control permit issuance and transfer and
management of fishery landings. Currently, these data systems are an inefficient means of retrieving the
amount and detail level of information needed for information requests and for research purposes. This

project will provide contractual assistance to structure and retrieve data so as to address these information
needs. Tasks include: improving system documentation; developing reports and data summaries; and
increasing the variety, amount, and detail of information available through NMFS Internet sites and
computer bulletin boards.

Project No.:
Project Title:

96-SW-02 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Develop and Test Pulsed-Power Devices
Federal: $300,000

Description: To construct a pulsed-power device that will deter California sea lions from interacting with
commercial passenger fishing vessels (CPFV). A contractor will be competitively selected to (1) develop
and construct the pulsed-power device; (2) establish safety zones for marine mammals; (3) conduct a
transmission loss experiment to evaluate the appropriateness of the predicted safety zones; (4) design an
experimental protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of the pulsed-power system in deterring California sea
lions from interacting with CPFV operations, and the associated effect on angler catch rates; and (5) test
the pulsed-power discharge system in waters off California.


Project No.:
Project Title:


97-NE-13 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Development of Solutions for the Problem of Entanglement of Right Whales with Fixed
Fishing Gear
Federal: $60,000

Description: To develop solutions to the problem of right whale entanglement with the buoy lines of
fixed fishing gear. This will be accomplished with a contract to design, develop, and test a weak link
which will allow the surface buoy of fixed fishing gear to separate from the line when the buoy line is
snagged. The contract will also include the development of a mechanism or means to replace knots and
buoy attachments with smooth transitional devices which will not hang up on the baleen or appendages of
right whales.

Project No.:
Project Title:


97-AK-13 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Bycatch of Halibut and Sablefish as an Impediment to Development of a Commercial
Fishery for Arrowtooth Flounder
Federal: $200,000

Description: To develop approaches to minimize the bycatch of halibut and sablefish in a directed
arrowtooth flounder fishery. In order to develop a commercial fishery for arrowtooth flounder, the
bycatch issue must be addressed. The composition, distribution, annual cycle, and natural history of the
species will be examined. Historical information available from NMFS surveys will be analyzed to
develop predictive models for catch composition based on environmental factors, geographic location, and

time. Windows of spatial distribution of fish stocks may allow arrowtooth flounder harvesting without
significant bycatch of prohibited species.

Project No.:
Project Title:


97-SW-01 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Determination of Viable Technical and Operational Solutions for Reduction of
Economic Discards in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Fishery
Federal: $99,000

Description: To identify commercially viable technical or operational measures to significantly reduce
lobster bycatch (economic discards) and minimize bycatch mortality in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands
lobster fishery.


Grant No.:
Project Title:


Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference, Columbia, SC
NA97FD0087 NMFS Contact: F/SF2
Development of a National Education Program to Influence Consumption Behavior of
High-Risk Individuals Regarding Raw Molluscan Shellfish
Federal: $250,000 Recipient: $52,500

Description: To minimize the number of illnesses and deaths resulting from the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio
vulnificus, due to the consumption of raw oysters. This will be achieved by educating high-risk
consumers to make an informed choice to modify their behavior, thus reducing the risk and, consequently,
the number of cases. This education campaign will focus on both the target-specific content of the
information and the dissemination process. Expanded assistance will be provided to states to enhance the
national implementation of the program developed under an ongoing grant, and to assist other interested
states in participating in the program.


Project No.:
Project Title:

Penaeid Aquaculture
Federal: $35,000

NMFS Contact: F/SER

Desc- option: To conduct further research on aquaculture of penaeids at the Galveston Laboratory, and to
transfer resulting technology to the U.S. aquaculture industry.

Project No.:
Project Title:

96-SE-ML NMFS Contact: F/SER
Evaluation of Baseline Aquaculture Permitting Protocols
Federal: $20,000

Description: To research, codify, and determine feasibility of base guidelines for streamlining the
aquaculture permitting process. A set of common protocols, arrived at by consensus of state and Federal
regulatory units, applicable research personnel, and aquaculture operators, will be developed and
evaluated for practical application. Information on presently utilized aquaculture permitting procedures
will be collected and analyzed. A workshop will be held to develop a draft base permitting process.

Project No.:
Project Title:

96-SW-01 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Evaluate Ultrasound Applications in Salmonid Conservation and Aquaculture
Federal: $30,000

Description: To refine techniques for using ultrasound to determine the maturation of fish prior to
artificial spawning. This will ensure that artificial spawning is performed only during periods of peak
spawning potential and will optimize spawning success by minimizing handling of fish. The technology
developed for this project will be applied to the captive breeding program for endangered winter run
chinook salmon. In addition, the applications developed for this project will also enhance our ability to
successfully rear other species of fish for aquaculture.


This section contains an assessment of each S-K Grant Program project completed during the period
June 1, 1999 to May 31, 2000, regarding the extent to which the objectives of the project were attained
and the project contributed to fishery development. The projects are listed by grantee within each subject
area, along with the grant number, project title, federal funding level, recipient funding level (i.e., cost
share), and NMFS contact.


Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
NA86FD0107 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Bioconversion of Mackerel Byproducts into Value-Added Products for the Nursery and
Plant Propagation Industry
Federal: $62,215 Recipient: $18,708

Assessment: This project has helped to develop mackerel hydrolysates, both soluble and insoluble, into
value-added products that can be commercialized into the nursery and seed industries. The project has
clearly identified that the proline, proline analog (hydroxy proline), and proline precursors (glutamic acid
and arginine) in the fishery hydrolysates are involved in improving plant propagation efficiency and seed
vigor beyond the general nutrient value of fishery byproducts. This efficiency can be improved with some
synergistic phenolics. Based on this, the preliminary results indicate elite clonal extracts of oregano with
natural phenolics can show improved seed vigor and improved propagation efficiency with fishery
hydrolysates. Based on the preceding solid and very successful conceptual foundation, the investigators
proposed a strategy to commercialize mackerel and other fishery byproducts into the nursery and seed
industries. In order to accomplish this, a fishery byproduct producer (Connolly Sea Foods) and the
University of Massachusetts have been brought together to produce a spin-off
company-PhytoBioSystems-to develop a commercial formulation that can be marketed to the U.S.
nursery and seed industries. This project resulted in three manuscripts published or accepted for
publication and two more manuscripts in preparation.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Maine, Orono, ME
NA76FD0100 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Determination of Aeration Rates, End-Product Quality, and Economic Analysis
of In-Vessel Composting Systems for Crab Waste Products
Federal: $86,172 Recipient: $13,788

Assessment: This study was conducted to evaluate in-vessel composting of crab processing waste mixed
with wood shavings as a bulking agent. Experimental vessels were designed and built for the research
study. Four different aeration strategies with intermittent aeration were used as treatments. Composting
process parameters and compost final product quality characteristics were compared for the different
aeration treatments. A 28-day in-vessel composting phase with a final curing phase in outdoor window

was the process tested. All aeration treatments provided suitable conditions for adequate in-vessel
composting with no significant differences in the process parameters for the different treatments.
The in-vessel composting was successful for all treatments, producing a high-quality compost product.
For the different aeration treatments, product quality characteristics had similar results in general. The
tests showed that differences in ambient temperatures and differences in initial mix conditions created
more variability in final product quality than the aeration treatment differences caused. An economic
evaluation was conducted to compare two commercial in-vessel composting systems-windrow
composting and land filling--as alternative waste treatment options. The economic analysis indicated that
in-vessel composting systems could be profitable, but window composting was the most cost-effective
composting system. However, window composting can be problematic. In-vessel composting has the
advantages of allowing for the containment of odors and isolation of the waste from vectors and vermin
while providing an environmentally friendly value-added product from the crab processing waste.

Grantee: University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA
Grant No.: NA76FD0108 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Investigate the Impact of Reduced Fresh Groundfish Supply on Processors and
Funding: Federal: $28,896 Recipient: $11,641

Assessment: Based on earlier work conducted by the recipient, this project analyzes the impact of the
drop in the supply of whole fish on New England processors after the implementation of Amendments 5
and 7. The following 10 conclusions were reached: (1) Despite the continuing decline of groundfish
landings, Boston continues to lead fresh groundfish processing in New England (see below). (2) With the
possible exception of Gloucester, processors in other ports have not fared as well as those in Boston.


9 0 91 92 93 94 9 96 7 90 t1 92 93 94 95 96 97
Boston groundfish landings (left) and Boston fresh groundfish fillet production (right)

(3) Long-term relationships or loyalties among processors, their suppliers, and their customers have
continued to erode, contributing to the day-to-day variability of ex-vessel input prices on the one hand and
wholesale prices on the other. Although operating and profit margins may not have changed radically on
an annualized basis, profit margins have become increasingly difficult to maintain. (4) Survival
techniques-including importing fresh fillets, exploiting niches, substituting for groundfish, focusing more
on wholesaling, and closely watching the bottom line-continue and have been extended, becoming
essential features of successful processors' purchasing and marketing strategies. (5) Boston's advantages
in transport costs and clustering far outweigh access to local landings of processors in other ports. (6)
Smaller firms have turned to wholesaling or have simply vanished. Not only are there fewer and typically
larger firms, but the processors' markets have become more concentrated. (7) Although no processor can
be said to enjoy an assured supply of whole fish, large firms are better able to draw on widely scattered
geographic sources and adapt to display auctions, which now are an indispensable source of domestic
whole fish. (8) It had been assumed that increased supplies ofunderutilized species would likely lead to
intense price competition for a small share of the established markets. This did not occur. Demand
expanded for these and other species, followed by intensive fishing and then stock declines. These
formerly underutilized stocks are now severely depleted. The U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing
restrictive management plans for these species. (9) It was predicted that the number of firms that switched
to wholesaling firms from processing would decline because some of the firms that had switched could
not survive the competitive pressures of wholesaling. There is some evidence of this, but it is not
conclusive. (10) Although stock recovery does not look promising for any Atlantic groundfish species, an
increase in groundfish stocks and landings could stabilize or may even reverse declines in employment
and in the number of processing firms.

Grantee: University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
Grant No.: NA76FDO109 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Commercialization of an Ultrasonic Device for Measuring Fat Content of Mackerel
Funding: Federal: $68,758 Recipient: $0

Assessment: The overexploitation of certain fish species has meant that the fishing industry has directed
its attention toward the use of underutilized species such as mackerel. The effective utilization of
mackerel largely depends on its fat content, and, therefore, the fishing industry requires analytical
techniques to rapidly grade mackerel according to its composition. A hand-held ultrasonic device has
been developed that can be used to provide information about fish composition. The composition is
determined from measurements of the ultrasonic velocity of fish, either at a fixed temperature or over a
range of temperatures. A series of empirical equations was developed to relate ultrasonic velocity
measurements to fish composition. The recipient demonstrated that the compositions determined using
the ultrasonic velocity technique were in good agreement with those determined by official methods for a
number of fish species including cod, mackerel, salmon, and tuna. The technique is now at the stage
where a commercial instrument manufacturer could develop it, providing there is sufficient interest and a
large enough market in the fishing industry.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Rhode Island Seafood Council, Wakefield, RI
NA66FD0016 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Commercial Utilization of Atlantic Mackerel: Technology, Production, and Marketing
Federal: $198,082 Recipient: $51,250

Assessment: This project consisted of two basic areas of work tied together by several objectives: (1)
cyroprotection of light-flesh mackerel mince and prototype product development and (2) break-even
analysis for the production of Atlantic herring and Atlantic mackerel frozen block products. The project
addressed quality parameters for frozen mince, commercial pilot testing of mechanical systems, and
prototype production for market trials. In addition, the project reviewed landings, trade, and management
of mackerel and herring and provided break-even analysis, analysis of market potential for the products
that were developed, and the results of product testing. Although the team of professionals assembled for
this project worked well together, progress was delayed by supply issues and an oil spill. Product
evaluation yielded very positive scores for taste, texture, and "mouth feel" across the spectrum of
products. However, ultimately the investigators determined that commercial production would not be
feasible. Project managers had hoped that a processor would be able to move among different projects
and thus fully utilize raw material, but this became impossible when machine processing and extraction of
the light flesh on the frozen mackerel was attempted. Utilization of the whole mackerel as a mince
product proved to be too expensive and noncompetitive with other products in the market.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Georgia, Athens, GA
NA77FD0061 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Assessment of Ark Populations in the Whelk and Calico Scallop Fishing Grounds off the
Coasts of Georgia and Florida to Determine Distribution, Abundance, and Potential
Commercial Fishery Development for the Cut-Ribbed Ark (Anadarafloridana) and
Other Promising Commercial Ark Species
Federal: $49,521 Recipient: $23,489

Assessment: This study surveyed wild ark populations to determine potential commercial fishery
development in Georgia. Most ark beds occurred in closed waters that have not been certified by the State
of Georgia for the harvest of shellfish. The ark beds are limited in size and could be easily overfished. In
addition, density is generally low, so commercial harvest probably is not economically feasible. However,
two ark species, the blood ark (Anadara ovalis) and the incongruous ark (A. brasiliana), demonstrated
rapid growth and relatively large size. These species show potential for use in marine aquaculture.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK
NA76FD0034 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Utilization of Giant Grenadier (Albatrossiapectoralis)-Year 2: Production of Stabilized
Mince and Development of a Promo4o'oal/Marketing Study
Federal: $86,543 Recipient: $17,308

Assessment: Stabilized minces were produced from giant grenadier (Albatrossiapectoralis) fillets using
flaking technology and the addition of additives including gums and proteins. Carrageenan and konjak
flour and carrageenan/whey protein and carrageenan/beef protein mixtures significantly firmed the mince

and provided good frozen shelf life stability. However, evaluation by potential end users of the products
found poor texture when compared to cod and pollock minces. The use of giant grenadier in stabilized
minces does not appear to be a good use for this resource.

Grantee: Alaska Food Group, Juneau, AK
Grant No.: NA76FD0041 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Dried Fish Asian Market Investigation and Analysis and an Industry Demonstration
Project to Produce Dried Fishery Products from Underutilized Salmon and Bycatch
Funding: Federal: $189,935 Recipient: $89,935

Assessment: Alaskan resources vary from low-value species that have little to no market acceptance to
very high-priced wanted species where marketability is limited only by supply. This study concentrated
on the marketability of dried underutilized salmon and bycatch species to the Asian market. How to
transform a low-value raw material into a valuable consumer product that can be sold at a price that covers
all processing and transportation costs and that yields a profit is a common issue being addressed around
the world. Until now, Alaskan and other Pacific Coast-based processors have been able to fish top-end
valuable fisheries resources and either throw overboard or avoid unwanted species. However, this study
found that drying lower-valued species is a viable solution to bycatch problems. This study included the
following recommendations: (1) identify established dried seafood products in a targeted country and then
use a backwards-planning technique that starts with the consumer and the market price sold at retail and
then works backwards to the catching of the resource; (2) select a target market or segment of a market
and concentrate on penetrating that market; (3) support, promote, and encourage tariff reductions in
countries that consume dried and value-enhance seafoods; (4) invite dried seafood technicians to assist in
the development of American-made seafood products to better accommodate the tastes of a targeted
foreign consumer population; and (5) develop partnerships with foreign dried seafood producers and
marketing companies to help create markets for Alaskan-produced dried seafood products.

Grantee: Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR
Grant No.: NA90AAHSK138 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Project Title: Role of Pacific Groundfish in International Groundfish Trade-Year 2
Funding: Federal: $74,744 Recipient: $25,296

Assessment: The objective of the project was to estimate existing and potential sources of world
groundfish supplies, including estimates of production; determine trade flows for groundfish, including
demand factors, national economic indicators, international trade factors, and characteristics of
distribution networks; and determine the role Pacific groundfish may play in the international trade arena.
The report is a series of country chapters that describe various trends (up to the early 1990s) in groundfish
production, demand, trade, distribution, and consumption for the following countries: United States,
China, Japan, Norway, Russia and the Baltic states, Mexico, and Korea.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Oregon State University, Astoria, OR
NA76FD0212 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Production of Anserine and Carnosine Containing Antioxidant from Surimi Wash Water
Federal: $71,070 Recipient: $11,081

Assessment: The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of anserine and carnosine
in surimi wash water at all stages of processing, to test methods to remove and concentrate the dipeptides,
and to study the effect of dipeptides on color of seafood products. Anserine and carnosine are water-
soluble dipeptides (found in the skeletal muscle of fish) that have antioxidant properties. These dipeptides
were removed through the washing process in surimi production using heat treatments and ultrafiltration.
The content of anserine and carnosine in surimi wash water was highest in the first two stages of surimi
processing using both heat treatment and ultrafiltration. Iron concentration in surimi wash water was
negligible and did not affect antioxidant activity. Surimi wash water extract at a lower concentration
combined with other food antioxidants was effective in maintaining color in salmon patties. Surimi wash
water extract potentially can be used as an economical food antioxidant that can extend shelf life.
However, more research is needed to remove compounds that contribute to undesirable flavors and odors.


Grant No.:
Project Title:


Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA
NA77FD0073 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Analysis of the Genetic Stock Structure of Atlantic Sailfish using Restriction
Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Both Mitochondrial DNA and PCR-
Amplified DNA
Federal: $62,713 Recipient: $12,859

Assessment: The goal of this study was to evaluate the east-west stock hypothesis currently used by the
International Committee for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas for the management of sailfish. Both
mitochondrial and nuclear DNA was analyzed using samples taken from sailfish in the eastern and
western Atlantic. Overall genetic diversity was very high, and no consistent differences were found
between fish from the two regions. The results of the study are consistent with a small amount of
east-west gene flow and substantially larger amounts of north-south gene flow. Because statistical values
obtained from east-west comparisons were on the edge of significance, it appears the most conservative
management decision would be to continue with'current management models.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL
NA77FD0075 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Production and Testing ofImmunoassay Kits for the Identification of Billfish Species
Federal: $18,000 Recipient: $1,530

Assessment: The goal of the project was to modify and improve a previously developed billfish
identification kit. The modified kit employs a monoclonal antibody that binds to a site on sailfish albumin

found in the blood and tissues of sailfish. The kit consists of a white polystyrene paddle that is dipped
into a macerated sample of sailfish tissue. After addition of three reagents, a blue color develops on the
surface of the paddle in the presence of sailfish tissue.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Boone Bait Company, Winter Park, FL
NA27FD0095 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Analyze the Impact of EC92 on the U.S. Fishing Tackle Industry
Federal: $ 79,000 Recipient: $45,000

Assessment: The objective of this study was to describe and analyze the emerging European rules and
regulations concerning imports of fishing tackle that were being established as the result of the formation
of the European Union. These rules and regulations govern tariffs, standards, labeling requirements, and
other non-tariff barriers. Eastern Bloc tariff and non-tariff barriers also were described. The report was
based on interviews with government and key industry representatives during 1992 and 1993.
Distributors, wholesalers, and retailers were interviewed about the following markets: Belgium, France,
Germany, Spain, Portugal, Holland, Scotland, Ireland, England, Norway Sweden, Czech Republic,
Hungary, and Poland. The study concluded that Europe will represent the largest and easiest opportunity
for marketing outside the continental United States. Results were formally presented to the American
Fishing Tackle Manufacturers Association in November 1993.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

MBC Applied Environmental Sciences, Costa Mesa, CA
NA76FD0050 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Southern California Commercial Sportfish Catch Database
Federal: $93,755 Recipient: $88,383

Assessment: Microfiche copies of the Los Angeles Times (which reports the daily catch of commercial
sportfishing boats along the southern California coast) from 1959 to 1997 were searched, and more than
14,000 daily reports were assembled and photocopied. These data, representing almost 400,000 catch
reports for some 25 sportfishing landings, were complied into a CD-ROM database that allows rapid
retrieval of historical catch and angler effort data and the analysis of spatial and temporal trends.


Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH
NA76FD0103 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Collaborative Decision-Making Workshops
Federal: $ 25,800 Recipient: $0

Assessment: The goal of this project was to have a minimum of 200 fisheries management stakeholders
from New England receive instruction in collaborative decision making. Seven workshops were held:
two in Massachusetts and Maine and one each in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The

curriculum was appropriate and met the goal of introducing the concept of collaborative decision making.
The evaluations were very good with a couple of exceptions. The investigators did use the evaluation to
make changes as the process went along. The two concerns that surfaced were: (1) Why should
stakeholders attempt to solve problems when the government always has the last say. Specifically, many
fishermen had trouble understanding the value of bringing a proposal or solution with multi-stakeholder
support to a government agency. They felt that past experiences demonstrated that the government did not
listen. It was felt that going to all the trouble of bringing people together could be a waste of time.
(2) When participants began to "see the light" and started to think seriously about addressing an issue, the
following question always came up: Who is going to pay for the facilitator? Most people recognized the
value of having a neutral facilitator but could not imagine fishermen coming up with the money to pay for
one. There are many opportunities to use collaborative problem solving in fisheries and marine issues,
and these opportunities can improve the quality of the decisions and our marine environment.

Grantee: Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA
Grant No.: NA76FD0111 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Determination of Spawning Success and Female Fecundity to Assess the New England
Squid Fishery
Funding: Federal: $89,021 Recipient: $47,049

Assessment: The recipient examined actual and potential reproductive output of loligo squid with
particular attention to the females' abilities to lay multiple clutches of eggs. Combining the results of two
summer spawning seasons, 28 of 47 females that laid eggs in captivity produced substantial clutches (i.e.,
5 or more egg capsules per clutch) at least twice. Multiply ovipositing females exhibited a variety of
patterns of oviposition, ranging from relatively small clutches at short intervals to large clutches several
weeks apart. Actual reproductive output varied greatly between females. In both years, the number of egg
capsules and ova laid showed a negative relationship with the combined mass of the ovary and oviduct at
the time of death. Separate correlations between the number of ova laid and the combined number of
oocytes and ova remaining in the reproductive tract at death revealed a similarly negative, although
statistically weaker, relationship in both years. Most important, the number of ova laid in captivity (mean
= 11,800 in 1997 and mean = 15,293 in 1998) exceeded the combined number of ova and oocytes
remaining at death (mean ca. 4,500 in both years) by roughly three times, providing an indication of the
extent to which only counting remaining oocytes and ova can underestimate fecundity. The ages of
ovipositing females spanned four to six months. Interestingly, neither age nor mantle length consistently
affected reproductive output, i.e., short young females could be just as fecund as longer older females. A
supplementary feeding experiment failed to demonstrate an effect of feeding regime on captive life span
or reproductive output. The females in one year (1998) were maintained in isolation without access to
males; these females laid fertilized eggs, some over periods of 15 or more days, demonstrating the use of
stored sperm. For females that had oviposited in both years, the oocytes remaining in the ovary always
ranged greatly in size and structure. Thus, the "spawning strategy" of Loligopealeii appears to involve
multiple ovipositions over weeks or months, with oocytes possibly being developed continually. Placing
the results of this study in a larger context, reproduction by females in this and other loliginids most likely
entails copulation with multiple males and laying of multiple clutches of eggs, possibly in different

Grantee: Gloucester Fishermen's Wives Development Programs, Inc.
Grant No.: NA76FD0 112 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Oral History Project to Collect Traditional Ecological Knowledge (Including Spawning
Area Data) and Develop an Historical Record of Fisherman/Scientist Interactions
Funding: Federal: $54,203 Recipient: $4,750

Assessment: This project conducted interviews with fishermen with the intention to build a database of
traditional spawning areas using a Geographic Information System (GIS), to secure a series of oral
histories of fishermen's experiences at sea, and to document joint efforts between fishermen and
scientists. Twenty-eight interviews were conducted, 21 of which were with individuals, and 7 others that
were with two or more interviewees. Full transcription of 17 of the interviews has yielded about 650
pages of oral history. Fishermen were the respondents in 22 interviews. National Marine Fisheries
Service scientists (social and biological) were the respondents in six interviews. Given the allocated funds
and time, not all the tapes have been transcribed and analyzed. The GIS component of this project was an
essential part of the critical documentation process and should continue to be supported. The recipient's
findings indicate that both the environmental knowledge and the fishing practices of fishermen are
inherently spatial. If fisheries science is to consider input from fishermen at the level of resource
assessment, then it is vital that their spatial/environmental knowledge be documented and corroborated via
mapping and GIS techniques. Although fishermen cannot often provide quantitative information for
numerical assessment, they harbor a wealth of information on where fish migrate, aggregate, and spawn.
In addition, fishermen can provide accurate records of their own spatial fishing practices, also useful to
fisheries assessment. The recipient concludes that with additional support, the recipient could develop
and maintain a GIS database of fishermen's local environmental knowledge.

Grantee: New York University Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY
Grant No.: NA76FD0144 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Mixed Stock Analysis of Wintertime Aggregations of Striped Bass along the Mid-
Atlantic Coast
Funding: Federal: $80,016 Recipient: $35,901

Assessment: Almost all striped bass (Morone saxatilis) along the mid-Atlantic coast originate from two
estuaries: the Hudson River and the Chesapeake Bay. Both stocks winter in coastal waters, where they
may be subject to bycatch fisheries (e.g., the Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, dogfish fishery). Virtually
nothing is known regarding the stock composition of wintertime aggregations of striped bass. During the
mid-1970s, it was estimated that about 90% of the striped bass found along the northeast U.S. coast were
from the Chesapeake Bay. By the late 1980s, the Hudson River was contributing more than half of the
striped bass found along the coast. In 1993, the historical high for the Maryland juvenile striped bass
survey was recorded; thus, relative contributions of the two stocks may have shifted back toward
domination by the Chesapeake Bay stock. The grant recipient analyzed genotypic frequency data derived
from composite information on single-copy nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA major length variation
of striped bass collected from three latitudinally widespread locations: during winter 1995--1996 off the
New Jersey coast, and during winter 1997-1998 at the mouth of Delaware Bay and off Cape Hatteras,
North Carolina. The recipient also determined genotypic frequencies for striped bass from three reference
spawning tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay not previously characterized: the Nanticoke, Patuxent, and
Pocomoke Rivers. Contingency analysis indicated an absence of statistical heterogeneity among the three
wintertime coastal collections. Stock composition analysis of the aggregate wintertime collections (N =

356) showed a strong Chesapeake Bay contribution (80%) and a lower Hudson River contribution (20%).
Stock composition analysis of the contemporaneous Delaware Bay and North Carolina collections in
aggregate showed contributions of about 16% for the Hudson River stock and 84% for the Chesapeake
Bay stock. Discrete stock composition analyses on the three collections suggested a significantly higher
Hudson River contribution for the New Jersey collection, but asynchronicity and statistical questions
made the validity of such analyses uncertain. The recipient also examined the utility of additional
mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA markers for stock composition analysis of coastal migratory striped

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA
NA77FD0066 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Use of Probes and Artificial Recruit Collectors to Monitor and Enhance the
Success of Bay Scallop Reseeding Programs
Federal: $60,393 Recipient: $27,191

Assessment: This project's first objective was to develop a bay scallop-specific genetic probe that could
be used to quantitatively detect bay scallop larvae in plankton samples. The second objective was to
determine whether reintroduction of bay scallops into Tampa Bay, Florida, produced larvae and whether
larval production could be correlated to recruitment success. These goals were fully achieved. A
genus-specific Argopecten probe was designed, and this probe was used in field studies to demonstrate
that scallops transplanted into Tampa Bay did produce larvae. Enhanced recruitment relative to previous
years was observed, but it was unclear whether this was due to reintroduced bay scallops.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Gulf& South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, Tampa, FL
NA77FD0068 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Continuation of an Observer Program to Characterize and Compare Regional Efforts in
the Directed Shark Fishery in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic
Federal: $180,238 Recipient: $0

Assessment: This award supported on-board fishery observers in the commercial shark longline fishery.
Three observers monitored 45 fishing trips that fished 94 longline sets. The catch was dominated by
sandbar, tiger, and Atlantic sharpnose sharks. Based on the NMFS stock assessment, the two species that
appear to be most affected by this fishery are sandbar and dusky sharks. Size limits appear appropriate for
this fishery because (1) a substantial number of immature individuals of both species are caught and
landed and (2) several stock evaluations have indicated that reducing mortality on these younger size
groups will make the greatest contribution to stock recovery.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
NA77FD0069 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Assessing Status and Trends of Florida's Halfbeak Fishery
Federal: $64,899 Recipient: $51,068

Assessment: The goal of this research was to determine whether changes in landings and effort in the
halfbeak fishery during the early 1990s indicated a need for further management options. The two species
in this fishery are the ballyhoo and baloa (see below). The research showed that there was a gradual
increase in harvest rates over time and that fishing effort had shifted southward. A sharp rise in landings
in the early 1990s was caused by a geographic shift in the fishery due to the implementation of the Florida
net ban and is believed to be temporary. Overall, the halfbeak fishery and its resource population were
found to be healthy, and the investigators determined that further fishing regulations were unnecessary.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
NA57FD0070 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Economic Analysis of the U.S. Shrimp Market and Impacts of Management Measures
Federal: $96,776 Recipient: $32,378

Assessment: The primary purpose of the study was to analyze world trade in warm-water shrimp, with
emphasis given to the United States and Japan. A 10-equation system of import demand and export
supply functions was developed and estimated using quarterly time-series data covering the 1985-1995
period. An equation depicting the Gulf of Mexico dockside price was developed and estimated using
quarterly time-series data for the 1980-1995 period. Results of these exercises were then used to forecast
changes in relevant endogenous variables, particularly the Gulf of Mexico dockside price, that would
likely occur as the result of specific changes in key exogenous variables such as regional aquaculture

production. The simulation analysis suggests that even relatively large changes in certain exogenous
factors, such as Asian cultured shrimp production, will have only moderate impacts on the Gulf of Mexico
dockside price structure.

Grantee: University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK
Grant No.: NA76FD0032 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Comparison of Three Genetic Methodologies for Stock Identification of Pink, Chum, and
Sockeye Salmon in the North Pacific-Phase 2
Funding: Federal: $156,604 Recipient: $28,567

Assessment: This project was designed to provide a comparison of three sources of genetic variability for
use in stock identification of Pacific salmon, specifically chum, sockeye, and pink salmon. Samples were
obtained of chum, sockeye, and both even- and odd-broodyear pink salmon from populations spanning the
North Pacific Ocean. From those samples, three types of genetic data from each fish were obtained for
comparison. The data were allozyme variation, mitochondrial sequence variation (restriction fragment
analysis), and nuclear microsatellite DNA variation (size differences). The populations were sampled
using a geographical hierarchy for analysis of the extent of divergence among populations at several of the
geographical levels. The screening of mtDNA sequence variation was done with restriction endonuclease
digests of polymerase chain reaction amplified regions, which included more than 95% of the genome.
All species exhibited variation, and the joint variation observed for individuals resulted in between 17 and
45 distinct mtDNA haplotypes per species. The critical issue for stock identification is the distribution of
that variation between populations rather than between individuals within a population. The combination
of restriction enzymes and mtDNA regions that resolve the most haplotypes for the minimum effort were
chosen independently for chum, sockeye, and each broodyear of pink salmon for analyses of larger
numbers of samples and more populations. To make the analysis of allozyme data comparable to
microsatellite and mtDNA analyses, the six most variable allozyme loci were chosen for comparison. The
complete allozyme data set was analyzed to determine the effects of"highgrading" the data. In similar
hierarchical sets of samples, the results were generally the same for all three types of genetic variation.
Sockeye, the most divergent, were followed by chum salmon. Pink salmon did not exhibit nearly as much
divergence as the other species. In addition, the Little Susitna River populations of both chum salmon and
even-broodyear pink salmon were quite divergent from other populations of their species. Comparisons
indicate that no one type of genetic variation is uniformly better. From rank order of their performance in
different species and at different levels of hierarchy, they average nearly the same in their utility.
However, it is clear that microsatellites and mtDNA often have an advantage at lower levels of hierarchy,
whereas allozymes appear to have an advantage at higher levels. The assessment at this point is that there
is no single answer for which type of genetic variation is best for stock identification. In each application,
a decision must be made as to which type of variation, or combination of types, is appropriate. It does
appear that the DNA-based methods may have advantages over allozymes for resolutions of salmon stocks
originating within smaller geographic regions. However, allozyme variation will suffice and may be
preferable for analyses covering broader areas.

Grantee: Alaska Department of Fish & Game, Kodiak, AK
Grant No.: NA76FD0039 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Development of an Expert Computer-Based Imaging System to Enhance Fisheries
Management of Crab and Groundfish Fisheries
Funding: Federal: $93,695 Recipient: $13,624

Assessment: Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi), snow crab (C. opilio), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta
polyxystra), and southern rock sole (L. Bilineata) support import commercial fisheries in Alaska.
Problems in distinguishing Tanner crabs from snow crabs and northern rock sole from southern rock sole
pose problems to fisheries management and research. This project worked toward developing computer
image-processing algorithms capable of distinguishing video images of Tanner crabs from snow crabs and
northern rock soles from southern rock soles, as well as toward developing a field version of a prototype
image-processing system. Results of this project showed that carapace outlines can be successfully
extracted from high-noise video images of whole live Tanner and snow crabs and that northern rock sole
and southern rock sole can be successfully classified by the software developed during this project.
Reliable classification of crabs based on the extracted carapace contours, however, will require retraining
of current classification software. The algorithm for classifying rock sole should be tested with a larger
sample of video images before it is used in data gathering. A computer system suitable for using the
developed image-processing software at field data-collection sites was acquired and was ready for
deployment as of August 1999.

Grantee: University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK
Grant No.: NA66FD0043 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Availability of Commercial Fish Species as Food for Marine Mammals-Year 2
Funding: Federal: $135,545 Recipient: $23,172

Assessment: This study estimated species composition and abundance of potential prey available to
juvenile Steller sea lions in the vicinity of six sea lion rookeries in the Gulf of Alaska. Bottom trawl
surveys of juvenile groundfish were conducted during the summers of 1995 and 1996 and were compared
to a similar survey conducted in 1994. In 1996 a predator sampling program was added to analyze the
prey composition of large predatory fishes caught by longline at four sea lion rookeries. Abundance of
juvenile flatfishes and gadids in trawl samples differed significantly among rookeries but not among years.
Higher abundances of both groups were found in the western part of the study area along the Alaska
Peninsula. Lowest abundances of flatfishes and gadids were found in the vicinity of the lea lion rookeries
on Sugarloaf and Marmot Island. Fishes were a minor component of Pacific halibut diets near Sugarloaf
and Marmot Island, while a large proportion of fishes, particularly gadids and osmerids, were consumed
by halibut at Atkins and Ugamak Islands. Low abundances of potential sea lion prey in both trawl
samples and fish diets in the eastern part of the study area coincided with the highest observed declines in
sea lion populations.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of Washington, Seattle, WA
NA76FD0299 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Development of a Semi-Automated Microsatellite Based Genotyping System for Kinship
Analysis of Chinook Salmon
Federal: $80,145 Recipient: $11,089

Assessment: The objective of this project was to develop and test a sensitive genetic tool for accurate,
large-scale kinship analyses of chinook salmon. A total of 64 microsatellite loci were screened and used
to select a panel of 14 highly variable loci for kinship determination. The panel of loci was tested using
real chinook salmon families as well as simulated populations and was found to be highly effective for
determining relatedness. Tests of the panel of loci on six chinook populations confirmed that the loci are
sufficiently variable in all populations to serve in kinship analysis.

Grant No:
Project Title:


Hui Malama O Mo'omomi, Kaunakakai, Molokai, HI
NA67FD0051 NMFS Contact: F/SWO
Education in Subsistence Fishing Methods and Values: Mo'omomi Community
Subsistence Fishing Area, Island of Molokai, Hawaii
Federal: $80,275 Recipient: $57,700

Assessment: The objective of this project was to design and implement an educational program to initiate
novice fishermen in subsistence fishing methods and values and to facilitate exchange of resource
knowledge between subsistence fishers and scientifically trained fishery managers. The recipient
implemented project objectives through presentations to elementary-, intermediate-, and high school-aged
children. Presentations also were made at community events and conferences, and meetings were
convened with local fishers and scientific experts. This grant helped support an annual program that
trains intermediate- and high school-aged youths in subsistence fishing methods/values. With the help of
outside scientific expertise, a resource monitoring program was established at the subsistence fishing area.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


The Regents of the University of California, Berkeley, CA
NA76FD0053 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Sportfish in California Waters: Seasonal and Interannual Distribution and Dependence
on Oceanic Temperature
Federal: $88,400 Recipient: $0

Assessment: Fishery reports of California passenger fishing vessels covering California and Mexican
coastal waters from 1936 to 1998 were recovered from deteriorating paper ledgers into a digital database.
The electronic database was extensively verified and includes monthly summaries and annual totals of
catch and effort on a fine spatial grid spanned by California Department of Fish and Game fish blocks. It
contains a total of 338 million angler hours and catch of 266 marine fish and invertebate species. The
long time and detailed spatial coverage of effort and catch represent a unique resource for fisheries
research and management. Monthly estimates of catch and catch per unit effort for migratory species in
southern California waters show a rich spatial and temporal variability on seasonal, interannual, and
decadal time scales. Of particular note is the unprecedented availability of highly desirable migratory
sport fish species during the 1990s, which coincides with anomalously warm oceanic waters.


Grant No.:
Project Title:


National Fisheries Institute, Inc., Arlington, VA
NA86FD0113 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Bycatch in Pelagic Longline Fisheries: Temporal, Spatial, Gear, and Operational
Characteristics for Longline Sets North of 35 Degrees North Latitude
Federal: $35,173 Recipient: $11,618

Assessment: This project supported the production and distribution of 600 copies of a 78-page "Captain's
Report" on the Multi-Species Characteristics of the U.S. Atlantic Pelagic Longline Fishery. The report
was based on data collected by on-board scientific observers deployed on U.S. pelagic longline vessels
between 1990 and 1997, accounting for 3,397 sets with 2.2 million hooks and a total catch of slightly
more than 115,000 individual animals. The primary emphasis was on analyzing the temporal, spatial,
gear, and operational characteristics within distinct regions of the U.S. fishery and relating these
characteristics to the resulting multi-species catch. The report updated and expanded previous summaries
by providing additional details on operating practices, fishery performance, and gear characteristics. The
report also provided catch and disposition characteristics in terms of both numbers and weight by species
and/or species group that was kept, released alive, and/or discarded dead (see below).




ORel. Alive
INDiscard Dead

Blue sharks
Bigeye Tuna
Large Coastal S
Blue & White Marlin
Protected Res
Mako Sharks
Bluefin Tuna
Other Fish
Other Pelagic Sharks
Sailfish / Spearfish
Other Sharks
Other Tuna
Small Coastal S

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Thousand Pounds
Species disposition histogram in descending weight order for 3,334 pelagic longline sets
that caught 112,370 animals weighing 7,173,800 pounds.

_I .- .. r -=~Wi



The presentation and development of weight estimates by species and disposition based on a data set of
set-specific animal records is a new treatment of the available data. Additionally, the report provided
distribution maps based on the use of Geographic Information System software for 16 species and
described several "species of management concern" in separate case study sections. The "Captain's
Report" was produced on heavy coated paper in a spiral bound format that will stand up to use aboard
boats. The report was sent to permit holders of swordfish and shark permits as well as to regional
management councils and scientists in federal, state, and international organizations.

Grantee: Maine Department of Marine Resources, Augusta, ME
Grant No.: NA76FD0097 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Reduction of Finfish and Juvenile Shrimp Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine Northern Shrimp
Fishery through the Use of a Modified Double Nordmore Grate
Funding: Federal: $131,402 Recipient: $15,223

Assessment: Shrimp fishermen in the Gulf of Maine are required to use a finfish excluder called a
Nordmore grate. This single grate is very effective at releasing large fish from nets, but it is not very good
at releasing finfish similar in size to shrimp. Prior work showed some success in reducing the catch of
submarket-size shrimp by the addition of a second Nordmore grate, with the second grate releasing the
small shrimp. The double Nordmore grate system was tested for the bar spacing in the second grate that
would release the most small shrimp without reducing the catch of market-size shrimp. Trials with bar
spaces of 1/4" (6.4 mm), 5/16" (7.9 mm), 3/8" (9.6 mm), 7/16" (11.1 mm), and V2" (12.7 mm) showed that
/2" provided the best escapement of small shrimp but allowed too many large shrimp to escape also (see
next page). The 7/16" bar spacing gave the best combination of retention of large shrimp and release of
small shrimp. None of these trials showed measurable differences in escapement of small finfish through
the bars of the second grate. The V2" bar spacing was used in tests of two additional devices designed to
improve the escapement of small shrimp and finfish bycatch that still made it to the cod end. These
devices were hoops designed to spread the mesh in the cod end and water scoops on either side of the
second grate designed to increase the water flow through the cod end. In the tests, neither device
improved the escapement of shrimp, nor did they appear to improve the escapement of finfish.
Unexpectedly, the hoops retained more shrimp than the controls in all cases, possibly due to reduced
water flow through the individual meshes. Two further modifications-the addition of a funnel between
the grates and the use of square mesh in the cod end-did not substantially increase the separation of small
shrimp from the catch.

Grantee: Maine Department of Marine Resources, Augusta, ME
Grant No.: NA76FD0101 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Using Observers to Monitor Status of Atlantic Herring Spawning Stocks and Groundfish
Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine
Funding: Federal: $ 71,220 Recipient: $ 5,332

Assessment: The first objective of this project was to collect bycatch data and determine what percentage
of the catch made by purse seiners and mid-water trawlers was composed of groundfish and other species
and to analyze the data for spatial and temporal patterns. Results of the bycatch monitoring indicate that
the herring fishery is a clean one. The only two species that showed up in the catches in significant
quantities were dogfish and mackerel. In the 50 purse seine sets and 54 trawl tows that were monitored,
groundfish accounted for 0.05% of the total trawl catch and 0.0001% of the purse seine catch, and those
percentages reflect small amounts of whiting. It should be understood, however, that mid-water trawlers
make about 800 trips a year, so a sample of 27 trips only represents about 3.5% of all trips. Occasional
catches of groundfish could occur in this fishery when a net gets too close to the bottom or when
groundfish (particularly juveniles) rise up into mid-water. It would be a mistake to conclude from this
study that there is no groundfish bycatch in mid-water gear (or purse seines). It is clear that whatever
bycatch does occur in the herring fishery, it is the exception rather than the rule. The second objective of
this project was to use observers to train fishermen to collect catch and effort information and record other
observations on the distribution, size, and spawning condition of herring harvested at sea. A form was

Control Cod End
> 2000 Expt-- -End
a) 1 1/2" Grate Bag
= 1500

O 500


Dorsal Carapace Length (mm)

Mean length frequency of northern shrimp in cod end and in bag between 1/2" bar space second grate vs. control
net cod end (four paired tows, data smoothed by average of three)

designed for this purpose and given to a number of fishermen. However, no one was interested in filling it
out because (1) much of the information requested was duplicative of information that fishermen are
required to include in their vessel trip reports and (2), because this was a voluntary program, it was
impossible to sustain the fishermen's interest once the observer was off the boat. After a couple of
months, the fill-in form was abandoned for a voluntary phone-in system. The fishermen are now using the
phone-in system to report daily catches and fishing locations (but not haul-by-haul or set-by-set
information). Fishermen generally prefer making a phone call to writing information down on paper.
Perhaps in the future, a phone-in system could be used to obtain more detailed catch and effort
information from selected fishermen.

Grantee: Manomet Observatory for Conservation Science, Manomet, MA
Grant No.: NA76FD0110 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Bycatch Reduction Project
Funding: Federal: $266,139 Recipient: $254,288

Assessment: Small-mesh fishing for squid in Nantucket and Vineyard Sounds during the spring seasonal
fishery results in high catches and discards of undersized flounder and scup, both of which are important
commercial and recreational species. Bycatch rates vary spatially and temporally, but over 30% by weight
of total catch are discarded at sea. The main bycatch and discard species are comprised of summer
flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus), scup (Stenotomus
chrysops), and butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus). Videotape recordings and behavioral analysis of squid
reactions have shown that squid display classical herding behavior and considerable swimming endurance
in the forward part of the net. Loligo are shown to rise when dropping back toward the codend and, in
some cases, are shown to turn and rise on tiring. This behavior was used to separate squid from the main
bycatch species. Separator trawl test trials demonstrated that clear separation between squid and bycatch
species could be achieved by simple gear modifications. Almost all the bycatch was shown to occur in the
bottom codend of the separator trawl, and subsequent trials with a raised foot rope trawl demonstrated that
bycatch and discard rates could be reduced from greater than 30 percent to less than 3 percent by weight
overall. This is a significant reduction in discards. Many other studies ofbycatch and discard reduction
claim success with much less dramatic effects, and in many cases the gear modifications required are
expensive and difficult to rig correctly. In this case, the investigators not only have demonstrated
substantial reductions in discards, but also have demonstrated that these reductions can be achieved by a
simple and inexpensive gear modification. Further work is needed to determine the most effective means
of incorporating these results into gear designs that effectively reduce discards in the squid fishery while
maintaining all or a substantial portion of the marketable catch. Economic analysis of proposed gear
changes should be conducted with input from industry members, and fishermen should be more widely
informed regarding the observed natural behavior of squid. However, it is clear that bycatch and discards
can be significantly reduced in this small-mesh fishery in a cost-effective manner. Further, the results
illustrate the importance of direct observation and of the need to understand the natural behavior of each
of the species of concern. Information of this nature is often difficult to gather, but it can help lead to
innovative, simple, and cost-effective solutions to apparently complex bycatch and discard problems in

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Dana L. Morse, Narragansett, RI
NA76FD0141 NMFS Contact: F/NER
The Effects of Off-Bottom Ground Gear on Flatfish Catches in the Southern New
England Whiting Industry
Federal: $65,339 Recipient: $2,250

Assessment: Bycatch of regulated groundfish species, primarily flatfish, has been a constant issue in New
England fisheries for whiting (Merluccius bilinearis). Gear modifications in present use in the fishery all
occur behind the wing ends, such as the use of sorting grates or raised footropes. Previous work indicates
that it may be possible to select against flatfish from whiting catches by adjusting the ground gear and
bridles. In this study, three modifications to traditional ground gear used in whiting trawls were
examined, and the modifications' efficacy in reducing flatfish catches was tested by raising the ground
gear off the seabed. Experiment #1 employed 12"-diameter rubber bunt bobbins placed along the ground
gear and lower leg of the bridle. Experiment #2 employed 18" bunt bobbins, and experiment #3 examined
the use of 18" bobbins in conjunction with trawl floats placed along the cables. Statistically significant
reduction in the catch rate for two flatfish species occurred in the third set of trials without significant
reduction in the catch rate of whiting.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Maine Department of Marine Resources, Augusta, ME
NA46FD0324 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Lessening the Impact of the Northern Shrimp Fishery on Juvenile Groundfish in the
Western Gulf of Maine
Federal: $99,240 Recipient: $46,419

Assessment: Six configurations of the Nordmore grate and cod end mesh were tested for northern shrimp
mesh selectivity. Of these configurations, the shrimp fishery standard 1-3/4" diamond mesh was
considered the control mesh, and this mesh, as well as the Nordmore grate with 1-3/4" diamond mesh cod
end and Nordmore grate with 1-1/4" square mesh, were tested at 12 inshore stations for finfish retention.
The Nordmore grate with a 1-1/2" square mesh cod end provided the best selection curve for shrimp, but
this configuration was added after testing the other nets and has not been tested for finfish retention. The
Nordmore grate with 1-1/4" square mesh cod end showed improved release of silver hake and red hake
over the Nordmore grate with 1-3/4" diamond mesh, but it showed no improvement for alewives and was
less satisfactory for small plaice. Habitat, benthic community, and predator-prey data based on this study
were added to the Maine Department of Marine Resources database for further characterization of inshore

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Gulf and South Atlantic Fisheries Development Foundation, Inc., Tampa, FL
NA77FD0067 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Continued Efforts to Reduce Bycatch in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Shrimp
Fisheries and Disseminate Such Information to the Fishing Industry
Federal: $560,740 Recipient: $0

Assessment: The project continued research on bycatch reduction in the southeastern U.S. shrimp fishery.
Activities included evaluating new bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) and disseminating information

concerning current BRDs to the shrimp industry. Observers made 14 trips aboard 11 different trawlers,
logging 342 days monitoring 415 tows, to evaluate 9 different BRD configurations and 2 soft turtle-
excluder device (TED) designs. The ET BRD (4.5" X 9" oval fisheye), EB BRD (a double fisheye), QA
BRD (Jones BRD), RA BRD (Davis BRD #1), and EA BRD (Hickman BRD) all showed promise as
bycatch reduction devices. To promote a better understanding of BRDs and the regulations associated
with them, more than 80 industry-based workshops were conducted throughout the Gulf of Mexico.
Foundation personnel worked cooperatively with Sea Grant and NMFS personnel to provide the most up-
to-date information on the subject.

Grantee: Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL
Grant No.: NA57FD0031 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Project Title: Reduction of Bluefin Tuna and Undersize Swordfish Bycatch in Atlantic Longline
Funding: Federal: $128,438 Recipient: $13,804

Assessment: The purpose of the award was to determine times, depths, areas, temperatures, and water
temperature profiles of the water mass associated with longline catches of yellowfin tuna with a goal of
reducing bycatch. Yellowfin were caught between 18 and 24 degrees C and between 25 and 80 meters
depth. Swordfish were primarily caught between 30 and 40 meters depth. Survival of fish caught on
longline varied. Billfish survival remained high for the first two hours on the line, but yellowfin tuna,
sharks, and swordfish all had rapid declines in survival after just the first hour (see below). Controlling
the depth of the longline to the depth and temperature appropriate for the species targeted should reduce
bycatch. Also it appears that using circle hooks could reduce some of the relatively high mortality rates
seen in the first few hours after hooking.



0 2 4 6 8 10 12+
Hours on Line
Estimate of survival over timeforyellowfin tuna (YFT), swordfish (SWF), billfish
(all species combined), and sharks for sets completed during this study

Grantee: Alaska Fisheries Development Foundation, Inc., Anchorage, AK
Grant No.: NA36FD0149 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Trawl Codend Mesh Size and Shape Investigations to Reduce Catch and Discard of
Undersized Pollock
Funding: Federal: $675,000 Recipient: $0

Assessment: The objective of this project was to test the survival of small pollock that escape through
codend and intermediate trawl meshes. At-sea experiments were conducted in the Gulf of Alaska by
replacing top panels of the trawl codend and extensions with escape panels for selectivity and escape-
mortality trials. Escapees from the meshes were herded via a specially designed top panel cover into a
specially designed caging system and recaptured. Collection units were towed to a cage-staging site and
secured to the bottom. Captured pollock were monitored daily by divers over 14 days to determine
mortality. Results indicated that most of the mortality took place during the first four post-escape days.
Thereafter, mortality was low but continued until the experiment was terminated. Mortality was clearly
related to fish size, with large fish more likely to survive the trawling and escape process. Results
suggested lower mortalities for fish escaping meshes in the extension than fish escaping through the
codend. Fourteen-day mortality caused by escapement and the caging/holding processes ranged from
46-84% for pollock that escaped through the codend meshes and ranged from 47-63% for fish that
escaped through intermediate meshes.

Grantee: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Anchorage, AK
Grant No.: NA46FD0356 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Genetic Stock Identification of Alaska Chinook Salmon
Funding: Federal: $144,951 Recipient: $31,235

Assessment: Identification of the origins ofchinook salmon captured as bycatch in fisheries targeting
groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands is a management and conservation
concern. Mixed-stock analysis using genetic data has been successfully used to identify stock components
of chinook salmon mixtures in Washington and British Columbia and may be an ideal tool for identifying
stock of origin of bycaught chinook salmon in Alaskan waters. Although populations of chinook salmon
from California to British Columbia have been genetically characterized, data describing Alaskan
populations are limited. In this study the investigators collected genetic data from wild-spawning and
hatchery populations of chinook salmon from throughout Alaska to better identify populations that may be
contributing to bycatch in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea. The investigators also developed a
multiplex screen to assay genetic variation at microsatellite loci, a class of DNA markers. With the
allozyme data, the investigators performed simulation studies using maximum likelihood methods to test
identifiability of regional stock groupings of chinook salmon in mixtures. Data were included from
throughout the North American range of chinook salmon. Eight regions were studied: (1) Western
Alaska; (2) Southeast Alaska; (3) British Columbia, non-Fraser River; (4) British Columbia, Fraser River;
(5) Puget Sound; (6) Washington Coastal; (7) Columbia River; and (8) California-Oregon. The results of
the simulations indicate that major regional groups of chinook salmon can be identified in mixtures with a
high degree of accuracy and precision.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Arete Associates, Inc., Tucson, AZ
NA77FD0045 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Demonstration and Evaluation of the Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR for Use in Bycatch
Federal: $139,131 Recipient: $42,399

Assessment: The Airborne Streak Tube Imaging LIDAR (ASTIL) was evaluated for use in detecting
schools of tuna in Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) waters in order to aid in reducing bycatch of dolphin
associated with yellowfin tuna. Three airborne experiments were conducted, and data were collected for
southern bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, akule (trachiurops crumenophthalmus), giant bluefin tuna (GBFT)
(see below), and dolphin. (Two of the airborne experiments were funded directly by this research. One
southern bluefin tuna experiment was only provided with data analysis supported by this research.) The
LIDAR signature of tuna was studied and extended to an evaluation offish and fish school detection of
GBFT using STIL experimental data. The utility offish school detection was confirmed for GBFT in
terms of detection statistics for binary hypothesis testing and also by direct implementation of a
three-dimensional matched-filter algorithm. Based on the GBFT observations, modeled performance
estimates were made for yellowfin in the ETP for an upgraded ASTIL system.

Three-dimensional ofa giant bluefin tuna school near Cape Cod, spanning an area roughly
20 by 40m laterally and extending from near the surface down to 5m in depth


Grantee: University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
Grant No.: NA76FDO140 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Standardization of the Ammonia Electrode Method for the Evaluation of Seafood
Quality by Correlation to Sensory Analysis
Funding: Federal: $77,780 Recipient: $6,298

Assessment: The goal of this project was to validate the ammonia ion-selective electrode for
determination of seafood quality by correlation to expert sensory assessment. Ammonia ion-selective
electrode (ISE) measurements, reported as apparent ammonia, were successfully correlated to expert
sensory assessment on six different fish species stored on ice and held at room temperature. At both
storage temperatures, TVB-N, TMA-N, and apparent ammonia clearly showed the same development
trend over the storage periods. ISE measurements mirrored TVB concentrations with a correlation of
TVB with ISE at r2=0.92. The pattern of change of the sensory scores also followed the same general
trend as the chemical tests. Initial statistical analysis on the samples showed a correlation ofr and r2 of
0.74 and 0.54, respectively, with an ISE value of over 22 corresponding to sensory failure. However, with
advanced fish spoilage, the ISE measurements became more erratic. Therefore, to eliminate the impact of
badly spoiled fish, final regression was conducted on samples containing <30 mg/100g apparent ammonia
with sensory values ranging from 11 to 88. This resulted in an r and r2 between sensory scores and ISE
measurements of 0.88 and 0.77, respectively. Regression analysis predicted a value of 19.6 mg/100g of
apparent ammonia in fish tissue at the sensory limit of 50, regardless of storage conditions. All of the
samples tested showed that the measurement of apparent ammonia with the ISE procedure could be used
as a predictor of borderline quality and decomposition based on expert sensory determinations.

Grantee: University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
Grant No.: NA76FD0142 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Technology Development for Flavor Production from Seafood Processing Wastes
Funding: Federal: $108,123 Recipient: $28,134

Assessment: Fish and shellfish processing wastes constitute two-thirds of incoming raw materials. Frame
waste from red hake (Urophycis chuss), the lobster bodies left after collecting claws and tails, and sea
clam (Spisula solidissima) bellies from clam processing are commercially important processing wastes in
the Northeast region. The objective of this study was to develop an enzyme-assisted seafood flavor
manufacturing process that enables U.S. manufacturers to produce specialty-flavor stocks of high quality
from seafood processing wastes. The general process developed consisted of separation of usable meat,
proteolytic hydrolysis to liberate flavor-giving free amino acids, enzyme inactivation, maturation,
filtering, and concentration or dehydration. Flavor-production optimization was achieved by evaluating
various process variables including the enzyme system, the hydrolysis condition, the degree of hydrolysis,
the homogenate-water ratio, the flavor quality, and yield. The industry panel rated products "good" to
"very good" and suggested that high-quality natural fish and lobster flavors can be locally produced from
processing wastes using the developed processes if the raw materials are available in volume at an
acceptable cost. This process can be readily applied to other available species such as crab, shrimp, and
underutilized fish species for seafood flavor production. Based on the pilot plant production trial, a

production scale-up can be easily achieved using a simple steam injection vessel that allows good
temperature control of water as heating medium.

Grantee: Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA
Grant No.: NA76FD0148 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Mortality and Pathophysiology Studies of Blue Crabs Infected with the Parasitic
Dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi
Funding: Federal: $117,868 Recipient: $13,511

Assessment: On the eastern seaboard of the United States, populations of the blue crab Callinectes
sapidus experience recurring epizootics of a parasitic dinoflagellate. The parasite, Hematodinium perezi,
fulminates in the summer and autumn causing mortalities in high-salinity embayments and estuaries. In
laboratory studies, the recipient experimentally investigated high mortality due to the disease, assessed
differential hematological changes in infected crabs, and examined proliferation of the parasite. Mature,
overwintering, non-ovigerous female crabs were injected 103 or 105 cells of H. perezi. Mortalities began
14 days after infection, with a median time to death of 30.3+ 1.5 d (se). Subsequent mortality rates were
greater than 86% in infected crabs. A relative risk model indicated that infected crabs were 7 to 8 times
more likely to die than controls, with decreases in total hemocyte densities covarying significantly with
mortality. Hemocyte densities declined precipitously (mean = 48% within 3 days of infection) and
exhibited differential changes in subpopulations of granulocytes and hyalinocytes that lasted throughout
the course of the infection. Crabs that did not present infections after injection (i.e., "immune") did not
show hemocytopenia and exhibited significant long-term (21-27 days) granulocytemia. Detection of the
parasite in the hemolymph of infected crabs increased from approximately 30% after 14 days to 60% after
21 days to 100% after 35 days (see below). Plasmodial stages were, however, detectable in histological
preparations of the heart within 32 days of infection and increased in number over 5 and 7 days.
Sporulation of the parasite occurred over a short time (at least 4 days, after 43 days infection) and did not
culminate in the immediate death of the host. The mortality studies indicate that H. perezi represents a
significant threat to the blue crab fisheries in high-salinity estuaries and may have a greater effect on
mature females that move to higher salinities to breed.

100 -

4. -


0 5 10 15 20 25 .30 35
Days post inoculation
Detectability of parasites in the hemolymph of infected blue crabs over the course of infection

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX
NA77FD0080 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Molecular Assessment of Public Health Suitability of Shellfish for Human Consumption
Federal: $183,680 Recipient: $0

Assessment: Viruses originating in human fecal pollution that are carried by shellfish can lead to serious
health hazards. Existing sanitation standards rely on the detection of bacteria, not viruses, present in
feces. Norwalk-type viruses (NLV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been the most common viral
shellfish-associated disease agents. The goals of this research were to develop an invective assay for NLV
and other caliciviruses and to develop an immunocapture reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
(RT-PCR) assay for the detection of these viruses in shellfish. Approaches explored for the invectivity
assay included evaluation of primary and continuous cell lines, of different additives and physical
conditions, and of different methods of virus inoculum preparation. None of these approaches provided
consistent evidence of virus replication. However, an immunocapture RT-PCR assay for the detection of
Norwalk virus was developed along with modifications of the RT-PCR assay to improve its performance
characteristics. The new assay allows the detection of Norwalk virus added to shellfish tissues.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL
NA77FD0081 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Utilization of Molecular Biomarkers to Provide an Assay for Shellfish Exposure to
Polyether Toxins from Harmful Algal Blooms
Federal: $212,883 Recipient: $68,910

Assessment: This study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity and selectivity of protein biomarkers
produced in clams as a result of exposure to polyether toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium
breve. Clams (Merceneria merceneria) were exposed to live G. breve cells for periods ranging from 3 to
21 days and subjected to biodepuration following exposures for 14 days. Of five possible protein
biomarkers observed from preliminary investigations, two were consistently expressed during replicated
experiments, and only one was found exclusively following toxin exposure. The results indicate that the
expression of the five protein biomarkers was variable between exposure times and culture conditions.
Therefore these protein biomarkers failed to serve as reliable markers of polyether toxin exposure in
clams. Results of the toxin analyses of this study led to the speculation that the parent toxins were
rapidly altered by the clams to metabolites that were still toxic but not detectable by high-performance
liquid chromatography methods.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
NA67FD0037 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Moisture Content in Penaeid Shrimp Destined for U.S. Consumption
Federal: $65,395 Recipient: $30,206

Assessment: Initial or nonprocess moisture levels for wild brown and white shrimp harvested from the
Gulf of Mexico varied from 75% for brown shrimp to 77% for white shrimp. After normal water
treatment, the moisture levels rise to 80% and 84% respectively. After thawing and cooking, normally
treated shrimp contained a moisture content of about 76%. However, shrimp soaked in phosphate

treatments of 2%, 4%, or 6% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) instead of water treatment displayed
moisture content ranging from 78.5% to 83.6% after cooking. Simply stated, this study has yielded
justification and direction for the utilization of phosphating agents to retain moisture in penaeid shrimp in
both domestic and international commerce.

Grantee: University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Grant No.: NA66FD0103 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Project Title: Heterosigma carterae: Laboratory Induction of Toxin Production/Target Marine
Species-Year 2
Funding: Federal: $106,098 Recipient: $7,522

Assessment: The objective of this project was to determine the environmental factors that induce bloom
formation and maximize toxin production, as well as to analyze the susceptibility of both vertebrate and
invertebrate marine species to Heterosigma toxin. The goals and objectives of this project were not
achieved. Research efforts focused on conducting a hemolytic assay to identify "hot" cells so that the
toxin could be further refined and tested on invertebrate and vertebrae species. The summary data showed
that there were wide variances in the hemolytic activity. There was no obvious correlation in the
relationship between specific physiological parameters, cell densities, and hemolytic activity. Due to
failures with hemolytic assay test, the investigator was unable to determine the susceptibility of vertebrae
and invertebrate marine species to the toxin.

Grantee: University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Grant No.: NA66FD0113 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Project Title: Harmful Algal Blooms and Their Impacts on Shellfish and Finfish in Western
Funding: Federal: $165,569 Recipient: $0

Assessment: The objectives of this project were to learn more about organisms that produce domoic acid,
determine environmental conditions that control blooms ofAlexandrium catenella, continue monitoring
the seasonal and regional distributions of all likely harmful algal species, and maintain the phytoplankton
network of growers and university, state, and federal personnel. Results from the field studies identified
at least six species of Pseudo-nitzschia that are potential domoic acid producers. They occur on coast
beaches in the May-through-October period. In Puget Sound/Hood Canal, Pseudo-nitzschia are present
during all months but are most abundant from April to October. The researchers concluded that physical
oceanography plays a large part in the distribution of the species, but the researchers were unable to
determine how cells/toxins reach razor clams on coastal beaches. Alexandrium species occurred
infrequently in the coast samples but were commonly found in samples taken during the May--September
period in Manchester, Allyn, and Quartermaster Harbor. Researchers determined that spring/neap tidal
cycle may be a major factor influencing timing, duration, and peak concentration, uf Alexandrium in
Quartermaster Harbor. Researchers maintained contact with the phytoplankton network, and information
is exchanged when potential harmful algal species are found.

Grantee: The Regents of the University of California, Berkeley, CA
Grant No.: NA76FD0046 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Project Title: Investigation of the Role of Rickettsiales-Like Procaryotes and Withering Syndrome of
Black Abalone: Koch's Postulates and Molecular Probes
Funding: Federal: $55,040 Recipient: $37,099

Assessment: The objective of the project was to establish the relationship between Rickettsiales-like
organisms (RLOs) and withering syndrome of abalone (black and other species)'by attempting to fulfill
Koch's Postulates and using epidemiological approaches. The goals of the project were attained. Tools
were developed to detect and identify the Rickettsiales-like procaryote (RLP) and establish that the RLP is
the causative agent of withering syndrome in abalone. Based on these results, the California Department
of Fish and Game (CDFG) has implemented a policy in which all movement of animals from areas where
the RLP has been observed requires a health examination of the animals. In addition, the CDFG has
implemented a policy stating that no RLP-infected abalone may be imported into waters that are free of
the bacterium.

Grantee: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA
Grant No.: NA76FD0051 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Project Title: Rapid Detection of Harmful Algal Bloom Species and Their Associated Toxins using
DNA Probes and a Receptor Binding Assay
Funding: Federal: $128,578 Recipient: $33,673

Assessment: This project focused on the challenge of obtaining near-real-time data on the abundance
(spatial and temporal) and toxicity of algal cells for the routine monitoring and scientific investigation of
harmful algal blooms and their associated toxins. The primary impediment to obtaining such information
is a lack of appropriate, field-tested methods. This project was designed to resolve this problem by
evaluating the performance of two techniques that lend themselves to rapid detection of algal cells and
their toxins: species-specific DNA probes and phycotoxin receptor binding assays, respectively. The
project focused on populations of domoic acid (DA)-producing diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia that
occur in Monterey Bay, California. Species-specific probes targeting Pseudo-nitzschia were applied using
both whole-cell and sandwich hybridization methods, with good agreement between methods observed
during the early stages of bloom development when cells were actively growing. Although some
discrepancies arose toward the latter phase of a bloom, due largely to underestimates using the whole-cell
technique with cells in poor condition, both approaches were generally effective in detecting toxic cells at
concentrations relevant for routine monitoring. The receptor binding assay reliably detected DA
associated with cells during periods of bloom development, but the assay occasionally revealed DA in the
absence of recognizable, intact cells as blooms declined. Precise estimates of cell abundance and toxicity
may not be required for routine monitoring. Perhaps most important for public health officials and
wildlife biologists are up-to-date trends of where potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzshia species are; whether
the populations are on the rise, falling, or exceeding some threshold value; and whether any associated
toxicity warrants attention. In this regard, sandwich hybridization application of DNA probes for Pseudo-
nitzschia and the DA receptor binding assay are technologies that show good promise and should be tested
further against currently used methods in collaborative trials.

Grantee: Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA
Grant No.: NA76FD0052 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Project Title: The Therapeutic Treatment of Abalone Infected with the Putative Agent of Abalone
Withering Syndrome
Funding: Federal: $118,213 Recipient: $11,993

Assessment: Withering syndrome (WS) is a debilitating and fatal disease of black abalone (Haliotis
cracherodii) that is caused by a rickettsia-like organism (RLO). Foci of the RLO are found infecting the
digestive tract (intestinal epithelia and digestive tubule epithelia). The RLOs occur at extremely high
levels in early infections, with less-intense infections occurring in seriously afflicted abalone. The major
sign of the syndrome, the withered and weakened foot, is an end-stage symptom of the disease.
Populations of black abalone have been decimated by WS. Red abalone (H. Rufescens) appear less
affected by the disease. Laboratory observations suggest that they are more resistant to its effects. This
study undertook controlled laboratory studies to examine the efficacy of several antibiotics in treating
afflicted abalone. Treatments consisted of injecting naturally infected abalone with low, moderate, or
high levels of specific anti-rickettsial antibiotics. Control groups of naturally infected abalone were
injected with diluents. In daily doses over a two-week course, we tested the following drugs for efficacy
against the disease: chloramphenicol, tetracycline, sarafloxacin, and clarithromycin. Intramuscular
injections were given to ensure delivery. Tetracycline at 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (body weight) was
moderately to completely successful in ridding black and red abalone of RLOs. Surprisingly,
chloramphenicol, sarafloxacin, and clarithromycin were not effective when given intramuscularly.
Intermediate-term, long-term, and oral dosing trials indicated varying levels of efficacy of bxytetracycline
dependent upon dose regimen and timing of necropsy. Tetracycline and oxytetracycline may provide a
potential treatment against rickettsial diseases of abalone.

Grantee: Regents of the University of California, Berkeley, CA
Grant No.: NA47FD0416 NMFS Contact: F/SF2
Project Title: Microbial Safety: Rapid Methods for Shellfish and Seawater-Injured E. coli
Funding: Federal: $72,209 Recipient: $29,034

Assessment: This study addressed two major problems: (1) the development of a simple, rapid, sensitive
test for fecal contamination in shellfish based on the indole production by E. coli, and (2) the need for a
reliable test for fecal contamination in seawater. The investigators developed a "Colitag-S" medium,
which contained buffer salts; hydrolysate; tryptophan (to ensure indole production by E. coli); and
trimethylamine oxide (which E. coli and related bacteria convert to trimethylamine, a basic product that
neutralizes acids produced from the fermentation of endogenous shellfish glycogen). The investigators
found that their Colitag-S medium and its indole reaction provided a good test for E. coli in shellfish.
Attempts to improve resuscitation of seawater-injured E. coli and thus make it a more suitable indicator in
marine waters were promising in the laboratory through the use ofpyruvate in the medium, but attempts
were less promising in field studies. The investigators suggested that this method should be tested further
i. vtUcis with higher levels of fecal contamination than those of San Francisco Bay.


Grant No.:
Project Title:

MER Assessment Corporation, South Harpswell, ME
NA76FD0096 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Enhancement of Recruitment of the Soft-Shell Clam Mya arenaria
Federal: $29,823 Recipient: $1,592

Assessment: Four recruitment enhancement structures and treatments--(1) vertical wooden laths,
(2) plastic fencing, (3) pine boughs, and (4) substrate raking-were tested against controls to determine
their comparative effectiveness in increasing settlement of the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria. (A lath and
fencing structure diagram is shown below.) The test was conducted at three tidal heights at five separate
sites within a nearly fully draining tidal basin in Biddeford Pool, Maine, during the summer of 1997.
Recruitment of M arenaria during 1997 was generally low and occurred principally in the lower intertidal
zone. Nevertheless, statistically significant improvement in recruitment was observed for wooden and
plastic structures and the raked treatment, although the effectiveness of individual structure types and
treatments was inconsistent from site to site. The results suggest that a moderate amount of raking of the
bottom, associated with commercial harvesting activity, may be beneficial in improving the suitability of
the bottom for settlement of late-stage larvae. Furthermore, vertical current-interference structures also
appear to be effective in enhancing recruitment, although the design of such equipment needs to be
improved to make both construction and deployment of such structures cost-effective.

2 cq-cr. (79 i hc$)

A--=-. . . ... .V. f.. .- r II

Combined example oflath andfencing experimental recruitment enhancement structures

Combined example of lath and fencing experimental recruitment enhancement structures

Grant No.:
Project Title:


University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH
NA76FD0104 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Development of an Integrated Aquaculture and Sea Ranching System for the Green Sea
Urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the Gulf of Maine
Federal: $165,720 Recipient: $52,660

Assessment: The project focused on the development of an integrated hatchery and sea ranching system
that would allow the widest possible participation by the fishing community in the Gulf of Maine. The

potential for large-scale urchin production in the Gulf of Maine has been demonstrated by the wild
fishery, but the future of this production will lie in the realm of aquaculture. This represents an effort to
refine a series of techniques for a hatchery and out-planting system that is economically feasible for the
broadest participation within the fishing community, and it includes direct involvement of fishermen. All
results to date indicate the approach is feasible. The principal findings follow: (1) Recruitment studies of
juvenile urchins have shown a consistent pattern of very low recruitment northeast of Penobscott Bay and
higher numbers to the southwest of Penobscott Bay. Recruitment has declined steadily throughout the
Gulf of Maine, and this pattern parallels the decline in harvests each year since 1993. (2) Larval
cultivation studies suggest that an open system utilizing natural plankton has potential for replacing the
closed cultivation system currently in use in Japan. Selective filtration and supplementation with cultured
phytoplankton appear to be a means for a reduced overhead hatchery system that would allow the broadest
possible involvement of members of the fishing community. (3) Juvenile cultivation to 10 mm in test
diameter is feasible within one year on a diet of diatom film supplemented by Ulva. Natural diatom films
that provide a diet that matches other diets for growth rates up to 10 mm are easy to produce in an open
system. (4) Small urchins 10 mm and larger can be effectively out-planted for stock enhancement and/or
sea ranching during the winter months with high survival rates. It should be possible to go from spawning
adult urchins to raising larvae to metamorphosis to growing juveniles to out-planting size within one year.
(5) Alternation of the reproductive cycle in green urchins by manipulation of the photoperiod shows great
promise for extending the reproductive period for hatchery production. Photoperiod may also be altered
to produce high-quality roe at times of high demand. Both applications will greatly enhance the economic
potential of green sea urchins in the Gulf of Maine. (6) The economic potential for a sustained sea urchin
fishery and aquaculture industry in the Gulf of Maine is excellent. Two interrelated factors need to be
addressed before this economic potential is realized: (a) This is a volume product that requires a large and
predictable market share to be maintained to realize the best economic return for product, and (b) a viable
wild and cultured urchin fishery will only be accomplished by cooperation among the many interested
participants. Communication and collaboration toward the goal of sustained high production from a
number of hatcheries and cooperation between wild fishermen and sea ranchers will allow the Gulf of
Maine to be a major producer of urchin roe on the world market. Hopefully, the current tendency to work
at cross-purposes rather than together can be overcome, and the great potential can be realized.

Grantee: Ohio State University Research Foundation, Columbus, OH
Grant No.: NA66FD0029 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Domestication of Lake Whitefish: Production of Broodstock and Assessment of Gamete
Funding: Federal: $101,005 Recipient: $6,526

Assessment: This project was designed to (1) assess the responses of fish to various formulations of low-
cost diets measured by the quality of gametes produced and (2) examine reproductive development in lake
whitefish in captivity. Through a series of experiments, the optimal formulation of a low-cost, low-
pollutant broodstock diet and the effect that feeding had on quality of gametes were determined. The fish
meal analog, .. -ixtrre of animal byproducts, was used to replace fish meal protein. The basal diet,
formulated after a preliminary study to determine the optimal protein requirement for lake whitefish, was
used as control. The results clearly indicated that growth of lake whitefish was significantly affected
when fish meal protein was replaced by the animal byproduct mixture at 50% and 100%. However,
increasing the content of animal byproduct in the diet up to 50% did not affect lake whitefish reproductive
performance (quality of the sperm, fecundity, progeny survival). The success of lake whitefish

domestication required a comprehensive understanding of the reproductive cycle and its hormonal control.
In this study, the researchers provided such information on captive and wild lake whitefish broodstock.
This project provided the desired information for successful farming of a new aquaculture species in the
Great Lakes Region. However, further work is needed on the reproduction of the species.

Grantee: University of Alaska Southeast, Juneau, AK
Grant No.: NA76FD0035 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Nori Cultivation: Physiological Ecology of Native Alaskan Porphyra Species-Year 3
Funding: Federal: $151,351 Recipient: $33,149

Assessment: Results of studies that were conducted on the response of conchocelis cultures to applied
phytohormones found that plant hormones increase the growth of Porphyra conchocelis but do not
directly induce conchosporangia formation. Juvenile blades ofPorphyra torta showed differential growth
depending on seeding density and substrate composition. Photosynthesis of small blades of P. torta was
maximal at 30 ppt, 12 OC, and >160 tmol m2- s'. Some photoinhibition was observed in addition to a
decrease in photosynthesis at low salinities. A multi-factored experiment showed the importance of
nitrogen in growth juvenile blades. Several Porphyra species were exposed to various combinations of
light intensity, photoperiod, and temperature in an effort to define conditions that would reliably induce
conchospore maturation and release. Although some success was achieved, only P. torta could be
consistently induced to release spores. Preliminary experiments with shell cultures of conchocelis led to
techniques of maintaining seeded shells for long periods of time. Nets seeded with P. torta from free
conchocelis were placed both in the greenhouse and in the field for grow out. Success in outplanting
depended on the time of year, method of outplanting, and genetic isolate. Seawater quality was monitored
periodically to correlate with outplantings. Water temperatures were low and salinity and nutrients were
high in the winter. In late summer water temperatures were high and nutrients and salinity were very low.
At this time no species of Porphyra has been developed to the point where commercial production is

Grantee: Pacific Shellfish Institute, Olympia, WA
Grant No.: NA86FD0262 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Project Title: High Health Management of Pacific Oysters
Funding: Federal: $117,282 Recipient: $42,657

Assessment: The goal of this project was to initiate and advance an integrated health management
program for the Pacific oyster industry in an effort to increase exports of live shellfish. This project
initiated development of regional documentation of health and disease history to meet threshold criteria
for the Organization Internationale Epizooties (OIE), which is the technical organization that advises the
World Trade Organization on matters of animal health. Five growing areas in three Pacific Coast states
were sampled for disease. No OIE-certifiable diseases were found in these areas. However, other
diseases certifiable by state agencies were detected. A framework high health management plan was
developed in cooperation with the membership of the Pacific Coast Oyster Growers' Association. This
plan will help support efforts to obtain export certification for live shellfish from the Animal and Plant
Health Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In the course of this project,
investigators identified additional health program work activities needed to further this program.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Washington State University, Pullman, WA
NA76FD0300 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Optimal Design of a Water Recirculating System for Shellfish Depuration
Federal: $98,820 Recipient: $29,802

Assessment: The objective of the project was to develop a closed, recirculating shellfish depuration
system that was cost-effective and environmentally sound and that met sanitation and other regulatory
requirements. Researchers found that temperature was a key factor in determining shellfish excretion
rates. In addition, UV transmittance of the wastewater stream was an important factor affecting the
disinfection efficiency of the UV devices. For the best disinfection efficiency, wastewater flow rates need
to be maintained sufficiently high for a recirculating UV disinfecting system, especially for a large UV
unit working with a lower-UV transmittance wastewater. The investigators evaluated three different
biofilter systems (fluidized bed, submerged trickling, plastic bead). Investigators also developed an
effective experimental apparatus called a "series reactor system" (see below), which evaluated and
characterized nitrification biofilters. Researchers conducted an evaluation of a commercial recirculating
system (Taylor Resources, Inc, Shelton, WA) and formulated system design recommendations.

Grant No.:
Project Title:

Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute, San Diego, CA
NA76FDOi NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Commercialization of White Seabass Aquaculture, Pilot Program Out-Grow to Market
Federal: $208,982 Recipient: $72,494

Assessment: This project set out to determine whether cage culture technologies could be adapted to grow
white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) to a marketable size in an offshore, semi-exposed location. (A


computer system

Schematic of the series reactor experimental system, which consisted of seven plastic vessels connected in series
by flexible tubing and allowed for effective demonstration of the kinetics of ammonia and nitrite oxidation and the
ability to indicate the minimum total ammonia nitrogen concentration for nitrification biofilters (Reprinted from
Aquacultural Engineering, 20, Songming Zhu and Shulin Chen, An experimental study on nitrification biofilm
performances using a series reactor system, 247, 1999, with permission from Elsevier Science.)

diagram of the cage system is shown below.) The project was also designed to evaluate the marketability
of sub-adult, farm-raised white seabass and to tag and release a portion of the fish into the ocean. The
results of this award suggest that cage culture of white seabass is technologically, biologically, and
economically feasible on a large scale and in a semi-exposed location. This is an important finding
because regulatory agencies, especially in California, have been extremely cautious and reluctant in
allowing this type of commercial aquaculutre.

Grant No.:
Project Title:


Black Pearls, Inc., Holualoa, HI
NA76FD0054 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
The Hawaiian Pearl Oyster Partnership: A Public-Private Initiative for Commercial
Pearl Oyster Farming and a Test Case of Ocean Leasing Laws
Federal: $99,540 Recipient: $15,557

Assessment: Previous research work by the investigators had demonstrated the technical feasibility of
commercial pearl farming in Hawaii. Further development of this lucrative industry was primarily limited
by the restrictions on leasing ocean space in the State. This project therefore had four broad original
goals: (1) to establish a formal public-private partnership between Black Pearls, Inc., and Hawaii's
Department of Land and Natural Resources to set up a commercial pearl farm and reestablish wild stocks
of the Hawaiian pearl oyster; (2) to pioneer a permitting pathway for ocean leases for commercial
aquaculture in Hawaii and to document the process so others may follow; (3) to obtain a lease over a site
for the first commercial Hawaiian pearl farm/reproductive reserve and to obtain all necessary permits; and
(4) to identify cost-effective nursery grow-out techniques. These goals were revised and adapted to the
contingencies that arose over the course of the project, and the remainder of the project was then targeted
toward pushing a revised Ocean Leasing Bill through the Hawaii House and Senate and toward addressing
the formalities and operational considerations for obtaining a lease for the site near the Honolulu Airport
reef runway in Keehi Lagoon. In July 1999, Hawaii's Governor signed the new bill into law. Black
Pearls, Inc., has been working with the Hawaii's Aquaculture Development Program to obtain a lease over

Mooring diagram for the white seabass aquaculture cage system

the Keehi Lagoon area. This will be the first ocean aquaculture lease in the State. This precedent should
encourage other aquaculturists to follow suit. The proving of the process will mark a significant milestone
in the development of aquaculture in Hawaii.

Grantee: North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Grant No.: NA67FDO131 NMFS Contact: F/SF2
Project Title: A Novel, Potent Immunological Defense in Rainbow Trout
Funding: Federal: $136,550 Recipient: $41,862

Assessment: This project was based on the investigator's discovery that rainbow trout tissues possess
potent antibacterial activity. The objectives of this proposal were to (1) purify the substance responsible
for the antimicrobial activity for characterization, (2) test the susceptibility of specific pathogens to the
purified substance possessing antimicrobial activity, (3) produce a rapid assay for the substance, and (4)
determine whether the substance could be induced by immunostimulation. The investigator was
successful in achieving three of the proposed objectives. In addition, once purification of the protein
possessing antimicrobial activity was underway, the investigator discovered that there were in fact two
major fractions having antimicrobial activity. This discovery required additional time to complete the first
objective and did not allow the completion of the fourth objective. However, a significant number of
discoveries were made during this project to support novel control strategies for a number of important
aquaculture pathogens. The project resulted in the purification of two novel antibiotics from rainbow
trout with 100% partial N-terminal amino acid sequence homology to histone H1 and histone H2B,
respectively. These peptides demonstrated anti-fungal and anti-parasitic activity when challenged with
water mold and the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum, respectively. The anti-parasitic
activity appears to be a major finding because there are few therapeutants effective in controlling
Amyloodinium, an important pathogen of warm water marine fish. In addition, the investigator developed
a quantitative ELISA to measure levels of these peptides in tissues. These results provide the basis for the
development of a field assay to assess fish health and innate immunity.


Grantee: New Jersey Marine Science Consortium
Grant No.: NA86FD0109 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: The Role of Tidal Salt Marsh as Essential Habitat in Production of Juvenile Weakfish
(Cynoscion regalis)
Funding: Federal: $89,384 Recipient: $84,141

Assessment: Stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in weakfish (Cynoscion regalis), bay
anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli), and white perch (Morone americana) from Delaware Bay were a function of
the relative position of the marsh restoration trajectory. With one exception, weakfish captured in
different zones of the open bay displayed significant differences in their isotope composition. Fish
captured in the upper bay had isotope signatures characteristic ofPhragmites australis-dominated
marshes, and weakfish from the lower bay had greater similarities to Spartina alterniflora-dominated
marshes. Weakfish collected in mid-bay were intermediate in their stable isotope composition. Benthic

microalgae also contributed to weakfish nutrition in the open bay. Fish collected in tidal creeks-Mad
Horse Creek in mid-bay and Dennis Creek in the lower bay-did not differ significantly from each other,
nor did they differ from fish captured in the corresponding open-water zone. White perch and bay
anchovy collected in polyhaline restoration and reference (Moore's Beach) sites also had stable isotope
signatures that reflected contributions from both benthic microalgae and Spartina alterniflora. Isotope
values from white perch captured at the reference site were slightly enriched compared to the restoration
sites. At mid-estuary, oligo-mesohaline locations, Phragmites australis contributed to the isotopic
composition of both white perch and bay anchovy. Although P. australis was not dominant at the
reference marsh (Mad Horse Creek), it seemed to influence the flow of nutrients into all three species.
White perch were not collected in open waters of Delaware Bay, but weakfish and bay anchovy were
abundant at offshore sampling stations. A striking result of this study was the widespread occurrence of
stable isotopes that originated in macrophytes and benthic microalgae of salt marshes in weakfish and bay
anchovy collected several kilometers from shore. This also was true of weakfish "staging" at the bay
mouth just prior to their offshore emigration. Interestingly, fish from Mad Horse Creek (a reference
marsh where Phragmites were abundant only along creek banks) were intermediate at their isotopic
composition. Although benthic microalgal signature varied both within and among sites, the isotopic
composition of weakfish bay anchovy and white perch were clearly influenced by these primary producers
across all marsh types.

Grantee: Capt. Edward Boynton, Gloucester, MA
Grant No.: NA76FD0106 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Establishing the Food Web Links between Estuaries and Nearshore Fisheries
in New England
Funding: Federal: $93,866 Recipient: $0

Assessment: This was a collaborative project between a Gloucester fisherman and a scientist from the
Ecosystems Center of the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The two
objectives of this study were first to establish the food web link between the estuaries and the nearshore
fisheries of Ipswich Bay and second to bridge the gap between fishermen and scientists by learning and
understanding each other's work methods. The project centered on sampling predetermined sites to
ascertain the timing and magnitude of the migration of estuarine fish going into the nearshore waters of
Ipswich Bay. The study used stable isotopes to conclusively demonstrate the connection between forage
fish and the estuary. Environmental data of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, water clarity, nutrients,
and current flow were also examined to ascertain the trigger mechanisms of the migration. Sampling for
the project began in August 1997. The first year had 18 sampling days using the F/V SISSEL B. As the
result of a time extension to the project, a second sampling season took place. Sampling for the second
year began in September 1998. There were eight sampling days on the vessel and five additional beach
seining days when winds exceeded the safe limits of work aboard the vessel. All totaled, there were 31
sampling days for the project. The Ecosystems Center at the MBL conducted the analysis of the samples
collected during the project and provided a detailed report of its findings. Briefly, the report stated that
"comparison of abundance, timing, size and stable isotope value of Menidia menidia in estuary and
offshore indicated that large quantities offish move offshore in the fall [see next page]. The importance
of Atlantic silversides as a forage fish for larger coastal fishes is well known. This study demonstrates
that Atlantic silversides may represent an important trophic link between marshes and offshore food

Grantee: Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
Grant No.: NA76FD0147 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Critical Evaluation of Conservation Success in Restoration of James River
and Ocean Run American Shad
Funding: Federal: $163,542 Recipient: $157,212

Assessment: The recipient examined the efficacy of captive breeding and release for recovery of viable
American shad populations in the James River, Virginia, watershed. Responding to severe declines in the
strength of the anadromous runs in the James and other east coast rivers, state and federal agencies
responsible for managing the resource deemed that a propagation program was necessary to help the
James population achieve long-term viability. This project was designed as a model to combine molecular
genetic methods with other traditional marking approaches for evaluating the effects and contribution of
the propagated fish to a recovered population. The evaluation focused on four key questions: (1) Is there
evidence of an infra-specific stock structure among river populations of American shad in the mid-
Atlantic? The purpose of this part of the study was to establish appropriate sources of brood from several
candidate populations. Ultimately, it was observed that, based on microsatellite DNA variation (and from
mitochondrial DNA variation previously recorded for those specimens), temporally stable genetic
character arrays differed among rivers without any observable fine-scale structure. (2) Does the brood

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Menidia menidia abundancesfrom inshore beach seining and offshore trawling, +/- standard error

collection strategy capture the full range of genetic variation observed in the source population? No
significant differences were observed between the allelic arrays of captured brood and the source-river
population. (3) Do hatchery-reared juvenile shad capture the full range of diversity in the source-river
population? It was observed that there was a comparable level of diversity in the progeny compared with
the parents. (4) Are there any temporal changes in the pool of molecular markers signaling a response to
artificial selection for conditions in the culture environment? In several experiments, differences were
detected in the genetic arrays between family-sets taken early (post-fertilization) and late (pre-stocking) in
the culture process. These results are consistent with expectations from hatchery selection, although
additional tests are required to confirm the importance of selection and to confidently eliminate other
explanations, such as possible sampling bias. The results from this evaluation have inspired several
changes in the James River breeding and culture program to promote/mimic more natural background
levels of genetic diversity as well as to ensure viable populations of American shad.

Grantee: The Research Foundation of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY
Grant No.: NA66FD0012 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: Identification of Continental Shelf Groundfish Nursery Habitats in the New York Bight
Funding: Federal: $200,000 Recipient: $48,119

Assessment: This project assessed habitat characteristics and recruitment of marine organisms, with New
York Bight continental shelf groundfish as the target organisms. Within this context, the recipient was
able to determine what features of the benthic habitat are utilized as critical settlement and nursery habitat
and how they change during the early ontogeny of fish. The habitat variables that best determine juvenile
demersal fish distributions include temperature, salinity, depth, and benthic community constituents (e.g.,
scallops). Temperature was a particularly important variable for yellowtail flounder as a determinant of
settlement and nursery habitat. Several months after settlement of yellowtail flounder, a rapid rise in
temperature due to an early autumn water column turnover may have contributed to a significant loss of
young-of-year yellowtail in 1996. Quality and quantity of nursery habitat also change seasonally (again
primarily due to bottom temperature variation) for another common demersal fish, the silver hake.
Specifically, change in bottom temperatures over time allowed more extensive settlement habitat to be
available as the season progressed. The recipient was also interested in advancing the commercial fishing
community's awareness of the role of habitat in relation to stock abundance and health. This goal was
approached by both including a subset of the fishing community in the collection of the above data as well
as by presenting the results to the fishing community via several different forums and articles throughout
the Northeast. This study also financially assisted several members of the regional fishing community
during a period of economically difficult conditions.

Grantee: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, TX
Grant No.: NA77FD0072 NMFS Contact: F/SER
Project Title: An Analytical Method for Predicting Potential Spread of Exotic Species from
Aquaculture and Aquatic Research Facilities in Texas
Funding: Federal: $54,243 Recipient: $18,132

Assessment: Within the last 10-12 years, a number of mariculture facilities have been constructed along
the Texas coast, primarily in Matagorda Bay and the Lower Laguna Madre. This industry began at a time

when commercial shrimping on native species was maximized, and this was a "solution" to providing
more shrimp that was welcomed with relatively few restrictions or regulations. The use of exotic shrimp
and the incidence of exotic shrimp diseases have changed the acceptance of this industry. This project
provides an accurate and easily used map of the coastline, precise locations of mariculture facilities that
can be used in GIS analyses and visual displays, and an initial method of modeling the escapement of
shrimp or release of effluent containing diseases from these site. Using a fairly simple hydrodynamic
model that has been specifically tuned to Matagorda Bay that can also eventually be used in other portions
of the Texas coastline, managers can begin to apply visual analyses to some of the most perplexing
problems facing them today. Although this analysis models shrimp as neutrally buoyant (passively being
moved in the currents), the premise is generally tenable. The model also shows promise as a foundation
for building in more complexity to account for shrimp movement or sedimentation of effluent particles.
Even in this preliminary form, the model can help narrow the possible sources of exotic shrimp and
shrimp diseases discovered in Texas waters.

Grantee: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Kodiak, AK
Grant No.: NA86FD0077 NMFS Contact: F/AKR
Project Title: Bottom Trawl Assessment of Seasonal Distribution of Tanner Crab, Pacific Cod, and
Shallow-Water Flatfish in Marmot Bay, Alaska
Funding: Federal: $129,563 Recipient: $113,972

Assessment: This project's primary objective was to better quantify the habitat requirements of early
benthic phase (EPB; from settlement through approximately age 2+) red king crab (RKC; Paralithodes
camtschaticus) in situ and to investigate the importance of those unique nursery habitat requirements in
spatially structuring the southeast Bering Sea population and generating recruitment variability within the
stock. The investigators used a combination of field investigation and retrospective data analysis. These
studies established that EBP RKC rely heavily, if not exclusively, upon complex shallow-water habitat for
settlement and early recruitment. Settlement and post-settlement survivorship was high within rocky
nursery habitat and lower in shell-hash. No settlement or survivorship could be detected in homogeneous
muddy-silt habitat despite high levels of larval supply. These habitat requirements suggest that
recruitment to fishable stocks is likely to be governed by the spatial structure of the stock in relation to
suitable EBP nursery habitat. In particular, the delivery of larvae to suitable settlement sites will be
critical to ensure future recruitment, and this process can only be ensured if larvae are spawned and
hatched in areas that are oceanographically "upstream" of nursery habitats. In order to assess the
likelihood of these events with the Bristol Bay population, the investigators have begun an oceanographic
modeling effort that will predict larval delivery patterns given present knowledge of regional
oceanography and spatial stock structure. This model will enhance the ability to predict the impact of
environmental factors on large-scale recruitment trends and help the investigators to identify spatially
explicit management options for the stock. The investigators also have analyzed historic shifts in centers
of adult breeding distribution to study how subsequent larval dispersion may effect survival relative to
final settlement in nursery habitat. In order to fully realize the goal of developing spatially explicit stock
management models, future research should include assessment of local habitat structure and distribution,
as well as field research examining larval distribution and behavior in relation to important oceanographic
features and conditions.


This section contains an assessment of each S-K National Program project completed during the period
June 1, 1999 to May 31, 2000, regarding the extent to which the objectives of the project were attained
and the project contributed to fishery development. The projects are listed by subject area, along with the
project number, project title, federal funding level, and NMFS contact.


Project No.: 97-NE-19 NMFS Contact: F/NER
Project Title: An Assessment and Test Project of Current Technologies in Days-at-Sea Accounting
Systems to Improve NMFS Customer Service
Funding: Federal: $150,000

Assessment: The Northeast Regional Office of NMFS operates a system whereby commercial fishing
vessels are allocated a limited number of days at sea (DAS) each year to fish. NMFS awarded a contract
to the consulting firm of Booz-Allen & Hamilton to evaluate the feasibility of using or obtaining
automated technology to increase the efficiency, flexibility, and usability of the call-in system for
reporting DAS. Booz-Allen & Hamilton interviewed 33 individuals from NMFS enforcement, regulatory,
science, and data-analysis staff; the U.S. Coast Guard; fishery management council staff; and fishermen.
The current system was found to satisfy the requirements for which it was created, but enhancements were
identified. Booz-Allen & Hamilton found that systems do exist that can meet the needs of NMFS in
automating a significant portion of the DAS call-in system program. The firm also recommended that
NMFS continue the process of acquiring an automated account access system by resolving outstanding
issues (i.e., type of database) and developing and sending a request for proposal to the top vendors
identified by Booz-Allen & Hamilton.

Grantee: Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
Grant No.: 97-NW-02 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Project Title: Encounter and Release Rates for Salmonids, Birds and Marine Mammals in the Marine
Sport Salmon Fishery in Puget Sound, Washington
Funding: Federal: $84,000

Assessment: The objective of the project was to evaluate whether there is a bias in angler reporting of the
number of fish released in dockside sampling of sport harvest. In order to achieve this goal, an
independent estimate of the number of fish retained and released was generated from data collected during
direct, on-the-water observations of the fisheries. (A sample data form is shown on the next page.) The
sport fishery encounter rate for non-target species was estimated during the 1997 sport fishing season in
the Strait of Juan De Fuca and Puget Sound. In most cases, the species composition of the catch from
direct, on-the-water observations was not statistically different from that reported by samplers conducting
dockside interviews of angler catch. Observed angler hook-ups resulted in salmon being brought to the
boat about 79% of the time. Approximately 14% of the observed hook-ups resulted in drop-offs. The

remainder of the hook-ups were bottomfish, mackerel, and a small number of seabirds. Marine mammal
interactions were below the detection rate of these studies.

Date: /
CRC Area
Boat Crew
Sample # Outcome Direct Observer Size Reason for Angler Bird Hook Comments
observed Species ID Release Species ID Condition
Sequential Retained Yes Ichinook Legal Not legal I chinook Alive Removed As appropriate
Released No 2=chum Sub-legal Sub-legal size 2=chum Dead Not removed
Drop-off 3=pink Too small 3=pink
4=coho Not desired 4=coho .:

Sample encounter and release data form

Project No.:
Project Title:


Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
97-NW-04 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Pinniped-Salmonid Co-Occurrence: Assessment of Potential Impacts of Pinnipeds on
Salmonids in Selected Estuaries
Federal: $120,000

Assessment: The objective of the project was to determine where and if management actions are needed
to reduce or eliminate pinniped predation impacts on west coast salmonids. The Alsea River and Rogue
River systems were chosen to test research methodologies and to estimate the consumption of salmonids
by pinnipeds, particularly on coho salmon in these areas. Predation observations, collection of harbor seal
scat samples for food habits analysis, counts of pinnipeds at haul out sites were collected three month
period during 1997. On the Alsea River, only one predation event was recorded during the 330
observation periods. On the Rogue River, 40 predation events were recorded during the 490 observation
periods. Prey remains were found in 87% of the scat samples on the Alsea River (selected Alsea River
scat sample results shown on the next page) and 94% of the scat samples taken from the Rogue River.
Over 20 species of fish and cephalpods were identified in the analyses of samples in each river. California
sea lions tended to be more aggressive and obvious while killing and consuming salmonids, while Harbor
seals were noticeably more secretive in preying on salmon. Early, heavy fall rains may have contributed
to the low numbers of predation events observed on the Alsea River.

Project No.:
Project Title:


97-SW-04 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Reconstructing Time Series ofRockfish Abundances by Conventional and Molecular
Federal: $113,000

Assessment: The'identification rockfish larvae archived in the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries
Investigations (CalCOFI) ichthyoplankton collection was completed, and data were analyzed. Continuous
time series were constructed for four species (Sebastes paucispinis, S. levis, S. jordani, and S. aurora),
and a partial time series was completed for S. diploproa. The data for S. levis, the cowcod, was used in a
population assessment for that species submitted to the Pacific Fisheries Management Council. The larval
data proved to be critical in the construction of a population model for that species, which is considered
threatened. A stock rebuilding plan is now being formulated for this species. The results of the study
were communicated in a paper given by the investigator at the annual CalCOFI conference held at the
Scripps Institution in November 1999. A manuscript analyzing the distribution and abundance of the
rockfish larvae identified under this grant, as well as larvae identified previous and subsequent to the
grant, was completed and accepted for publication in California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries
Investigations Reports. Project funds were insufficient to completed the identification ofS. diploproa
larvae for the years 1972-1986.

Prey Species % Frequency of Occurrence Minimum 'f Individuals
Salmonid Total 9.5 6
Salmonid Adult 9.5 6
Flatfish 27.0 20
Pacific Herring 25.4 28
Rex Sole 22.2 24
Fish unid. 22.2 na
English Sole 19.0 31
Pacific Tomcod 15.9 19
Pacific Staghorn Sculpin 9.5 9
Pacific Sanddab 6.3 8
Poacher 6.3 4
Starry Flounder 4.8 8
Octopus 3.2 5
Rockfish 3.2 2
Smelt 3.2 2
Herring/Shad 1.6 1
Lingcod 1.6 1
Northern Anchovy 1.6 1
Pacific Lamprey 1.6 I
Pacific Mackeral 1.6 1
Peamouth 1.6 1

Prey species Identified from Pacific harbor seal scat (fecal) samples (n=63) collected during October 1997 at the
Alsea River lower estuary haul-out sites

Project No.: 97-SF-01 NMFS Contact: F/SF2
Project Title: The Federal Role in Subsidizing and Otherwise Influencing Harvesting Capacity in U.S.
Funding: Federal: $190,953

Assessment: The 1996 Sustainable Fisheries Act included a provision for a Task Force to study the role of
the federal government in investment decisions in fisheries managed under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery
Conservation and Management Act. The Task Force in its Report to Congress (available online at
http://www.nmfs.gov/sfa/ITF.html) concluded that federal subsidies and other federal fisheries programs
(i.e., development, marketing, and promotion) have had a direct role in the build-up of capital and capacity
in some U.S. fisheries. This impact, however, is impossible to quantify in any exact way. The Task Force
recommended that the federal government limit the funding of such programs to be consistent with
conservation-oriented national policy goals. In particular, priorities for federal tax, lending, and grants
programs should avoid exacerbating the overcapacity problem now facing the nation's fisheries. The Task
Force also recommended that when legislation establishes or funds programs affecting the fishing
industry, part of the mandate and budget authorization shall place proper emphasis on the generation of
adequate data to permit the quantitative evaluation of the capacity and subsidy effects of the program.


Project No.: 97-NW-14 NMFS Contact: F/NWR
Project Title: Reduction of Bycatch in the West Coast Prawn Trawl Fisheries
Funding: Federal: $168,568

Assessment: This grant focused on evaluation of three methods (the Nordmore grid, a separator panel, and
a "fish eye" [see next page]) for excluding bycatch species in the West Coast fisheries for spot prawns
Pandalus platyceros. Bycatch in the prawn trawl fishery is a critical problem because many of the
bycatch stocks, including several species ofrockfish Sebastes sp., are potentially overfished. Evaluation
of the three excluders provided a great deal of information about the excluders' suitability in this fishery.
Although none of the devices excluded the bycatch efficiently, evaluation of these excluders provided
enough information about performance to suggest a type of gear that would effectively reduce the volume
of bycatch without risk of loss of the target species. Funding from this grant allowed completion of a
one-year research project that, although not definitely providing the solution to the proposed problem,
provided a great deal of information and proposed a solution that can be pursued in subsequent research

Fish eye

-~i r.
-I I
*.J : "*j; ci'*-" i '


Grant No:
Project Title:

University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC
NA36FD0271 NMFS Contact: F/SF2
Detection and Enumeration of Viable but Nonculturable Vibrio vulnificus
Federal: $108,808 Recipient: $0

Assessment: The goal of this project was to develop methods for the differentiation and enumeration of
Vibrio vulnificus cells present in the environment in the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state. The
investigator completed all of this project's major goals, including successfully conducting studies on the
detection and characterization ofVBNC-specific cold shock proteins. Although the investigator
submitted draft reports, the S-K Program does not expect to receive a final report for this project.


Grantee: Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Grant No.: NA66RG0206 NMFS Contact: F/SF2
Project Title: Coastal Alabama Seafood Harvest
Funding: Federal: $990,000 Recipient: $139,836

Assessment: The effects of ammonia on marine shrimp in intensive shrimp ponds were evaluated. Ponds
were stocked with Litopenaeus vannamei at two densities (33 and 66/m2) and cultured either with or
without water exchange. Water exchange ponds received a 20% pond volume exchange when daily peak
un-ionized ammonia concentrations reached 0.20 mg/L. All ponds received supplemental aeration
controlled by automated sensing devices. Water exchange resulted in significantly lower seasonal mean
total ammonia nitrogen and peak un-ionized ammonia concentrations in comparison to ponds with no
exchange. However, yields and average size of shrimp at harvest were not significantly different among
treatments. The study suggests that ammonia concentrations encountered in most shrimp culture systems
will not affect growth or production. Paddlewheel aerators were compared with aspirator pump aerators
for use in shrimp ponds. Six ponds were used, and the study was conducted over two summers. A higher
total yield in paddlewheel-treatment ponds resulted from significantly higher shrimp survivals compared
to shrimp in aspirator pump treatment. Specifically, use ofpaddlewheels produced 5,915 shrimp/ha with
100% survival at a 17g mean weight. The aspirator pumps used significantly more electricity than the
paddlewheel aerators to maintain the same dissolved oxygen saturation. Water quality variables were not
significantly different between treatments in the first run, but total and un-ionized ammonia were
significantly higher in ponds in the paddlewheel treatment during the second experiment.
The bait fish demonstration farm focused on bull minnow (Fundulus grandis, gulf killifish). The
production strategy utilized a two-pond rotation system for spawning, egg hatching, fry production, and
final grow-out. This project provided assistance in the areas of curriculum development, equipment
selection, fish for grow-out, and follow-up trouble shooting to a high school in a traditional fishing
community (Bayou LaBatre) to help establish an aquaculture program. The high school aquaculture
project in Bayou LaBatre is a model for the entire Southeast region.

Project No.: 96-SE-OX NMFS Contact: F/SF2
Project Title: Shellfish Disease and Pathology
Funding: Federal: $15,000

Assessment: This project funded travel costs for two investigators to collect samples in aquaculture
facilities in Charleston, SC, in response to an outbreak of shellfish disease. The investigators collected
hundreds of samples, some of which were sent to a laboratory at the University of Arizona for analysis.
Analysis found that a white spot-type virus was present in the aquaculture facilities from which samples
were collected. This project also funded three weeks of training in shellfish disease and pathology for the
two investigators at the University of Arizona.


Project No.: 97-SW-03 NMFS Contact: F/SWR
Project Title: Characterization of Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) Pelagic Habitat,
Home Range, and Diving Behavior
Funding: Federal: $153,280

Assessment: Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) have declined at their six principal colonies
in the Hawaiian archipelago by about 60% since the late 1950s and now number around 1,300-1,400. The
obstacles to species recovery are unclear, although decline or depletion of important prey resources has
been posited as a key factor. Identification of foraging habitats is fundamental to clarifying that
relationship and formulating appropriate management measures that may promote the seals' recovery.
The objectives of this study were to (1) document geographic and vertical foraging habitats used by monk
seals at an increasing colony (Pearl and Hermes Reef), (2) compare those patterns with comparable data at
a declining colony (French Frigate Shoals), and (3) evaluate the hypothesis that prey availability is
limiting the French Frigate Shoals population. The investigators documented geographic and vertical
components of the foraging patterns of nine adult male, nine adult female, and six juvenile (five male and
one female) Hawaiian monk seals at Pearl and Hermes Reef from November 1997 through September
1998 using satellite-linked telemetry. Seals at Pearl and Hermes Reef foraged mostly in relatively shallow
(8-40 m) waters within or on the outer slope of the atoll, rarely ranging more than a few kilometers away.
Moreover, seals segregated by age and sex when foraging within this small atoll. In contrast, earlier
studies reported that seals at French Frigate Shoals foraged deeper and further away (up to 217 km from
haulout sites) and did not generally segregate. These data support the hypothesis that prey resources may
be more dispersed and perhaps less abundant at French Frigate Shoals. The data also highlight the
importance of, and critical need for, spatial and temporal details of the foraging patterns of Hawaiian
monk seals, particularly of young seals, at various colonies for strategic conservation and management.


Information regarding the Saltonstall-Kennedy Grant Program may be obtained from the
following offices of the National Marine Fisheries Service:

Alicia L. Jarboe, National Marine Fisheries Service (F/SF2)
Financial Services Division
1315 East West Highway
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910
Telephone: (301) 713-2358
Email: alicia.jarboe@noaa.gov

Kenneth L. Beal, National Marine Fisheries Service (F/NER)
State, Federal & Constituent Programs Division
One Blackburn Drive
Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930
Telephone: (978) 281-9267
Email: ken.beal@noaa.gov

Ellie F. Roche, National Marine Fisheries Service (F/SER)
Cooperative Programs Division
9721 Executive Center Drive, North
Koger Building
St. Petersburg, Florida 33702
Telephone: (727) 570-5324
Email: ellie.roche@noaa.gov

Patricia J. Donley, National Marine Fisheries Service (F/SWR)
Fisheries Management Division
501 West Ocean Boulevard
Suite 4200
Long Beach, California 90802-4213
Telephone: (562) 980-4030
Email: pat.donley@noaa.gov

Kevin A. Ford, National Marine Fisheries Service (F/NWR)
Trade and Industry Services Division
7600 Sand Point Way, NE
BIN C15700, Building 1
Seattle, Washington 98115
Telephone: (206) 526-6115
Email: kevin.ford@noaa.gov

Barbara A. Fosburg, National Marine Fisheries Service (F/AKR)
Office of Management and Information
P.O. Box 21668
Juneau, Alaska 99802
Federal Building
709 W. 9t Street, 4h Floor
Juneau, Alaska 99801
Telephone: (907) 586-7273
Email: barbara.fosburg@noaa.gov


Federal Register/Vol. 64, No. 118/Monday, June 21, 1999/Notices

5 United States Code Appendix Section
2 et seq., and the General Services
Administration (GSA) rule on Federal
Advisory Committee Management, Title
41 Code of Federal Regulations subpart
101-6.10, the Secretary of Commerce
has determined that the establishment
of the Advanced Technology Program
(ATP) Advisory Committee (the
"Committee") is in the public interest in
connection with the performance of
duties imposed on the Department by
The Committee will advise the
Director of the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST) on
ATP programs, plans, and policies.
The Committee will consist of not
fewer than six nor more than twelve
members appointed by the Director of
NIST and its membership will be
balanced to reflect the wide diversity of
technical disciplines and industrial
sectors represented in ATP projects
NIST invites and requests nominations
of individuals for appointment to the
The Committee will function solely as
an advisory body, in compliance with
the provision of the Federal Advisory
Committee Act.
Authority: Federal Advisory Committee
Act: 5 U.S.C. App. 2 and General Services
Administration Rule: 41 CFR subpart 101-
Dated: June 14. 1999.
Karen H. Brown,
Deputy Director.
[FR Doc. 99-15584 Filed 6-18-99: 8:45 am]


National Oceanic and Atmospheric
[Docket No. 960223046-9151-04; I.D.
RIN 0648-ZA09

Financial Assistance for Research and
Development Projects to Strengthen
and Develop the U.S. Fishing Industry
AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries
Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),
ACTION: Notice of solicitation for
SUMMARY: NMFS (hereinafter referred to
as "we" or "us") issues this document
to describe how you, the applicant, can
apply for funding under the Saltonstall-
Kennedy (S-K) Grant Program and how
we will determine whether to fund your

Under the S-K Program, we provide
financial assistance for research and
development projects that address
various aspects of U.S. fisheries
(commercial or recreational), including,
but not limited to, harvesting,
processing, marketing, and associated
DATES: We must receive your
application by close of business August
20, 1999, in one of the offices listed in
section I.E. Applications Addresses of
this document. You must submit one
signed original and nine signed-copies
of the completed application (including
supporting information). We will not
accept facsimile applications.
ADDRESSES: You can obtain an
application package from, and send
your completed applications) to, the
NMFS Regional Administrator located
at any of the offices listed in section I.E.
Applications Addresses of this
Alicia L. Jarboe, S-K Program Manager,
(301) 713-2358.
I. Introduction
A. Background
The Saltonstall-Kennedy Act (S-K
Act), as amended (15 U.S.C. 713c-3),
established a fund (known as the S-K
fund) that the Secretary of Commerce
uses to provide grants or cooperative
agreements for fisheries research and
development projects addressed to any
aspect of U.S. fisheries, including, but
not limited to, harvesting, processing,
marketing, and associated
infrastructures. U.S. fisheries' include
any fishery,
commercial or recreational, that is or may be
engaged in by citizens or nationals of the
United States, or citizens of the Northern
Mariana Islands, the Republic of the Marshall
Islands. Republic of Palau, and the Federated
States of Micronesia.
The objectives of the S-K Grant
Program, and therefore the funding
priorities, have changed over the years
since the program began in 1980. The
original focus of the program was to
develop underutilized fisheries within
the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery
Conservation and Management
Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act),
originally passed in 1976, directed us to

'For purposes of this document, a fishery is
defined as one or more stocks of fish. including
tuna. and shellfish that are identified as a unit
based on geographic, scientific, technical.
recreational and economic characteristics, and any
and all phases of fishing for such stocks. Examples
of a fishery are Alaskan groundfish. Pacific whiting,
New England whiting, and eastern oysters.

give the domestic fishing industry
priority access to the fishery resources
in the EEZ.
To accelerate development of
domestic fisheries, the American
Fisheries Promotion Act of 1980
amended the S-K Act to
stimulate commercial and recreational
fishing efforts in underutilized fisheries.
In the following years, the efforts to
Americanize the fisheries were
successful to the point that most
nontraditional species were fully
developed and some traditional
fisheries became overfished. Therefore,
we changed the emphasis of the S-K
Program to resource conservation and
management. Funding priorities
included a range of conservation and
management issues and aquaculture.
In 1996, the Sustainable Fisheries Act
(SFA) (Pub. L. 104-297), was enacted.
The SFA amended the Magnuson-
Stevens Act and supported further
adjustment to the S-K Program to
address the current condition of
The Magnuson-Stevens Act, as
amended by the SFA, requires us to
undertake efforts to prevent overfishing,
rebuild overfished fisheries, insure
conservation, protect essential fish
habitats, and realize the full potential of
U.S. fishery resources. It further requires
that we take into account the
importance of fishery resources to
fishing communities; provide for the
sustained participation of such
communities; and, to the extent
possible, minimize the adverse
economic impacts of conservation and
management measures on such
communities. The Magnuson-Stevens
Act defines a "fishing community" as "a
community which is substantially
dependent on or substantially engaged
in the harvest or processing of fishery
resources to meet social and economic
needs, and includes fishing vessel
owners, operators, and crew and United
States fish processors that are based in
such community." (16 U.S.C. 1802 (16)).
The NOAA Strategic Plan, updated in
1998, has three goals under its
Environmental Stewardship Mission:
Build Sustainable Fisheries (BSF),
Recover Protected Species, and Sustain
Healthy Coasts. The S-K Program
supports fisheries research and
development activities that directly
relate to the BSF goal.
The revised objectives for BSF,
consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens
Act, are:
1. Eliminate and prevent overfishing
and overcapitalization.
2. Attain economic sustainability in
fishing communities.


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