Front Cover
 Gender information framework
 Gender considerations in design:...
 Gender considerations in design:...
 Gender considerations in design:...
 Gender considerations in design:...
 Summary of guidelines for document...

Group Title: Gender Information Framework
Title: The Gender Information Framework
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089859/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Gender Information Framework Gender considerations in development
Alternate Title: Gender considerations in development
Physical Description: 21 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development,
Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1989
Copyright Date: 1989
Edition: Draft.
Subject: Sexual division of labor   ( lcsh )
Sex role -- Economic aspects   ( lcsh )
Economic development   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089859
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 38181166

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Gender information framework
        Page A-1
        Page A-2
        Page A-3
        Page A-4
    Gender considerations in design: Country development strategy statement (CDSS)
        Page B-1
        Page B-2
        Page B-3
        Page B-4
    Gender considerations in design: Action plan
        Page C-1
        Page C-2
    Gender considerations in design: Project identification document (PID)
        Page D-1
        Page D-2
        Page D-3
        Page D-4
    Gender considerations in design: Project paper (PP)
        Page E-1
        Page E-2
        Page E-3
        Page E-4
    Summary of guidelines for document review
        Page F-1
        Page F-2
Full Text

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Prepared for Africa Bureau Directors' Conference
December 5-9, 1988


Office of Women in Development



The Gender Information Framework (GIF) is a set of resource tools
and guidelines for incorporating gender considerations into
A.I.D.'s development programs. Designed to follow the A.I.D.
programming cycle, the GIF provides guidelines for the Country
Development Strategy Statement, Action Plan, Project
Identification Document and Project Paper.

The basic premise of the GIF is that gender is an important
variable in the development process. This reflects A.I.D.
evaluation findings that mainstream projects matching project
activities to the roles and responsibilities of men and women in
the baseline situation are more likely to achieve their immediate
purposes and broader socio-economic goals than projects that do

To consider gender issues in development, then, planners need to
understand key differences in male/female roles and
responsibilities, analyze the implications of these differences
for programming, and then incorporate the information into
development projects.

The GIF contains resource tools to be used for each programming

Gender Variable Matrix, which presents four key factors to
identify how gender is a variable in the baseline situation,

Gender Considerations for four stages of the A.I.D.
programming process, and

Summary Guidelines for Document Review, a two-page summary
of how and where to include gender considerations in
A.I.D.'s documents.

A brief explanation of the Gender Variable Matrix and the Gender
Considerations Section follows.

Gender Variable Matrix

The Gender Variable Matrix first examines four factors where
different male/female roles are likely to be significant:
division of labor, income, expenditure patterns, and access to
and control of resources. Identified differences are then
analyzed for implications for programming, specifically:

differences for males and females in constraints to
participation in or obtaining benefits from A.I.D. projects,

the opportunities for increasing productivity based on
different roles and responsibilities.

Analysis of gender as a variable is useful at all stages of
programming, beginning with the formation of a country
programming strategy. For the CDSS, understanding how gender
affects the situation to be addressed at the household level
provides an anchor for the macro-ecohomic data that is used to
inform country analyses. At the project development or
adaptation level, clarification of gender differences will be
more detailed and provide the kind of information for effective
targeting of resources.

Gender Considerations

The Gender Considerations section of the GIF focuses on how
gender should be "considered" in the development of four A.I.D.
documents: the CDSS, Action Plan, PID, and Project Paper. The
structure of each document described in the section follows as
much as possible the format for document preparation presented in
Handbook 3 and guidance cables. Gender Considerations for each
document are presented as follows:

the headings of the Gender Considerations refer to the
headings found in the document reviewed;

Gender Considerations, numbered sequentially, are
listed for each document;

Key Questions follow some Gender Considerations to
provide additional detail about specific aspects of the
issue to be explored.

The Gender Variable Matrix, Gender Considerations, and Summary of
Guidelines for Document Review which follow are the core elements
of "The Gender Information Framework: Gender Considerations in
Design," a larger work with extensive explanation of the each of
these elements. The full volume is available from the Office of
Women in Development, U.S.A.I.D.


Purpose: To identify where gender might intervene in social and economic production systems to be affected by
development activities.

How to Use: To identify how factors in Column 1 are affected by gender, consider questions in Column 2 for both men and
women. The space in Column 3 can be used to chart information (optional).

FACTOR Key Questions Male Female

1. Allocation of labor Who is responsible for which aspects of household maintenance
household activities (fuel/water provision, building maintenance, child care,
food preparation, etc.)? What is time allocation by gender and
age? How do time and labor allocations vary with economic class
or position in household?

agricultural production What are the activities of household members that contribute to
agricultural and livestock production? (Analyze by crop and/or
by livestock animal.) How do these activities vary by season? Is
shared labor available; if yes, on what basis?

2. Sources of income What income or food is generated from crops, livestock, and
farm crop/livestock by-products (e.g. milk, manure)? How much and in
what season? To what extent are inputs and technical assistance
available and utilized? How and where are foods marketed?

non farm In what kinds of non-farm small scale enterprises (SSE) are
men and women engaged (e.g., clothing production, sale of
prepared foods, trading?) Who uses tech. assistance, credit,
purchased raw material and to what extent? How and where are SSE
goods and svcs. marketed? What income is derived from wage labor
(manufact., contract labor, etc.) What is total income from non-
farm employ't? How do male/female incomes vary by season?

3. Expenditures Who is responsible for which elements of family expenses and
provisioning (e.g., staple grains, vegetables, school fees,
medical care, clothing, ceremonies?)

1. Access/control What are the resources (e.g., labor, land, credit, technical
of resources assistance) required for current productive activities? What is
the extent of control over resources and how does that affect
ability to increase economic productivity?

Constraints to What are the key constraints to the participation of men and
participation women in the major areas of A.I.D. programming? (e.g, labor,
in development access to credit) for major productive activities?

.Opportunities to What are the special skills and knowledge resulting from gender
use/expand differences in roles and responsibilities (e.g.,specialized
productivity agricultural knowledge, marketing skills) that can be used or
enhanced to increase economic productivity?

CDSS: p. 1 of 4


The following are gender issues to be considered in the
preparation of the CSS. They are organized to follow A.I.D.
guidance cables for the document as much as possible. Key
questions following the gender considerations provide more detail
about specific aspects of the issues to be explored.


1. Productivity/Inocne: disaggregate data and analyses in
productivity/incame subsectors by gender; where data
insufficient, include specific strategies to obtain.

Key Questions
o For men and women, what are: urban labor force
participation formal and informal sectors; rural
employment farm and non-farm; levels of
productivity, especially in small scale
enterprises including: number, average size, type
of goods and services provided by small scale
enterprises; use of credit, technical assistance,
technology; and volume of production and
productivity per hour? Internal and external
rates of migration? Percentage of female headed

o What are: household member incomes from farming
and non-farm sources? intra-household expenditure

o What government policies affect sectors where
men's ard women's non--farm economic activities are
concentrated, in the formal and informal sectors?
Do they place gender-specific constraints on

o What are effects of recent performance of the
macro-ecor~xn on sectors and subsectors where
men's and women's activities are concentrated?

2. Problem Analyses include description of gender-based
constraints to participation in economic development.

Key Questions
o What are the legislative, economic, cultural
constraints that affect access to productive
resources different for males and females?

CDSS: p. 2 of 4

o How do these constraints affect interventions that
aim to increase productivity?

o What opportunities for increasing productivity are
available in areas where men's and women's non-
farm economic activities are concentrated?

o How is the percentage of female headed households
changing? How are migration and other socio-
cultural changes affecting household structure?
How do these changes affect access to labor and
income at the household level? What are the
implications of changes in access to labor and
income for programming?

3. Nutrition: disaggregate nutrition data by gender.

4. HMnger:
a. Disaggregate agricultural data by gender.

Key Questions
o By crop/livestock, for male and female producers,
what are: estimated land farmed, yields, offtake,
use of inputs, profit?

b. Consider gender roles and constraints in food self-
provisioning; analyze implications for programming;
where needed information is not available, include
strategies to obtain.

Key Questions
o Who produces/raises which crops, livestock
(including fish)? for home consumption and/or

o For key crops, livestock: what are
representatives patterns of labor allocation in
the food system? Who plants, weeds, fertilizes,
waters, stores, markets, transforms agricultural
products? How do these activities vary by season?

o What different constraints are faced by men and
women in meeting their responsibilities for food
provisioning (e.g., access to land, water, credit,
technical assistance?)

o What are the implications for increasing food
availability of gender-based division of labor and
resource constraints?

CDSS: p. 3 of 4

o How do government supports for specific crops
(cash food, export) affect family food production?

o How do division of labor, access to and control of
resources affect the natural resource base (e.g.,
who owns, plants, tends, cuts trees and uses tree
products? Who controls animal pasturing and
offtake? Who provides labor for and/or makes
decisions about soil conservation practices?)

o What are the implications of differences in labor
and access to and control of resources for
programs to ensure a sustainable resource base for
food and fuel?

o Where A.I.D. is supporting agricultural research
and where both men and women are involved in
agriculture-related activities, how does research
support activities of both men and women (e.g.,
what crops and what constraints are addressed?)

5. Health: disaggregate data and analysis on health by gender.

6. Education:
a. Disaggregate data on education and training by gender.

Key Questions
o For males and females, what are: enrollment rates
in primary and post primary education/training
facilities, especially in sectors of USAID
emphasis; completion rates for males/females; and
adult literacy rates for males/females?

b. Consider gender-based constraints to education and
training and the impact of constraints on national
development policies.

Key Questions
o What are the constraints and opportunities for
education and training that differ by gender?
What are the implications of gender differences
for national development, specifically:
availability of education facilities (construction
of schools); availability of teachers and teacher
training; and future (self- or wage) employment
for women and men.


7. Problem Specific Strategies (Portfolio Review)
a. In review of current and planned projects, include in
sectors where women are active:

CDSS: p. 4 of 4

Assessment of gender considerations in project
descriptions, implementation plans and impact analyses;
indications of how Mission will make project
adaptations where appropriate to incorporate gender
considerations in mainstream projects; and objectives,
achievements, impacts, and benchmarks disaggregated by

b. Review overall Mission portfolio to assess how projects
increase women's and men's economic productivity.

Key Questions
o Which projects/programs assist wcmen directly to
increase earnings and/or food production? Which
assist indirectly? What is the proportion of
projects that assist their productive activities
relative to those that provide health or other

8. Mission Proqramirng Strategy: consider activities to
institutionalize inclusion of gender issues in program and
project design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation,

a. Strategies for collection of needed data;

Key Questions
o How do host country men and women participate in
the dialogue that leads to problem selection,
program and project design, evaluation?

o What are the systems in the host country and USAID
to collect gender-disaggregated data?

b. Benchmarks for measuring institutionalization;

c. Training to enhance A.I.D. and host country development
planners skills in and awareness of gender issues as
appropriate; and

d. Initiation of policy dialogue with government on gender

AP: p. 1 of 2


The following are gender issues to be considered in the
preparation of the Action Plan. The are organized to follow
A.I.D. guidance cables for the document as much'as possible. Key
questions following the gender considerations provide more detail
about specific aspects of the issues to be explored.


1. Program Inpact AssessImet:

a. Disaggregate data by sector.

Key Questions
o In sectors of A.I.D. activity, for males' and
females, what are: labor force participation
rates, rates of productivity, especially in small
scale enterprises; income from farm and non-farm
sources, intra-household expenditures patterns?
How do males and females participate in
agricultural production, etc.?

o What data is available to assess impact of gender
differences on progress toward goals and

b. Incorporate gender considerations into background
information and review of current projects/programs
(description, implementation plans, and impact
analyses) .

Key Questions
o Within the sectors of A.I.D. activity, how do
constraints to participating in economic
development differ for men & women?

o Do gender roles and responsibilities pose
different constraints to men's and wcmen's ability
to participate in and benefit from A.I.D.

o What are the differential impacts by gender of
Mission programs?

o How have opportunities (e.g., special knowledge
and skills) presented by gender-based allocations
of labor or responsibility been considered in
design of program strategies?

AP: p. 2 of 2

o Which projects/programs assist women directly to
increase earnings and/or food production? Which
assist indirectly? What is the proportion of
projects that assist their productive activities
relative to those that provide health or other
social services?

c. Assess data availability, implications of available
information for monitoring and adapting current
mainstream projects, and how needed data will be


2. Describe modifications planned for existing programs to
address gender considerations, where needed.


3. Program Objectives: in sectors where women are active,
consider how gender variables affect long term development

4. Disaggregate them by gender short term targets to meet
objectives and benchmarks on progress toward meeting


5. Review current progress and future steps to enhance Mission
capability to address gender issues, including:

a. Benchmarks for measuring institutionalization of gender
issues into Mission programming process.

b. Strategy for collection of data needed for adaptation
of current and planned future projects.

PID: p. 1 of 4


The following are gender issues to be considered in the
preparation of the Project Identification Document. They are
organized to follow Handbook 3 instructions for the PID as much
as possible. Key questions following provide additional detail
about specific aspects of the issues to be explored.


1. Problem Statement: begin to consider how gender affects the
problem to be addressed.

Key Questions
o How do men & women participate in activities
project will affect?

o How do division of labor, income, expenditure
patterns by gender affect the problem?

o How do gender-based constraints to access to
resources affect the situation?

o How do both men & women participate in defining
the problem?

2. Statement of Expected Project Achievements: consider if
achievement of objectives is reasonable given gender
differences in roles and responsibilities, access to project
resources and project benefits.

Key Questions
o To what extent will participation of both men &
women affect project achievement? For example,
will achievement of project objectives require
contribution of family labor or group self help
labor? If yes, does project design enable and
encourage participation of and benefits to both
men and women?


3. Project Elements:

a. Where project will affect women's activities, identify
strategies that are appropriate to male and female
roles and responsibilities.

Key Questions
o What kinds of approaches to solving the problem
would draw upon the skills and knowledge of men

PID: p. 2 of 4
and women?

o What strategies would enable the participation of
both men & women?

b. Identify technical issues in the project design that
will affect/be affected by men's and women's roles and

Key- Questions
o Whose labor/financial responsibilities are
supported by the proposed technical package or
technical assistance?

o Do new technologies take into account gender
division of labor, gender differences in crop
production, and/or gender-specific constraints to
increased productivity?

o Have host country women and men participated in
designing strategies to address development

c. Review project components for consistency with what is
known about the organization of activities the project
will affect and constraints posed by that organization.

d. Include strategies to obtain gender-disaggregated data
and feedback from both men & women in project
monitoring and evaluation systems where their
activities will be affected by the project.


4. Social Considerations:

a. Include known information about key gender variables in
analysis of factors affecting project activities.

Key Questions
o What information is available and what is needed
on key socio-cultural factors including division
and seasonality of labor, intra household incomes
and expenditures, seasonal variations in income
and expenditures, access to resources, access to
project benefits, key constraints?

b. Consider who benefits and how.

Key Questions
o Are beneficiaries appropriate according to what is
known about the organization of activities the
project will affect?

PID: p. 3 of 4

o Will project benefits provide sufficient incentive
to encourage participation?

c. Identify gender considerations related to ability to
participate in project.

Key Questions
o What are prerequisites to participation (e.g.
literacy, land) and how do these affect ability to
participate and benefit?

d. Consider differential impact of project by gender.

Key Questions
o Will the project have differential short or long
term impact by gender?

o How might this impact affect project

5. Economic Considerations: examine how the proposed approach
will affect men's and women's economic roles and improve
family well being.

Key Questions
o Are economic benefits consistent with income and
expenditure patterns?

o How will project interventions affect these

6. Consider the technical expertise and experience of proposed
recipient country implementing agency in reaching women;
consider developing such capacity as part of the project if

Key Ouestions
o What is the experience of the implementing agency
in reaching women in their economic (productive)

o What linkages exist to ensure feedback from both
men and women to researchers, extensionists,
planners, etc. involved in project implementation?

7. Assess budget estimates for consistency with needs and
opportunities described in Social and Economic
Considerations sections.

PID: p. 4 of 4
Key Questions
o Where gender is a factor in activities to be
affected by the project, does the budget include
the funds necessary for appropriate staffing, data
collection, outreach to both men & women?

8. Design Strategy:

a. Summarize data needs for Project Paper (PP) or pre-PP

b. Indicate how such data will be collected and analyzed.

c. Recommend PP team composition necessary to ensure
gender issues are effectively addressed.

PP: p. 1 of 4


The following are gender issues to be considered in the
preparation of the Project Paper. They are organized to follow
Handbook 3 instructions for the Project Paper as much as
possible. Key questions provide additional detail about specific
aspects of the issues to be explored.


1. Problem: Consider how gender affects the problem to be

Key Questions
o How do men and women participate in the activities
the project will affect, directly or indirectly?
How is the problem different for men and women?
Have both men and women participated in defining
the problem and identifying solutions?

2. Project Elements

a. Consider strategies to incorporate women based on
technical, financial, economic, social soundness, and
administrative analyses, where women play a role in

Key Questions
o Where women play a major role in project-related
activities, how do proposed strategies utilize and
expand women's productive capacities?

o What strategies address the constraints to
participation that result from gender differences
in roles and responsibilities? For example, will
outreach strategies, timing and location, scope
and scale of project elements (e.g., size of
loans, kind of training, type of equipment) enable
the participation of both men and women?

b. Assess the consistency between project elements,
purpose, inputs, outputs, social and other analyses.

Key Questions
o Are actions to be taken consistent with what is
known about the organization of activities, income
and expenditure patterns the project will affect?

c. Include strategies to collect baseline data where
gender disaggregated data are unavailable.

PP: p. 2 of 4

3. Cost Estimates: Consider funds for collection of baseline
data disaggregated by gender, training/materials
development, project personnel, and other project elements
that enable participation of men and women.

4. Implementation Plan

a. Distinguish male and female training participants,
criteria for eligibility and strategy for recruitment,
where project analyses indicate female personnel are

b. Include appropriate project personnel to provide
technical assistance to low income men and women.


5. Technical Assesswrt: include gender as variable in
technology needs assessment, analysis of cultural
suitability, and potential impacts of the technical package.

Key Questions
o Needs Assessment: What provisions are made for
local men's and wamen's participation in selecting

o Access: Does the technical package (technology,
information, credit, etc.) take into account
gender and class differences in access to labor,
cash, land or other resources that might affect
access to the technology?

o Suitability: Where wamen play a major role in
project-related activities, how will the project
find whether proposed technological innovations or
assistance are acceptable to them? What
provisions are made for participation in testing
technologies and evaluating results?

o Ipct: Given the sex-typing of tasks, will the
technical package increase labor differentially by
gender? Will it affect access to resources? How
will changes from the technology affect both men's
and women's ability to provide income or food for
their families or affect domestic

PP: p. 3 of 4

6. Financial Analysis: review intra-household differences in
incomes and expenditures; examine financial ability to
participate in project.

Key Questions
o Are there gender-based constraints to ability to
pay for project inputs or participate in project?
If yes, what are the implications for overall
project impact and success? How will the project
affect inches of both male and female family

7. Econxnic Analysis: include costs and benefits for male and
female household members in terms of opportunity costs of
labor, access to productive resources, status, ability to
meet family expenses.

Key Questions
o How will the project affect gender-based patterns
of income, labor, access to productive resources,
and male/female ability to meet family expenses
for food, health care, education, etc. and other
family expenses?

8. Social Soundness Analysis:

a. Consider men's and women's roles in activities project
will affect and if project inputs are appropriate
according to the organization of activities.

Key Questions
o What is the division of labor/time by gender in
activities the project will affect? How does the
division of labor affect activities the project is
trying to implement? What opportunities for
increasing productivity are offered by the
differences in roles and responsibilities among
household members?

b. Examine prerequisites for participation in project and
how gender-based constraints will affect ability of
appropriate household members to participate.

Key Questions
o What are formal/informal prerequisites to
participation (e.g., literacy, collateral, access
to labor)? How does gender affect access to and
control of resources (land, labor, capital)
necessary to participate in the project?

PP: p. 4 of 4

c. Examine the distribution of benefits and how benefits
affect incentives to participate.

Key Questions
o Which household members benefit and how? Do
benefits to individual household members provide
sufficient incentive to participate? Do benefits
offset any additional work might be required?

d. Assess impact, short and long term, direct and indirect
on income, expenditure patterns, division of labor,
land allocation, and other productive resources by
gender. Consider the implications of anticipated
project impacts for project sustainability and long
term development goals.

Key Questions
o How will the project affect patterns of labor
allocation, income, expenditures, and status?
What are the implications of these changes
for project sustainability and long term
development goals?

9. Administrative Analysis:

Consider implementing institution's ability and experience in
reaching both men and women; examine implications for project
strategies; indicate what steps might be necessary, if any, to
improve agency's ability to provide technical assistance to

Key Questions
o For projects in which women will be/are providing
labor, does the implementing agency have direct
contacts with women or women's organizations for
provision of technical assistance? If not, what
steps should be taken to strengthen its ability to
reach women?


These Guidelines are a summary of recommendations for the
incorporation of gender considerations into AID's programming
documents. They have been culled from a variety of sources, both
within and external to AID. The Guidelines are most useful as a
tool to review program or project design documents to ensure that
gender issues have been included appropriately.


* Disaggregate data by gender wherever possible; where data is
needed but not available, indicate how it will be found and
how incorporated.

* Use gender distinctions in terminology (e.g., men and women
farmers, male and female entrepreneurs) in order to define
more precisely the social context and impact of AID's work.

* In project assistance

** Disaggregate by gender:

*** project objectives where appropriate

*** benchmarks for project monitoring and evaluation
*** beneficiaries
*** logframe (objectives, monitoring, etc.)

** Incorporate gender considerations throughout the
project design document; in project implementation,
technical analysis, and economic analysis sections as
well as in social soundness analysis.

** Describe in explicit terms in country strategy, project
identification, and project design documents:

*** strategies to involve women where gender analysis
indicates women are active in program or project

*** benefits to women and men.

** Include decision points in the project implementation
schedule that allow project modification or redirection
to incorporate gender considerations as baseline or
project monitoring data becomes available.

* In Non-Project Assistance Programs

** Disaggregate by gender:

*** objectives where potential beneficiaries are

*** impact assessment;

*** benchmarks for project monitoring and evaluation;

*** logframe (objectives, monitoring, etc.)

** Include gender considerations in technical,
institutional capability and economic analyses sections
as well as in social feasibility section.

** Include impact monitoring at the household level;
collect gender disaggregated data.

** Include decision points when the program can be
modified or mitigating activities can be initiated to
offset short-term adverse impacts on men and women.

* Project/Program Design and Evaluation Teams

** Include gender considerations in scopes of work for
technical, institutional, economic and financial
analyses in project and non-project assistance design

** Include gender issues analysis in scopes of work for
evaluation team members.

** Include in design and evaluation team leaders' scope of
work the responsibility for ensuring that gender
considerations are adequately addressed.

* Requests for Proposals

** Include a requirement that gender considerations be

** Include gender considerations among criteria for
selection of proposals.

** Include assessment of how gender issues are addressed
in criteria for proposal selection.

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