Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Executive summary
 The office of women in develop...
 A.I.D. bureaus and missions
 Private enterprise
 Environment and natural resour...
 Participant training
 Health, population and nutriti...
 Other sectors
 Appendix A. Office of women in...
 Appendix B. Text of cable transmitted...
 Appendix C. Data summaries of USAID...
 Appendix D. Office of women in...

Title: Women in Development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089861/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in Development Report fy ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agency for International Development
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Office of Women in Development, Bureau of Research and Development, USAID
Place of Publication: Washington DC
Publication Date: 1989-1990
Subject: Women -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Economic development projects -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Women in development -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Economic assistance, American -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
General Note: Description based on fy 1991 and 1992.
General Note: "A report to Congress by the U.S. Agency for International Development."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089861
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 39165750

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Executive summary
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    The office of women in development
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    A.I.D. bureaus and missions
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Private enterprise
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Environment and natural resources
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Participant training
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Health, population and nutrition
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Other sectors
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Appendix A. Office of women in development program strategy
        Page 70
    Appendix B. Text of cable transmitted to USAID missions requesting input for the report
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Appendix C. Data summaries of USAID mission input
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Appendix D. Office of women in development projects and activities FY '89 and '90
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
Full Text

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Prepared by
Office of Women in Development
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523


FOREWORD BY THE ADMINISTRATOR..................................... ............ 5

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................... ......... .................... 6

II. BA C K G R O U N D ........................................................................ ...................................10

D EV ELO PM EN T ......................................................................... ...................................12

S ecto rs ........................................................................................................... ....... ............12
S erv ices ....................................... ......................................................................................12
T rain in g ....................................... ................................................................................. 13
T technical A ssistance.................................................................... .................................15
A applied R research ......................................................................... .................................16
Information and Communication ............................ .............. ..........................17
Institutionalization ........................................................... 17
Monitoring and Evaluation...................................................... ............................19
D ocum en t R review ...................................................................... .................................. 19
Development of Indicators........................... .........................................................19
Management Information System.................................. .........................20
The WID Matching Fund.......................................................... ............................21

IV. A.I.D. BUREAUS AND MISSIONS....... .................................................................24

Bureau for Africa......................... ...................................................................24
Bureau for Asia and the Near East ................................. .............................25
Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean ............................................. .......25
Bureau for Science and Technology..................................................... 26
Bureau for Private Enterprise ................................................... ...........................26
Bureau for Food for Peace and Voluntary Assistance.............................. .....27
Office of Food for Peace ............................................................... ..........................27
Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation ......................... ...........................27

V A G R IC U LT U R E ........................................................................ ....................................30

T he Issu e ..................... . ..........................................................................................................30
Strategies and Constraints.......................................................... ..........................31
A .I.D R esp on se ........................................................................... ...................................32
USAID Missions ................................ .. .................... ............................ 32
A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus ...............................................................35


Women in Development / Report to Congress

VI. PRIVATE ENTERPRISE ........................................................... ...........................37

T he Issu e ...................................... .. ...............................................................................37
Strategies and C constraints ........................................................ ...................................38
A .I.D R response ................................................. .................... ................................. 39
U SA ID M missions ................................ .. .. ..................... .......................... 40
A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus ............................... ...............................44

VII. ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES..................................................45

T he Issue ............................................................. ..................... ...................... ..... 45
Strategies and Constraints ......................................................... ...........................46
A .I.D R esp onse ..................................................................................... ............. .... 46
U SA ID M missions ................................................................................................ 46
A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus ................................... ......................47

V III. E D U C A T IO N ................................................................................ .................................50

T he Issu e ..................... . ....................................................................... .................................50
Strategies and C onstraints......................................................... ..................................52
A .I.D Response............................................... ...... ... .............. ..... 53
U SA ID M missions ................................................................. ........................................53
A .I.D Central A activities ............................ .... .............. ..................... ...... ..... 54

IX. PARTICIPANT TRAINING ................................................... ............................58

X. HEALTH, POPULATION AND NUTRITION ........................................................61

USAID M missions ................................................................................................................62
A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus ........................... ............ ...........................63

XI. O TH ER SECTO RS.................................................................................... 65

Housing................................. ........65
Legal Rights ...................................... ........... ........ .....65

XII. CONCLUSION: TOWARD THE FUTURE.........................................................68

APPENDICES.................. .......... ........................................... 70


On behalf of the U.S. Agency for International
Development (A.I.D.), I am proud to share with
you the Agency's Report to Congress on Women in
Development (WID) for Fiscal Year 1989 through
Fiscal Year 1990. This report is a record of strategic
action and accomplishment. Through staff training,
technical assistance, applied research, and informa-
tion support, gender analysis has become a vital
analytic tool in the design of our development
activities. This and our stated commitment to
women in development has enabled more women
from developing countries to participate in A.I.D.
programs and projects; to access A.I.D. supported
resources, skills, and training; and to benefit from
programs which now address their particular
needs, constraints, and opportunities. This
participation has contributed to the positive impact
and sustainability of A.I.D. efforts.

Today, the involvement of women in the
development process is recognized as a critical
factor in achieving broad-based, sustainable
economic growth. In 1985, the foreword to the
A.I.D. Report on the First Decade of Women in
Development, stated that, "Our goal for the future
is to integrate WID into every Bureau and Mission
of this Agency not just as a legitimate issue, for
A.I.D. Policy makes it such, but as a development
tool with its own set of specialized skills,
techniques, and methodologies." A.I.D. has made
significant advances toward the goal of full integra-
tion of gender issues into its development efforts.

Our progress is substantial, but many challenges
remain. The two most immediate challenges are in
the areas of evaluation and training. Integrating
gender into the Agency-wide effort to strengthen

systems for performance monitoring and impact
evaluation is essential as A.I.D. strives toward
better accountability and development results.

A.I.D. is committed to sustaining and
strengthening the process of institutionalization of
women in development within its Missions and
Bureaus. Our staff capabilities in gender analysis
must be maintained and enhanced to this end.
Growth in the numbers of women participant
trainees must be sustained. Analytic approaches to
relate gender to policy initiatives also must be
pursued aggressively to keep pace with rapid
change in our Agency. Definition and commitment
to the integration of gender issues in sectoral
programs will continue. Another challenge before
us is to strengthen and expand our collaboration
with other institutions through partnerships with
universities, non-governmental organizations, and
other institutions which emphasize the full integra-
tion of women into the economies of developing

We recognize more challenges ahead as we work to
achieve the full integration of women in
development and the wider goal of enabling
people to make choices and improve their lives.
Our record is one of achievement and commitment.
We will strive to sustain and build on that record.

Ronald W. Roskens



..6 a -

Today, the involvement of women in the
development process is recognized as a critical
factor in achieving broad-based sustainable
economic growth. The contributions that women
make to productivity, food security, and social
well-being are increasingly viewed as
indispensable in meeting development objectives.

The U.S. Agency for International Development
(A.I.D.) has taken significant steps to strengthen its
capacity to address gender issues on a continuing
and comprehensive basis. The FY 1989 and FY 1990
Report to Congress on Women in Development
highlights two years of this substantive

A.I.D. emphasizes the integration of women into
the mainstream of development assistance. As a
result the Agency has moved away from a focus on
women-specific projects and has emphasized maxi-
mizing women's access to and control over
resources, skills, and benefits which development
programs offer.

The FY 1987 and 1988 Report to Congress outlined
A. I. D.'s comprehensive strategy to address the
critical need for considering gender in all its
systems and procedures. Efforts in FY 1989 and FY
1990 focused on three areas:

integration of gender considerations into
design and implementation activities in four
priority sectors: agriculture, private
enterprise, education, and environment and
natural resources;

institutionalization of women in
development concerns through
development of action plans, establishment
of WID working groups, selection of WID
officers, design and delivery of training
programs, and information dissemination;

creation and management of a matching
fund to stimulate targeted investment in
WID by USAID Missions and A.I.D. Bureaus.


The Office of Women in Development (WID) in the
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination (PPC)
is responsible for guiding A.I.D. in the integration
of women into the development process. The Office
manages funds to assist Missions and Bureaus in
institutionalizing gender considerations into their
programs. In FY 1989 and FY 1990, the WID Office
targeted four sectors to concentrate staff and
resources for maximal impact: agriculture; private
enterprise; education; and environment and natural

The Office also provides a range of services to
Missions and Bureaus to facilitate institutionalizing
gender considerations in all Agency strategies, pro-
grams, and projects. These services include:

Training: In FY 1989 and FY 1990, the WID
Office trained 640 A.I.D. staff from 48 Missions
as well as representatives from
A.I.D./Washington, private voluntary
organizations, non-governmental
organizations, counterparts from developing
countries, and contractors.

Technical Assistance: Interest in WID
activities and gender considerations
throughout the Agency has led to increased
demand for technical experts with gender-
related skills. Additional technical experts
have been added to the WID Office staff. This
technical expertise is supplemented by a
network of technical specialists and

Applied Research: The WID Office supports
applied studies of gender issues to initiate poli-
cy dialogue and provide critical information
for program and project design,
implementation, and evaluation in areas such
as: microenterprise; labor trends; girls'
education; structural adjustment; and
sustainable agriculture. The Office is assisting
the Bureau for Latin America and the
Caribbean to establish a research agenda,

Extecitioe Siimmarn

collaborating with the Institute for Liberty and
Democracy (ILD) in Peru, and facilitating state-
of-the-art studies of women's legal, economic,
and educational status and demographic
trends in Asia, the Near East, and Eastern

Information and Communication: The WID
Office issues an intra-agency newsletter to con-
vey updated information on relevant women
in development issues and progress on the
A.I.D. WID mandate. Resource materials on
gender analysis are distributed through the
A.I.D. Document and Information Services
Clearinghouse. And the WID Resource Center
has been integrated into A.I.D.'s Development
Information Center.

A WID matching fund has encouraged the
initiation of over 100 activities for co-funding by the
WID Office with USAID Missions and A.I.D.
Bureaus. The fund was established by Congress in
1989 to supplement the funding of Missions and
Bureaus in their efforts to integrate women
effectively into development.

A fully integrated activity/budget management
information system (MIS) was developed to ensure
sound management and tracking of the increasing
level of WID activity (See Appendix D).


The Agency has increased its capacity to address
gender systematically in all its programs. This
"institutionalization" of the consideration of
women in development involves increasing the
knowledge and skills of personnel to ensure that
A. I. D.'s policies, procedures, and resources reflect
a gender balance. The long-term objective is to
ensure that gender concerns are systematically
incorporated in all Agency actions. Many of the key
mechanisms are now in place to ensure that these
concerns are addressed in the design of
development assistance at the policy, program, and
project levels.

There are a variety of successful examples of "insti-

Action Plans for integrating gender consider-
ations into Mission activities have been
developed by over 90 percent of the

Missions in Africa, Latin America and the
Caribbean, and by all the Missions in Asia
and the Near East.

Each Regional and Central Bureau has
written or refined a WID Action Plan,
assisted in developing or refining USAID
Mission Action Plans and established a
working group to implement the A.I.D. WID

More than 90 percent of Missions have
appointed an officer to address WID-related

Each Regional Bureau has established a WID
Committee which includes the WID Office
staff liaison for that region. These
Committees review all development
activities in their geographic regions to
ensure that gender concerns are appropriate-
ly addressed. The WID Committees also pro-
vide coordination and direction for WID
activities throughout their regions.

The Africa Women in Development
(AFWID) Project will provide four long-
term WID advisors to be based in two
Regional Economic Support Offices,
Southern Africa, and A.I.D./Washington.

In contrast to a 1988 study which showed
that only seven percent of project papers
quantified female beneficiaries, a 1990 study
indicated that more than half of the
documents reviewed by the WID Office ade-
quately disaggregated data by sex in all
references to participants and beneficiaries.

An institutional survey of the Agency was conduct-
ed in 1990 to determine the level of awareness of
the Congressional mandate for WID, the level of
current activities to incorporate gender concerns in
development, and the challenges to be faced in this
area in the future.

Participants in the survey included WID experts,
policy-level personnel, and technical personnel
working in areas other than WID. Results indicated
that attention to women in development issues was
more widely distributed throughout Agency
programs than it had been when a similar survey
was conducted two years earlier.

Women in Development / Report to Congress

The previous survey found that attention to
women in development issues in Agency actions
depended heavily on the interest of individuals.
The change from individual attention to a wider
programmatic emphasis is a direct result of the
Agency's strategic focus on the institutionalization
of WID. Respondents highlighted the need for fur-
ther staff training and policy dialogue with officials
in developing countries to meet the WID mandate.


Major achievements by USAID Missions in FY 1989
and FY 1990 have been identified through field sur-
veys and a comprehensive request for information
(See Appendix B). Increased attention to gender
issues is reported in Mission activities. In
particular, significant achievements have been
identified in the priority sectors of agriculture,
private enterprise, education, and environment and
natural resources.


Women's contribution to agricultural production is
increasingly recognized in a growing number of
the Agency's agricultural activities. Progress has
been made toward involving women in
agricultural assistance programs and improving
their access to key productive resources. Mission
reports document this progress:

Approximately 80 percent of the USAID
Missions in Africa and Asia, two-thirds of
the Missions in Latin America and the
Caribbean, and one-half of Near East
Missions report that their efforts to integrate
women into agricultural projects are well

Three-quarters of the Missions in Africa and
Asia are undertaking major efforts to
strengthen the technical and managerial
capabilities of women's cooperatives or
agricultural institutions.

Missions in Africa report that in their agricul-
tural credit programs, two-thirds of all credit
recipients are women. Loans to women total
over 40 percent of the dollar value of loans
extended in these programs.


Agency efforts have improved women's access to
credit, skills training, and technical assistance.
These efforts have helped make women's work
more productive and remunerative. An increasing
number of development professionals now know
that women are good credit risks. USAID Missions
have strategically targeted the integration of
women into a variety of small and microenterprise

Over 80% of USAID Missions report that
they are initiating efforts to strengthen the
involvement of women in the private sector
through policy and regulatory reforms, com-
munity-based programs, and increased
access to information, technical assistance,
markets, and financing.

USAID Missions report that 40 percent of all
borrowers of small loans in non-agricultural
credit programs are women.


The Agency has identified responsible natural
resource management as one of its priorities. At
the same time, it has taken steps to integrate
women into projects aimed at sustainable natural
resource management. Nearly half of USAID
Missions note that their programs involve women
in one or more forms of resource management
activities such as environmental education,
forestry, and research.


A.I.D. efforts are helping to close the gender gap in
primary school enrollments and completion rates.
Policy dialogue with governments supports
country efforts to increase educational
opportunities for girls and women.

One hundred percent of new projects and
programs in basic education in Africa
address the issue of girls' access to and
persistence in school.

Three-quarters of USAID Missions
worldwide have taken steps to increase the

Executive Summary

quality or quantity of educational opportuni-
ties for women and girls.

Approximately 40 percent of USAID
Missions have provided incentives or
engaged in policy dialogue to encourage
countries to target increased educational
opportunities for women and girls.

In participant training activities, USAID
Missions have used innovative methods for
increasing women's participation in training

Twenty-seven percent of the more than
19,000 participants trained in FY 1990 in
A.I.D.'s participant training program were
women an increase from 17 percent ten
years ago.


USAID projects also address the roles of women in
health, population, nutrition, urbanization, and
legal rights. Reporting on progress in these areas is
detailed later in the report.


These achievements are only highlights of the
Agency's activities. However, they represent
significant progress in meeting the Congressional
WID mandate.

A strategy has been defined which emphasizes
institutionalizing the ability to address WID
concerns throughout the Agency's policy, program,
and project actions as a crucial first step.
Fundamental systems and processes to implement
this strategy are in place and are having a
significant impact.

Much remains to be done. Monitoring impact and
evaluation are priority issues for FY 1991. Better
linkage of gender issues to policy reform efforts is

The importance of appropriate attention to gender
issues will continue to be stressed at A.I.D.. Know-
ledgeable personnel in the Regional and Central
Bureaus and in the USAID Missions are beginning
to provide strong new leadership in addressing
WID issues at all stages of the program and project
cycles. The WID Office will strengthen systems for
monitoring progress, improving staff skills, and
evaluating impact.




The U.S. Agency for International Development's
policy on women in development is derived from
what is generally known as the "Percy
Amendment," section 113 of the Foreign Assistance
Act of 1961, as amended. In 1973, the Percy
Amendment required that U.S. bilateral assistance
be administered to give particular attention to
programs, projects, and activities that contribute to
integrating women into the national economies of
developing countries. In 1977, this section was
restated to recognize women's role in "economic
production, family support, and the overall
development process."

The A.I.D. Policy Paper on Women in
Development was issued in October 1982 to
provide the policy framework and guidance for
Agency efforts to incorporate women into the
development process. It was one of the first donor
WID policies. A basic premise of A.I.D.'s women in
development policy is that gender roles are a key
variable in the socio-economic condition of any
country one that can be decisive in the success or

failure of development plans. The primary issue
underlying the women in development policy is
ultimately an economic one. Misunderstanding
gender differences can lead to inadequate project
planning and design as well as diminished returns
on investment.

A.I.D.'s policy emphasizes the integration of
women into the mainstream of development
assistance. The Agency has moved away from its
initial focus on small, women- specific projects
because many of these lacked long-term
sustainability and tended to marginalize women
from mainstream development efforts.

In July, 1988, the A.I.D. Administrator issued
specific WID Action Items to institutionalize within
the Agency the capacity to address issues related to
women in development. The Action Items also
addressed specific initiatives in women in develop-
ment training for A.I.D. staff and increasing female
participant training levels.

T17i .1,31011 cttw, th; lins,1Cdl .4 iD ii i in li/ti It'll ill,' .4 1.0 iLJ??i ill 1988 4'ecifted that.

I All AID- Biwran.; and LI;.AID A1i.;,;oiis are re.,ilonible for de'elopbigv 710 irinploneiltiig. WMD Action Plans that include
Syrtt'li and PrOCediirt' .. ai Iacll uI uiC a, caenditlr-driven bentluinari. k i _to and mnointor intnei in dvteli'pnunt-l isnie teireIir.llodl-
outd ti eir pro grainn. Mnd tlrtleCti.

A.1A I D Burnuvi .alid LlS NIB Ah-;-;il nI will reflect ; 111;re ated L17iti In trW'.-lri dLICiOPeitn all daa Collected
-twill be -'x~l-dqbveyed for pro jec tFnon .prtiltc aSSita nce anld reoI7InS doe ii men!t

3. Al A.I.D. Bureaus and UI;.-)D A;ion; it-ill ensure tIhat country mrat.r pit'1ratn. proTlci ilt011i/ed LiiFtli'i'e anld
ieportiluo dtitioilituent. t'Axllitlu deoil't' strategies to involve women as well as the beoiufils and iliipeditnotte ; it, ivl wlnw s [rwtit
pla~t iu Ill t'Veloppiiiut t'nlnnarks ;Ben ill iv de7loit d t' Vlieii-ite ;aitoiei s /ati .i a.p tiollu i and elL'rit.; tin ltp lit acti;:i-

4 1tecmbifi ivinuen in dezIopnenl training uill lie a? priority wr AID per'.oinnel pirticularlii inl the tollIyin'o ; tt'lr: ar icul-
thre. prizute en! eupris.e thevelpnient-and natural resouirct' niaiia.,cinent aid em'irljiinent. Tln-, incllues. rqivtliail andh!or country
..p~ecltit: 1V7D trainiing as ivell ai a required 1%17) courq~nponrt lin Washii,iton-ba.td traiining :oiir;e-; inl tile .ector.; inenioried

5. .411 .A I D Bi itteiu and L15).4.11 A !i..ion4 it-ill 'ii crt.rae the oetll illl ;t Liiil Iii fliilli nit r ; ilh proi l Is.

mine the ob-4t.0e aw'hichi uaue tw.L'ented tile Co11FIX40l1 tOt Sift I i etor0t An iiphlaair ioi tille tpr- -c. d i0' lto 'hliii i Iio o;ick can ti c rrc'ion

Backg ound

In FY 1989, foreign assistance appropriations
legislation reserved $5 million from A.I.D.'s
Development Assistance accounts for women in
development activities, in addition to funds
otherwise available for such purposes. These funds
were directed to "supplement and encourage addi-
tional spending for women and expansion of
development activities ... not as a substitute for
other A.I.D. funds that benefit women's
development." The legislation further reserved $3
million of these funds as matching funds to support
women in development efforts of USAID Missions
and A.I.D. Bureaus.

The FY 1987 and 1988 Interim Report to Congress
outlined a comprehensive strategy that the U.S.
Agency for International Development designed to
address the critical need for the consideration of
gender in all its systems and procedures.

Implementation of that strategy became the goal of
the Agency's WID program. In FY 1989 and FY
1990 efforts focused on three areas:

Integration of gender considerations into
design and implementation activities in four

priority sectors: agriculture, private
enterprise, education, and environment and
natural resources;

institutionalization of women in
development concerns through
development of action plans, establishment
of WID working groups, selection of WID
officers, design and delivery of training pro-
grams, and information dissemination; and,

creation and management of a matching
fund to stimulate targeted investment in
WID by USAID Missions and A.I.D.

A program strategy was finalized in 1990 to further
refine, focus, and update objectives and indicators
needed for efficient management of activities to
meet Congressional and A.I.D. mandates (See
Appendix A).

Due to its strong base of achievement, A. I. D. has
become a leader in the donor community in the
integration of women into development.




The Office of Women in Development (WID) in the
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination (PPC)
is responsible for guiding A.I.D. in the integration
of women in development and in reporting to
Congress on the Agency's progress. The Office
manages funds to assist Missions and Bureaus in
institutionalizing gender considerations in their
programs. The Office collaborates with Missions
and Bureaus to implement, monitor, and report on
the WID Action Items and helps ensure that gender
concerns are addressed at both policy and project
levels within the Agency.

The objective of the WID Office Strategic Plan (See
Appendix A), formalized in 1990, is to enable
women to participate fully and benefit equally
from the development process. The institutionaliza-
tion of gender considerations into programming
decisions plays an important role in meeting this

The WID Office helps ensure that gender concerns
are addressed through:

accelerated and expanded training of A.I.D.
Bureau, Office and USAID Mission staff;

development of appropriate systems and
procedures for considering gender in A.I.D.
institutional operations;

improved performance monitoring systems;
and, an enhanced gender-disaggregated
research and data base.


WID Office efforts are strategically focused in four
sectors agriculture, private enterprise,
education, and environment and natural
resources-to maximize impact of the potential
contribution of women to international
development and to demonstrate that gender is a
significant factor in project success.


The WID Office provides a range of services to
Missions and Bureaus to institutionalize gender
considerations in all Agency strategies, programs,
and projects. These are:

Mark Edwards/Still Pictures

The C(,, f Women In Development

Training: to promote awareness, provide
information, and strengthen skills to address
gender issues in design, implementation, mon-
itoring, and evaluation of strategies, programs,
and projects. Services include: training of key
project and program officers; USAID Mission-
specific training; A.I.D. Bureau orientation and
strategic planning sessions; training of contract
teams, private voluntary and non-governmental
organization personnel, and others with WID-
related responsibilities; and training of trainers.

Technical Assistance: to assist in the design,
implementation, and evaluation of projects
and programs. Services include assistance with
development of USAID Mission WID
strategies; portfolio reviews to integrate gender
considerations into existing and planned
projects; preparation of Country Development
Strategy Statements and Action Plans; in-field
analysis; implementation of pilot projects and
applied research; and preparation of Project
Identification Documents, Project Papers, and

Applied Research: to help collect primary and
secondary data to expand the information
database, enhance analytic capabilities, and
advance knowledge of gender issues in key
sectors. Services include: analysis of existing
information; identification of data gaps; prepa-
ration of state-of-the-art and state-of-the-
practice reviews; and promotion of selected
original research to facilitate the effective
integration of gender into A.I.D. projects,
programs, and policy dialogue.

Information and Communication: to commu-
nicate the results of research and analysis, tech-
nical assistance, and training to all A.I.D. staff,
the international donor community, and
organizations in developing countries. Services
include: the production of an intra-agency
WID Newsletter; information dissemination of
lessons learned about effectively integrating
women into development; production of
technical reports on gender issues; gender-
related research and reference services through
the Center for Development Information and
Evaluation; and maintenance of resource mate-
rials in the A.I.D. Development Information

Highlights of selected achievements in FY 1989 and
FY 1990 in training, technical assistance, applied
research, and information and communication are
described below.


The development and implementation of a WID
training program for A.I.D. staff is critical to
integrating women into the development process.
WID training increases awareness of, knowledge
about, and skills and motivation for considering
gender as a critical variable in A.I.D.'s development

Women in Development / Report to Congress

There has been marked growth in the WID training
program during FY 1989 and FY 1990. Requests for
training assistance have increased significantly.
This indicates concern for and advancement in the
institutionalization of the Agency's WID mandate.

The scope of the training program has broadened
and deepened. It now includes not only A.I.D.
direct hires and foreign service nationals working
with USAID Missions but also counterparts in
developing countries, private voluntary and non-
governmental organizations, and contractors.
While expanding the scope of participants in this
way enriches individual training efforts, it increases
the difficulty of designing appropriate training
workshops. The WID Office has successfully devel-
oped a number of such workshops and accelerated
the pace of training for counterparts in developing
countries and personnel from private voluntary
and non-governmental organizations.

The training program has been expanded to stress
technical skill-building. Agency personnel have
moved beyond awareness of gender issues and are

now seeking training in how to integrate gender
considerations into their programs, projects, data
tracking, and policy dialogue. The Agency's WID
mandate will only be integrated and sustainable if
this phase of staff training is fully implemented.
The WID Office is meeting this challenge by devel-
oping training programs with strong technical
components, efforts which combine training and
technical assistance, and sessions which involve
work on participants' portfolios.

In the last two years, the WID Office was directly
responsible for the funding, design, delivery and
assessment of 16 training activities involving 640
A.I.D. staff from 48 Missions as well as
representatives from A.I.D./Washington, private
voluntary organizations, non-governmental organi-
zations, counterparts in developing countries, and
contractors. Of the training program participants,
304 were women; 336 were men.

An indication of progress is that, unlike previous
years when the Women in Development Office
invited others to regional training events, USAID

The Office of Women In Development

Missions and A. I. D. Bureaus are now requesting
training for their technical staff.

Prior to FY 1990 the year when USAID Missions
and A.I.D. Bureaus began sharing training costs -
training had been fully funded by the Women in
Development Office. Now, all requests received
by the WID Office include Mission sharing of train-
ing costs.

During FY 1989 and FY 1990, there were nine
requests for Mission-specific training and five
requests for regional workshops. The objectives
were: (1) to increase the ability to collect and use
gender-disaggregated data; (2) to increase
awareness of, knowledge about, and skills and
motivation for addressing gender issues in
development programming; and (3) to assist in the
development of WID Workplans.

The Bureaus for Science and Technology, Private
Enterprise, and Latin America and the Caribbean
participated in training programs in FY 1989 and
FY 1990. At each workshop, participants discussed
WID programs, the status of WID Workplans, the
treatment of WID in documents, and future
priorities for each Bureau.

The WID Office has also collaborated with other
on-going, intra-agency, in-service training activities
to ensure inclusion of gender considerations.
Courses targeted during FY 1989 and FY 1990
included New Entry Training, Project Design, and
the Development Studies Program.

Training has been provided for other trainers in the
use of the Office's methodology and materials. The
goal of these activities is to broaden and deepen the
pool of trainers to meet increasing demand. In
February 1990, the WID Office conducted a three-
day workshop for 23 trainers.

The WID Office collaborates with other Federal
agencies and private voluntary organizations to
support inclusion of gender considerations in train-
ing programs. Such collaborative efforts in FY 1989
and FY 1990 involved the Bureau of the Census, the
Department of Labor, the Department of
Agriculture, and the Centre for Development and
Population Activities (CEDPA).

Technical Assistance
Direct technical assistance to USAID Missions and
A.I.D./Washington is a key component of the WID
Office strategy to institutionalize gender concerns
in the Agency. Various types of technical
assistance are provided in response to specific
USAID Mission and A.I.D. Bureau needs.

Such activities can be grouped into four basic

assistance in the development or implement-
ation of strategic planning activities;
assistance focused on a specific sector;
assistance associated with a programmatic
assistance directed at a specific development

Technical assistance is provided directly by WID
Office staff, by contractor teams funded by the
Office, or by combined staff-contractor teams.

Assistance in strategic planning plays a key role in
support of WID institutionalization efforts. The
WID Office has participated in comprehensive
reviews of the portfolios of the majority of USAID
Missions. Eleven portfolio reviews were conducted
last year. As a result, specific Action Plans for
integrating WID into Mission activities have been
developed for over 90 percent of USAID Missions
in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and all
of the USAID Missions in Asia and the Near East.

The WID Office is also collaborating with the
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination's
Center for Development Information and
Evaluation to incorporate gender concerns into
USAID Mission strategic program planning and
evaluation efforts. In the first phase of this activity,
strategic plans were put into place in seven
Missions. The second phase was initiated in FY
1990 and involves extending strategic planning
activities to 12 additional Missions as well as
follow-up evaluations in many of the original
Missions. Specific indicators were developed to
measure progress in gender integration in the activ-
ities of each Mission and country.

Sector level assistance is focused on agriculture,
private enterprise, education, and environment
and natural resources. In each sector, the WID
Office has specific staff expertise and contractors to

Women in Development / Report to Congress

provide a wide range of assistance. Through the
WID Office GENESYS project, for example, four
sector assessments in agriculture were undertaken
in the past year.

In addition to the broad-based assistance provided
through GENESYS, significant levels of specialized
sector level assistance are provided by other
projects which the WID Office co-funds including:
ABEL (education); GEMINI (micro-enterprise);
PEDS II (private enterprise); ARIES (small and
micro-enterprise); AMIS (agriculture marketing);
and ECOGEN (natural resource management).

Efforts to encourage policy reform (structural
adjustment) are an important component of
A.I.D.'s activities in Latin America and Africa. The
impact of structural adjustment programs on
women and the opportunities they represent are an
area of emphasis. It is, for example, vital to
consider gender in activities that impact on poorer
households, which often are headed by women.
Structural adjustment programs may also present
new economic opportunities for micro-enterprises,
the majority of which are run by women. Other sec-
toral adjustment programs in agriculture, natural
resources, education, and health frequently carry
gender differential impacts and present new
opportunities or constraints for women.

A significant share of A.I.D.'s development
assistance continues to be in the form of specific
project interventions. The WID Office ensures that
technical assistance is available to USAID Missions
and A.I.D. Bureaus to support these efforts.
Assistance is frequently provided during the
project design phase (either during the initial
project identification stage or during the
preparation of the project paper). The design phase
has been identified as a key point at which gender
concerns can be effectively addressed and
incorporated into a project.

The WID Office also is increasingly providing assis-
tance during the latter phases of a project through
evaluation both mid-term and at project comple-
tion. Evaluation efforts contribute to the body of
knowledge on the effectiveness and impacts of var-
ious types of project interventions.

Applied Research
The Office of Women in Development sponsors
and conducts research focused on gender
implications of micro-and macroeconomic
development. Research efforts support policy
dialogue and provide critical information for
project and program design, implementation, and

In applied research, the WID Office has concentrat-
ed on private enterprise development, human capi-
tal development, and the environment and natural
resources. For example:

A workshop on the latest findings on urban
labor trends and policy reform was conduct-
ed by the WID Office and the Office of
Economic Affairs in the Bureau for Program
and Policy Coordination (PPC/EA);

The technical report, Making the Case for the
Gender Variable: Women and the Wealth and
Well-being of Nations, was published
documenting the validity of the hypothesis
that using and expanding women's
productive capacity is a critical condition for
sustainable broad-based economic growth
and social progress;

A framework for examining gender issues in
microenterprise research was developed;

Support was provided for the preparation of
a worldwide labor trends chartbook by the
U.S. Bureau of the Census;

A review of world literature entitled, The
Economic and Social Impacts of Girls' Education
in Developing Countries, has been completed
and will be published in English, French,
and Spanish. This review presents evidence
on the economic and social impacts of girls'

The WID Office is funding the analysis of
USAID/Botswana's two-year classroom
observation study of 350 teachers which will
examine whether male and female teachers
organize instruction in different ways, and
whether girls are treated differently than
boys in the classroom. To complement this
study, a pilot survey of mothers with
teenage daughters in school and mothers
whose daughters have dropped out will pro-

Tihe C 'rr .. of Womien In Deelopiment

vide additional data on how family labor
demands and attitudes may differ;

* Collaborative work is underway with
Hernando De Soto's Institute for Liberty and
Democracy (ILD) in Peru to assist in the
gender disaggregation of ILD's research data;

* Gender and Adjustment, a study on the
gender-based impacts of structural
adjustment programs, examines the micro-
economic supply (productive) response to
changed national economic policies under
structural and sector adjustment programs to
delineate gender-based, differential
responses. The study also reviews the state of
knowledge of welfare impacts under
stabilization and adjustment programs
exploring the linkage of impacts to gender
issues, such as unequal access to social
services, productive resources, and
employment opportunities;

* Other efforts underway include a study of
women's employment in free trade zones in
Latin America and the Caribbean prepared in
collaboration with PPC/EA and A.I.D.
Regional Bureaus, as well as a review of key
literature on women in Eastern Europe in col-
laboration with the Bureau for Private

* Assistance is provided to the Bureau for
Latin America and the Caribbean to establish
a research agenda on gender. Recent
research on gender issues in Latin America
will be assessed with concentration on
economic policy reform as well as the
environment, natural resources, and
women's involvement in democratic

* Policy research on the roles of men and
women in sustainable agriculture examining
the implications of gender differences for
Agency programming is underway in collab-
oration with the Bureau for Asia and the
Near East;

* State-of-the-art studies are in progress to
guide the integration of women into key pro-
grammatic areas of the Asia, Near East, and
Eastern European regions. These will be pre-
sented in a conference sponsored by the

recently formed Bureau for Europe and the
Near East in Spring 1991.

Information and Communication
Dissemination of gender-related information is an
important function of the WID Office. In FY 1990, a
communications strategy was developed to orient
an information dissemination program.

Through A.I.D.'s Development Information and
Services Clearinghouse, the WID Office distributes
a wide range of materials on gender issues in

A newsletter, "WID News," is issued to convey
updated information on relevant women in
development issues and progress to Agency staff.

The WID Office also assisted A.I.D.'s Office of
External Affairs in developing a Highlights
brochure focused on the Agency's
accomplishments in women in development.

The WID Office has integrated its resource center
into A.I.D.'s Development Information Center,
increasing accessibility to these resources. Historic
and culled documents are donated to a special
WID collection at the University of Maryland.


Significant progress has been made toward
institutionalizing women in development concerns
in A.I.D. programs and projects during FY 1989
and FY 1990.

Each Regional and Central Bureau has developed
or refined an Action Plan, assisted in the
development or refining of USAID Mission Action
Plans, and established working groups to systemat-
ically address the A.I.D. WID mandate.

Each Regional Bureau has established a WID
Committee including a member from the WID
Office staff. The Committees review development
activities in their geographic regions to assure
appropriate inclusion of gender concerns. They
also play a strategic role in ensuring central and
uniform direction for WID activities throughout
their regions.

Women in Development / Report to Congress

Most USAID Missions now consider WID to be an
integral part of the planning process. More than 90
percent of the Missions have appointed a WID
Officer. And, over half of the Missions report that
WID issues are included as a part of their strategic
documentation process.

The interest in WID activities and gender
considerations throughout the Agency has resulted
in an increasing demand for gender-related
technical expertise. Additional technical experts
have been added to the WID Office staff. This
technical expertise has also been supplemented by
a contract network of technical specialists and

In FY 1989 and FY 1990, the Women in
Development Office worked with the Office of
Policy Development and Program Review and the
Office of International Training to revise four
Agency handbooks. The revisions emphasize
women in development and gender analysis. As a

result, gender considerations have been built into
guidelines which govern the design of all Agency
projects and programs.

HANDBOOK TEN participant training -
explains in its first chapter that participant
training programs are expected to ensure the
substantial participation of women.

HANDBOOK ONE policy also mandates that
all participant training programs provide
opportunities for women and that, if relatively
few women are expected to participate,
initiatives to include more women be provided.
Design of such initiatives must include
information on: numbers of men and women
included in the program, constraints to
women's participation, opportunities for
enhancing women's participation, strategies to
overcome constraints or make use of
opportunities, and benchmarks to measure
progress in implementing strategies.

Institutionalization of WID


Missions 90%

Central &
Regional Bureaus

Missions 90%

Central &
Regional Bureaus





The Office Of Women In Development

HANDBOOK THREE project assistance now
clearly states that gender considerations must
be factored into the design of all country strate-
gies and, where appropriate, projects and
programs. Project documentation must
discuss potential benefits and impediments to
women's participation. And, according to
Handbook Three, "A.I.D. must design
strategies that overcome constraints to and
take advantage of opportunities for women's
participation, and must establish benchmarks
to measure progress in implementing these

HANDBOOK FOUR non-project assistance -
requires that the percentage of women
participants and beneficiaries of non-project
assistance programs and activities be "in
approximate proportion to their traditional
proportion in the targeted activity or their
proportion of the population, whichever is

These handbooks guide the work of Agency
personnel and play a vital role in promoting
gender-sensitive development efforts. Inclusion of
women in development and gender analysis in the
handbooks was a significant step in strengthening
the consideration of WID issues in the Agency's
policies and programs.

An institutional survey of the Agency was conduct-
ed in FY 1990 to determine:

the level of awareness of the Congressional
mandate for WID;

the level of current activities in incorporating
gender concerns in development; and,

the challenges to be faced in this area in the

Participants in the survey throughout the Agency,
including policy-level personnel, technical
personnel in areas other than WID, and WID
experts, stated that women in development
receives more attention than it did two years earlier
when a similar survey was conducted. Recognition
of the Congressional mandate on WID was
widespread. All respondents indicated that WID
issues had been addressed in projects in which
they had been involved. Respondents highlighted
a need for further staff training and policy dialogue

with officials in developing countries as future
challenges in meeting the WID mandate.

Document Review

WID Office technical staff reviewed a selected sam-
ple of A.I.D. program and project design and
planning documents during FY 1989 and FY 1990.
Review of A. I. D. Regional Bureau documents dur-
ing FY 1990 indicated that significant progress in
institutionalizing gender concerns had been made
in contrast to previous years. According to a 1988
study, for example, USAID Missions and A.I.D.
Bureaus had considerable difficulty in even
estimating the number of female beneficiaries; only
seven percent of project papers quantified female
beneficiaries. By contrast, the 1990 review of select-
ed documents revealed that:

53 percent adequately disaggregated data by
sex in all references to participants and

50 percent adequately identified constraints
or opportunities with respect to female
participation in programs and projects;

38 percent adequately described strategies to
overcome constraints or benchmarks to track
the progress of increased participation and
benefits to females.

The Africa Bureau scored consistently higher than
the other Bureaus in the reviewed documents,
revealing the focus within the Development Fund
for Africa on identifying people-level impacts.

Development of Indicators

The WID Office promotes attention to gender
issues by working on the Agency-wide mandate to
monitor, evaluate, and report on impacts of assis-
tance activities. Performance indicators are defined
at the country, program, and project levels.

The broader question of the impact of A.I.D. and
other donor assistance on the status of women in
developing countries will be addressed in part
through the monitoring of key welfare and labor
force indicators collected by the World Bank and
agencies of the United Nations. In addition, within

Women in Development / Report to Congress

A.I.D., the WID Office will employ two methods to
report on progress in improving women's status
and economic integration worldwide: gender-
disaggregated poverty indicators to be included
each year in the A.I.D. Congressional Presentation;
and, gender-disaggregated country development
performance indicators currently being developed
by each Regional Bureau and by the Bureau for
Program and Policy Coordination.

Country development performance indicators are
refined to help USAID Missions assess the degree
to which country policies and government efforts
have affected key variables that measure progress
in attaining gender development objectives. Within
these country indicators, the WID Office has
promoted people-level measures such as
employment, literacy, access to credit, and primary
school completion rates which will be gender-

At the country program level, USAID Missions are
now developing program performance
management systems to measure progress toward
attaining realistic strategic objectives. As noted
earlier, the WID Office has supplied the technical
assistance of in-house staff and consultants for six
efforts. The Office is developing guidelines for the
integration of gender considerations to assist
Mission staff in carrying on this work.

During the next two years, technical consultants
will continue to participate in teams funded by the
Africa Bureau and the Bureau for Program and
Policy Coordination's Center for Development
Information and Evaluation to establish program
performance systems in Latin America and Africa.
Assistance to the new Europe and Near East (ENE)
and Asia and Private Enterprise (APRE) Bureaus is
also expected in the near future. Guidelines for
integrating gender in program performance and
the direct participation of WID Office staff and
other gender specialists will assure that new
strategic objectives and performance indicators
developed for USAID Missions reflect gender
issues and integrate women effectively into

Increasingly, project-level monitoring systems will
be changed to measure progress toward Mission
strategic objectives. When such objectives contain at
least one indicator requiring people-level impact
information and the information management
systems are in place, gender-disaggregated
tracking of participants and beneficiaries in

assistance activities will become a reality. Technical
offices within A.I.D./Washington are coordinating
project level monitoring with data needs for assess-
ing progress.

The WID Office will continue to assist the Regional
Bureaus and the Center for Development
Information and Evaluation to refine key gender-
disaggregated indicators for each sector. At a mini-
mum, indicators will include credit, employment,
incomes in the private enterprise and agriculture
sectors, enrollment and completion rates in
education, and training and involvement in natural
resource management.

It is difficult to track people-level impacts in non-
project assistance efforts in sectors such as agribusi-
ness or manufacturing. Here, assistance is
provided in the form of balance of payments
support in exchange for economic policy and
regulatory reform to unleash the productive
response of the private sector. The WID Office is
exploring evaluation of assistance with respect to
people-level impacts through employment
monitoring in a representative sample of firms in
Bolivia, Tunisia, and the Philippines.

Management Information System

To ensure sound management of activities
stimulated by increasing demand for assistance, the
WID Office has developed an integrated
activity/budget management information system
(MIS) to track WID reserved funds. An activity,
within the system, typically involves one delivery
of a service to a USAID Mission or A.I.D. Bureau.
The development of this system was timely as the
number of activities undertaken has grown from 27
in FY 1989 to 83 in FY 1990 and continues to


Throughout this report, information generated by
the MIS is provided on services rendered,
documents reviewed, and resources committed.
Appendix D includes descriptions from the MIS of
projects and activities supported by the Women in
Development Office.

In addition to providing activity-specific
management information, the MIS examines broad
patterns in the services requested by Missions and
delivered by the WID Office. For instance, the MIS
shows that services provided by the WID Office are
evenly distributed across geographic regions. There

The CO(r. .* Of Women In Development

are between 19 and 28 activities in each region. The
Office is also carrying 33 activities that are
worldwide rather than regional in scope.

According to the MIS, nearly half of the activities
undertaken in FY 1989 and FY 1990 address gender
concerns in either private enterprise or
microenterprise. Activities examining WID
concerns in agriculture, environment, and
education are nearly evenly divided. The MIS also
shows that a large number of activities are multi-
sectoral and often simultaneously involve work in
sectors such as agriculture, environment, and
private enterprise.

The MIS indicates that technical assistance was the
most frequent service provided by the WID Office
in FY 1989 and FY 1990. Sixty of 110 WID activities
provided some form of technical assistance.
Training, research, and information dissemination
were evenly distributed at approximately half the
level of technical assistance. Increasingly, these
distinctions are less useful as the complexity of
Mission goals and needs increases. Combined
training and technical assistance activities, for
example, are becoming the norm rather than the
exception. Nearly half of the 110 WID supported
field teams provided two or more services


A.I.D. uses women in development funds to cost-
share Mission and Bureau support of new activities
that effectively integrate women into the economies
of developing countries. WID funds are offered on
a matching basis to stimulate action and
investment in gender considerations. The response
has been strong. By the end of the last quarter of
FY 1990, the WID Office had received requests for
co-sponsorship and cost-sharing which exceeded
funds available. Demand has increased sharply
from FY 1989 levels, notwithstanding that the terms
of co-sponsorship now require more investment
from the co-funders.

WID matching funds can only be used for cost-
sharing with A.I.D. funds which are not part of the
WID reserve and which would not otherwise be
invested to address gender issues. In FY 1989 and
FY 1990, the WID Office paid 75% of the costs of
each activity that was co-funded. In FY 1991, the
WID Office will pay 60%. By FY 1992, cost-sharing

WID Office Activities

100 Number of Activities





20 -

O -,

WID Office Activities by Region
for FY 1989 FY 1990

32:. A

Asia/Near Easi
. 18'o


Latin America

WID Office Activities by Sector
for FY 1989 FY 1990

Private Enter





pr se En



Women in Development / Report to Congress

will be a 50-50 proposition, yet demand shows no
sign of weakening.

There are three mechanisms for cost-sharing: the
WID Office buys into an existing contract, coopera-
tive agreement, or grant managed by a Mission or
Bureau to share cost in a defined task or scope of
work; a Mission or Bureau buys into a WID Office-
managed contract; or a new contract instrument is
created. The management burden for the WID
Office is significant given the numbers of co-
funded activities, so creation of new contracts has
been discouraged.

Nearly one hundred requests for co-funding, repre-
senting a broad spectrum of economic sectors and
all geographic regions, have been accepted. Some
examples of activities the WID Office presently co-
funds and through which it offers technical
expertise to address gender concerns in
development follow:

The Consulting Assistance in Economic
Policy Reform (CAER) Project studies the
negative and positive impacts of economic
policies. This includes assessment of impact
on vulnerable groups in which women are
typically predominant. One area of emphasis
within CAER is on labor productivity, partic-
ularly that of women in key sectors. The
CAER WID initiative introduces gender con-
siderations into policy dialogue at the nation-
al, regional, and sectoral levels.

The Growth and Equity Through
Microenterprise Investment and Institutions
(GEMINI) Project performs studies on the
growth and dynamics of women's and men's
enterprises. Particular attention is paid
within GEMINI to the impact of
microenterprise project assistance on

The Advancing Basic Education and Literacy
(ABEL) Project uses WID co-funding to focus
efforts on increasing girls' participation and
continuation in basic education. ABEL offers
technical and managerial assistance for basic
education efforts such as the design and

implementation of projects, research, and
evaluation of basic education activities.

The Private Enterprise Development Support
II (PEDS I) Project utilizes WID co-funding
to integrate gender concerns and develop
WID components in A.I.D. private sector
support activities. This project offers
program and project design assistance,
project implementation and evaluation assis-
tance, and training.

The WID Office also used matching funds to
support the development of an updated and
revised version of a labor and employment
statistics chartbook to be published by the Bureau
of the Census (BUCEN). Through a buy-in to the
Bureau for Science and Technology, Office of
Population's Participating Agency Service
Agreement with BUCEN, the WID Office worked
to ensure that gender disaggregated statistics on
women's work will be made available to the larger
development community.

A significant portion of matching funds has been
used in the Gender in Economic and Social Systems
(GENESYS) Project. GENESYS expanded the WID
Office's capability to provide technical assistance,
training, research, and communications services to
USAID Missions and A.I.D. Bureaus. GENESYS is

WID Office Match Proportion
Percent of total cost
40 -
30 -
20 -
0 --
FY 89-90 FY 1991 FY 1992+

- WID Office

eI Buyin

The O C'fi Of Women In Development

funded with core funds and maintains a reserve of
matching funds to be used with moneys from
Missions and Bureaus. Within GENESYS are
individuals and organizations that can provide a
broad range of services in many sectors in any part
of the developing world. GENESYS extends the
ability of the WID Office to assist Mission and
Bureau efforts to integrate gender considerations
into their development efforts and to minimize the
financial and administrative burdens of these

Since the GENESYS Project was initiated in October
1989, the WID Office has used it to provide support
for nearly 50 activities in 33 Missions and Bureaus.
A number of significant steps have been taken to
institutionalize women in development concerns
by A.I.D. Bureaus and Missions in FY 1989 and FY

1990. Information on these efforts is provided in
this chapter and throughout the report.

These activities have included direct training in
gender considerations, assistance in integrating
gender concerns into the preparation of a variety of
project and program documents, assistance in
USAID Mission strategic activities, and three major
region-wide research efforts.

Interest from USAID Missions and A.I.D. Bureaus
was sufficient to generate a demand for more than
$1.5 million of matching funds for support
activities under this project. Requests for support
have come from all regions. Over 2,000 person
months of assistance over five years will be provid-
ed under the GENESYS contract.




A number of significant steps have been taken to
institutionalize women in development concerns
by A.I.D. Bureaus and Missions in FY 1989 and FY
1990. Information on these efforts is provided in
this chapter and throughout the report.


Increased attention to gender issues has begun to
be reflected in the Bureau for Africa's programs.
During the past year, the Bureau has markedly
increased its awareness of and attention to gender
considerations in both the design and
implementation of programs and projects. Gender
specialists have been included as integral members
of teams which work with Missions in establishing
country program strategic plans. USAID Missions
in Botswana, Chad, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea,
Malawi, Mali, Lesotho, Senegal, Swaziland, and
Zimbabwe have all assigned gender specialists to
major project design efforts. Other Missions,
including Burundi, Cape Verde, Mozambique,
Senegal, South Africa, and the West Africa

Regional Office have utilized gender specialists to
assist them in meeting implementation
requirements in the field.

The WID Office is working closely with the Bureau
for Africa's Development Program Office to add
gender specialists to teams assisting USAID
Missions with Country Program Strategy Plans
(CPSPs), the Bureau's new five-year strategic
planning documents. During FY 1989 and FY 1990,
WID Office staff joined Africa Bureau
Development Program Office teams in Tanzania,
Senegal, and Guinea. In addition, the WID Office
will provide gender specialists for CPSP teams that
will assist USAID/Uganda and USAID/Burundi
in the coming year. WID Office participation in
CPSP activities results in the development of
gender-sensitive USAID Mission-wide strategies
and will continue to be an important focus for the
WID Office.


A loni-term lnitiatine ot the Bureau for Afnca is expected to increase participation b .African women in the full range of local
and national econonnc and social development acltiit li. The 51 8 million Africa Womenn m DeLclopment (AFWID) Prolect, co-
runded throuigli the 1VTD tPmtching fund and scheduled to begin m February 1991, wlil assist Aissions to increase understanding
ian aIlLwrenM1'ss of the iniporth~ce of aonmen's roles in the changes that will be occurring nm Africa over the years ahead. The project
will also tak, concete -stps to increase the benefits to and particpation of women in A.I.D.'s country auI regional activities.

T77ese achititles will be initiated bv the hiring of four long-term AFWIVID-slpported advisor. one each at the East and West
Regional Economic Develt~Cp'nl t Supprt Offices (Nairobi and Abidiant, one in Botswana (fir Siuthern Africa). and a resident
,adrhsor lused in A.I.D. Washimngton Thle will stihmniule achle and sigmficant involvement of vwomien in developmfL t issues on
the part of a broad cros-sect'on of the Arncan communist, especially indigenous non-g c.crrimental organizations of both profit
and ion-profit .satius, and national aid local vmrnent agencies and field personnel Reresentatlts of U.S. private voluntary
or-amnations and A.I D. contractors will be brouglit into tlhe proces and individual IS.-AID A sonn resources will be mobilized.
In line litli Ilkr' l ID Offittce Mdnaldat emtplzi.IS 1i place. d o1i ii the arnl ~er itilural rciirct-; pnrite enterprise. and education

T' h cope o of .-AFWID is A-riLa-wide with technical assistance resources that will be available to all A.I.D.- assisted countries.
During the plrst year of project activities, six countries (two in each region: west, east, suth which demonstrate the greatest
potential for and commitment to achievement of development obiectit'es fhroulgh greater integration of women n the deelopmeirt
proce' s. wd'il be targeted for A.F IV7D concentration. Tle7 first si countries are- Malawi; Botsif~na: Umanda: Rwanda; Mali; and
Seinegal. The second rnd third war of project activities ulll focus on new' countries so that 18 comitries ill be involved at th e end
if three iears.

A..D. Bureaus and Missions


In late FY 1990, the Asia and Near East Bureau
(ANE) was reorganized as the Europe and Near
East (ENE) Bureau. ENE is now making plans to
update the ANE WID Action Plan for FY 1991, cap-
turing new program directions and priorities. The
new Asia and Private Enterprise Bureau (APRE),
which now houses some of the Asian Missions
formerly in ANE, is working closely with the WID
Office to define its version of the ANE WID Action
Plan. The work described below is ongoing in the
two Bureaus.

The Bureau for Asia and the Near East took
significant steps to address gender-related concerns
in FY 1989 and FY 1990. It successfully integrated
gender issues into sector strategies for the 1990s in
agriculture/food systems growth, natural
resources and human capital. The Program Office
provided guidance in the preparation and review
of all Country Development Strategy Statements to
ensure that key strategic and program
development documents included a well-defined
plan to emphasize gender concerns appropriate to
each country context, as required by Agency guide-
lines. The Project Development Office ensured that
gender issues were included in the scope-of-work
for project design teams so that projects were
designed with sufficient knowledge of women's
roles reflected through the collection and
analysis of gender-disaggregated data. The
Bureau's Project Development Office also reviewed
all projects submitted by USAIDs to ensure that
gender concerns were appropriately integrated into
the design of new projects. Routine monitoring of
WID activities under projects has been
institutionalized by integrating WID as a reporting
category under the annual project implementation
review system. In FY 1991, increased attention will
be paid to include impact on women when
conducting evaluations of programs.

Among the recent Asia and Near East initiatives
has been the development of a guidebook in collab-
oration with the WID Office to provide succinct
and practical discussion of gender issues in the con-
text of regional economic and demographic trends
and Bureau sector strategies. The guidebook
discusses potential constraints and opportunities
for involving women in agriculture, natural
resources management, health, education, and
private enterprise. Emphasis is placed on gender-

relevant policy issues for project design and
implementation. The guidebook is now available
for distribution.


The Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean
(LAC) has placed increased emphasis on gender in
the last two fiscal years.

The LAC Bureau is currently developing an
environmental strategy for the region. This strategy
will include a strong emphasis on the effects of nat-
ural resource degradation on women, particularly
in the areas of environmental health, population,
water supply and agriculture.

A WID Working Group, formed in October 1990,
meets monthly to oversee the Bureau's efforts in
meeting the Agency WID mandate as well as to ini-
tiate specific activities designed to ensure that the
Bureau's programs include women both as
participants in and beneficiaries of assistance
programming in the region.

Women in Development / Report to Congress

Specific activities undertaken by the WID Working
Group include a review of the Bureau's Semi-
Annual Reports for gender input, development of a
Bureau WID training program, development of a
WID Action Plan for FY 1991-1992, and monitoring
the Bureau's WID research agenda.


The Bureau for Science and Technology helps
ensure that gender issues are considered as
important determinants in A.I.D. resource
allocation for expertise and technology
development and transfer. The Bureau for Science
and Technology is examining ways in which
women respond to specific policy options and
incentives and to the impact of the removal of
constraints on factors of production. The sectoral
offices work closely with WID Office technical
specialists to define gender-specific and gender-
integrated agendas for research and assistance in
each sector.

The Bureau for Science and Technology
participated in two training programs sponsored by
the WID Office during FY 1989 and FY 1990. Thirty
senior staff participants attended a Bureau-wide,
half-day workshop on January 25,1990. During the
workshop they discussed the establishment of
short, medium, and long-term priorities for the
Bureau's Women in Development Workplan.

The second training program was a gender
considerations in development workshop designed
for the Office of Agriculture. Sixteen participants
attended the February 22,1990 session during
which they reviewed the Bureau WID Action Plan,
established Office objectives regarding women in
development, and discussed ways to achieve these
objectives in participants' actual portfolios.

Other Bureau for Science and Technology efforts to
integrate gender considerations into development
are an integral part of the WID agenda and are
presented throughout this report.


During the past two years, the Bureau for Private
Enterprise has taken steps to build gender issues
into its activities and services to USAID Missions
and governments of developing countries.

Under a WID buy-in to the Bureau's Private
Enterprise Development Support (PEDS) Project, a
substantial amount of technical assistance has been
provided to USAIDs in building gender
considerations into project design, sector
assessments, project evaluations related to private
sector development and training of A.I.D. staff
working in private sector areas.

To assess usage by and impact on women
borrowers of small business credit, for example, the
Bureau's Office of Investment incorporated gender
into data and reports generated by the Loan
Portfolio Guarantee Project initiated in FY 1989. The
participation of women in the project's training pro-
gram is monitored.

Following incorporation of gender issues into a
major evaluation of the International Executive
Service Corps (IESC) in 1988, IESC now tracks
participation by women business owners and
operators in its volunteer technical and
management support services.

A..D. Bureaus and Missions

Reform of institutions that inhibit greater participa-
tion of women in economic and political processes
and greater understanding of the productive poten-
tial of women are among the intended benefits of
the Institutional Reform and Informal Sector (IRIS)
Project begun in 1990.

A gender considerations in development workshop
- conducted in January, 1990 for the Bureau for
Private Enterprise resulted in increased
awareness and knowledge among Bureau staff of
the fundamental importance of gender as a
development issue. With the recent reorganization
of the Bureau for Private Enterprise into the new
Bureau for Asia and Private Enterprise (APRE),
steps are being taken to convene a committee for
gender consideration in development. The commit-
tee will be chaired by the director of the Bureau's
Office of Development Resources and comprised of
staff from each APRE Office. The committee will
update the WID Action Plan to reflect new
program areas and priorities of the APRE Bureau.


The WID Office collaborates with the Offices of
Food for Peace (FFP) and Private and Voluntary
Cooperation (PVC) in the Bureau for Food for
Peace and Voluntary Assistance (FVA) to
incorporate women in development in food
assistance programs and A.I.D.'s work with private
voluntary organizations.

The Office of Food for Peace

The WID Office initiated the development of
training materials specific to work in food aid to be
used in USAID Mission and A.I.D. Bureau WID
training. A study has been undertaken to review
and assess gender issues in A.I.D.'s PL-480 food
assistance programs (Titles I, II and III). It will
identify potential entry points for enhanced partici-
pation of women in food aid programming at the
policy, program and project levels. The resulting
report, Food for Work: A Review of the 1980s with
Recommendations for the 1990s, will soon be
circulated to all private voluntary organizations
involved in food aid.

A recent study of the maternal and child health
supplementary feeding programs conducted by

the Office of Food for Peace and circulated to
private voluntary organizations recommended
greater participation by women in program
planning and implementation.

The Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation

The WID Office collaborated with the Office of
Private and Voluntary Cooperation to develop a
WID strategy for work with private voluntary orga-
nizations. The strategy sets benchmarks to support
continuing efforts to institutionalize A.I.D.'s WID
mandate and updates the WID Action Plan of the
Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation in
three priority areas:

program and project development and

WID training (for Office of Private and
Voluntary Cooperation staff and selected pri-
vate voluntary organization grantees) and
information dissemination;

evaluation, monitoring, and reporting.

As is mentioned earlier in this report, it is routine
for A.I.D. staff training on WID to include
counterparts and non-governmental and private
voluntary organization personnel. The Office of
Private and Voluntary Cooperation WID Action
Plan includes WID training workshops for private
voluntary organizations involved in environment
and natural resource management as well as in
small and microenterprise projects.

The WID Office has made significant progress in its
efforts to forge a closer relationship with private
voluntary organizations. The Office's collaboration
with private voluntary organizations has also been
enhanced by the designation of a FVA/PVC liaison

Cooperation with Private Voluntary Organizations:
Recent reports from the USAID Missions confirm
that U.S. private voluntary organizations have a
strong interest in and sensitivity to women in devel-
opment issues. A few organizations are highly
focused in this area. In Niger, for example, the
Cooperative League of the USA (CLUSA) is
assisting women's cooperatives to secure loans
from multiple sources for a variety of economic
activities. Wherever CLUSA works with women's

VMmen in Deielkopm'nt / Reort to Con gress

groups, women receive literacy and management
training. CLUSA helps train women trainers and
incorporates gender sensitivity into the training
courses given to its core staff.

In Egypt, where private enterprise WID activities
are supported under the USAID Mission's private
voluntary organization program, Catholic Relief
Services launched a project in FY 1989 to establish a
model day care center at Tanta University. Thirty-
five students will be trained as day care teachers
while another eight will be trained as directors and
supervisors. The relationship between family,
household, and income generating roles of women
is a focus of investigation in many WID programs.

Efforts will continue to focus on strengthening the
institutional capability of private voluntary
organizations to factor gender concerns into their

Private Voluntary Organization Projects Funded
by the Office of Women in Development

A number of projects with private voluntary
organizations are funded by the WID Office. Four
examples are described below:

International Center for Research on Women:

The Office of Women in Development continued
its long-standing relationship with the International
Center for Research on Women (ICRW) through a
cooperative agreement. ICRW is widely
recognized as a leader in policy research to
investigate women's economic and social participa-
tion, their dual responsibilities in the economy and
household, and their role in family health and
welfare in developing countries.

Under the cooperative agreement, ICRW worked
in approximately eight countries to provide
technical assistance on policy development and
implementation related to women in development.
Included among the project's activities was the
development and distribution of sector specific
guidelines to assist the Agency address WID in the
Asia and Near East region.

ICRW's services also were used on an evaluation of
an income generation project for rural women in
Jordan, an analysis of the intra-household
allocation of resources, labor and income in agricul-
tural families in Nepal, program assistance in Sri

Lanka and Tunisia to identify issues for gender-dif-
ferentiated analysis, and a review of gender-
disaggregated data sources in Belize's agricultural
and private enterprise sectors.

Additionally, ICRW has executed projects for
USAID Missions and other A.I.D. Bureaus which
are described elsewhere in this report.

Women's World Banking:

Women's World Banking (WWB) and its affiliates
are among the PVOs supported by A.I.D.
throughout much of the developing world. WWB
ensures that women have access to working and
investment capital necessary to establish and
expand their businesses. WWB supports a loan
guarantee program that facilitates commercial bank
lending to women entrepreneurs. WWB also
provides business management and skills training
to every loan recipient and interested business

In FY 1990, the WID Office participated in a donors'
meeting to assess WWB's institutional
sustainability and program performance over a
decade of operations. Based on this evaluation, the
WID Office provided a one year grant to WWB for
institutional development support, specifically to
strengthen WWB's institutional capacity for
program delivery and impact.

The Agency is currently supporting FINAM, the
WWB affiliate in Chile, through the GENESYS
Project and ICRW. Support is provided in a wide
variety of areas including operations, research,
technical assistance and training.


The Office of Women inDevelopment supports the
Women in Management (WIM) Project and the
Multisector Approach to Family Planning Project
through a buy-in to A.I.D.'s Science and
Technology/Population Office's (S&T/POP)
cooperative agreement with the Centre for
Development and Population Activities (CEDPA).
The WIM Project trains women managers in
positions of responsibility such as public policy
decision-makers in developing countries. The
project provides women trainees with improved
management skills and technical capabilities. Topics
such as management by objective, planning,
implementing, monitoring, supervision, and evalua-
tion form the core content of the training programs.

A..D. Bureaus and Missions

*eg ^ A

In the Multisector Approach to Family Planning
Project, the Centre for Development and
Population Activities will test combinations of fam-
ily planning with sector programs in areas such as
nutrition, management training, and home
economics to determine what sectoral
combinations are the most effective for promoting
the integration of family planning. It will explore
linkages among women's skills, resources, and per-
sonal confidence with use and distribution of

The Office of Women in Development is
monitoring both projects to ascertain the skill build-
ing benefits to the WIM trainees as well as the
impacts of the Centre's in-country follow-up
support activities for WIM alumni.


The WID Office supports a Village
Agroforestry/Women's Nursery Enterprises

Project in the Cameroon through a buy-in to an
FVA/PVC cooperative agreement with the
Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere
(CARE). The project involves women in the
northern part of Cameroon in income generating
agriculture and agroforestry activities such as com-
munal fields/woodlots, grain mills, small livestock
raising, and bee keeping. These activities are
designed to help women achieve a higher level of
self-sufficiency. A component of the project will
train women in accounting and marketing to
strengthen management skills and to help ensure
long-term project sustainability.

CARE will monitor and report on the progress of
the WID component of the Cameroon Agroforestry
Project to determine:

the impact the project has had on the women

the degree of project sustainability;

the lessons learned for A.I.D. collaboration
with private voluntary organizations as a
means of reaching rural women; and

the extent to which this project or features of
this project may serve as a model for
replication in other countries/regions of the
developing world.

Significant steps to integrate gender concerns have
been taken by A.I.D. Bureaus and USAID Missions
in FY 1989 and FY 1990 in the sectoral areas of agri-
culture, private enterprise, environment and
natural resources, and education. The following
sections report on the issues and constraints faced
in each of these sectors and on the response by
Bureaus and Missions.





S It is estimated that women farmers grow at least 50
percent of the world's food and as much as 80
o percent in some African countries. Women
comprise more than 40 percent of the world's
agricultural labor force a number that is growing
rapidly as more men in developing countries
Migrate to cities and towns to seek employment,
leaving women behind to manage and work the

Women play a variety of roles in agriculture. Large
J numbers of women are active in agriculture as
farmers in their own right. In parts of Africa, more
than 40 percent of the farms are managed by
ro a women. In areas of Latin America, over 20 percent
of rural women are farmers, and in regions of the
Caribbean, women represent 44 percent of the

The role that women play in agricultural
production is critical to the economies of most
developing countries, yet their contribution is all
too often ignored. To increase agricultural
production and raise rural incomes in developing
countries, information and other resources must
reach women. One reason women farmers'
productivity is not maximized is that they are
somewhat invisible to their governments and
agricultural extension services. In the national
statistics of most countries, the majority of women
working in agriculture are classified as unpaid fam-
ily workers.

Women's formal decision-making in many farm
activities varies, but almost everywhere in the
developing world women perform essential
functions in the agricultural production process.
They are involved in nearly all aspects of field culti-
vation including selecting seeds, planting, weeding,
fertilizing, and harvesting; they assume the bulk of
crop processing and storage, and are often active in
marketing as well. Women are engaged in animal,
fish, and wood production and it is women who
are primarily responsible for the production of the
subsistence food crops essential to family survival.


Food Produced by Women

Sub Sanaran Alrida



N Alrica/Midale Easi

Lain America

0 20 40 60 80 1100
Percerie Or Fo od Proauced by Womenr,
j',,j;t- yu,.,r,,. M j .i at., luO- ln', *3i'l, W 1 r'f ,.,T,, ,', ^C,,,,ar ; i.,.',
Flig, e ..l n. a r .l rm.i r i.:.. SA, 1.489 F l| :ill:. !.,,

Nonetheless, they are frequently excluded from
national labor force statistics since their tasks are
seasonal and include activities often considered
"housework," such as crop processing and storage.

Women who work as wage laborers make up a
growing segment of the agricultural labor force.
The increasing problem of landlessness throughout
the developing world has forced rural women and
men to seek wage labor. Many women find work
as wage laborers in commercial agriculture. In Sri
Lanka, 72 percent of the women who work in
agriculture are employed on tea plantations. In
Honduras, women make up 40 percent of the wage
laborers in the tobacco industry and almost 90
percent of the wage laborers in the coffee industry.


Despite their significant contributions to agricultur-
al production and to rural households, women
have less access to and control over key productive
resources such as land, capital, extension services,
technology, and credit than their male
counterparts, and have historically been excluded
from most farmers' groups and cooperatives.
Various cultural and legal barriers exist which deny
them the same resources, flexibility, and productiv-
ity enjoyed by male farmers.

Female-managed farms earn less than half the
income of male-managed farms. They have less
access to productive assets such as land, cattle,

and labor needed to increase agricultural
production and income. Women are far less likely
to receive credit and agricultural extension services
than men. Women's average workdays have
lengthened from 10 to 12 hours in many parts of
the developing world over the past twelve years.
Women farmers carry multiple burdens:
responsibilities for food, water, fuel, housework
and child-care. As a result, women's agricultural
productivity is lower than it need be a fact
reflected in the low national agricultural output in
many developing countries.

Access to technical assistance, appropriate
technologies, credit for purchasing improved seeds
and fertilizer, and draft animals can raise women
farmers' productivity. It is important to ensure that
the development assistance technologies and
resources in the agriculture sector reach women. A
recent review of more than 100 A. I. D. supported
agricultural projects found that attention to gender
issues can eliminate bottlenecks to production,
result in successful transfer of technology, and gen-
erate an increased willingness to adopt new

Experience also has shown that in project design, to
increase agricultural output, it is essential to
develop strategies that identify tasks that women
undertake, emphasize their roles as farm managers
and workers, and initiate special measures to
overcome barriers which limit women's access to
and benefits from agricultural assistance programs.
Research relevant to tasks undertaken by farm
women should also be carried out to measure
impact and as a focus for monitoring, evaluation,
and designing follow-on activities.

Female extension agents improve women's access
to agricultural development services, provided
they offer a service or "product" that will yield tan-
gible benefits. Tailoring existing delivery systems
for credit and other resources can lead to
innovative and successful outreach services to
women. Other specific measures include provision
of special training designed to take account of the
constraints women face limited time and mobili-
ty, their multiple farming/household roles, and
household headship. Dissemination of technologies
that help alleviate the burden of many of women's
chores such as fetching water and fuelwood or
food processing and preparation, can further
ensure that women are able to take part in other
developmental activities.

WM nen in Deve'lpmennt / Report to C :.. -.

Given the size of A.I.D.'s agricultural portfolio,
involving women actively in agricultural assistance
programs is an important concern. The projects of
many Missions reflect the priority given to
developing, testing, and evaluating strategies for
reaching women. The following are highlights of
the many field efforts in agriculture.

USAID Missions

Approximately 80 percent of the Missions in both
Africa and Asia, two thirds of the Missions in Latin
America and the Caribbean, and half of the Near
East Missions report that their efforts to integrate
women into agriculture projects are well

The Missions in Africa report that within their
agricultural credit programs, two thirds of all
credit recipients are women; women receive
42 percent of the dollar value of loans.

In USAID-supported agricultural research
projects, the Near East, Asian, and Latin
American and Caribbean Missions report
that approximately 20 percent of local
professional staff are women.

Three quarters of the USAID Missions in
Africa and Asia are undertaking major
efforts to strengthen the technical and
managerial capabilities of women's coopera-
tives or other agricultural groups formed by

Agricultural Credit Programs in Africa

Borrowers Loan Value


- 42%

3300 Men

Missions are building programs and projects which
target women with modem inputs (such as high-
yielding seeds, fertilizer and irrigation) and
associated extension services. Extension services
are not limited to primary crop production but
include post-harvest processing, vegetable
cultivation, marketing, and other activities
commonly performed by women. Women are
highly responsive to new technologies provided
they are appropriate and beneficial. Field studies
have shown that women who receive extension
advice tend to be more diligent than men in follow-
ing recommended practices.

The USAID Area Food and Market Development
Project in Zaire specifically targets women farmers
by providing technical assistance to an indigenous
private voluntary organization in the Bandundu
region to improve women's access to: agricultural
technologies including improved seeds or manioc
cuttings; improved production practices such as
crop rotations, weeding, and planting techniques;
new crops having higher nutritional value such as
cowpeas and soybeans, as well as training in the
use of these crops. The private voluntary
organization provides access to and training in
multiplication of vegetable seeds. Technological
innovations are presented within the context of
women's existing resources, farming practices, and
social systems.

An impact evaluation conducted in one of the test
villages for the women's extension activity in
October 1990 found a significant improvement in
children's health status in the village since the
project began its agricultural extension activities for
women in July 1989. Between July 1989 and July
1990, the percentage of children below standard
weight for age declined by 21 percent in the test vil-
lage relative to the nine other control villages
served by the same health center.

Many agricultural projects include research efforts
which address issues related to increasing
agricultural productivity among female
farmers/farm workers. Such research efforts can
improve food crops grown by women; develop
food-processing and storage technologies for
women farmers; investigate links between
commodity improvement and better family
nutrition; and produce ecologically sound farming
techniques that utilize the knowledge of women

1flt'>; o nrmn-r5 m the Gavopbi are increaimi, their intcoie's anld itrproventl tilt' iiinttiioil ,-tu 4hidiPts Of tll fivr ieiiI a;. ri'-t of Ia
LISAID-furded effort to intraince I eamre seed as a foll0o.'-til to -1r1 l t urh millet Nlutrritihil ildtehics e in th CirnbuLi;i di h't stimnI-
lated the introduction iof sesamiw 1984 by G7thohli Rehel SlT*i' res CRS i ult fiodlnin from LSAID Studie had mnldi5tld tlhut dltt-
were deficient irrfat uwth a high rate of nilniutnhion aioltng children i under fiOr Ga-mbIlin ilmner-s ,rea' larget, iiaUlititit.s oft 2rONdiifit;
for export, bhit were prohibited I law, fIron fproessingl grouiidnutt to obhiii oil for Icaul cT7iirnh ot i The CRS aiitzldtiral a7dlir
lupmted olu thit rnill lternitit oihfeid -iHfli as 5iiimfr ler or seutie coidi proilvie ~Oil L rtlnoit iInfriglilng ill the roul liiiit luc.re 1`in

\ezn ield trials so w.iled flhat hiti iet'n ,rnd ii fliwr i Ti,';' ivcll iI/ the Gatii'ia. L? ',i-h'ti ot iIlfivt:'uri V t .'tILt ti" p'Liui til hitli-
e'st qianillh of oil per uh tare ws i i itflridii1 Bur t in'ldf an1' ii4tutl lovr Il,,i ,1itTiCizt, f'iitl li ;'niii itCti'r. Ikilid tl Lt1 5tit siifh17i
cilltinc7io took tuie ailu tron other crops. Relsponsl d II'I t io tie. intVenlllI ; ic CRS wLckt'd with ,ct'di l ntonvtel Z 0II1 to h li-i
ntitiue .esaine which am rnw ,vell dr.;plte preiwlin, ,'oiurit itt tOit lens.t-iA. a.L. ,'i rl n c'u1 taniir'rs h ot 'r5 tat I ae'ri g iio' fiii i W-u hlo-
per hectare. The follouni uNar the fianners minrease e~ar'i' pLnted fies from 1)i0. to 35. i'i i hctarems

Today. partners are prodiincm, ses mne prinmanli lori xal nez'is. Villagers no longer tra il to the itV to thiuin imported oil. And. oil his
elien eliminated from the pralduts distrihuted in the CGamriau as Afo aid The I/at that ippro1 ihlitt'elf 85 percent of thet i'r-,'i ro, er_
are au en facilitated the mtet'rnitio of local production into itriprnmad .tilanrdti at thii lihoihold lei.l tinludmhi' exthicttn._ odl roin
e;talrnE usnl. .-esaine cawk ii different recipes. airl so.p mihlking,. Far iiit ui ng ll:.1' hlivL e ,idlvnO i i developed and pi.r,,ioted Ir.in S

\',ith CR.5 ui.4L latince 7i v sirPt' 5'crO ers a-,z' ciatIhoui; 'ile Claitld to pliait 1'11an ,1 ml iiil.c f t' i S-( fitoit i titht .. IV \tl ii tflii 1 i
pfrientt of the rnmeinbers of the ._uimne gitL'r iiissociatioii

The US.AID-fuindat GCn tamia .nagriltzral Research amil Diitrsifitiaon .(GA.RD. Prolct' contIiitI' to e.x'lor nelit' ;.n v. tt' collilo-
rite with uvnii frmnner, to intreai', their praihct.iithi. Recently e'snme bli-prOiul.-.N i-ia.I other crop retsiditue's l' wn iu~ed to ratten
rams to sell for use in relib~goi tfestiul a trun wtle the prtemiut n price n i pard for -littemlld iintsi. lThe uitw3ri intiviu-l; in the project
mitre thim doubled their iiitstnrrmi after pnliing fi r all related .osts A4 a reslt. tihe s1t 7 tltte'ingn program hi- lvei ,do'ptid b tlhe
ustnne grovr4. assvociations

'c:iiriur cull'ation iLs noTw t'tll-establiished ai oel n.' thii C animbia. Tin Oi triitchin of C'IsNiite 1il. 1', oi .litt aitiI, tt1cts to tilet
Coitiitni' an-t oenl tanlltr iam d offe tilh promiLe ot t 'tgreatt'er b'ietfit- iti tlht l :al dui ld

The Gambian Agricultural Research and
Diversification (GARD) Project, for example, has
developed a rice planting marker tool that helps
women plant rice in rows. Rice is a major
component of the Gambian diet and is produced
almost exclusively by women. By row planting,
instead of the customary broadcasting method,
yields were increased by 50 percent. The GARD
project also found that women can use oxen to pre-
pare seed beds in the heavy soils associated with
rice grown in the water impoundments. Through
minor shifts in the design of the plows pulled by
oxen, extensive use of human labor to prepare the
soil was greatly reduced.

A number of Missions are involved in efforts to
strengthen the technical and managerial
capabilities of women's cooperatives and other
agricultural groups formed by women. The
Swaziland Manpower Development Project, for
example, is helping rural women's groups improve
business management and leadership capabilities.

USAID/Honduras has initiated the Small Farmer
Organization Strengthening (SFOS) Project which
establishes a viable mechanism for delivering
credit, technology, marketing services and manage-
ment skills to growers in order to strengthen and
upgrade the administrative, management,
planning and capital formation capabilities of the
participant organizations. Women comprise
approximately 38 percent of the 70,000 cooperative
members and 25 of the 83 credit unions involved in
the program have female managers.

The newly implemented Cooperative Agriculture
and Agribusiness Support (CAAR) Project in
Uganda will strengthen the technical and
managerial capabilities of registered cooperatives.
The project has sent women managers of some of
the large cooperatives to short-term training
courses in management and other technical areas.

In responding to the credit needs of rural women,
many USAID projects build on the strengths of
organizations already in place. This approach has
proven effective in providing credit to women.


VVWonicii in Deoek';ncpnent RWpmrt to (ComNi es

Under the Haute Vallee Project in Mali, for
example, loans are made to village-based
cooperative groups who in turn guarantee the
loans to women for purchasing agricultural inputs.

This loan program for women will expand in 1991
to include vegetable cultivation and agri-based
marketing activities. Another component of the
project emphasizes the development of women's
sub-groups within the cooperatives, linking credit
to small-scale agri-based economic activities. Key
to this program's success is a component which
offers functional literacy training for women in
order to develop the skills needed to access credit,
understand available technology, and improve

A number of efforts have recently been undertaken
to increase enrollment of female students in
agriculture education programs and to incorporate
women in agriculture into course curricula.
USAID/Uganda, for example, plans to rehabilitate
the women's dormitory at the Makerere University
Agriculture Research Station at Kabanyolo which
was destroyed during past military conflicts.
Renovation of the facility will allow women, for the


first time, to board at the Station in order to
complete their practical training in agriculture. In
Tanzania, the USAID Mission recently signed a
cooperative agreement with Tuskegee University
to strengthen teaching and research facilities at the
Sokoine University of Agriculture. The agreement
includes a component to incorporate courses on
women in agriculture into the curriculum.

In Honduras, the Land Use and Productivity
Enhancement (LUPE) Project is helping hillside
farm women generate increased household
income. Nearly 2,500 rural women, organized into
190 groups, are benefitting from activities in natural
resource conservation, nutrition and household
improvement, and income generation. All forty
LUPE extension offices have at least one WID agent
who ensures women farmers receive equitable
assistance. Women are taught to increase grain pro-
duction and to decrease malnutrition levels among
children by using crop diversification and planting
fruits and vegetables in the family garden. Animal
husbandry activities teach women how to feed,
care for, and vaccinate animals -an alternative
source of income for women. In a one-year period,
16 percent of rural families benefitting from the
project were female-headed households. They
achieved a 30 percent increase in grain production.
In addition, more than 130 families are now follow-
ing improved small animal husbandry practices.

Alternative agricultural income generation is an
area of emphasis for A.I.D.'s program in Latin
America. While women are not typically the prima-
ry producers or processors of illegal drug crops,
they may serve as an important link in the chain of
activities necessary to convert farmers from drug
production to legal sources of revenue and must be
taken into account in development planning in this
area. At the request of two USAID Missions in
Latin America and the Caribbean, the WID Office is
working to gain a better understanding of women's
roles in drug production and trafficking as well as
the positive role that women can play in providing
agricultural households with legal, reliable, and
viable sources of income.

Specialized research contributes to the productivity
of women in agriculture. In Thailand, for example,
research is conducted in animal and fish disease
control, hybrid silkworm cocoon production, and
the prevention of viral disease in passion fruit and
papaya efforts that will help increase the
productivity of women.


The Agriculture Sector Support Program trained 25
women in agribusiness/food processing skills dur-
ing a July 1989 workshop in Pakistan which offered
managerial, behavioral and technical skills training.
As a result, 17 micro-level businesses were
established. A workshop follow-up revealed that,
of these, five have either increased the number of
employees and/or obtained small loans locally.

In the Philippines, the USAID Mission is designing
the Agribusiness Sector Assistance Program to
increase the volume and efficiency of private sector
investment in agribusiness. Particular emphasis is
placed on the feed-livestock and the fruit-vegetable
complexes which are closely linked to a more
efficient small-farm sub-sector. Relevant gender
concerns are incorporated in the program design

In Nepal, the USAID Mission is conducting a year-
long intra-household survey to provide gender dis-
aggregated policy and program-relevant
information that can help the Mission assess
household level effects, income multiplier possibili-
ties and overall sustainability of a private-sector-
led, cash-crop-based and market-driven
agricultural strategy. The project responds directly
to Congressional guidance to integrate gender
considerations adequately into strategy design

While significant progress has been made toward
involving women actively in agricultural assistance
programs, there is more work to be done. The
USAID Missions in Africa report that improving
women's access to agricultural credit should
continue to be a priority for future activities in their
region. Field extension has been identified as the
highest future priority for Asia and Near East
Missions while in Latin America and the
Caribbean, the focus is on strengthening women's
marketing activities.

A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus

A number of programs and projects of the Bureau
for Science and Technology address the integration
of gender considerations into agriculture.

The Bureau for Science and Technology, Office of
Agriculture (S&T/AGR) has supported the Bean
Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program
(CRSP) which has a staff member who works with
each of the 13 sub-projects in the CRSP to identify


and design activities related to women. She assists
in setting up surveys in developing countries to
determine what influence women have on the
choice of genetic materials and crop varieties, and
to identify ways to direct the project activities
toward the identified gaps or opportunities.

The Small Ruminant CRSP is another
multidisciplinary program supported by
S&T/AGR which investigates the biological and
socio- economic elements of small ruminant (goats,
sheep, alpacas and llamas) production in
Indonesia, Kenya, Morocco, and Peru. In Peru,
female extension agents have designed packages
explicitly to consider gender differences such as the
requirement for staying closer to the homestead
and concerns regarding security. Research conduct-
ed in Indonesia indicated that ninety percent of the
women farmers in the study villages participated
daily in small ruminant production activities. The
women were found to be actively involved in the

W~owni hin Dcz'ekpinont / Repo to Cn~ s

related family decision-making processes,
including how to use the income from the sale of
animals. As a result of these findings, it was
decided to make women a focus of technology
development and testing research.

The S&T/AGR Nitrogen Fixation and Tropical
Agricultural Legumes (NIFTAL) Project enables
developing country farmers to increase production
of high protein crops, trees, fodder, and cash crops
with reduced dependence on nitrogen fertilizer and
improved soil conditioning and soil retention.
Research, training, and outreach activities are
designed to help the small- scale farmers in
developing countries most of whom are women.

NIFTAL's outreach activities in Uganda, Haiti,
Nepal, Senegal, and Indonesia are conducted
through a consortium of seven private and
voluntary organizations. In these countries,
NIFTAL also works with the Peace Corps to
expand legume management and accessibility to

biological nitrogen fixation technology. Special
effort is focused on promoting the role of women.
In Uganda, for example, outreach is heavily
focused on women's cooperatives. Women
represent 75% of the beneficiaries.

The Bureau for Science and Technology's Fisheries
Development Support Services (FDS) Project has
produced a video on the significant role of women
in fisheries. The Pond Dynamics CRSP is
conducting a socio-economic study of agriculture
in Rwanda to identify the role of women and relat-
ed development opportunities.

Significant progress has been made toward
involving women in agricultural assistance
programs and improving their access to key
productive resources. Efforts will continue to focus
on improving women's access to agricultural credit
and field extension services and on strengthening
women's marketing activities.




------- THE ISSUE

.t\ Women have entered the labor force in sharply
S- increasing numbers over the last thirty years as a
result of improved levels of education as well as
economic pressures to become more responsible for
the well-being of their families.

SIn most developing countries, paid employment
opportunities for women have been limited to
marginal jobs providing low wages, few or no
fringe benefits, poor working conditions, and little
chance of advancement. New job opportunities
-. available to women have typically arisen in low
skill areas. In general, the work available to women
remains low-paying, rendering the quality of
employment opportunities very low. Furthermore,
in some regions, particularly in Latin America, the
development of industry and agriculture have been
capital intensive, limiting the number of jobs
available in the modem sector. Intense competition
Sfor jobs in the formal sector, combined with sex dis-
crimination in employment, has meant that the
"a "small number of jobs available tend to go to men,
unless women are much less expensive to hire or
are viewed as more cooperative or more effective in
detailed work as has been the case in many of the
export processing zones.

As a result, increasing numbers of women are turn-
ing to self-generated employment in the informal
sector. In urban areas, women take up occupations
such as street vending and domestic services. In
rural areas, women process and market produce or
use local materials in handicraft production.
Earnings and occupational mobility, however,
remain low in such informal sector activities.
Informal sector occupations, in contrast to formal
sector jobs in a factory or office, do not offer social
security or employment benefits; they are not
covered by permits or licenses, nor by employment
contracts or guarantees. Women also rarely have
access to credit, skills training, or technical
assistance that could make their work more
productive and remunerative.

Because informal sector activities are seldom
recorded, it is difficult to know exactly how many

Wol m in Dt'vel'opent / Report to CtnrI's

women are so employed. Recent estimates claim
that more than half the jobs in large Latin American
cities fall into this category. Studies further suggest
that between 1981 and 1983, the informal sector
grew by about 20 percent, but the average income of
persons employed in this sector fell by about 21 per-
cent. Studies also estimate that women's
participation in the informal sector in La Paz,
Bolivia grew from 37 percent in 1976 to 48 percent
in 1983 and that between 51 and 62 percent of the
workers in informal-sector occupations in Mexico
are women. In Ecuador and Honduras, women
make up about 40 percent of the informal work-
force. The numbers in West Africa may exceed
these, but fewer efforts to quantify them have been


A.I.D.'s development interventions in the private
enterprise sector that specifically target women's
needs seek to improve private sector employment
and incomes in both the informal and formal
sectors. Typically this involves direct assistance to
small firms and microenterprises and policy
dialogue with governments to improve the
economic and regulatory environment for formal
and informal small enterprises. Recently, pilot
efforts have begun to analyze gender-based
employment impacts of trade and investment and
agribusiness programs.

To increase women's productivity and returns
from both formal and informal sector activities,
practical management and skills training, accessible
credit, and marketing programs are required.

In order to be effective for women, private
enterprise training projects must eliminate
constraining factors by:

Removing prerequisites for training that tend
to inhibit women's participation;

Distributing information about training
through additional channels that reach
women rather than limiting it to those which
traditionally exclude women such as male-
dominated community organizations or
employment exchanges where few women

Expanding training for women beyond
gender-specific domains, such as sewing,
knitting, and clerical/secretarial skills;

Training on the basis of thorough knowledge
of women in labor markets and the
marketability or utility of new skills; and

Scheduling training programs, taking into
account women's limited time and mobility.

Access to credit is generally severely constrained
for women, who are often new and small
borrowers. Women continue to comprise a
disadvantaged group facing complex regulations
and other institutional barriers to enter credit
markets. A key obstacle to credit is women's
limited control of collateral. In many countries,
laws and customs prevent women from owning
land or property, which are usual forms of collater-
al for loans. When businesses are accepted as collat-
eral, women may not be considered good credit
risks because they are engaged in predominantly
small-scale informal enterprises without the
documentation of a formally registered business.
When regular salaries are required as collateral,
women again fare badly because they predominate
in precisely those sectors of the economy where
regular salaries are the exception.

Elaborate application procedures may be required
of potential borrowers. This can inhibit women's
access to credit because of the relatively high illiter-
acy rates and low educational attainment of
women. Most poor women are incapable of
completing application forms that require more
than rudimentary reading and writing skills.

Women often face social and cultural constraints
that further restrict their access to credit. For
example, it may be considered inappropriate for a
woman to travel alone from her home in a rural
area to a bank in town, or to offer the occasionally
necessary bribe to a male official in charge of credit

Problems of perception may also limit otherwise
credit-worthy women from borrowing from credit
institutions. In some West African countries, for
example, it is commonly believed that women
borrow primarily for educational purposes, while
men borrow for long-term benefit, such as capital

investment and construction. Education is viewed
as consumption, and not as long-term investment
in human capital. Women are perceived as risk
averse. They tend to diversify rather than pick a
market niche and intensify investment and profit.
These common perceptions of women as
borrowers become rationale for limiting credit for

Yet, experience has shown that women are good
credit risks-better credit risks even than men.
More than 80 percent of 9,000 loans made to rural
women in Bangladesh through a USAID supported
small business development project were paid back
on time and in full. Bangladesh's Grameen
Development Bank, known for its unusually small
default rate of less than three percent, attributes
much of its success to women many among the
poorest of the poor who make up more than 85
percent of the bank's borrowers and whose loan
repayment rate is among the highest in the world.

Many USAID Missions report similar high
repayment rates for women. If, in Ecuador, loan
repayment rates by women are "only" equivalent
to those of men, a number of other countries -
Honduras, Barbados, Guatemala, Senegal,
Cameroon, Malawi, Niger and Chad report a
repayment rate by women to be significantly
higher than that of men. USAID/Guatemala, more-
over, reports that the default rate among women is
practically non-existent in USAID micro-business
promotion projects.

Strategies that open new credit opportunities for
small enterprises will benefit women by providing
growth potential for businesses in which they are
likely to predominate. Where traditional sources of
credit are not suited to making small business
loans, a new or innovative form of credit institution
is often required.


A.I.D. seeks to support formal and informal
enterprises through policy and regulatory reforms
and increased access to information, technical assis-
tance, markets, and financing.

An Agency-wide Advisory Committee on
Microenterprise was created in late FY 1988 to
oversee Agency policy with respect to
microenterprise and to assure compliance with

Women and the Growth
of Microenterprises

Formaiion Expansion Transformation

S Women M Men

1988 Congressional appropriations for assistance to
microenterprises. The conference report
accompanying the appropriations legislation
suggests that special attention be given to business-
es owned by women and those owned and
operated by the poorest 20 percent in a country.
The WID Office participated actively in all
meetings of the A.I.D. expert group to ensure
appropriate attention to women's full integration
into Agency micro-business assistance activities.

In early FY 1989, the Agency examined its recent
experience in microenterprise activities worldwide
to guide its programs into the 1990s. The resulting
report of this stocktakingg exercise" showed that
the microenterprise portfolio was a broadly
conceived program oriented toward growth and
was fairly evenly divided between new microenter-
prise formation, expansion of existing businesses,
and transformation of microenterprises into larger
businesses with more growth potential. Women's
participation in these programs was significant.
However, the percentage of women beneficiaries
was considerably lower in the transformation
programs (27%) than in the formation (59%) and
expansion (42%) programs. The WID Office contin-
ues to encourage more participation by women in
business transformation assistance activities.

In mid-FY 1989, the WID Office conducted an eval-
uation of A.I.D's centrally-funded Assistance to
Resource Institutions for Enterprise Support
(ARIES) Project. The final report made a number of
recommendations for future action. It was clear
that all project design efforts must include a
strategy for ensuring women's access to relevant
small and medium enterprise development
activities. These strategies should require gender

prizyl tetl~l-~r

Women in Developmnct / Report to CoGress

analysis and collection of gender-disaggregated
data in assistance activities. Evaluations of project
impact should also disaggregate beneficiary data
by gender.

Lessons learned from the review of Agency
microenterprise activities and from the ARIES eval-
uation contributed substantially to the design of a
new centrally-funded project, known as GEMINI
(Growth and Equity Through Microenterprise
Investments and Institutions). The five-year project,
launched in October, 1989, works directly with
Missions in the design and implementation of their
microenterprise activities and carries out relevant
research and development to further Agency
knowledge of the microenterprise sector. The WID
Office participated directly in the design of the
GEMINI project, provided a consultant to integrate
gender concerns into the project's research agenda,
and supplied additional resources to the project
through a major buy-in in FY 1990 to stimulate new
investments in women.

The WID buy-in to GEMINI resulted in a number
of specific technical assistance activities including: a
women in informal sector microenterprise survey
for USAID/Egypt; a Financial Institutions
Development project evaluation for
USAID/Indonesia; a small business survey and
project paper design for USAID/Swaziland; and a
microenterprise strategy formulation study for

Worldwide, USAID Missions have integrated
women into a great variety of small and
microenterprise projects, sometimes relying
substantially on assistance from the WID Office
and on key support projects, such as GEMINI. A
representative sample of highlights from Mission
portfolios in both the informal and formal private
sectors is provided below.

USAID Missions

Latin America/Caribbean

USAID/ Honduras supports a number of micro-
and small enterprise credit programs with flexible
commercial credit requirements, which offer
women opportunities to obtain financial resources
on the same terms as men. The result-although
too early to be termed a trend-has been an
increase in the proportion of women borrowers
each year since 1988: 59% in 1988; 65% in 1989; and
67% in 1990.

The Mission also provides technical and budget
assistance to three organizations that are promoting
informal cooperative village banks. These banks
benefit low-income women in both urban and rural
areas who would not otherwise have access to
commercial credit and other business services.

USAID/Honduras continues to support private
voluntary organizations that provide services
exclusively to women-owned or managed
microenterprises. Among these assisted
organizations, the Honduran Private Sector
Council recently sponsored the creation of the
Honduran Women Entrepreneurs Association. The
Council, in conjunction with a USAID-financed
project, is helping women participate more actively
as high-level managers in private business.

Again in Honduras, private sector projects are
helping change the traditional pattern in which
women are employed in low productivity

operations with very little growth potential. These
formal sector activities are designed and
implemented to expand employment opportunities
in relatively new sectors of the economy where
women have not traditionally worked, such as the
export sector. The Foundation for Investment and
Export Development (FIDE), an implementing
agency of USAID's Export Development and
Service Project, is planning to generate an addition-
al 16,000 jobs over the next five years, an estimated
65 percent of which will be filled by women.

A number of recent research efforts are
contributing to a better understanding of how to
strengthen the participation of women in the
informal sector. In El Salvador, for example, a
study of the informal sector economy has been
initiated to provide insights on efforts that can lead
to improved participation by women.

The newly created Microenterprise Development
Project in El Salvador is expected to make a
significant contribution to the expansion of
women's participation in the private sector of that
country. The project will establish a private
National Microenterprise Support Center and a
network of branch offices to provide micro-
investment credits. Major beneficiaries are expected
to be women with no previous credit history, who
have, for the most part, been excluded from access
to formal credit sources by high transaction costs
and collateral requirements. The seven-year, $10
million Microenterprise Development Project will
enable borrowers to initiate or expand
microenterprises at the lowest level.

Increase in Women Borrowers
Small Business Loans
Supposed by Two USAID Missions

70 -
60 -
50 -
40 -
30 -
20 -

'ya5 1 4u

I4OI I Idud
Dominican Republic

The Government of El Salvador is considering a
research project that would utilize an existing data
base the 1989 Annual Multipurpose Household
Survey of the Metropolitan Area to develop
more recent statistics on women's labor,
employment, literacy, and other key variables.

In Guatemala, through its PL 480 Title I local
currency program, the USAID Mission has
contributed $600,000 to assist the government's
actions aimed at meeting the needs of women in
depressed areas and providing opportunities to
alleviate poverty through self-employment. The
main components of this program include training,
a credit scheme, savings mobilization, appropriate
technology, and marketing system development.

Baseline data collected for a Dominican micro- and
small enterprise project indicated that 40 percent of
the owners of microenterprises in the country are
women. USAID projects, therefore, target
microenterprise lending organizations that empha-
size service to women. Of the approximately 5,000
jobs which are expected to be generated from the
Mission's Small Industry and Microenterprise
Project, about 35 percent will be taken by women.
The USAID Mission reports that the percentage of
small business loans to female beneficiaries
increased from 42 percent in FY 1989 to 51 percent
in FY 1990, although the total dollar value of such
loans decreased due to devaluation of the peso.
Delinquency rates for women beneficiaries
averaged only six percent in FY 1990 as compared
to 10 percent for men.

The USAID Mission in the Dominican Republic has
also targeted additional development funds toward
projects that contribute to the development of free
trade zones, which are expected to produce numer-
ous new jobs. Currently, 75 percent of the
employees in free trade zones are women.

The WID Office in collaboration with the Office of
Economic Affairs is conducting a study of the
impacts of free trade zone employment on women
and their children in the Latin America and
Caribbean region.


USAID/Uganda is designing a small to medium
scale credit program for women. The Central Bank
of Uganda will establish a special women's credit
window to be used by participating commercial

Prh.,atct Enteiprise~t

Wnimn in Development / Report to Congness

Women and Small Loans


Borrowers ot Mission-Funded
Small Loans lup to o$300

banks. The present high level of support in the
banking community for women's credit activities is

The Central Bank has also completed a study
which identifies obstacles to women's access to
credit and has submitted a proposal to USAID to
fund a program to eliminate many of these
constraints. USAID/Uganda is employing a credit
specialist to identify issues for policy dialogue with
the government to overcome obstacles to credit for
women entrepreneurs. The credit specialist will
also identify measures necessary to ensure that
women can graduate from the project to other cred-
it programs. A baseline survey is to be conducted
as part of the project to quantify improvements
made in overcoming obstacles to credit.

To promote the number and success of women in
business in Malawi, a USAID-supported project
recently helped establish the National Association
of Businesswomen, a non-governmental
organization expected to enroll 500-1,000
businesswomen. The Association will be a strong
voice for promoting changes in institutional
policies and practices which do not presently bene-
fit women.

USAID/Lesotho reports that small business
primers were developed through the Basic and
Non-Formal Education Systems Project for use in
primary schools. The texts promote gender
awareness; 50 percent of the stories portray female
entrepreneurs as role models.

USAID/Lesotho is also working with the business
training division of the Institute of Extra-Mural
Studies of the National University of Lesotho to

develop a training course that incorporates
modules on business constraints and opportunities
of special concern to women. Access to credit, legal
constraints to entering a contract or starting a
business, ownership questions, and entrepreneurial
assertiveness will be taught together with such top-
ics as how to do a feasibility study or a marketing

In Senegal, studies on employment and the private
sector, completed in September 1990, included
efforts to identify constraints for female
entrepreneurs and to track women in both the
formal and informal sectors.

USAID/Kenya has made women's participation a
priority in its credit and microenterprise activities
and has implemented a Management Information
System to track gender variables in the Rural
Private Enterprise Credit Program. Other Missions
in Africa are focusing on the importance of training
to enhance women's productive skills. In Niger, for
example, 98 women attended a workshop for train-
ing of trainers in management in May, 1990.

Asia/Near East

Mission efforts to support informal enterprises and
women's access to information, technical
assistance, markets and financing often involve col-
laboration with private voluntary organizations
and other donor organizations. In Egypt, for
example, the USAID Mission worked with Catholic
Relief Services to create an activity which assists
street vendors in their efforts to acquire and store
large quantities of raw materials. In addition to the
procurement and storage of these raw materials,
provisions are made for the redistribution of
materials through in-kind loans, and in some cases
through direct sales to members of a street food
vendors' organization. Women are targeted in this

In Egypt, a USAID project is also helping improve
socioeconomic conditions for 250,000
disadvantaged people in the Aswan, Mena, Sohag,
and Fayoum governorates through the training of
community leaders in successful management
practices. A primary objective is to integrate
women into the development decision-making and
implementation process. The program loan compo-
nent requires that over 50 percent of the funds be
utilized by women and that over 50 percent of the
recipients be women.

Private 1-lteipris~e


E-tabhlsiing imcroenterprise credit projects ill a local level can r-rmtl increase access to finantiei resource' for the lpoor in et-nnal
tild wiome In pirticidar.. Tl7t Is ole of thie k, fndlllig of n anfail/srn COtldellt'di tIn itk' FiniiIchul litilltlIIoni De',elopiment
I FID) Prolect. The fnroect d~ioii.tratt's .that decentmli'd programs can result in Inufhr fe iale part icqpatiin rates because tl/it
help iedice ilt' inon-interest coIss of bortrowmng Noi-interest costs s.uch a;s lis. afinilhirit. adl qualif'icathini are rtiicalli
mor e iliflortanl amown low miconie clients tlihan interest rates in detemnninng borrowing behtin'or.

Tile Finantialt Inhtihilions Deiv lopmientP Project aws established lit A.I.D. in colhlabration wi'ltl thi Gti.ernmint of Ilndoiesi in
1984 to encoirat'e enterpnwse dievlopnient. Increase productwith, and generate einplonient in rural ar'e. Tihe wpolVse of lthe
project Ls to iiupport existing rural credit mstitiiutis that promvie financial ;er',ites at I reasonatile cost Thii support is provided
in otdetr to develop locally oriented, elt-;ustammig financial s/ystenms that imobihze !sains and extend credit

Under the FID protect. assistance is provided to hto rral credil instituitioni. One, Village Finianchil [fititiolis .; I F\ piovldes
;ier small lIrLs (l36 to $120t to lIrraroaers prnarilil engaled in trade and lazi no collateral ret'uiretnent Tl'ste lain arte tlplullt-
lu used for working capital in the borrtwer's biisiness The other. the General Villahe Credit Pio%,ramii of the Bank ,Riaiat
lidonesuia KULPEDES) provides lightly larger loans averagingg 4II). rarel'i below ablot r5ii to lkri e sn awtit collateral. uiI-
ally lid lntre-sl rates in both insitititios are setat i rthreet n tor near-nar let rates aid loran_ ire nlt Ltrgyted thi either inmtitutio
at spicftitc corne grousI actWities or Il. gender Lain iriplicationl of either inftitltii.i require .r Lol-cqt? a.lho is tyupicalli tlie
applicant s s51kire.

I1nfle participation 1i botl i innstthliorf loan programs by llenules is relmtnvlu hi, eletde iprtci/ ilt i l l i I FI nilt. i. OI''er
choice that of KLIPEDES i53 v'o'sus 24:; .l. OzC ill, rewarch I as sh iwin tiat the high tfaleahli tk icratiol rates aire ue It thel
ini.tittittons close praoxiinit to home. the ahlitu for quick reunburstonelt. the faiuitna rtil leltn Ictdiir. ,and favI.oral'e qt7'u-
rmei termsTn The higher ten ile participating in V I I rms is due to the lack of collateral reqnurements ,ad the ai daiblitv ', the
loi t for itorknig capital.

Tife t'rotct ltlnid th7t low incCome recipients deimnoisratred ai ciapait tl to iiu tborroit.'d f11id, piodUiLlivel ,mind lpai Pnva t or
titar- market interest riats 'itlh low loan defi ndt rates Overall tle StiIdi co'ncdIl d lIut /,-l ah pX'p10 t- it;_'T lt'l d ,H| adns-
tered, pltov 'itldm credit to poor atd male 'entreprmeneurt Citl be ll t1 effcl i'e ciO s ltuiiiiliMte 1it'l :i 0t'i e-dtiCfli t'lt

Stludih? I itc tLt'i nilfltitiiflis thowed thit i' were it' ed to Ftpaiud tlhe I'rr/'oio'eF I i 'tifs.c- ,i ilnd d Hicnt', butmilles" lel.
NtirltI 2,0 percent of tl Ot roi'cer reported -iffifTcient busiiincs 'roLt'th t t nce-lIstate' tlie Ohift i o'f trei-6d shiIff.

USAID/India is collaborating with the
Government of India's Department of Women and
Children to focus attention on the need to support
microenterprise/small business development
efforts for women. With the assistance of
A.I.D./Washington, USAID/India conducted a
series of women and microenterprise/small
business development studies which provided
essential information for Indian government

USAID/Thailand has facilitated the grant of U.S.
$200,000 from the Canadian International
Development Agency to the Institute of
Management Education for Thailand (IMET) for
the development of a new series of training
programs for female managers.

In 1990, USAID/Tunisia sponsored a study on
women and key employment issues. A follow-up
technical seminar at which women's employment
issues were debated was well-attended, and a
national level policymakers seminar was planned
for later in the year. The study and follow-on

activities contributed to the formulation of the
USAID/Tunisia Country Development Strategy

The Agribusiness Sector Assistance Program is help-
ing increase the volume and efficiency of private sec-
tor investment in agribusiness activities in the
Philippines. The USAID Mission is designing a
gender-disaggregated employment monitoring
system as part of the program. This pioneering
venture will measure gender-differentiated
employment responses to the program's private sec-
tor initiatives and policy changes.

In Indonesia, the Financial Institutions Development
Project encourages enterprise development, produc-
tivity increases, and employment opportunities in
rural areas through support to existing rural credit
institutions that provide rural financial services at
reasonable cost, produce loan portfolios of employ-
ment-generating activities, and promote savings
mobilization. More than half the recipients of credit
under this project have been women.

WiVnen in Developen'it / Report to Co(Tngres~

USAID/Yemen has worked with local women's
associations to strengthen their capacity to train
women and create income generating activities.

In Bangladesh during the period 1982-1988, the
Women's Entrepreneurship Development Program
made over 10,000 market interest rate loans to
about 9,000 women for income-generating and
entrepreneurial activities with an 80% repayment
record. Project employment of women was also
high; about 82 percent of 132 employees were
women. The project maintained this level of accom-
plishments until its completion in December, 1990.
A follow-on project is being designed entitled
Women's Enterprise Development Project to
continue USAID support to women
microentrepreneurs in Bangladesh.

A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus

During the past two years, the Bureau for Private
Enterprise has built gender issues into the services
it provides to USAID Missions and governments
in developing countries. The Bureau for Private
Enterprise conducted a study in Tunisia in March,
1990, which examined the implications of urbaniza-
tion on employment and unemployment rates by
gender, age, and location. A 1990 conference on the
informal land regularization process has led the
Bureau for Private Enterprise to recognize the
needs and importance of women in securing land

title as a necessary part of integrating the informal
sector into the economy. The Bureau is compiling a
data management system for urban and shelter
programs which will track impact on women.

The Private Sector Development Office of the
Bureau for Europe and the Near East which began
operations in FY 1990, is seeking ways to improve
women's economic status through its programs in
support of trade and investment, financial markets,
and privatization. The Office is working on a major
multi-country grant to study the small enterprise
informal sector within which women figure promi-

The Market Development and Investment Office
(MDI) of the Africa Bureau has also been active in
finding ways to improve women's participation in
private sector expansion. Discussion of women's
participation in formal and informal
microenterprise activities is prominent in the work-
ing drafts of the Africa Bureau microenterprise

In FY 1989, the WID Office joined resources with
the Africa MDI office to develop a feasibility study
for expanding women's specialty export crops
from Ghana and the Gambia. In FY 1990, the WID
Office collaborated with the Africa Bureau on a
major impact evaluation of the Kenya Rural Private
Enterprise Development Program.

f '' i,'


, M, ,j ? ;. _-': .. .
i. Conservation of tropical forests, protection of
r biological diversity and environmental quality, and
mitigation of global climate change are among the
t dominant issues on today's international
development agenda.

Environmental programs to stem environmental
degradation must address women's issues for
several reasons. Women play a key role in resource
use through subsistence and market agriculture,
forest extraction, and the processing of forest and
other agricultural products. Women are also often
responsible for home water supplies, sanitation,
and other factors related to environmental health.
Women play a major role in fuel collection, often a
factor in deforestation and land degradation. In
addition, women's knowledge and community
organizing skills can become an important part of
innovative solutions to those problems. Women
have a vested interest in protecting and conserving
the natural resource base, but their potential contri-
bution is often overlooked by development
planners and government agencies.

Tropical forests, located primarily in developing
countries, once occupied 1.6 billion hectares. Now,
they cover only 900 million hectares, and are being
reduced by an estimated 20 million hectares each
year. Families who have relied on these forests for
their livelihoods must find new sources of income,
Mark Edwards/Still Pictures or intensify their use of the ever smaller forests that
remain. Poor women in particular rely on common
property resources pastures, forests, rivers for
meeting the subsistence needs of their families.

As developing countries become increasingly
urbanized and industrialized, and as population
density mounts, environmental pollution looms as
a major problem threatening not only immediate
quality of life, but long-term economic potential.
Immediate attention is needed to solve problems
related to environmental health, energy generation
and conservation, and natural resource

Women in Development / Report to Con0rest

Women in many developing countries play a
growing role as professionals in the environmental
field as policy-makers, educators, and managers.
In Ecuador, for example, most of the environmental
non-governmental organizations today are headed
by women. Women play key roles in supporting
A.I.D. efforts to help manage natural resources in
the developing world. In Costa Rica, women head
the environmental education programs aimed at
the protection of the unique biological diversity of
such parks and reserves as Tortuguero and
Corcovado National Parks. They are also actively
involved in biological diversity research in these
species-rich areas.


A.I.D. promotes environmentally sound
development by encouraging economic policy
reform, demonstrating improved technologies, and
creating public awareness through environmental
education. The Agency's resources are focused on
local environmental problems with important
economic and developmental implications and,
wherever possible, on problems with global
implications in countries where the greatest impact
can be achieved. A.I.D.'s Environmental Initiatives
Paper issued in 1990 specifically requires all
implementation plans in the natural resources and
environmental areas to address gender differences
where relevant to programs and projects.

Tapping the knowledge and leadership skills of
women in the area of environmental and natural
resource management strengthens the impact of
environmental programs by encouraging other
women to become involved at the grass-roots level.
Enhancing the role of women in natural resource
management is a high priority for environmental
conservation and national economic development.

A.I.D. supports the role of the family in coping with
or balancing the often competing needs for
economic productivity and sound management of
natural resources. Considerable emphasis is placed
on the development of increased technical and pro-
fessional capacity among women in all aspects of
environmental and natural resource management.
This includes training for women as extension
agents, reserve managers, and environmental
educators. Emphasis is also being placed on the col-
lection and analysis of gender-specific data which

is vitally important to understanding the role and
contribution of women in environment and natural
resource management.


USAID Missions

Nearly half of all USAID Missions report that their
programs involve women in one or more forms of
resource management activities. Much of the effort
is devoted to training women as teachers and man-

In Pakistan, more than 800 women have studied
subjects ranging from vegetable gardening to social
forestry in 28 non- formal education centers in the
Gadoon Amazai area. Training programs have also
been established in other parts of the country with
emphasis on areas of sustainable agriculture in
which women have traditionally been active:
poultry raising, animal husbandry, fruit and
vegetable production, and grain storage.

Support from the USAID/Pakistan is provided for
local women's organizations' efforts in wildlife and
biological diversity conservation through activities
of the International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the
World Wildlife Fund. Through IUCN's regional
office in Pakistan, a major project involves local
women's non-governmental organizations in the
management and administration of Khun Jerab
National Park.

USAID/Pakistan also works to strengthen the
capacity of institutions at local and national levels
to design, implement and evaluate fuelwood
production programs as well as to bring women
into the implementation of the project and decision-
making operations of these efforts. The program
broke new ground when it succeeded in gaining
first-time admittance to the Pakistan Forest Institute
for six women. Four have graduated and two are
continuing their studies. Four more women are
expected to receive scholarships during the current
academic year. In addition, women constituted
about half of the 150 attendees at six two-day
forestry and conservation workshops.

In Rwanda, a new natural resources management
project placed special emphasis in the design phase

Environment and Natural Resources

on including women in training and research in
integrated fish culture, agroforestry, soil
conservation, natural forest management, and envi-
ronmental planning and coordination.

The Area Food and Market Development Project in
Zaire focuses on improving cultivation practices for
forests by working with eight women's groups
located in a single geographic area. The project pro-
vides travel for women to compare cultivation
practices for forest and savannah soils. Technical
training is provided for women extension agents.
Two women extension supervisors received third-
country technical and managerial training in Israel
and Cameroon.

The USAID Mission in Brazil is developing an
environmental program which will focus on the
role of women in protecting Amazon forest land.
The program is expected to concentrate on commu-
nity activities (including environmental sanitation);
proper use of cleared land around dwellings on
which families depend for subsistence and selected
cash crops; and processing of forest products. The
program anticipates training professional women
in environmental policy issues and program imple-
mentation. It will also help strengthen the role of

women in governmental and non-governmental
institutions dealing with the environment. A
research component will provide more specific
information about the roles men and women
currently play in the use and management of
natural resources. This in turn will aid the planning
of more effective interventions.

Women are participating in the development of a
national park system and are being trained in agro-
forestry in Jamaica. In Haiti, activities within
USAID's Agroforestry II Project involving environ-
mental education curriculum development at
primary schools are carried out mostly by women.
In Ecuador this year, more than 50 pre-school
teachers were trained through USAID's
Environmental Education Project. And, the
Regional Development Office of the Caribbean has
recently designed an environment and coastal
resource project in which women will play
prominent roles in community-led local
development activities.

Mark Edwards/Still Pictures


1; ~L

Womiie in Dleveopment / Report to Congressi,

Women luie been integraLtd inrtoa 'ide ranc e of natural resource actiirltic in Hotlndura tliroiigh LISAID's lUnd Use and
Produchtiitv Enhancement LLIPE) Project. Tlie project is specifically rn maki efforts to provide uiomen l'ith the inecess.al
kitrowluil' anid tdclinolo~.u to help liter imrproi' the lier' standard of then timnlit

The project focuses on enabling aontiiil to laeni iinv t to hnprove their families diet generate iicash income, and care for livestock
more effectwelv. 1on'etor' club in rnural arai proiotic s.0 conserv'tion Nl tree plantinmrg improved lo crppgn patterns and land
inanagenent around lioues. Over the lrfe of the project. a total of 2.500 "loreta" r'to s luice been constr'cted. These 5stoes burn
50-80 percent less fuelumii a per-household NirngSi of about 529 per year and hiir the adted advantage of kefeingr smokle
out of the houses in which their opeate.

Through LLPE, applied research is being coundhtted into technology to stabilize the soils o Irllidt firms and increase the produt-
twrift of crops groii on 'l Uich fimns. Women 1a1i trained in techniques t'r iicri-sinPig clop u lds ;iand e.x'tnding cultiation for
longer pe7rds

It lhs beee the experience of the LUPE iand LISAID'. Fvorestru De-v'lopente Protect (FDP.I m Hondiras that w'onieni re particf-
larly su;pprtive of prograni. in forest imani.gemren't hitat ilicrlteae tie ailounit of tuelhwood aaudable for faiti rnl l cMonsmptrin. This is
becaiise the im proY ment of these actiilltes directlY aiffeuil women's daily tasFks. For instance improved forge iranagernent
increases the amounnt and quaiht/ of food iir cattle WLhich lards to an ntreease in milk pioJucticionr mnreasied milk prodliction cain
lead to ant increase in the alc of dairy product' s c/ L- a cheese, cream and butter which in turn can increase. ion't income The
fuel women rue eiver dav depends on good forest nuragement throiuglhold the year.

In the rural households of Hondiura,". e.'perienlct hia; -lirnii thiat female e.tlen-sion agents i ie greater accepltante and impact thlu
male exrtenionists. Therefore grloforestry activities are designed spec ificallrl to use u;imle extenisiotists and to reach that propor-
tion of rural fantine will fe'iale heads-of-household. Earlv estimates are that iup to 25 percort Of p,'rticipaithn famnire are in tis;

Under the LLIPE and FDP projects., ocia[l ire-strn actitiiies huiae been directed tklonrd apprnourratlu 12 500 i rarrl a rmenl. Tlc
enwironrmental education activities of the LLIPE project are lde-ig ted to reach rnral number -- far tlmnlihes. school tuvlhers, and
others -arui address biological diversity conisnr ationi aimotg other issues.

A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus

The Conservation of Biological Diversity Project of
the Bureau for Science and Technology's Office of
Forestry, Environment, and Natural Resources
(S&T/FENR) is currently developing its first activi-
ty under the WID Office matching fund program.
The research project will focus on gender issues in
community-managed conservation projects. The
International Center for Research on Women and
World Wildlife Fund will jointly develop studies
on the role of women in community-managed con-
servation projects in Nepal and the Philippines.

The Forestry Support Program (FSP) of the Forest
Resource Management Project within the Office of
Forestry, Environment, and Natural Resources
(S&T/FENR) has a WID Office buy-in which lever-
ages FSP funds to conduct women in
forestry/agroforestry workshops in Africa, Latin
America and Asia. Two workshops have been con-

ducted in Mali and El Salvador and a third is being
organized in Pakistan.

The Office of Rural and Institutional Development
in the Bureau for Science and Technology
(S&T/RD) has received matching funds from the
WID Office for several projects including: Land and
Natural Resources Access Project II (ACCESS II);
Human Settlement and Natural Resource Analysis
II (SARSA II); Development Strategies for Fragile
Lands (DESFIL); and, Agricultural Marketing
Improvement Strategies (AMIS).

The buy-in to the ACCESS project will assist in
identifying cases in which gender-disaggregated
data and analysis related to land and resource
tenure have important implications for program
and policy formulation. The SARSA buy-in will
identify effective methodologies for investigating
women's roles in natural resource management
and enhancing their participation in the decision-

Environment and Natural Resources

making process affecting access to trees and water.
The AMIS project is expected to provide insights
and a methodology for understanding women's
roles, objectives, and the constraints faced in food
processing and marketing. The buy-in to the
DESFIL project funded a technical specialist to
ensure that gender- related considerations were
taken into account in the design of the Maya
Resource Management project in Guatemala.

The S&T/RD activities funded with WID matching
funds will not only provide information of immedi-
ate utility such as clarifying the role of women in
natural resource management and marketing, but
also will enable the development of data collection
and analytical methodologies that can be used in
future research activities. Since these projects are
implemented primarily by U.S. universities who
collaborate with institutions in developing
countries, the availability of WID funds also has the
benefit of developing a capacity in the institutions
supported to undertake policy-relevant WID

The WID Office both works closely with and is rep-
resented on the A.I.D. Environmental Working
Group. The WID Office provided a consultant to
work with sub-groups developing implementation
plans for A.I.D. environmental initiatives.

The Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean is
currently developing an environmental strategy for
the region which will place strong emphasis on the
effects of natural resource degradation on women,
particularly in the areas of environmental health,
population, water supply, and agriculture.

"Integrating Gender Concerns" was one of the
background papers prepared for the FY 1989
Bureau for Asia and the Near East's study, Asia and
Near East Environment and Natural Resources Strategy
in the 1990s. The study identified and discussed the
multiple and complex links between women and
natural resources management in the Asia and
Near East regions and suggested ways in which
gender concerns can be integrated into the process
of designing, implementing, and evaluating the
Bureau's natural resource strategy.





Extensive research has established that education
S contributes directly to sustained long-term
economic development through growth of national
income and improved productive capacity of the
labor force. Because women constitute a significant
proportion of the economically active population in
the developing world, economic growth and devel-
opment depend in large measure on improved
female education.

The World Bank calls education of women and
girls "one of the best investments a country can
make in its future growth and welfare." Some of
the direct economic benefits of educating women
and girls are as follows:

The education of women has a positive effect
on family income and national productivity.
Women's earning capacity and productivity
increase with higher levels of education;

Improvements in female literacy correlate
with the adoption of advanced agricultural
practices which contribute to increased
yields and better storage, processing, market-
ing, and food security;

Mark Edwtards/Still Pictures Educated women use resources and skills
training in every sector from health to hor-
ticulture more efficiently, thus raising the
investment value of government and donor

Primary education opens the way to further
education or vocational training in areas
such as agriculture and health services, there-
by increasing opportunities to find

In addition to the direct economic gains when
women and girls receive an education, the benefits
are multiplied because of the key role women play
within their families.


r'e centage Point Difference
in Enrollment:


S15 TO 24

S5 TO 14


Note: In this map, the gender gap is defined as the gross primary enrollment rate of boys minus that of girls. Data and
country borders refer to 1985. Source UNESCO.

The better educated the mother, the more
likely her child is to survive infancy. The
children of educated mothers are better
nourished and healthier.

The children of educated mothers are more
likely to succeed in school, more so than if
only the father is educated. Their daughters
are more likely to attend school, do well and

Educated women are more likely to plan
their families, tend to marry later, and have
fewer children.

Educated women can and do use
government investments in health, family
planning and education services more

Despite such obvious benefits, the number of
female illiterates is growing. Two out of three of the
world's illiterates today are women.

Although many developing countries have made
great progress in providing schooling for all
children, and despite the fact that school
enrollment rates have risen for both sexes at all lev-
els in the past two decades (but in parts of Africa
are beginning to fall again), there is still a sizeable
and growing gap between girls' and boys'
enrollment in primary schools and an even greater
gap in completion rates. Families respond different-
ly to school opportunities for girls and boys.
Because the direct economic benefits of girls'
education in the form of employment and income
are not as obvious as those for boys, families tend
to be less committed to girls' completion and less
willing to invest direct and opportunity costs in
education for girls. This gap has serious adverse
consequences for economic and social

Boys complete primary school at higher rates than
girls in nearly all developing countries. In low
income countries, girls' enrollment in schools lags
behind boys by an average of 20 percent 62


VImnen in Development / Report to Congres;

Female Literacy and Fertility
Selected Asian Countres
L-lieacy R lei ,i Feihllrv Rales


HI L."a. 1 .. 1 | nin I Ilr
5.*: '.-i- IjjCEF l ^

Female Literacy and Infant Mortality
Selected Asian Counlries


L.-- aC, Pal,- 1-_1

ira eiDr.i iTnouinri.3


percent for girls compared with 82 percent for
boys. In many of the poorest countries, the gap is
even more pronounced. In Afghanistan, Mali,
Somalia and Nepal, for example, less than one fifth
of girls are enrolled in primary school. Even when
enrolled, girls in most countries are less likely than
boys to complete primary school, largely because
their labor is needed at home or they begin bearing
children prior to completing school.


Despite the benefits of an education, a mix of social,
cultural and economic barriers keeps millions of
girls and women out of school:

National education policies concerning
universal enrollment affect boys and girls

differently since girls' enrollment is subject to
its own set of social, cultural and economic

* The uneven distribution of primary schools,
especially in rural areas, prevents many girls
from receiving an education since girls are
not typically allowed to travel as far as boys
for schooling. Studies have shown that when
the distance to school is beyond a kilometer,
girls drop out of school at a higher rate than

* Many families cannot afford to educate girls
because their labor is needed in the home
and fields;

* Mixed-sex classrooms are undesirable in
some cultures, and in cultures where
education is segregated by sex, single-sex
schools for girls are scarce;

* There is a shortage of female teachers in
many countries. Cultural obstacles may
prevent males from teaching girls. Certified
female teachers are often reluctant to work in
isolated rural areas or in urban slum areas
where girls' school participation is exception-
ally low;

* Widespread teenage pregnancy forces many
girls in developing countries to leave school
and often prohibits them from ever

* School hours may conflict with girls'
household work and seasonal labor responsi-
bilities in agricultural and other types of pro-

* The marriageability of girls at an early age is
considered highly desirable in many
cultures. Early marriages take precedence
over keeping girls in school;

* The prevailing fear in some countries is that
education may change women's attitudes,
encouraging them to alter or reject traditional
roles making them less suitable for marriage;

* The costs of clothing, fees and school
supplies can be prohibitive, forcing families
to choose among children when investing
limited resources. When resources are scarce,
they go to boys, who are perceived to be the
potential bread winners, rather than girls;

-r i w


School curricula are often irrelevant to future
employment opportunities for girls; and,

Families anticipate lower monetary returns
on their investments for girls' schooling
because employment opportunities are limit-
ed and wages lower for girls.

A.I.D. projects work to close the gender gap and
address these constraints by focusing on issues of
efficiency and quality. The Agency's integrated
approach to community education and
mobilization stresses basic education. Emphasis is
placed on increasing:

the efficiency with which education
resources are used;

the quantitative and qualitative outputs of
education efforts;

pilot initiatives to encourage increased
enrollment and school completion of girls;

the effectiveness of education systems in sup-
porting economic and social development

equitable access to formal and non-formal
learning opportunities;

the linkage between gender-appropriate pro-
gramming for vocational and technical train-
ing and labor demands;

the involvement of the private sector in
education projects;

the use of appropriate technology, such as
radio education, which take into
consideration mobility and time constraints;

the decentralization of educational systems
to bring education closer to home.

These strategies address issues which impact on
the access and quality of educational systems for

The following is an overview of A.I.D. projects in
education which explicitly address the problems of
improving girls' access to or performance in school.


USAID Missions

A number of USAID projects improve access to pri-
mary education for girls through such initiatives as
school construction, teacher training, and curri -
culum design.

In Pakistan, for example, where the educational sta-
tus of women is among the lowest in the world, the
ten-year Primary Education Development (PED)
Program-launched in 1989- is increasing access
by rural females to basic education and teacher
training. Girls' enrollment in primary schools is
only 38 percent compared to 73 percent for boys. It
is estimated by the World Bank that, in 1985-86,
only about one-third of young girls living in rural
areas were in school. Fewer than one-sixth of those
attending completed five years of education-
considered the minimum level for achieving

The PED Program has identified various
opportunities to improve girls' education in
Pakistan. These include: increasing the number of
female teachers in schools; encouraging the
development of private sector schools; construction
of schools within close proximity of villages with
appropriate facilities; and, increasing the number of
women in provincial ministries of education and
on textbook boards.

The PED Program is also supporting efforts to
expand and improve primary education systems in
the Northwest Frontier and Baluchistan provinces.

Girls' Enrollment in Pakistan's
Rural Primary Schools: 1985-1986

Bovs Gir 01 the 38' 'l irl nro3iea.
PIm i, sriiool Enroirllmenn only one Oulr ui .. graduleat

V\hnwn in Deoek'Innc'nt / Rq7nrt in C

Emphasis is placed on curriculum improvement,
textbook production, and training female teachers.

Under the Development Support Training Project,
USAID/Pakistan is supporting the Lahore
University of Management Sciences. The
percentage of female applicants for the MBA
program has grown from 21 percent in 1991 to 32
percent in 1992.

USAID/Afghanistan has provided textbooks and
classroom materials to approximately 100 girls'
schools in refugee camps. Assistance was also
provided for the recent opening of a women's
university in Peshawar which already has 200
female students.

Engaging in policy dialogue and providing
incentives to encourage countries to increase
educational opportunities for women and girls are
also an important focus of USAID efforts. Several
basic education initiatives have recently been
launched in Mali, Ghana, and Guinea. In Mali, for
example, discussions with the Ministry of National
Education in 1990 resulted in the creation of a
division specializing in girls' education. The
Ministry in collaboration with USAID/Mali will
design pilot projects to enhance girls' education.

In Guinea, a study will be conducted by the
government to determine the factors involved in
household decisions to enroll children in primary
schools. A plan will be developed to redress
constraints at national and regional levels. This is a
significant step in increasing girls' enrollment in

In Ghana, the Ministry of Education will increase
the percentage of its primary education budget
which is spent on primary teaching materials and
train at least 90 percent of its primary school
teachers largely women to minimum
teaching standards.

USAID/Malawi is designing a basic education pol-
icy reform program to focus on increasing the inter-
nal efficiency (i.e. decrease the drop-out and
repetition rate) of girls' basic education. Efforts are
also underway to raise expectations of girls'
capabilities and opportunities.

In El Salvador, under a new Basic Education
Project, primary school teachers 80 percent of
whom are women will receive in-service skills
training. Studies under the project will address

inequalities in salary and advancement

A national conference "Educating Girls: Investing
in Guatemala's Development" was co-sponsored in
January 1991 by USAID/Guatemala, the National
Office of Women of the Ministry of Labor, and the
U.N. Development Program. The conference was
the first to bring together key Guatemalan public
and private sector policy makers to focus on the
issue of girls' education and its relationship to such
social and economic development indicators as
agricultural and industrial production, fertility,
infant and child mortality, family nutrition, life
expectancy, educational attainment, and
employment generation. A national commission
from the private and public sectors was formed to
develop an emergency plan to address the
education of girls in Guatemala.

A number of USAID Missions in Latin America
and the Caribbean have initiated secondary
education and vocational training projects. In the
Dominican Republic, for example, the Human
Resources Development Project is helping female
students obtain educational loans to pursue
technical careers. Women comprise 85 percent of
the students currently receiving loans.

Increasing access to post-secondary education that
will better prepare women for professional
opportunities is the goal of several USAID projects.
In Guatemala, the Altiplano Higher Education
Project provides scholarships for indigenous
women to receive university level degrees and to
move into leadership positions. The program
addresses two barriers to increased participation
and enhanced development of women: the bias
against women in general, and a specific bias
against indigenous women, by establishing an
objective that 40 percent of the students be indigen-
ous women. This objective has been exceeded.

A.I.D. Central Activities

Quality Basic Education: Lessons Learned

A.I.D.'s Office of Education, Bureau for Science and
Technology (S&T/ED) convened a workshop in
February, 1990 to analyze experiences in improving
basic education. Representatives from 16
institutions and donor agencies reviewed lessons
learned from research and operational experiences
over the past decade. This workshop was a

Educa tio'

Mark Edwards/Still Pictures

significant attempt to consolidate and disseminate
lessons learned. Quality basic education for women
was one of four major issues addressed at the
workshop. Topics discussed included: "Benefits of
Basic Education for Girls", "Expanding Access for
Girls", "Recruiting and Retaining Female
Teachers", "Improving Girls' Retention" and
"Improving Facilities and Learning Materials".

World Conference on Education for All

A.I.D. has taken a leadership role in emphasizing the
critical importance of girls' education and effective
responses to the problem. In collaboration with the
World Bank and with a grant from the World
Conference, A.I.D. developed one of the conference
roundtables on "Girls' Education: Problems and
Potential Solutions" at the World Conference on
Education for All held in Jomtien, Thailand in March
1990. A.I.D. played a leading role in representing the
U.S. at the Conference and, through the roundtable,
display booth, and policy dialogue, contributed
significantly to the identification of female education
and literacy as an important issue and goal for the
year 2000. Education, planning and finance ministers
from over 150 countries attended the Conference

sponsored by UNICEF, the U.N. Development
Program, UNESCO, the World Bank and others. The
Conference called on governments to place a greater
emphasis on primary education and encouraged
donors to reallocate aid toward primary education.
Over three hundred conference participants
attended the roundtable on girls' education
including the Ministers of Education from Pakistan,
Guinea, and Zimbabwe who served as panelists.
The guidance and agreements emanating from
Jomtien have already served as a point of reference
for policy dialogue.

Girls' Literature Review

S&T/ED and the Office of Women in Development,
under the Advancing Basic Education and Literacy
(ABEL) Project, recently completed a review of
world literature on the relationship between girls'
primary education and social and economic
development. While there is an abundance of data to
show that primary education has an impact on areas
such as family health and infant mortality, this
report focuses on evidence to show that girls' educa-
tion can result in specific economic and broader
social benefits.

Women in Dtk'elorn fn* n / R(72ort to Congress

African Education Conference

Improving girls' access to basic education was
among the themes of the African Education
Conference held in Togo in September 1990. The
conference, sponsored by S&T/ED and the Africa

Bureau through the ABEL Project, brought together
80 education professionals from 19 Francophone and
Anglophone African countries as well as
representatives from the U.S. and Haiti to exchange
lessons learned in the design and implementation
of basic education programs.


hi Egypt the BaSiic Education Project a ten-near effort which aill be completed lhs iear ha; helped to redress the long-
Standing r detr imunlance n the educational uitem. Sch lxl enrollment in E~yipt is colstramed ht several factors: distance to
school. overcrrTded clasrooiw l mved-se\ cLsL-rom-S ii and incomplete or inaideq1ate Dtcilieli. The project expand ,accesL to and
mocreaies the lualihti, effiacinwt andt effectiveness of laic alucatM o thliiigh four components T77iese are: construction of 1.811
prmianrt -chools ii rniral and under-sered arais; instructional material' and equipment for mor 150)00 prunarn schools, techni-
call aLssiltnce in education planning and tatcler education- and ciurnuliin desi~n. The school costriNcitn component lasi
micorpirated gender consuierathons in its overall school siting strateTy T7ius Ihs contributed sicfiicantly to ic reading fenaile
acces- to schools.

In EIgypt. the dLitaciC: ioi ho i ime to scooll l ia s~'o11iu barrier to girls' schol aliedaliice. One stuidy showUied that w'hen a school
was located more thMn otne kiloieter awaI' enrollment for 'irl fell off iove rapIdlu thiL for bl, L,. R1ren the distance reached t-a.
kilometers less than h!il the girls living at ftls distance enrolled in school

TIe Basic EduictionP Pvroect hias spe it caill addressedt the gender diffl ntulil ilmpct of distance by giaiig priority to conmiini-
ties imore tlhn tao kilometers a7n;l fro0 m a complete primrni school and through co.istr'clttioI of dl ddtlli al classroc',i in corn-
muiinties where female atterutraI fell Ielo.uw nato bitil enrollment levels and where separate classro-n, ftr female-s aue required.

For the 9-12 year old age group siting of schvols within a airtieulIr radius has increased tlh percentage of girls who remanu in
school b 1 7.5 percent whereas the coinmirable increase for hbous i the -ame areas i onlui 6 7 percent. In 198o ."4 percent of the
total eligible female population was enrolled in school as c(nnio red to only 57 percent auhen the protect h~gani in 1980. In addition
gender segre ated scLhools hoa. been con-tructal in some regions iwht're the altenurtwe for female shtdentr umould be no educa-
tional facilities. The foll'u-on protect. &Bsic EducMion 11, will aplplw the same siting cnteria for an additional 1 J30 schools.

4 f- U


p ~w


For most developing countries, in order to ensure
that the base of indigenous expertise necessary for
sustained long-term development is available,
improvements in basic education are only the first
step. Countries also must increase their supply of
well-trained technical and professional personnel.
Girls' school enrollments at every level are
determined, in part, by opportunities available to
them at the next level of schooling. The Agency's
participant training programs are designed to
contribute to advanced education for women and
have the potential to ensure that women are given
the opportunity to participate fully in their
countries' development by filling critical planning
and technical positions in government and the
private sector.

A.I.D. emphasizes the training of developing
country scientists, technicians, administrators, and
managers as well as the improvement of specialized
training capacities in developing countries. A.I.D.-
sponsored participant training programs bring
selected individuals to the U.S. or other countries
for instruction. A.I.D. policy encourages participant
training for three purposes:

staff development for A.I.D. assisted projects;

strengthening key development institutions;

establishment of local training capacities.

While it is increasingly recognized that women
have much to contribute to their countries' develop-
ment, a number of social and cultural constraints
limit women's involvement in participant training
programs. The pool of women who have the educa-
tion and basic skills to qualify for participant
training is relatively small. English language
requirements for programs in the U.S. may exclude
women. In many cultures, women are not able to
move about as freely as their male counterparts.
There is often resistance on the part of parents or
husbands to women's participation in overseas
training, particularly if it is long- term. Women may
not be aware of training programs unless they are
well-publicized in activities in which women partic-

Participant Training

ipate. If not specifically required to submit female
candidates, universities often submit only male
candidates for consideration.

All participant training programs are expected to
provide opportunities for women. While A.I.D.'s
policy does not yet require any specific percentage
or formula for measuring female participation, it
does affirm that all training programs are expected
to give attention to ensuring substantial
participation of women. Where only a few women
are expected to participate, USAID Missions must
provide additional justification and explanation of
alternatives to provide more female participation.

In FY 1990, A.I.D. trained over 19,000 participants,
including 5,233 women or nearly 27 percent of all
trainees. This represents a dramatic increase from a
decade earlier when only 17 percent of trainees
were women. The proportion of women to men
trained remained stable from FY 1989 to FY 1990.

There are significant regional differences in the
training of women with the Latin America and
Caribbean region showing the highest proportion
of women trained. Women comprised 39 percent of
all participants trained in this region in FY 1990.

The Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean
responded to WID concerns by increasing female
participation in its participant training programs.
The Caribbean and Latin American Scholarships
Program (CLASP), for example, was launched in
1985 to provide training in skills essential for social,
economic, and political development. CLASP
places emphasis on training women, the socio-
economically disadvantaged as well as individuals
with demonstrated leadership potential. A steady
rise in percentage of women participants has been
seen over the course of the program from 31
percent in FY 1987 to 42 percent in FY 1989.

One of the major components of CLASP is the
Central America Peace Scholarship (CAPS) Project
which trains individuals from Belize, Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. CAPS
requires 40 percent participation by women and
has been able to exceed this goal in some countries.
In Guatemala, for example, 56 percent of all
trainees under CAPS were women last year. Under
the second phase of Guatemala's Peace Scholarship
project, efforts will be undertaken to generate
opportunities for women to be trained through the
identification of critical areas of the economy and
society where their non-participation is a constraint

Percent of Participant Trainees
who are Women


to the country's development. This consideration is
now Mission policy, and a critical element in
project planning.

Participant training programs in Africa are placing
an increasing emphasis on the recruitment of
women. Women comprised 23 percent of all
trainees in the region in FY 1990.

The Human Resource Development Assistance
(HRDA) Program requires that a minimum of 35
percent of participants be women, but some
countries have already exceeded this target.
USAID/Tanzania, for example, rapidly increased
women's participation in HRDA activities to 50
percent of all participants, after placing an ad in
English and Kiswahili newspapers that encouraged
women to apply. The advertisement resulted in a
flood of 3,500 applications from women and men
throughout the country, reaching women who oth-
erwise might not have been considered by the
Mission. USAID/Senegal also exceeded its goal in
the HRDA project, averaging about 40 percent in
the last two years. Under the HRDA project in
Mauritania, several women have benefitted from
study abroad in such non-traditional fields as
computer maintenance and fishing trawler

In the Asia and Near East regions, despite strong
efforts, the percentage of female trainees remains
relatively low at 18 percent and 16 percent,
respectively. In response to Congressional
legislation on increasing female participant training
levels, in FY 1989, the Asia and Near East Bureau
undertook two sub-regional evaluations on women
in A.I.D. funded participant training programs in

IA'onrl(' in Icrevelopnwnt / Rc'poil~ to h- I.

Asia and the Near East. The reports focused on
common constraints to female participation and
successful A.I.D. responses. Subsequently, in FY
1990, guidelines were developed as a tool for A.I.D.
staff responsible for planning and implementing
training activities. The strategies and approaches
suggested in the guidelines were derived from suc-
cessful USAID experiences in addressing female
training issues.

Many of the USAID Missions in Asia and the Near
East are also taking important steps to increase par-
ticipant training opportunities for women. These
include: making more women aware of the
opportunities; setting targets or goals for
percentages of female trainees; and, overcoming
barriers to women's participation through policy
dialogue with officials in developing countries.

USAID/Afghanistan, for example, has placed
advertisements in a widely distributed women's
newsletter and established a special English
language training program for women candidates.

USAID/Pakistan has contacted families of female
candidates in rural areas to discuss the benefits of
training. A female professional employee accompa-
nied a group of younger female participants to the
U.S. to reduce anxiety on the part of families. Due
to the mobility restrictions facing Pakistani women,
USAID/Pakistan routinely conducts special in-
country training programs for women in areas
such as entrepreneurship, management and

In evaluating the Peace Fellowship Program, which
provides scholarships for short- and long-term
training in several development disciplines,
USAID/Egypt noted that the low rate of
participation by women (only 19 percent) reflected
a similarly low rate of applications from women.
To address the problem, the Mission is now
allowing for shorter time periods for training
programs to permit a wife or mother to leave her
family temporarily; identifying fields in which
women are strongly represented in the workforce;
publicizing the Peace Fellowship Program at activi-
ties in which women participate; and, ensuring that
Peace Fellowships are being made known through
other USAID activities.

Missions in other regions are also making
provisions to increase opportunities for women. In
Honduras, the participant training officer provides
orientation briefings to all ministries, private volun-
tary organizations, and institutions such as the
Social Security Institute, stressing the selection of
women participants. In Brazil, a new training grant
includes funding for English language training to
prepare more women for participant training in the

The Agency's Office of International Training
(S&T/OIT) has been successful in directing
attention to the role of women in development
through the Labor Organization Development
Project. The project provides selected trade union,
government and private sector officials in
developing countries with special training to enable
them to develop effective labor policies and
programs within the framework of a democratic
society. The role of women in the workplace has
been included as one of the key training issues

S&T/OIT also manages the Entrepreneurs
International (EI) Program a training and trade
initiative. Designed to improve and expand indige-
nous private sectors, this program matches foreign
entrepreneurs with U.S. counterparts for practical
training. S&T/OIT encourages the selection of
female participants for the El program, and
promotes the inclusion of women on the local selec-
tion and nomination panels. Once in the U.S.,
participants are briefed by the Agency's WID
Office on the availability of special programs and
funding opportunities targeted toward women in
the developing world.



Better health, improved nutrition and reduced
,' Hfertility are among the most important goals of
-. development. This report presents only a brief
overview highlighting selected programs in these
critical sectors.

In their multiple roles, women play a central part in
strategies to improve health, raise nutritional levels,
and reduce population growth. Development
efforts must be tailored to address women's roles in
these areas in the broadest and most productive
ways possible. Investments in health, population,
and nutrition as well as in education are the basis
., ,i for the development of human capital.

As mothers, women carry the responsibility for
family well- being. They play the key role in the
Prevention and treatment of childhood diseases
and malnutrition. In developing countries, at least
,.75 percent of all health care takes place within the
family. Because of this vital family role, health min-
istries in many countries also rely on women to
transmit new technologies to their families and
S communities.

Yet in many countries, women shoulder the
burden of a double day a rural or urban
workload coupled with household responsibilities.
Heavy physical strain is often coupled with
inadequate levels of nutrition and too closely
spaced births.

Low levels of maternal nutrition combined with
frequent childbirth harm women and their families.
Nutritional deprivation of mothers is directly
related to infant mortality. Nutritional anemia
afflicts two-thirds of all women of child bearing
ages in developing countries, compared with less
than seven percent of women of those ages in
industrialized countries. Women with deficient
nutritional status tend to be less productive than
women who are better nourished.

In recognition of the scope of nutritional
deficiencies among women, the Agency's Office of
Nutrition supports a worldwide project entitled,
"Women and Infant Nutrition, A Family Focus."
Two of the chief project components are research

Women in Development / Report to Congress

and promotion of breast-feeding. Nineteen research
grants in maternal nutrition were awarded; thirteen
went to women investigators. Up to ten more
grants are scheduled on adolescent nutrition.
Under the breast-feeding component, 287 health
professionals of whom 194 were women have
been trained in California. In turn, these profession-
als at 55 teaching hospitals have trained 390,000
health workers, predominately female, who have
directly or indirectly reached 63 million mothers
with information about breast-feeding at a cost of
seven cents per mother.

Maternal mortality rates are high in many areas of
the developing world. Of the 500,000 women who
die annually in childbirth, 99 percent live in the
developing world. Some African women have one
chance in 21 of dying in childbirth; Asian women
one in 54 (for South Asian women it is one in 38);
and South American women one in 73. North
American women have one chance in 6,366.

Through its Maternal and Neo-Natal Health and
Nutrition (MotherCare) Project, the Agency is seek-
ing to reduce these largely preventable deaths
through expanded preventative and clinical care. In
addition to reducing mortality, the project seeks to
lower anemia levels which presently affect two-
thirds of developing country women. At a time
when more and more women are the sole support
of their families, improved nutritional status can
play a major role in increasing female quality of life
and productivity levels.

USAID Missions

All USAID Missions support projects that reflect
the need to understand and address the role of
women to achieve necessary changes in health and
population. It is often argued that all population
activities are WID activities. This is true, since child
spacing and reduced family size are essential
to the well-being of most women. However, there
are many WID issues in health and population
which are a challenge. Women in developing coun-
tries now average 12 hour work days. They donate
precious time to accessing and delivering health
services for themselves and their children.
Improving service delivery systems to respond to
women's needs and constraints, and young
women's access to training and employment, are
issues to which A.I.D.'s programs are now
responding. A few examples follow.

Thailand owes much of its recent economic success
to bringing population growth under control. This
has enabled households and the nation to
accumulate investible surpluses. The halving of the
birth rate has also enabled women to increase their
productive labor while enjoying improved health.

In addition to the multiple benefits which women
receive from planning their families, a recent
survey has shown that more than 500,000 women
are employed many for the first time as
family planning providers in A.I.D.-supported pro-
jects. Moreover, this relatively new field has
provided numerous opportunities for these women
to advance to management and policy level
positions where, in turn, they have demonstrated a
strong commitment to women as partners in devel-
opment. Perhaps the best documented case in point
is the Operations Research Project in Matlab Thana,
Bangladesh which has achieved a contraceptive
prevalence rate of 50 percent versus 33 percent for
the rest of the country. A recent study credited this
success to top-level women leaders plus a core of
80 female outreach workers who, in addition to
their family planning duties, have become
marriage counselors, financial advisors, and
community catalysts.

In Senegal, women have been the primary
deliverers as well as beneficiaries of the Mission's
health sector programs. Emphasis has been placed
on educating women and mothers in areas such as
children's life-threatening diseases, birth spacing,
infant feeding, weaning food, and oral rehydration
therapy. In association with family planning, a
series of activities are organized to lighten the daily
burden and give women more time to devote to
activities that will contribute to their well-being and
that of their family. To date, health messages have
reached more than 85 percent of the women of

Health, Population, and Nutrition

child-bearing age. Approximately 50,000 women
are now using modern contraception.

To deliver health services and messages, USAID
and the Government of Senegal have targeted
female workers such as midwives, social workers,
village matronnes/animatrices, and traditional
birth attendants for professional training. Over the
past five years, a total of some 5,000 female workers
have been trained to become key players in the
implementation of the national health sector

Similarly in Belize, women are the prime recipients
of training in the areas of breast-feeding, family
planning, and community health and mobilization
under the Child Survival Support Project. Women
constituted 86 percent of the participants who
received training under the project. As a result,
they are actively involved as community health
workers, breast-feeding counsellors, family
planning practitioners, as well as in promoting
child survival technologies at the grass roots level.

The Population Welfare Planning Project benefits
millions of Pakistani women both directly and indi-
rectly. In addition to over three million married
women of reproductive age receiving maternal
child health and family planning services, direct
benefits accrue to over 4,000 women employed in
various service cadres of the public sector
population welfare program and some 1,000
women employed by non-governmental
organizations involved in the population program.
These benefits include not only job opportunities
but skill and career development.

The availability of an adequate, safe water supply
and sanitation are among the most important
health-related goals of development. Water for
domestic use is essentially the concern and
responsibility of women. The lack of potable water
and poor sanitation are among the factors that
prevent women from fully participating in

Projects like the Village Level Water Sanitation
Project in Belize which emphasize expanding
access of the rural population to safe water facilities
and improving sanitary conditions in rural areas
have the potential to improve women's lives
considerably. The time spent by women carrying
water for household use has decreased
dramatically due to reduced distances of many
households to the nearest water source. Moreover,

the Bureau for Science and Technology's Water and
Sanitation for Health (WASH) project has shown
that projects designed to include women as
managers of new water systems have proven to be
much more sustainable than those projects
designed without female participation.

Under an agricultural project in Senegal, a
desalinization system was recently completed with
the assistance of a women's group which cleared
the site for the installation of the system and will
now be solely responsible for its management. The
women's group will collect and sell potable water
to villages and will be involved in collection of sales
receipts, expenditure management, commodity
planning, and distribution of water.

A.I.D. Central and Regional Bureaus

The Bureau for Asia and the Near East undertook a
year-long research effort in FY 1990 to address gen-
der issues in the health and population sectors. This
effort culminates in a conference to be held in 1991
on "Women, Demographic Change, and Economic

Research papers on women and the law, fertility
and economic roles, female education, lessons
learned from advanced developing countries, the
changing roles of women in evolving agricultural
economies, and effective uses of gender-
disaggregated data will look at ways in which
socio-economic structures and institutional factors
act on the dynamics of labor markets. Women's
productive activities and family life as well as their
available options concerning work and fertility will
also be studied.

Women are direct beneficiaries of many A.I.D.
health and population programs where they serve
as health administrators and providers. In the Near
East region, the employment of women as health
care providers is expanding. In order to overcome
obstacles to women's participation in health
worker training in Yemen, literacy training has
been incorporated in health programs.

The Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean is
developing a new project expected to contribute to
increased pre-natal care for expectant mothers in
the form of immunizations to prevent neonatal
tetanus. In addition, the project will provide more
effective health education programs for parents,
particularly women.

Women in Development / Report to Congress


Although the ;wvrldwiie toll from tie human mmunrunotficitiicu vin- ( HIV.i and acquired immueun deliciencu siidrome (.AIDSi
mounts. FY 1989 and FY 1990 hae seen igoros orts on te rt o AJD. to help st the t plt ierpc and to reduce its impact
on development. Increased attention is also ibeg given to the impact of HIV on women ami to the role of women in AIDS pre-
vention .

The human immunodeficiency virus has spread to virtually every conzer of the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO.
estimates that pfirv t tio Ie mion people including more than three million uomen are infected alreadlv anra most of them will
eventually die of AIDS. As more and more uo-men become infected with HIV, prenatal transmission may threaten to reverse the
gain- ot child surmval efforts. Bu the end of 1992. the WHO estimates that a mdilon children will hare been born to HI' infected

There are distinct patterns_ of transmission of the human iminmunodeficiencl virus HI' is tranmitted in Afica primarily
through heterosexual contact. with men anrd awvreni affltted in rouighli eIqual numbers. In recently ear,. heteroserunal transmis-
sion hus become the most common modit of transinission in other regions of the uvrd., notable in the Caribbean accounting for
some 60 percent of new cases. Heteroseta. l tranIsmt-sion is on the rise in omne Latin American countries and in time mray
become the dominant mode of HIV transmission in the region. Significant HIV 41gr.wth iu seen in reported AIDS cases among
uw en. In Ghana. for example. 70-80 percent of the dhi.nosd All)S cases are uinmen.

Relatihly little is llaown about the belbwiior anu fit tors that put umnten at risk of HR.' inflection and albut nwomwn i behavioral
options for AIDS pmr'eintion. To sup1frt the de-velopent of ur'entli needed research, the International Center bfr Research on
\Womnen is sponsoring a research grants competition under its recently established Women and AIDS Research Program. Funded
through a cooperative algeement zith A.I D 's Otfice o Health I ( lih matching fund support from the IWD Office). tih objectiiL
of theme I onen and AIDS Prograin is to identifit waus that iwtoint i can reduce'their risk ol HI\' infection in developiing countries
T77t research program will slipplement the limited data maiila'le on ua. miii attitudes toward and know'ledie about AIDS. the
factors that constrain or racilitate their actes; to AIDS infornhoitin and prevention programs, their perception of risk how' com-
mIniaties educate vuniitng and adolescent girls reardiin sexi ieal practices, and the effct'cheness of eisting indigenous. cimmnniiitiu-
based efforts tliit attempt toreduce n rde risk of iA' infection.

To increase tile understanding of H1' infection and AIDS among women a-s iell as to develop prevention programs that reach
iwtnen. the A I.D. supported AIDSCOM project is currentlih initiating research efforts in the Dominican Repub&ic. Uganda. atnd
Peru to develop, test and refine a public health communications model to reach more women for AIDS prevention aind control.

LISAID Missions report mlanu actiitie- thLit specitfcallu target wunmen in .Agenci efforts to stem it' tide of the pandemic In
Jamaica, for example, the AIDS.'Se.xmadl Transmitled Disease Prevention and Control Project is dentloping and implementing
prevention and interwvntion 4sratlgies td reach those most at ri/A including prelgihimt women and vuorng adults. A health study i'
icurrntllhy indeiau among pro rstihites. In Haiti. the newi F 1991 AIDS Control Project is -peciically targeting .orien ot
reprodiuitit age. connmercial se\ av rkers. aiI adolescent arv men.

In Ugandi, the nrmolntv of the Agencu assisted .iDS control efforts are being run by wrnleni. In addition to then leadership abli-
t these atmnen senr as positive evainples for the clients of nrnous sub-programs. For example, four of the fi'e peer group train-
er5 are women. The Agency supported .-DS Infimnation Center has a female director and eight of the 17 counselors for the
center art' iunmi'en. The aimlntbiliht of ~inzlen nhaiagers. counselors. and trainers is particularlYi important as a third of tre clients
visiting the Center are also iovrmen.


F *

A number of Agency supported projects in other
sectors also address gender specific needs of
women. In FY 1989 and FY 1990, some significant
steps have been taken integrate gender concerns
into project activities. Highlights are provided


As a result of a USAID project in India that
aims at developing financially sound, self-
sustaining, private sector housing finance
systems, particularly for those below the
median income, a guideline has been issued
to all housing finance corporations that
couples applying for loans must be offered
the option of titling the property in the
names of both the husband and wife. This

action will establish a legally recognized
equity share for women in household

Since 1988, the USAID mission in Costa Rica
has disbursed the local currency equivalent
of $32.5 million which has helped finance
13,982 housing units. Of these, 17 percent are
owned by women heads of household.


In a gender assessment questionnaire distributed
by the WID Office to all A.I.D. funded projects and
programs, half the projects/programs listed legal
constraints as a limitation to women's participation.
Significant steps have been taken in the last two
years to address this issue.

Women in Development / Report to Congress

* The experience of the Jamaica legal aid
system has shown that up to 70 percent of
persons utilizing the facility are women in
such vital areas as: the division of matrimoni-
al property; divorce matters; custody of
children; and landlord and tenant matters.
Under the Caribbean Justice Improvement
Project, A.I.D.'s Regional Development
Office/Caribbean is assisting countries in the
eastern Caribbean including Belize and
Jamaica to strengthen their legal systems by
providing services necessary for fostering
maintenance and performance of national
justice systems. Women are actively involved
both as project implementors and as
participants in government negotiations in
such vital areas as international contracts; as
court registrars; and members of special
committees on company law, banking law,
consumer protection, and the legal aspects of

* A grant has been provided to the Pakistan
Women Lawyers Association (PAKWLA) to
provide legal aid services to indigent
women. Another grant to a legal aid group
will be used to fund a half-way home for
destitute women to help them generate
income and assure their own security.

* In Lesotho, the Agency funded a workshop
sponsored by the Federation of Women

Lawyers entitled "Workshop on
Identification and Analysis of Women's
Legal Problems: Strategies for
Empowerment and Legal Reform" in May
1990. Legal status continues to be a problem
in Lesotho and affects women in all sectors.

* In Tanzania, the Mission's workshop on
Women, Law, and Development focused on
the law of inheritance. Recommendations to
reform the law and establish a lobbying
mechanism to ensure the law is rewritten to
benefit women as well as men were issued
by the workshop.

* In Swaziland, the Mission, through human
rights grants, supported the establishment
and operation of legal aid services and
information office under the auspices of a
private voluntary organization.

* A seminar "Legal Status of Women and
Family in Guatemala" took place in
Guatemala City in August, 1990 co-
sponsored by the national Office for Women
from the Ministry of Labor in cooperation
with the Education Program for Women and
Child Survival (UNICEF-UNIFEM). The pur-
pose of the seminar is to draft a document
containing modifications or changes to
present legislation in Guatemala that will
improve the legal status of women in the

^^ l oY

Other Sectors

Vhit lhs impressed me in Bangladesh is that people in the Mission clearly see thatl it iumakes developmental sen-w to find
iwl.a to imnulw. wuoen tie greatest example of th is is lhe enmplasis on umnen in1 developnenl in our CountPry
Development Strategy Statement. So iwe really do not luan 'IV1D' protects: uw have projects for whoin the client- hap-
pen to be wumen. iWe really lhaui done a reasonably gotl job of rnainstreaming a concern for women which is related to
access economic access. political access, arn access to control over reproduction.' Malcolm Purvls. Deputy AMission
Director, USAID/Bangladesh

USAID/Bangladesh took a sig ficant step to incorporate u~meni in dt/'lolntent into itI program when tli Mission estabhslis'd
the isiueas oneof three that uvuld gunde all Mission efforts frcon 1991-1995. As explained in the Country Develyonitiit Stratey.
Statement, ".lSA-D/Bangladesrh's entire strategy y will be supported and implemented bi three cross-cutting tihelitn: iustaln-
abilityi invohk.tment of tomien: andp open iarkets/open societies.' Thte A hMsion also ienhtfied the isolation of iwrnen fr(in t
maintream of economic growth as one cf eight keu constraints on economic ,rO1ith in Bangladesh.

Over the last two decades, econonuc conditions in Bangladesh hliae .ubstanthiallY mnreaed uvmen's economic respvnsiblihties.
iand their need for renutnerated eniplonent opportunities. Women are increasingly the sole primary, or secondary income earn-
ers of their households due to pov erty, landlesesrus, and male out- mirgation. Nearly 15 percent of rural households and ftlli one
quarter of landless ho usehtlds are headed by uoimen. Women s increasing economic responsibilities have influenced labor trends
which shown that more than half of rural women (55 percent) are economically active: 60 percent of landless or near-ladless
umnen uvrk in agriculture or non-farm employment.

Long-standing efforts within UISAIDIBangladesh have led to progress in the Mission's efforts to inuvoie no nume in economic
activities. For example, all USAID/Bamgladesh agricultural projects have integrated women's activities to some degree in accor-
dance with the goals and objecties of the CDSS. Innozative approaichee to irmen's participation in a culture haii included
21500 /homestead iegetlable delnmstrations a'hich have trained iomen in minlenI c hlnesteaid vegetable production technology.

Support for i.vmnen's entrepreneurial activities and access to credit hal been strong. In fact, all kvans up to 1,00)0 (development
assistance funding) in FY 1989 and FY 1990 went to women because US.AlD/Bangladesh's nicroenterprise activities are
uwmen-focused. Tius represents an inestinent of 384,000.

USAIDIBangladesh's commihnent to omnen and pnlate enterprise is exemplified b the fact that while the LISAID budget for
activities in support of priite enterprise development increased by approximately 100 percent from FY 1989 to FY 1990. the
budget in support of u wmn's participation in the private sector increased almost threefohi during that time.

LISAID/Bangladesh has also been successfully inillved in policy dialogue. Cne result of such efforts has been the integration of
iomen in development concerlLs into the Government of &migladesh s fiv-ve-iar planning document (fourth five-year plan) far
FY 1991 through FY 1995.

Incorporaihon of wonu en in development issues into the ULSAID/Bangladesh Countru Development Strategy Statement will
invigorate the Mission's e.iusting ettorts to improve the lives of Baingladeslh avmutn. Anui, thle integral inlvovement tof uwoen in
USAIDIBanglileshi's program will strengthen the Mission's efforts to help Bangladesh achieve suslaimable economic and sociall


FY 1989 and FY 1990 have been years of substantive
progress toward institutionalizing women in devel-
opment concerns in A.I.D. The success of the
Agency's institutionalization strategy is
demonstrated by the unprecedented volume of
requests to the WID Office for technical expertise in
women in development from both field Missions
and A.I.D./Washington. The women in
development matching fund, expanded training
and technical assistance, as well as research and
information dissemination activities, have all signif-
-V. Micantly contributed to the institutionalization of
SWID in the Agency.

The growing recognition of the importance of the
role women play in economic development has led
to the adoption of comprehensive and innovative
approaches by USAID Missions aimed at enabling
women to become both partners in and beneficiaries
.: of the development process. Examples of
outstanding initiatives include: USAID/
Bangladesh's establishment of WID as one of three
issues that will guide all Mission efforts from 1991 to
1995; USAID/Tanzania's successful recruiting and
information campaign to bring women into
participant training programs; USAID/Guatemala's
co-sponsorship of a National Conference on girls'
education which was the first to bring together
public and private leaders from many sectors to
focus on this issue; and the work USAID/Yemen has
conducted with local women's associations to
strengthen their capacity to train women and to
create income generating activities. These and other
efforts are new and effective approaches that
provide precedents or models for other USAID
Missions and the donor community at large.

Progress in the last two years has been significant.
The magnitude of positive change documented in
this report is a strong and continuing effort. The
challenge for the next two years is to sustain and
strengthen the process of institutionalization; to sys-
tematically monitor how and to what extent A.I.D.
policies, programs, and projects respond to the real-
ities of gender differences in the developing world;
and to evaluate the impacts of those responses on
women in development.


Missions and Bureaus, confronted with the
complexity of action on a WID agenda, are now
requesting "graduate" training to assist them in
addressing specific gender issues in design,
implementation, and impact evaluation in their
policy, program, and project portfolios. A great
deal of additional work is needed to relate gender
issues to the design and implementation of policy
reform and sectoral adjustment.

In FY 1989 and FY 1990, A.I.D. and the WID Office
successfully built the foundation for institutionaliz-
ing gender concerns in the Agency. The WID
perspective must now be systematically expanded
and built into all A.I.D. actions. It is vital to define
and assess the impacts of gender relevant
development programming and to fully integrate
the productive capacities of women into the
process of economic development.

I I lb


Narrative Indicators Assumptions

Women participate fully and benefit equally from the
development process.

Goal (purpose to goal)
1.Development and implementation of policies and 1.1 Participation and integration of women in A.I.D. A.I.D. programs and emphases maintain attention to
programs that facilitate women's full participation in, and host-country development efforts, sector- specific issues.
contribution to, and benefits from the economies and Host countries are willing to consider expanding role
societies in which they live. for women in economic and social development
Other donors carry out complementary actions to
increase involvement by women in the development
A.I.D., Congress and other development constituen-
cies maintain high level of support for WID.

Purpose (output to purpose)
1. Institutionalization of gender considerations into 1.1 Adequate policies are developed and implemented Available incentives and sanctions are sufficient to
key A.I.D. programming decisions, to promote full participation by women in A.I.D.'s ensure motivation and compliance by relevant A.I.D.
development efforts, personnel.

1.2 Congressional presentation includes substantive Competing priorities, staff, and/or budget reductions
section on Agency's objectives and performance con- do not preclude increased attention to gender issues.
ceming women in development.

1.3 All strategic documents (CDSS, Action Plan, ABS)
incorporate gender- disaggregated data, gender analy-
sis, and explicit discussion of gender issues.

1.4 Program performance indicators and accountability
systems for all Bureaus and Missions incorporate gen-
der disaggregation and, as appropriate, gender- specific
1.5 Scopes of work for all relevant project papers,
workplans, evaluation programs and NPA activities
include explicit attention to gender.

Outputs (input to output)
1. A.I.D. personnel trained in gender considerations 1.1 Case examples prepared of successful and unsuc- Other centrally funded projects can be persuaded to
in development. cessful integration of gender considerations into strate- incorporate and disseminate gender considerations
gic objectives, program performance indicators, policy through their ongoing activities.
analyses, project designs, and monitoring and evalua-
tion systems. Coordination with other donor agencies is sufficient
to ensure full exchange of information on policies,
1.2 Training courses provided to all policy and techni- procedures, and lessons learned.
cal personnel at GS- 9/FS-3 level and above on incorpo-
rating gender considerations into strategic objectives,
program performance indicators, policy analyses, pro-
ject designs, and monitoring and evaluation systems.
1.3 Training provided to relevant groups of trainers,
contractors, PVO personnel, and host country counter-
2. Improved policies, systems, and procedures to 2.1 Prototype systems and procedures developed for
institutionalize gender considerations developed and measuring and monitoring the incorporation of gender
introduced, considerations into strategic objectives and program

3. Improved performance monitoring systems 3.1 Annual analyses prepared for Congressional pre-
designed and implemented. sentation with respect to Agency performance in inte-
grating gender considerations and women in
development into ongoing operations in the Agency.

3.2 Targets established and monitored with respect to
the performance of individual Bureaus and Missions in
meeting A.I.D.'s women in development objectives.

3.3 Selected evaluations developed and implemented
to test assumptions, integrative techniques, interven-
tions, and project objectives.

4. Research base concerning gender issues strength- 4.1 Research commissioned, conducted, and/or synthe-
ened. sized and analyzed regarding principal hypotheses
concerning the costs/benefits and most effective ways
of integrating women more fully into specific develop-
70 ment activities.



In order to secure the information necessary to
prepare our biennial Report to Congress, A.I.D./W has
prepared a series of questions to gather information
from the field on A.I.D.'s Women in Development
efforts. Many of the questions can be answered in a
word or two, but we welcome additional information
or comments for inclusion in the Report to Congress.
End Summary.


A.I.D./W requests the information outlined below
to prepare its biennial Report to Congress on Women
in Development. The 1989- 1990 Report to Congress
will focus on Agency efforts to implement the Women
in Development mandate established by Congress.
Comprehensive input (responses) from the Field will
be critical to this endeavor.

Please cable or fax your response to be received by
PPC/WID no later than November 15th. If responding
by fax, please fax to (202) 347-0050 and pouch original
to the attention of Kay Davies, PPC/WID, Room

These questions are being asked of all Missions
and refer to A.I.D.-funded, co-funded or parallel-
financed activities. Please key your responses to the
paragraph numbers and letters and only respond to
those items that are applicable. Mark others "n/a." If
your Mission is working closely with a host country
government or another donor on an activity which is
noteworthy in furthering WID objectives (particularly
in the area of policy dialogue), please provide informa-
tion on this activity even if A.I.D. program funds have
not been committed to it.

Finally, the majority of questions that follow are
organized to reflect the four functional areas of focus of
the PPC/WID strategic workplan: Agriculture;
Environment and Natural Resources; Private
Enterprise; and Education. If your Mission has
information or success stories regarding women in
other sectors, please include this information in your
response. While most questions can be answered
briefly, additional information or comments including
case histories or human interest stories that can
facilitate preparation of the Report to Congress are

For AFR Category I Missions: Information
requested in this cable is at the output level of most
activities. Therefore, it does not duplicate Mission
reporting in Assessment of Program Impact, although
the API exercise should be useful in gathering the
information requested in this cable.

AFR Category II Missions need only respond to
sections relevant to their programs.

Response is optional for AFR Category III


Please be aware that Congress has mandated that
the Agency:

ensure that A.I.D.'s country strategy,
program, project, non-project assistance, and
reporting documents explicitly describe
strategies to involve women, identify benefits
and impediments to women's participation in
development, and establish benchmarks to
measure women's participation in and
benefits from development activities;

collect sex-disaggregated data in all its
research or data-gathering activities;

incorporate women as beneficiaries of
and contributors to its development activities
at the level proportionate to their
participation in the sector or to their represen-
tation in the total population, whichever
proportion is higher.

Note: When such efforts/activities are difficult to
achieve, Bureaus and USAIDs will ensure
that there is substantive analysis of the
obstacles preventing completion of such
efforts and will include an explanation of
how these obstacles will be overcome.

Responses to the questions that follow
(Paragraphs 5 13) will be used:

(1) in the Report to Congress,
(2) in Congressional hearings,
(3) as a basis for monitoring WID within A.I.D.,
(4) as a means for forecasting Missions' future
requirements for training, technical
assistance, etc.


Appendix B


(a) Overall, how would you characterize
your Mission's efforts to integrate women
into agricultural projects?
(Please choose one.)

almost complete
in process
just being initiated

(b) Within your agricultural credit

(i) What percentage of borrowers are
(ii) What percentage of total lending (dollar
value) do women receive?
(iii) What is the total dollar value of all
A.I.D.-funded agricultural loans to both
men and women?

(c) Regarding technology transfer, please
describe any of your Mission's agricultural
projects which make a specific effort to tar
get women with modern inputs (e.g. high-
yielding seeds, fertilizer, irrigation) and
associated extension services (not only for
primary crop production, but also post-
harvest processing, vegetable cultivation,
marketing, and other activities commonly
performed by women).

(d) Please describe your agricultural research
efforts which address issues related to
increasing agricultural productivity
among female farmers/farm workers.

(e) In A.I.D.-funded agricultural research pro-
jects, what percentage of local professional
staff (not clerical or administrative) is

(f) What percentage of participants in your
in-country agricultural training programs
are women? (Please delineate your
response as follows.)

(i) percentage in short-term agricultural
training programs (six months or less)
(ii) percentage in long-term agricultural train
ing programs

(g) Is the Mission involved in any efforts
to strengthen the technical and
managerial capabilities of women's

cooperatives or other agricultural
groups formed by women? If yes, please
describe briefly.

(h) Which one of the following agricultural
activities do you believe deserves the most
attention and resources for furthering WID
objectives in your country? (Please
prioritize the following.)

(i) credit
(ii) farm input supply
(iii) field extension
(iv) research (on-center and on-farm)
(v) training and marketing
(vi) other (please specify)


(a) How do your activities in the following
areas address women's roles as agents for
natural resource management or beneficia-
ries of natural resource programming?
(Please describe if applicable.)

(i) Biological Diversity Conservation
(ii) Reserve Management
(iii) Agroforestry
(iv) Social Forestry
(v) Environmental Education
(vi) Pesticide Management
(vii) Other (please explain)


(a) Regarding Mission-funded, non-
agricultural credit programs (including
those funded with local currency):

(i) What percentage of borrowers of very
small loans (up to $300) are women?
(ii) What percentage of borrowers of small
loans ($301 to $1,000) are women?
(iii) What percentage of borrowers of
medium-sized loans (over $1,000) are
(iv) What is the total dollar value of very
small loans (up to $300) to both men and
(v) What is the total dollar value of small
loans ($301 to $1,000) to both men and
(vi) What is the total dollar value of medium-
sized loans (over $1,000) to both
men and women?

Women in Development / Report to Congress

(vii) What are women's repayment rates
compared to those of men?

Please discuss obstacles to or strategies for
measuring women's access to credit if these data
are not available.

(b) What was the total budget for the private
enterprise portfolio in FY 89 and FY 90?

(c) Please estimate the resources in the private
enterprise portfolio dedicated to each of the
following in FY 89 and FY 90.

(i) Management Training for Women
(ii) Technical Assistance to Female-owned
(iii) Increased Credit Access for Female
(iv) Collaboration with Women's
Organizations and/or Women's
Business Associations
(v) Research on Constraints and
Opportunities for Women's
Participation in a Given Sub-sector
(vi) Initiatives to Improve Women's
Participation in the Formal or Informal
(vii) Tracking Women's Labor and

(d) How receptive are the public and private
sectors to discussing steps necessary to
increase the role for women in private
enterprise? (Please choose one response and
qualify or elaborate if appropriate.)

(i) Public and Private Sector are receptive
(ii) Public and Private Sector are not
(iii) Only Public Sector is receptive
(iv) Only Private Sector is receptive

(e) What kind of incentives or type of policy
dialogue has your Mission used to encourage
host countries to increase private enterprise
and/or employment opportunities for
women and girls?

(f) If the Mission has developed a particularly
successful/innovative approach to WID
issues in private enterprise, please describe

(g) If the Mission has developed a successful
/innovative approach to indicators or other
measures of women's participation in private
enterprise, please describe briefly.


(a) If your Mission has taken steps to increase the
quality or quantity of educational
opportunities for women and girls, please
briefly describe for each category below:

(i) Primary Education
(ii) Secondary Education and Vocational
(iii) Post-secondary Education

(b) Is your Mission providing any incentives or
engaging in any policy dialogue to encourage
host countries to increase educational
opportunities for women and girls?
If yes, please describe briefly.

(c) Please list other organizations in the develop-
ment community with which the Mission is
working to encourage the consideration of
WID issues in education.

(d) What opportunities do you see to improve
girls' education in the host country over the
next five years?

(e) What constraints do you see to girls'
education in the host country over the next
five years?


(a) List and describe activities/initiatives
related to WID that are not included in
the following four sectors: Agriculture;
Environment and Natural Resources; Private
Enterprise; and Education. In preparing a
response to this question, the Mission may
want to explore activities in Health,
Population, Nutrition, Legal Rights, Land
Tenure, Housing/Urban Programs, and

ACTIVITIES (Please specify sectors in

(a) What steps has your Mission taken internally
to increase participant training opportunities
for women?

(b) If your Mission has not taken steps to
increase participant training opportunities for
women, please cite the obstacles involved and

Appendix B

briefly enumerate the steps that will be taken
to overcome these obstacles.

(c) Is your Mission working with other
organizations or individuals in the
development community to
encourage the consideration of WID
issues in participant training?
If yes,please describe briefly.

(d) Is your Mission providing any
incentives or engaging in any policy
dialogue to encourage host countries
to increase participant training
opportunities for women?
If yes, please describe briefly.


(a) Do you have a WID Officer?

(b) Is this his/her only function?

(c) If this is not the WID Officer's only function,
please indicate the appropriate description of
the WID Officer's other responsibilities
as follows:

(i) Program
(ii) Project
(iii) Other (specify)

(d) What percentage of the WID Officer's time is
spent on WID?

(e) Please indicate the WID Officer's hiring

(i) USDH
(ii) PSC
(iii) FSN

(f) How would you describe your Mission's
WID committee?

(i) Nonexistent/Inactive
(ii) Active but with little influence over the
efforts of the Mission
(iii) Active and a significant influence on the
Mission's activities
(iv) Alternative formal structure for
addressing WID concerns
(Please describe briefly.)

(g) How would you describe the level of WID
training of your staff?

(i) Few or none have had any training in
WID considerations
(ii) Many have had training in WID
(iii) Most or all Mission staff have been
trained in WID considerations

(h) Has WID training been extended to
the following people?

(i) Host country counterparts
(ii) PVO/NGOs with whom the Mission
(iii) Other donors

(i) How would you describe your WID
Action Plan?

(i) Nonexistent/Inactive
(ii) Significant once but out of date and
unused now
(iii) An integral part of Mission Plans

(j) If you do have a WID Action Plan, how
have you measured impacts/achievement
of goals?

(k) Do you have a WID-specific Management
Information System?

(1) Are data within the Mission's MIS
disaggregated by gender?

(m) Has an interagency committee or other
mechanism been established in-country to
coordinate WID activities with the national
government among donors (including
external PVO's)?

(n) If it has been established, is this intera-
gency committee or other mechanism

(o) How would you describe the consideration
of WID issues in key project, program, and
strategic documentation at the Mission?

(i) Not considered/not significant
(ii) Addressed as a Special Issue
(iii) Addressed as an integral part of
planning and document preparation

Women in Development / Report to Congress

(p) Have you requested technical assistance or
other support in the consideration of WID
issues from a Regional or Central Bureau
other than PPC/WID?


(a) How would you describe the
measurement of WID progress
in your country?

(i) No country baseline measures have been
established and no measurement of WID
progress is underway
(ii) Baseline measures have been taken but
measurement of progress is not
regularly attempted
(iii) Baseline measures have been taken
and regular measurement of progress
is included in Mission activities
(iv) Not only is regular measurement
undertaken but special studies of WID
issues are undertaken

(b) How would you describe WID policy
dialogue with host country leaders?

(i) Non existent/not important
(ii) Not undertaken but needed
(iii) Undertaken but could be improved
(iv) Excellent and effective

(c) Which of the following would you
characterize as the major challenge of A.I.D.'s
WID efforts in your country in the 90's?
(If you select more than one, please prioritize
your responses.)

(i) Institutionalizing the WID Mandate and
strengthening the understanding of
gender issues in A.I.D. activities
(ii) Measuring and documenting the
contributions of successful
WID activities to economic growth
(iii) Convincing host country policy-makers
to devote their own resources to
increasing female productivity
(iv) Strengthening women's skills, resources
and organizations
(v) Training
(vi) Other

(d) How would you describe the Mission's efforts
to secure gender disaggregated data for key
strategy and activity planning documents
relevant research and monitoring activities
(action plans, PIR's, special studies) and
reporting documents (assessments of
program impact)?

(i) not feasible
(ii) difficult but possible
(iii) possible but not reliable
(iv) difficult but useful for impact assessment
(v) Other


(a) Please describe any substantive and
measurable impact that A.I.D.-funded
activities have had on women's participation
in and benefits from national social and
economic development.

(b) Are there any areas not included here
which you think are essential to the
preparation of a Report to Congress on the
Agency's performance in response to the
WID mandate?



=============================================RESPONSE RESPONSE RESPONSE RESPONSE RESPONSE
II I------------------------ ---------------- ----------I
115A. WID into Ag. Projects # % # %X # % # % # %
II 1 NA 0 NA 2 NA 2 NA 5 NA
I I __ Complete 2 7%X 1 14X% 0 0%O 0 0%| 2.14 4%11
I II In Process I 18 67%X 5 71%1 4 50%X 10 63%1 37 64%11
I III Just Starting 4 15X% 1 14X% 2 25%1 3 19%1 10 17%11
IV Non-Existent 1 4%| 0 0%O 0 0%X 1 6%X 2 3% |
I I --------------------------------------------- --------------- I
1158. Ag. Credit # Avg | Avg # Avg | Avg | # Avg |
II 17 NA 6 NA 5 NA 8 NA 36 NA |
I I %X Borrowers 1 4 67.1X% 1 13.0% 3 23.0%j 6 17.0%X 14 32.3%11
II I %X Lending 6 41.8%1 0 1 2 27.5%1 3 2.2%1 11 28.4%11
I I III $_ Loan Value 6 9321667 1 1777986 I 2 21700000 5 27200001 14 16936285 11
II- I-------------------------------------------- -----------------------II
115C. Tech Transfer # % Reply # % Reply I # % Reply # % Reply # % Reply II
I TEXT ANSWER __ 25 93%1 7 100%1 8 100%1 15 94%1 55 95%11
II ----------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------11
s15D. Ag. Research # % Reply # % Reply I # % Reply # % Reply # % Reply II
I TEXT ANSWER 23 85%1 7 100% 8 100%X 15 94%1 53 91%11
I ------I------------------------------------ -------------- ----------------------------- II
15E. I Women in Ag. Research I # Avg # Avg # Avg # Avg # Avg I
1 8 NA 0 NA 3 NA 6 NA 17 NA I
II% X 16 8.0%X 7 17.1XI 4 25.3X% 7 17.0%X 34 13.8%11
II------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------- I
115F. I Participants in Ag. Train # Avg # Avg # Avg # Avg # Avg II
S16 NA 11 NA 1 NA 7 NA 15 NAII
S I %_ Short term 1 17 17.4%1 6 18.8%1 6 28.0%1 8 18.9%X 37 19.6X11
I II % Long Term 1 13 14.1%X 6 10.7%1 6 9.1X% 8 10.2X% 33 11.6%11
I ------------------------------------- --------------------------------- ----------------- ---------------11
115G. I Tech and Manage Capability # % Reply # % Reply | # % Reply | # % Reply # % Reply |j
I 1 NA 0 NA 3 NA 5 NA 9 NA II
I I _Y (Text Answer) I 18 67%| 4 57%1 1 13%1 6 38%1 29 50%11
I I _N 6 22%1 3 43%1 3 38%1 5 31%1 17 29%|1
II 1---------------------------------- ----------------------I -------------- -----------------------------11
II 1 NA 0 NA 0 NA 3 NA 4 NA I
S I I Credit 19 2.1 4 3.3 3 3.0 8 2.8 34 2.411
II I Inputs 14 3.4 3 4.0 4 2.3 8 4.6 29 3.6 I
III Extension 18 3.1 5 1.8 7 1.6 10 2.5 40 2.5 II
S IV IV Research 13 4.4 4 2.8 5 2.6 9 4.4 31 3.9
S V Marketing 20 2.2 7 2.0 6 1.8 12 1.9 45 2.0 II
I __VI (Text) Other 15 2.7 1 1.0 2 1.5 5 2.8 23 2.6 j
I I====== ================================ II

I I ===I================ -

16. Environment/Natural Resources
I __ (Text) Diversity
II (Text) Management
III (Text) Agroforestry
IV (Text) Social Forestry
V (Text) Env. Education
VI (Text) Pesticide Mgmt
VII (Text) Other

117A. PRE Credit

I %_ Small
I II __ Medium
IIII % Large
IV $ Small
V $ Medium
VI $___ Large
VII Repayment (Text) _
ABOVE N.A. (Test)


I# % I# % I# % I# % I# % II
11 41%1 4 57%1 5 63%1 7 44%1 27 47%
S12 44%| 4 57% 4 50%| 11 69%| 31 53%1|
S20 74%| 4 57%1 5 63%X 7 44%X 36 62%I|
11 41%X 3 43% 4 50%| 6 38%1 24 41%11
10 37%1 3 43%1 4 50%1 8 50%1 25 43%11
S10 37%| 2 29%1 4 50%1 7 44%X 23 40%11
S16 59%1 4 57% 6 75%| 5 31%1 31 53%1|

# % # % # % # % II
8 NA 1 NA 2 NA 2 NA 13 i
S11 35.2%| 4 73.5% 1 5.0%1 12 34.8%1 28 39.4%1
S10 25.2%X 4 13.8%1 1 4.0%| 12 28.2%1 27 24.1%1
S10 14.2%| 4 9.5%X 1 6.0%! 11 20.3%! 26 15.7%!
9 209822 4 76345763 1 24018 9 610222 23 13599455
10 64980 4 52040325 1 36000 8 914524 23 9398404
10 6027600 4 48301565 1 383571 9 21172698 24 18517505
9 0.9 4 0.75 1 1 10 1 24
5 1.0 2 4 1 3 1 14

I ------I------------------------------ ---.------------ ------------
I7B. I PRE Program Budget # AVG $ # AVG $I
I 3 3
S _____ (89) 20 2306683 4 25482500
S __I __ (90) 21 2807059 3 20806667
I ------------------------------------ --------- --------------
117C. I PRE Resources
10 0 1
| I $___ (89) 15 128670 5 392000
I $_I (90) 14 71802 6 405700
II $ (89) 10 23310 4 222525
II $__ (90) 9 41711 4 178750
III $ (89) 10 258950 5 697600
III $ S (90) 10 62710 4 406750
IV $___ (89) 11 5455 | 4 130000
IV $ ___ (90) 11 12827 6 118333
VII $__ (89) 11 0 4 20750
VII $ (90) 11 3182 4 50000
VI $__ (89) 12 22500 5 45000
i VI $__ (90) 11 69545 6 118333
I VII $_ (89) 11 3591 5 52000
S VII $ (90) 11 3045 5 62000
17D. I Public/Private Receptivity # % # %
I I I (Text) Both Receptive 1 24 89%1 7 100%1
I II (Text) Both Unreceptive 5 19%! 0 0%O
I III (Text) Only Public 5 19%X 0 0%|
S IV (Text) Only Private 5 19%1 0 0%|

..-------------- I ------------I------



# AVG $| #
3 3
3 5400000 12
4 9575000 13

--------- 11
AVG $|1

7362144 |
7036580 |
- - I I

--------- I------- --1- ------





6 122910
7 320604
6 43400
7 38533
5 149800
6 98000
5 29000
5 4000
5 3400
6 2500
5 17376
6 20644
3 333
4 250
# %
14 88%|
3 19%|
3 19%1
4 25%1

27 171389
28 202988
21 65886
21 64768
21 325071
21 135338
21 34524
23 37874
22 4545
23 10870
24 24245
25 64955
21 14310
22 15659
# %
49 84%!
10 17%|1
9 16%|
10 17%|

I I------I------------------------------- ------------------ I
117E. IPolicy Dialogue ## % # % # % # % # % |
| I-TEXT ANSWER 21 78%X 7 100%1 8 100%1 15 94%1 51 88%11
I ---- -- ----------------------------------I-------------- I----------I--------------I------------------11
|17F. J Innovative Approach # % # % I # % # X | # % I
I TEXT ANSWER_ 22 81%| 7 100%! 8 100%! 14 88%! 51 88%|!
II ------------------------------------ -------------------------------------------------------- ---------------I
|17G. Innovative Measure # % X # % # % # % #| % |
| TEXT ANSWER __ 23 85%1 7 100X% 8 100%X 14 88%1 52 90%X!
I .....--==I================================------- II


I ====== I================================ II
18A. I Education Opportunity # % I # % # % # X # II
I I 1 (Text) Prim 14 52X% 4 57%X 8 100%X 15 94%1 41 71%11
S II __ (Text) 2nd 18 67X% 5 71%1 7 88%1 16 100%| 46 79%11
S I III (Text) Post 2nd 20 74X% 4 57%X 7 88X% 16 100%X 47 81%1X
11- ------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------11
118B. Policy Dialogue # % # % # % # % # % X
II I 7 NA 2 A 2 NA NA 2 AA 19 NA I
I I _Y (Text) 10 37X% 5 71XI 4 50%X 4 25%1 23 40%X|
I I N 1 3 11%| 0 0%X 1 13%1 2 13%1 6 10%11
118C. I Cooperate Other Organizations # % # # % | # % | # % |
S I TEXT ANSWER __ 23 85%1 6 86%1 7 88%X 13 81%1 49 84%11
I I- --------------------------------- ----------------------- ------------------------------------------- I
118D. I Opportunities for Education # % X # # # % # % |
S I TEXT ANSWER __ 23 85%1 6 86X% 7 88X% 16 100%X 52 90X11
I --I--------------------------------- I------------------------------ I---------------II
118E. I Constraints to Education # % # % # % # % # X I
I TEXT ANSWER __ 23 85%1 7 100%1 7 88%1 15 94%1 52 90%11
I I====== I------------------================================ II


I II=======================================
I I 27 Total 7 Total 8 Total 16 Total 58 Total |
119A. Other Sectors 11 30 Possible | 7 Possible | 9 Possible | 19 Possible | 65 Possible
S I TEXT ANSWER __ 24 89%1 7 100%1 7 88%X 16 100%X 54 93%11
I I- ---- --------------------- II ----------- -------- I ------- ----------- --------- --------------- II
1OA. j Steps for Female P.T. I # % # % | # % # % # % I
S TEXT ANSWER __ 25 93%X 6 86%1 7 88%| 15 94%1 53 91%11
I ----------------------------------- II------------I------------I--- --------- II
1110B. I Obstacles to Female P.T. I # % | # % # % I # % # % I
S TEXT ANSWER __ 26 96%1 6 86%X 6 75%1 13 81%1 51 88%11
I I- ----------------------------------II ------- --- -------------------------- ---------- II
110C. Coord with other orgs. on P.TII # % # % # % | # % # % II
I __Y (Text) 1I 16 59%X 4 57%1 2 25%1 13 81%1 35 60%11
I N I 8 30%1 1 14%1 3 38%1 1 6%| 13 22%11
II I------I ..------------..---------- ---I.---..---------..--------------.... ----------------...........---------- II
110OD. Policy Dialogue on P.T. I # X # % # % # % # % I
I __Y (Text) II 19 70%1 6 86%1 5 63%1 13 81%1 43 74%11
I _N 1 4 15%| 0 0%X 1 13% 2 13%1 7 12%11
I I I====== I=============================== I ============= ============I= '= =... '..========== II
I11A. WID Officer? II# % # % I # % # % # %
S I _Y (Text) 1 24 89%1 7 100%1 8 100%X 14 88%1 53 91%11
I __N I 0 0%| 0 0%| 0 0%| 1 6%1 1 2%11
I I------.-----I----------------------- -- II ------------- -------------- ----.--I.---------I------- ------ II
1111B. Only function? # % # % # % # % # % II
II __Y (Text) 11 2 7%| 0 0%| 0 0%| 2 13%| 4 7%11
II I N I 23 85%| 7 100%1 8 100%| 13 81%| 51 88%11
II------I------------------------------ --------------------- --------------- I---- ------- ----------I
1111C. WID Officer's other job? I# % | # % # % # % # %
I 0I 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA 1 NA |
I I __ Program I 16 59%| 2 29%| 2 25%X 9 56%X 29 50%11
S II Project II 10 37%1 5 71%X 5 63%1 7 44%1 27 47%11
III __ (Text) 11 5 19%1 2 29%| 2 25%| 2 13%1 11 19%|1
I I- -----I--------------------------I I------------------------------------ --- ------------------ I
I11D. I Percent of job WID? II # Avg % # Avg % # Avg % # Avg # Avg % I
I II 1 NA 0 NA 0 NA 2 NA 3 NAI
II __ % 124 16.9 7 17.6 8 14.4 13 15.4 52 16.211
I ------------------------------- ------------- -- ------ --I--------- -------------------- ---------------II
h11E. Direct or other II # % # % # % # % # %
I II 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA 1 NA I
S I __ USDH I 19 70%1 3 43%1 5 63%1 8 50%1 35 60%11
I II __ PSC II 5 19%1 3 43%X 0 0%O 3 19%1 11 19%11
I III __ FSN 11 3 11%X 1 14%X 3 38%1 6 38%1 13 22%11
II ---------------------------------II--------------------------------------- ------------------- I
11F. Wid Committee II# % | # # % # % # % I
I II 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 2 NA 2 NA I
S I __ Inactive 11 10 37%1 4 57%1 1 13%1 2 13%1 17 29%11
II __ Little effect 11 4 15%| 2 29%1 1 13%1 4 25%1 11 19%11
III __ Big effect II 5 19%1 0 0%| 3 38%1 4 25%1 12 21%11
I IV Other (Text) 11 6 22%X 1 14%1 3 38%| 3 19%| 13 22%11
I...... I.......---------..............-----------.........- II -------- I --------------- ------- --------- ---------- II


II ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I---------------I
|11G. I ID training # % # % # % # % # %
I 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA | 1 NA |
I I Few 1119 70%j 5 71X% 7 88%| 12 75%1 43 74X1
II Many 11 5 19%1 1 14%1 0 0%I 1 6%| 7 12%11
III __ Most 11 2 7%| 1 14%1 1 13%| 1 6%| 5 9%|X
I ------------------------------------------------------------------------ --I------------------- II
11H. Trained others? # % # % # % # % # %
1 NA | 1 NA 0 NA I 1 NA 3 NA |
I __ Counterparts 21 78%| 5 71%1 7 88%| 11 69%| 44 76XI%
S II __ NGO/PVO 1122 81%| 6 86%| 8 100%| 12 75%1 48 83X11
SIII __ Other Donors 1 19 70%| 4 57%| 7 88X% 7 44%| 37 64%X
I I- ------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------- ------------------------ I
|111. j ID Action Plan # % I # % # % | # % # %
II 0 NA I 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA 1 NA |
S I I __ Nonexistent 7 26%1 0 0%| 1 13%| 2 13%j 10 17%X|
IIIII Unused 1 5 19%| 2 29%| 2 25%| 2 13%| 11 19%|X
II III Integral 11 41%j 5 71%| 4 50%X 10 63%| 30 52%11
II- I----------------------------- ---------------I------ --I---------- -------- I------------- ---------------11
11J. Measure Goals # % | # % | # % # % # %
TEXT ANSWER __ 24 89%| 7 100%1 8 100%[ 14 88%1 53 91%11
I I--- ------- -----------------------. 11------------- -------------- ------------- --------------I--------------- I
111K. IID MIS? # % I # % # % # % # %
I _Y I 1 4%1 3 43%| 1 13%| 4 25%1 9 16%11
I N 1 22 81%1 4 57%1 7 88%| 9 56%| 42 72%|
II-................--- ----------.-----1-1--. 1 ----------------- I---------I-- ------- -------------- 11...... .
11L. Data dissaggregated? # x | # % | # % | # % | # %
II I Y 14 52%1 6 86%1 5 63%1 10 63%1 35 60%11
I N 1113 48%| 2 29%| 2 25%1 4 25%1 21 36%11
I I- I----------- -- -----------I-------------I------------------I- ------I-----------I1
I11M. I nteragency coord? # % U # % | # % | # % # %
YI I 9 33%1 6 86%| 3 38%| 3 19%1 21 36%11
_N 15 56%1 1 14%1 5 63%1 11 69%| 32 55%|
I ---------------------------------- --------------------------- ---------I------ ------------- --------
11N. Is it active? H # % I # % | # % | # X % # %
II Y 1 20 74%1 6 86%1 7 88%1 12 75%1 45 78%J1
I N 112 7%| 0 0% I 1 13%1 1 6%| 4 7%'I
I .- -------------------------..------I I ---------I--------------I--------------------- ---------I.-------------1II
1110. WID issues in docs? # % | # % # % # % # %
II 0 NA | 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA 1 NA |
II __ Not 1 2 7%| 1 14%| 0 0%X 2 13%1 5 9%|
II II Special 1 6 22%| 2 29%1 5 63%1 4 25%| 17 29%|
II III Integral 11 16 59%1 4 57%| 4 50%1 9 56%| 33 57%I|
II.. I ----------- ---..---------------.... 1 ------------- ----------I -------------I-------------I--------------- 11
h11P. Non PPC support I # % I # % | # % | # % I # % I
SY 1 7 26%1 1 14%1 2 25%1 6 38%j 16 28%11
SN 15 56%1 6 86%1 6 75%1 9 56%. 36 62%1
1 .= -...I .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..".. .. .. ...I I.. .. .. .'I. .. .. .' .. . .. .' .. .. . I

I I====== I=============================== II===================================== II
1112A. Measurement # % # % | # % # % # % I
II II 0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA 0 NA I
II I __ None 11 12 44%1 1 14%1 3 38%1 5 31%X 21 36%11
S II __ Baseline I 10 37%| 4 57%| 5 63%| 4 25%1 23 40%11
III __ Regular 11 5 19%| 1 14%1 1 13%1 4 25%| 11 19%11
II IV Regular + Special II 3 11%| 1 14%1 0 0%X 0 0%J 4 7%11
II--- ----------------------------- ------------------------- ------------ ---------- II
1112B. Policy Dialogue I # % # % # % | # % | # % II
II 0II NA 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA | 1 NA |I
I None 11 3 11%1 0 0%X 1 13%1 2 13%X 6 10%11
S II __ Needed II 5 19% 1 14%1 0 0%X 3 19%| 9 16%11
S III __ Could be improved 1 18 67%| 6 86%1 7 88%1 10 63%1 41 71%1
S IV Excellent II 2 7%| 0 O%X 0 0%X 0 0%j 2 3%
I-- ------------------------------- ------------- ------------ I----------- ---------- I
112C. Major Challenge # Ranking # Ranking # Ranking # Ranking # Ranking
1 NA 0 NA 0 NA 1 NA 2 NA
I Institutionalize 8 1.9 2 2.0 3 1.0 9 1.2 22 1.5
II Document success 11 1.7 3 1.3 5 1.8 5 2.8 24 1.9
III Convincing hosts 10 2.4 5 1.6 5 3.4 6 2.7 26 2.5
IV Strengthening skillsli 11 1.6 1 5 1.6 1 6 1.8 1 8 1.8 30 1.7
V Training 11 2.5 1 3 2.0 4 2.0 1 8 2.5 26 2.4
VI Other I 1 1.0 1 0 1 2.0 3 1.3
II -------------------------------- I I---------------------------------------------------------- I
112D. Dissag data in key documents # % # # % # % # %
S0 NA 0 NA 0 NA 2 NA 2
S I __ Not feasible 3 11%1 0 0%I 1 13%| 1 6%| 5 9%11
II Not reliable 5 19%1 2 29%1 2 25%1 1 6%| 10 17%|
S III Useful 11 17 63%1 4 57%1 5 63%| 10 63%| 36 62%11
S IV Other 3 11%| 1 14%| 1 13%1 1 6%1 6 10%11
I I===================================== I===================================== II
1113A. I WID impacts # % | # % | # % | # % | # %
STEXT ANSWER __ 22 81%| 7 100%X 8 100%1 13 81%1 50 86%11
II --------------------------------- -- ------------------------------ ----------- ---------------11
1113B. I Other Information? # % | # % # % # % | # %
S I TEXT ANSWER __ 15 56%1 5 71%1 7 88%| 11 69%| 38 66%|1
..I..............................................................-------------- ---------------


ACTIvrnES FY '89 AND '90

The following list is not an Agency-wide account
of women in development activities. It represents only
those projects and activities funded either fully or joint-
ly by the Office of Women in Development.

Activities Grouped by Project


Project Description:
Working in approximately eight or more
countries, the Contractor will serve three main
functions: (1) assist in the collection, analysis, and
synthesis of information on WID drawn from a variety
of host country sources, bilateral and multilateral fund-
ing agencies, PVOs and researchers; (2) within each
country, use that information as a catalyst to action on
WID issues; and, (3) act as a technical advisor to imple-
menting agencies and A.I.D. Missions by transmitting
program information to policy-makers, and helping to
translate policy desicions into action.

89-001.0001 Region: Asia/Near East
Country: NA

Activity Title: Studies of Key Constraints
/Opportunities Facing Women's Participation In
Development Projects/Programs in the ANE

Activity Objective:
Study will focus on agriculture, private sector, nat-
ural resources/environment, education, and health.

89-001.0002 Region: Asia/Near East
Country: Jordan

Activity Title: CRS Income Generation Project
for Rural Women in Jordan

Activity Objective:
The final evaluation of the Catholic Relief Services
(CRS) Income Generation Project for Rural Women in
Jordan took place during the period February 27 -
March 9, 1989. This evaluation, and its timing, had
been jointly agreed to by USAID/Jordan and CRS/
Jordan in order to fulfill the requirement of the Grant
Agreement Article II for a full scale evaluation at the
culmination of the final eight months of the project.

89-001.0004 Region: Asia/Near East
Country: Sri Lanka

Activity Title: USAID/Sri Lanka Portfolio Review

Activity Objective:
To identify and analyze gender factors which facil-
itate or hinder a project's purpose, the extent to which
such factors have been take into account in project
design and implementation, and areas where gender
disaggregation of project information may be useful.

89-001.0005 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Belize

Activity Title: Women and Development in

Activity Objective:
A complete review of existing sources of gender
disaggregated data in Belize in agriculture and private

89-001.0006 Region: Asia/Near East
Country: Tunisia

Activity Title: Gender Analysis in
USAID/Tunisia's CDSS Planning

Activity Objective:
The report reviewed plans for developing a CDSS
for the 1992-96 period to identify issues for gender-
differentiated analysis.


Project Description:
A WID specialist was added to the team and
asked to: (1) review background issue papers
commissioned for the strategy; (2) prepare a paper,
"Natural Resource Issues for the Asia and Near East
Region: Gender Consideration"; and (3) incorporate the
findings of this paper into the Bureau strategy.

Appendix D

89-004. Region: Asia/Near East
Country: NA

Activity Title: Integrating Gender Issues into
ANE's Natural Resource Strategy in the 1990's

Activity Objective:
To ensure that ANE's Natural Resource Strategy
addresses gender concerns. A WID specialist will be
reviewing background issue papers commissioned for
the strategy, preparing a paper, and incorporating the
findings of this paper into the Bureau's strategy.


Project Description:
PPC/WID and USAID/Tegucigalpa (Honduras)
funds supported Aid to Artisans by providing export
marketing services to Honduran artisans such as repre-
sentation in international gift shows, facilitation in sales
contacts and negotiations, assistance in product design,
training of Honduran participants in export business
with the U.S. and post-show services in sales, deliveries
and continued public relations to expand export oppor-
tunities of Honduran women artisans in the U.S.

89-010.0001 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Honduras

Activity Title: Representation of Honduran
artisans at International Gift Show

Activity Objective:
To assist in the representation of Honduran
artisans at the August gift show

89-010.0002 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Honduras

Activity Title: Post-show assistance to Honduran

Activity Objective:
Provide post-show assistance to Honduran
artisans in the areas of sales, delivery, and public


Project Description:
Design, organize, and conduct a series of group
and individual training activities in English and
Spanish as appropriate for USAID/Lima, Southern
Africa Region, and REDSO/West Africa. Target
audiences are: program and project contractors, affiliat-
ed counterpart personnel in the relevant governments,
local private and non- governmental organizations.

89-014.0001 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: NA

Activity Title: Latin America and Caribbean
Bureau WID Training

Activity Objective:
1) Conduct pre-training technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant eval-
uation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation of
the training.

89-014.0002 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Peru

Activity Title: USAID/Peru WID Training

Activity Objective:
1) Conduct pre-workshop technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all group and individual
training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant
evaluation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation of
the workshop.

89-014.0003 Region: Africa
Country: REDSO/W

Activity Title: Western Africa Regional WID

Activity Objective:
1) Conduct pre-training technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant
evaluation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation of
the of the training.

Women in Development / Report to Congress

89-014.0004 Region: Africa
Country: NA

Activity Title: Southern Africa Regional WID

Activity Objective:
1) Conduct pre-training technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant
evaluation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation of
the training.

89-014.0005 Region: Asia/Near East
Country: Egypt

Activity Title: Egypt Mission WID Training

Activity Objective:
1) To conduct pre-training technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant
evaluation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation of
the training.

89-014.0006 Region: Asia/Near East
Country: NA

Activity Title: Asia and Near East Regional WID

Activity Objective:
1) Conduct pre-training technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant
evaluation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation of
the training.

89-014.0007 Region: World Wide Country: NA

Activity Title: Women in Development Bureau
for Science and Technology Senior Orientation

Activity Objective:
To conduct a training for senior staff of S&T
bureau and to acquaint staff members with the
methods of gender analysis in efforts to ensure
adequate consideration of gender issues in bureau
policy and programming.

89-014.0008 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Science and Technology / Ag
Office WID Training

Activity Objective:
1) Conduct pre-training technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant
evaluation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation of
the training.

89-014.0009 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Gender Considerations in
Development Workshop for Trainers

Activity Objective:
1) Conduct pre-training technical site visits;
2) Design and deliver all training activities;
3) Analyze training workshop participant
evaluation questionnaires;
4) Prepare final report detailing facilitation
of the training.


Project Description:
Assists governments and USAIDs in the design
and implementation of basic education programs.
Draws on the tools, lessons learned, and research
evidence accumulated over the past three decades;
these resources will be adapted to country-specific con-
ditions as A.I.D. designs, implements, and evaluates
new projects aimed at boosting school effectiveness.
Assistance is offered at three levels:

(1) policy dialogue, sector assessment, and
adjustment within central government;
(2) nuts and bolts management between the
central ministry and local schools; and
(3) school and classroom-level practices,
teaching technologies, and materials that
directly affect pupil learning.

Appendix D

89-017.0002 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Girls' Education Benefits and

Activity Objective:
To motivate girls' education discussion at the
Girls' Education Roundtable, World Conference
Education for All, Jomtien.

89-017.0005 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Lessons learned in Basic Education
in the Developing World: A Monograph

Activity Objective:
To report on "Lessons Learned" from the Basic
Education Conference sponsored by S&T/ED, expand-
ing upon the following topics:
1) the quality of basic education for women;
2) strategic planning and management
3) the use of instructional technologies; and
4) teacher training.

89-017.0007 Region: Africa
Country: Ghana

Activity Title: Social Analysis of the Ghana
primary education program

Activity Objective:
To analyze the Ghana primary education
program with respect to
1) basic education in social context;
2) economic crisis in education;
3) targeted population groups;
4) characteristics of school-age children;
5) access and equity;
6) primary enrollment; and
7) social feasibility PREP.

89-017.0010 Region: Africa
Country: Malawi

Activity Title: Pre-design for female education
and employment in Malawi

Activity Objective:
Provide technical expertise to the analysis of
policy and institutional constraints to female

employment in the education sector. Suggest points of
intervention to address constraints.

89-017.0011 Region: Africa
Country: Togo

Activity Title: Togo/Africa Conference

Activity Objective:
ABEL played a facilitory role in this conference
which served as a catalyst for a meaning lateral
(South/South) exchange of pertinent ideas and
knowledge. Relevant ideas and recommendations
were extracted from presented information.


Project Description:
Develop a Women in Development Strategy and a
Women in Development Implementation Plan in an
effort to increase the participation of women in
USAID/Bolivia's projects.

89-018.0001 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Bolivia

Activity Title: WID Strategy and Implementation
Plan for USAID/Bolivia

Activity Objective:
To develop a Women in Development Strategy
and a Women in Development Implementation Plan in
an effort to increase the participation of women in
USAID/Bolivia's projects.


Project Description:
Provide assistance in:
(1) Economic Research and Sector Studies;
(2) Project Design and Evaluation; and
(3) Organizational Development.

PPC/WID funds will sponsor two activities to
integrate gender concerns into the GEMINI agenda.
First, PPC/WID will participate in GEMINI's economic
research and sector studies on growth and dynamics of
microenterprise. Guidelines will be developed for

Women in Development / Report to Congress

assessing women's constraints and opportunities in
microenterprise development in all field work that
takes place as part of the research component. Second,
PPC/WID will fund a consultant to participate in the
design of an Agency-wide beneficiary impact analysis
to ensure that benefits to women are properly
measured from A.I.D. activities in microenterprise

89-019.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Gender In Growth and Dynamics
Of Microenterprise

Activity Objective:
To explore factors and constraints affecting female
participation in microenterprise activities. Outputs
1) plan for incorporating gender issues in
GEMINI's research design;
2) gender-aware scopes of work for field
activities; and
3) strategies to overcome major constraints.

89-019.0002 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Impact of Microenterprise Project
Assistance on Women

Activity Objective:
To ensure that gender is appropriately considered
in the measurement of the impact of A.I.D.'s
microenterprise assistance efforts. The output will be
incorporation of gender into the design of the Agency's
microenterprise impact analysis plan.

89-019.0004 Region: Asia/Near East
Country: Indonesia

Activity Title: Financial Institutions Development
Project Indonesia

Activity Objective:
The purpose of the activity is to include gender
analysis in the comparative evaluation of the Village
Financial Institutions (VFI) and General Village Credit
Program of the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Kupedes).
The expected outputs include lessons learned on
gender-differentiated impacts of a non-targeted
microenterprise program.
89-019.0005 Region: Africa
Country: Swaziland

Activity Title: Small Business Survey Swaziland

Activity Objective:
To define the extent of female entrepreneurship
as well as constraints and opportunities facing
women in business in Swaziland. Output is gender
awareness input into the Swaziland small business
development PP.


Project Description:
Training program consisted of providing WID
officer information on the Agency WID policy,
evolution of institutionalizing WID in Agency
programs and projects and sectoral and generic
manuals that describe how to integrate gender issues
from CDSS planning down to project design. Special
attention was given to private sector issues since WID
officer is also a private sector project development
officer in USAID/Dhaka. Range of meetings included
PPC/CDIE and contractors actively providing TA
in WID.

89-024. Region: Asia/Near East
Country: Bangladesh

Activity Title: WID Officer Orientation

Activity Objective:
To become familiar with A.I.D./W initiatives for
WID and Micro/Small Scale Enterprises; conduct meet-
ings with staff in PPC/WID, PRE, ANE/PD, ANE/DP,
ANE/TR, S&T/RD/EED, etc.; meetings with represen-
tatives from organizations involved with women's
issues and potential resource organizations.


Project Description:
Technical assistance to conduct a portfolio review
for USAID/Kingston's agriculture sector activities lead-
ing to institutionalization of WID in the Mission.

Appendix D

89-025.0001 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Jamaica

Activity Title: WID Portfolio Review for

Activity Objective:
To provide technical assistance to conduct a
portfolio review for USAID/Kingston's agriculture
activities leading to institutionalization of WID in the


Project Description:
PPC/WID will provide a WID specialist to be a
team member on the PP team to ensure that adequate
attention is given to gender consider-ations on the PP
and assessment of the environmental MAYAREM

90-033.0001 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Guatemala

Activity Title: DESFIL Guatemala

Activity Objective:
To ensure that adequate attention is paid to
gender issues on a TA team which will assist USAID/
Guatemala in the elaboration of a PP and the
environmental assessment of the Mayarema Project.
PPC/WID will provide a WID specialist to be a team
member on the PP Team.


Project Description:
(1) technical assistance activities requiring
WID expertise (e.g., strategy design, portfolio
reviews, programs and project design,
implementation and/or evaluation);
(2) research to analyze WID issues in both the
formal and informal sectors and the economic
contributions of women in developing nations;
(3) training efforts which will include design,
production and delivery to assist A.I.D.
to institutionalize systems and procedures for
addressing gender issues in policies, programs
and projects; and

(4) information dissemination and communica-
tion activities, as may be required to
support the Office's information dissemin-
ation/communication program.

90-050.0001 Region: Africa
Country: Zimbabwe

Activity Title: Zimbabwe Portfolio Review

Activity Objective:
Portfolio Review for all on-going and proposed
regional and bilateral project in Southern Africa and
Zimbabwe. Briefing Mission staff in groups and as
individuals re-new gender requirements.

90-050.0002 Region: Africa
Country: Botswana

Activity Title: Botswana PVT Enterprise
Development Project

Activity Objective:
Prepare gender analysis for the Project
Indentification Document for the planned Botswana
Private Enterprise Support Project. Incorporated
appropriate gender considerations into project design.

90-050.0004 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Guatemala

Activity Title:

Activity Objective:
Conduct a portfolio review of all
USAID/Guatemala projects, ongoing and newly
initiated, to ensure that WID concerns are fully institu-
tionalized in all programs.

Region: Not Applicable
Country: NA

Activity Title: CID/MUCIA Cooperative
Agreement Evaluation

Activity Objective:
Evaluation of Title XII Consortia Programs in
Technical Assistance for PPC/WID's. To evaluate the
impact of CID/WID's and MUCIA/WID's programs
offering technical assistance to USAID missions. Final
evaluation report.

Women in Development / Report to Congress

90-050.0010 Region: Not Applicable
Country: NA

Activity Title: Streamlining PPC/WID-GENESYS

Activity Objective:
Analyze PPC/WID work flow, responsibilities,
communications to find opportunities for streamlining,
clarification, etc.

90-050.0015 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: NA

Activity Title: RDO/C Portfolio Review

Activity Objective:
To review RDO/C portfolio and to provide
guidance on the establishment of strategies
/techniques for the collection, reporting and review of
gender disagregated data.

90-050.0018 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: WID Training Courses Assessment

Activity Objective:
The purpose of this activity was to determine the
scope of WID and WID-Related, short-term, training
courses offered to women and men in LDCS. A report
and Matrix was delivered. The Matrix will have cours-
es disaggregated by type of training and technical

90-050.0020 Region: Africa
Country: Zimbabwe

Activity Title: Zimbabwe Regional Export
Promotion Support PP

Activity Objective:
USAID/Zimbabwe has requested assistance for a
gender consultant to be added to the PP design team
for the Export Enterprise Support Project (EES). EES is
a Regional Project that focuses on five countries in the
SADCC Region.

90-050.0024 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Peru

Activity Title: ILD Peru

Activity Objective:
To analyze the success of ILD in Peru in the
integration of women into their efforts.

90-050.0030 Region: Not Applicable
Country: NA

Activity Title: CEDPA Evaluation

Activity Objective:
To evaluate CEDPA Women in Management
(WIM) Course. To make recommendations re future
WID training efforts. To produce an evaluation report.

90-050.0053 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Dominican Republic

Activity Title: Dominican Republic Devt of WID
Strategy & Portfolio Review

Activity Objective:
The objective of the assistance is to prepare a
gender dissagregated analysis of all Mission activities
and make recommendations on what actions can be
taken to improve their responsiveness to gender differ-
ences among participants and overall effectiveness.
The review will form the basis for a Mission WID
Strategy, identifying the institutional mechanisms for
building the Mission's capacity to analyze and
effectively address gender issues.

90-050.0056 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: RDO/C

Activity Title: RDO/C Encore Project Paper

Activity Objective:
The purpose of the activity is to integrate gender
into the project paper for the ENCORE Project. Two
person team assessed gender roles in agriculture,
fisheries, forest management, use of natural resources
tourism and the informal sector in the Eastern
Caribbean, determined implications of proposed activ-
ities on women and men, and developed recommenda-
tions to improve the participation of women and men
in the project activities.

Appendix D

90-050.0061 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Chile

Activity Title: Chile Buy-in RHUDO Urban

Activity Objective:
The objective of the assistance is to provide
adequate attention to gender considerations relative to
the alternative institutional structures and mechanisms
through which shelter assistance might appropriately
be channeled and the policy agenda to be advanced by
it. Tasks include the preparation of an analysis to
substantiate the final design, including an evaluation of
the feasibility of the project.

90-050.0067 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: DAC Needs Assessment

Activity Objective:
Janet Tuthill to accompany Kay Davies to
undertake WID training needs assessment for the
DAC/WID training. DAC has requested assistance in
this type of training and a needs assessment would
provide recommendations for the training needed.

90-050.0069 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: WID Private Sector Strategy

Activity Objective:
Provide T.A. for WID office strategy development
in the private sector/meeting.

90-050.0079 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Peru

Activity Title:

Activity Objective:
Conduct training WID workshops for HCN
Counterparts, FSN AID staff and other AID staff who
missed prior training. Conduct further training on the
specifics of gender disaggregation etc. Evaluate WID
progress with AID staff and local organizations.

90-050.0082 Region: Not Applicable
Country: NA

Activity Title: CEDPA Evaluation Workshop

Activity Objective:
Provide a trainer on "Gender in Evaluation" to
present and facilitate on Monday July 30 in a workshop
that CEDPA conducts on evaluation. This is a repeat of
a past performance by RG however he is unable to
make it this year.

90-050.0083 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: RDO/C

Activity Title: RDO/C SEAP Small Enterprise
Assist. Project

Activity Objective:
The project has two objectives:
1) Conduct a study of the constraints and
opportunities facing women in small and
microenterprise development;
2) Integrate gender into relevant sections of
project paper, including the preparation of the
Social Soundness Analysis.

Activities Grouped by Project
90-050.0095 Region: Africa
Country: Botswana

Activity Title:Botswana Private Enterprises PP

Activity Objective:
USAID/Botswana request GENESYS consultant to
assist in the development of a project paper from the
Botswana Private Enterprise Development Project.

90-050.0097 Region: Africa
Country: Gambia

Activity Title: Gambia AG Program Assistance

Activity Objective:
To provide WID expertise to Gambia Ag sector.
Four parts 1) sector assessment 2) baseline 3) PAAD 4)

Women in Development / Report to Congress

90-050.0098 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Guatemala

Activity Title: Impacts on Women and Men

Activity Objective:
The objective of the activity is to conduct a study
to determine what the impact of employment in the
non-traditional export area has been on men and

90-050.0107 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Tracking Excercise

Activity Objective:
Prepare a written report clarifying the authority of
PPC and that of other Bureaus for the tracking of
expenditures in Agency activities in A.I.D. policy areas.
The report will determine what tracking mechanisms
are being used in PPC and other A.I.D. Bureaus and
Missions to measure the dollars spent in efforts to meet
Agency policy objectives in areas including Child
Survival, Environment, Women in Development, etc.

90-050.0108 Region: Africa
Country: Uganda

Activity Title: Program Planning Assistance and
Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting

Activity Objective:
PPC/WID through its GENESYS Project will
provide a gender specialist to accompany the AFR/DP
Program Planning team to Uganda which will assist
the Mission in developing its Country Program
Strategic Planning (CPSP) document.

90-050.0109 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Bolivia

Activity Objective:
The purpose of the assistance was to provide a
gender specialist and small enterprise/rural
development specialist to conduct field work and
integrate gender considerations into USAID/Bolivia's

Regional Development Project.

90-050.0110 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: CDIE Evaluation News

Activity Objective:
PPC/WID has been invited to prepare the
background material for an article on women in
development for the Agency's new periodical
Evaluation News. GENESYS will provide a consultant
to perform two major tasks in relation to this project.
1) Undertake a thorough literature search to
determine what is known about women in
development ie. what works and what does not
2) Produce a first draft based on the
information garnered during Phase I.

90-050.0111 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: NA

Activity Title: LAC Training

Activity Objective:
To plan and carry out a one and one half day WID
training activity for the LAC Bureau staff.

90-050.0112 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Honduras

Activity Objective:
GENESYS will facilitate a Gender in Development
Workshop for Mission staff.

90-050.0113 Region: Africa
Country: Rwanda

Activity Objective:
To increase awareness of, knowledge about, and
motivation and skills for incorporating gender
considerations through the use of the GIF in every
stage of the USAID development process.

Appendix D

90-050.0114 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Guatemala

Activity Title: Benefits to Women in the Non-
Traditional Export Industry

Activity Objective:
Assessment will compare the level of productivity
and benefits of women working in non-traditional
export industries, particularly in the apparel drawback
and agro-processing for export industries to those of
men working in the same industries. The assessment
will identify critical factors affecting productivity, in
general and specifically within the apparel drawback
and agro-processing industries.


Project Description:
Research will focus on key institutional elements
in sustainable management of community resources.
The findings should contribute to guidelines for policy
dialogue related to community resource management.

90-051.0001 Region: Africa
Country: Kenya

Activity Title: SARSA Kenya: Rural Women
Community Institutions and Natural
Resources Managing resources for improved
food production and sustainable development

Activity Objective:
PPC/WID will provide support for research on
the interactions of rural women with community
institutions and their roles in these institutions under
the cooperative agreement "SARSA" with S&T/AG.


Project Description:
To develop within the International Union of
Local Authorities and its national counterparts in the
region the capacity to understand, assimilate and
promote the concept of gender considerations; to
develop case studies to highlight the role of gender
considerations and to disseminate info from the case
studies through regional workshops.

90-052.0001 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Ecuador

Activity Title: RHUDO Regional Network CoAg
Project Ecuador

Activity Objective:
To develop within the International Union of
Local Authorities and its national counterparts in the
region the capacity to understand, assimilate and
promote the concept of gender considerations; to
develop case studies to highlight the role of gender
considerations and to disseminate info from the case
studies through regional workshops.


Project Description:
PPC/WID is providing matching funds to assist
the ILD in establishing gender disaggregated baseline
data, an information management system for gender
disaggregated activity data and the integration of key
gender considerations in ILD training material.

90-054.0001 Region: Latin America/Caribbean
Country: Peru

Activity Title: ILD CoAg Buy-In Peru

Activity Objective:
To integrate the consideration of key gender issues
and the gender disaggregation of data into the
institutional reform research and advocacy activities of
the Institute for Liberty and Democracy under a
cooperative agreement with A.I.D.

Women in Development / Report to Congress


Project Description:
1) Background Paper, 2) Working group to review
background paper and identify research opportu-
nities, 3) Research to assess impact ofAIDs on
women and test a public health communication

90-056.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: AIDSCOM

Activity Objective:
To provide resources for research and programs to
reach women with information about AIDS.


Project Description:
Research that describes and analyzes the
behavioral, social and cultural factors that determine
women's risk of HIV infection and success in preventa-
tive strategy.

90-057.0001 Region: World Wide Country: NA

Activity Title: AIDS/ICRW

Activity Objective:
To explore the impact of AIDS on women through
research that describes and analyzes the behavioral,
social and cultural factors that determine women's
risks of HIV infection and successful preventative


Project Description:
1) Process document requests
2) Maintain and handle mailing lists
3) Produce WID newsletter

90-063.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: WID Resource Center LTS
Activity Objective:
To provide WID document distribution through
A.I.D. system.


Project Description:
Six tasks are to be undertaken.
1) Search services
2) Tailored information packages
3) Inter-library loan
4) Reference services
5) Current awareness services
6) The development of an overall WID
information resource.

90-064.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: WID Resource Center AED

Activity Objective:
To provide WID information resources through
the A.I.D. library.


Project Description:
1) Training women managers who have
positions of responsibility in developing countries to
raise confidence levels, enhance ability to initiate
development activities.
2) CEDPA will test the combination of family
planning with the sector programs in nutrition,
management training, home economics, etc. to see
what combinations are most effective for promoting
the integration of family planning.

90-067.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: CEDPA Extending Family
Planning Services through Third World women

Activity Objective:
1) Continuation of support to the Women in
Management Project. WIM program trains Third
World women managers.
2) To test multisector approach to family planning
to ascertain what sectoral combinations are most
effective in promoting family planning.

Appendix D


Project Description:
The chartbook will include the most up to date
gender disaggregated data on labor force participation
and related factors such as education, fertility, and
migration in developing countries.

90-074.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: BUCEN PASA Chartbook Update

Activity Objective:
BUCEN, in the process of updating its population
data under the PASA with S&T/Pop will produce
numbers in a chartbook form that focus on the role of
women in developing countries.


Project Description:
The fellow will act as a liason between S&T and
PPC/WID. They will oversee inputs to the design of
new activities to assure that gender considerations are
integrated into the total design process.

90-075.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: AAAS Fellow

Activity Objective:
PPC/WID will jointly fund an AAAS fellow who
will be based in the S&T/HRD Bureau. The fellow will
act as a liason between S&T and PPC/WID. He or she
will oversee inputs into the design of new activities to
assure that gender considerations are integrated into
the total design process.


Project Description:
To institutionalize gender considerations into the
organization of Women's World Banking by placing
two gender specialists on staff.

90-100.0001 Region: World Wide
Country: NA

Activity Title: Women's World Banking

Activity Objective:
sTo institutionalize gender considerations into the
organization of Women's World Banking by placing
two gender specialists on staff.

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