FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS ROME
Rome, 11-30 November 1989
PROGRESS REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
PLAN OF ACTION FOR INTEGRATION OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
A. Conference Resolutions 3/87 and 4/87 1 2
B. The Plan of Action for Integration of
Women in Development 3 11
C. Council Recommendations 12 19
D. Council Resolution 1/94 20 22
II. PRIORITIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN DURING 1989
A. Programme Priorities 23 32
B. Administrative Priorities 33 37
III. REVIEW OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS TAKEN IN PURSUIT OF
THE PLAN AND THE COUNCIL RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Organization-wide Efforts of Awareness and Compliance 38 43
B. Increasing Female Staff 44 45
C. Internal Machinery for WID 46 64
1. Interaction with FAO Governing Bodies 46
2. IDWG/WID 47
3. Strengthening ESHW, the WID co-ordinating unit 48 49
4. Resource considerations 50 59
'5. Monitoring the Plan 60 64
D. External Working Relations 65 72
REVIEW OF SUBSTANTIVE ACTIONS TAKEN IN PURSUIT OF
THE PLAN AND THE COUNCIL RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Training Programme
Training content and methodology
Participants and timetable
B. The Integration of WID Concerns into the Mainstream of FAO
Programmes During 1989 and 1990/91
1. Training of FAO staff in WID
2. Policy advice to member governments
3. Project development and monitoring
4. Reorientation of home economics
and agricultural curricula
5. Preparation and promotion of WID
guidelines and manuals
6. Data collection, research studies, communication
and public information
7. Population education and WID
A. Conference Resolutions 3/87 and 4/87
1. The vital role of women in agricultural production and rural development was
reiterated during the 24th Session of the FAO Conference held in Rome in November
1987. In keeping with this, the Conference adopted Resolution 3/87 in which it requested
that a plan of action for the integration of women in development be prepared and submitted
to the 94th FAO Council, including a staff training programme on how to integrate women
in development issues in the work of FAO.
2. As a complementary action, the Conference adopted Resolution 4/87 in which it
requested the Director-General to convene a meeting of experts to discuss how to put into
practice strategies to integrate women into the process of rural development and into the
various activities of the Organization. This meeting, held in September 1988, provided the
Organization with examples of institutional mechanisms that could help in implementing the
Plan of Action for Integration of Women in Development.
B. The Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development
3. Accordingly, a Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development (WID)
was drawn up and submitted to the 94th Session of the FAO Council in November 1988.
4. The Plan's objective is to bring about change in order to ensure that, in FAO's
sphere of responsibility, women are accorded equal rights and opportunities and that their
potential contribution is put to use by their societies. The strategy proposed is to work for
this change at three levels: (a) augmenting the information base on women in agricultural
development; (b) formulation and promotion of policies based on this knowledge; and (c)
development of adequate programmes.
5. Substantively, the focus of activities should be to support women in their roles as
producers in agriculture, including fisheries and forestry. With this aim, future activities
should give greater recognition to women's special needs for income-generating activities
and control of income; for obtaining extension services and training opportunities; and for
the introduction and development of technologies and other means to ease their burden and
to increase their productivity and their access to markets.
6. The Plan is basically a comprehensive and multi-faceted charter. It identifies
measures in the civil, economic, social and decision-making spheres. For each of these
spheres, it proposes a wide range of activities.
7. In the civil status sphere, the Plan calls for efforts to improve legislation on
women's access to land, credit and membership in development organizations and co-
operatives. As a means to this end, the Plan foresees FAO advisory and training services
to countries that desire to bring national legislation in conformity with standards being
suggested by various UN bodies.
8. In the economic sphere, the measures foreseen aim at enhancing women's role in
the agriculture and rural economy and at maximizing benefits from economic activities to
women. FAO is to contribute to raising overall economic efficiency by increasing the
capacity and productivity of women and by expanding their economic opportunities.
9. In the social sphere, activities are to be geared to improvement of rural women's access to
education at all levels and to modernization of agricultural and home economics training and
degree programmes. The integration of population and nutritional considerations and of social
components in sectoral policies and programmes is also to be given systematic emphasis.
10. In the decision-making sphere, efforts are to concentrate on improvement of women's
participation in institutions and in people's organizations. In this respect, the Plan envisages
promotion of specific policies and programmes including leadership and management training to
women in key positions.
11. To carry out the actions indicated in these four spheres, the FAO Plan of Action also
reviews the instruments and tools needed and advances plans for improving (1) the collection and
utilization of statistics and indicators; (2) the types of training and public information; (3) the
interaction with other UN agencies and Member Governments; and (4) the delivery of technical
assistance. It also provides a framework for monitoring and appraisal. Annex II of the Plan
indicates the responsibilities of the various technical units in implementation of the Plan.
C. Council Recommendations
12. The 94th Session of the FAO Council unanimously approved the Plan of Action for the
Integration of Women in Development and agreed that it be implemented in a step-by-step
process. However, it also requested that the Plan of Action be submitted to the Conference for
13. It recommended that FAO identify concrete priorities and a timetable of activities for
implementation. Priority should be given to the training of FAO staff in integrating gender
concerns in FAO's activities. Special attention should also be paid to strengthening the technical
aspects and institutional linkages between Regular Programme and field projects, to reorienting
home economics and agricultural curricula and to developing information on gender issues.
14. The Council also recommended that high priority be given to the strengthening of the
Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service (ESHW), that all technical
divisions of FAO participate fully in including Women in Development (WID) concerns in their
programme of work and that focal points, with clear responsibilities, be designated in appropriate
15. The Council stated that Member Governments should take into consideration the full
integration of women in their development programmes, that FAO provide assistance to Member
Governments in introducing WID concerns in policy formulation, in development projects and
particularly in training decision-makers, and that strong central focal points in related ministries
of government be promoted.
16. In those countries which so requested, research should be continued on the juridical and
legal situations that affected women in their activities as rural producers. The Council also
stressed the promotion of employment opportunities for rural women, of working through
women's groups and organizations and of the ways of encouraging rural women's access to
credit programmes, training, marketing, and extension services.
17. The Council recommended a closer collaboration with the sister agencies within the UN
system, other international organizations, national agencies and NGOs. It also suggested that
efforts be made for the best and most efficient use of existing data studies, guidelines, and
training programmes related to agricultural and rural development.
18. The Council stated that the implementation of the Plan should take place within the
mainstream of FAO activities and should be funded from the Regular Programme, paying due
attention to the implementation of other key aspects of FAO core programmes. However, this
should not preclude the use of extra-budgetary resources. It asked FAO to prepare an updated
document that would guide the Organization in clarifying more specific action areas needed, to be
presented to the next Conference, taking into account the views expressed in the debate, with
cost estimates that would particularly reflect the work to be carried out using Regular Programme
resources and extra-budgetary funds. Systematic monitoring of progress was also considered to
be important as implementation of the Plan was undertaken.
19 The Council expressed the view that the training programme should be completed by
1991 and that the Plan should become fully operative by 1995.
D. Council Resolution 1/94
20. The FAO Council adopted Resolution 1/94 that endorsed the Plan of Action and urged the
Director-General to oversee that all units concerned perform the tasks in accordance with the
guidelines contained in Annex II of the Plan and that the staff of the Organization, both at
Headquarters and in the field, were made aware of its content as soon as possible.
21. The Council considered that within existing resources, priority should be accorded to
bringing FAO's operational and administrative processes in line with the terms of the Plan;
establishing basic guidelines for actions to be taken by the various units at Headquarters and in
the field; drawing up a training programme following the guidelines of the Plan for the concerned
professional staff; adopting measures to increase the access of women to professional posts
toward reaching the target of 30 percent of the total by 1995 without affecting the principles of
professional quality and equitable geographical distribution; making special efforts for
promoting women; designating WID focal points in each technical unit; and ensuring, in
collaboration with Governments, that the Sixth World Food Survey for the 1990's and the World
Census of Agriculture 1990 include an analysis of data by gender.
22. The Resolution further requested that WID issues be included in the agenda of FAO's
main committees. It asked Governments to make all possible efforts to contribute to the
implementation of the Plan and to put forward suitable women candidates for posts falling vacant
in the Organization.
II. PRIORITIES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN DURING
1989 AND 1990/91
A. Programme Priorities
23. The Plan of Action covers the medium term that is three biennia. In order to begin to
tackle the range of activities outlined by the Council, a selection of programme priorities for the
preparatory year 1989 and the first biennium (1990/91) is presented below. Subsequently, these
will be reevaluated in terms of accomplishments and for setting goals for the next two biennia
(1992-93 and 1994-95). The main substantive priorities identified for this purpose are:
(1) FAO staff training in WID;
(2) policy advice to Member Governments;
(3) project development and monitoring;
(4) reorientation of home economics and agricultural curricula;
(5) preparation and promotion of WID guidelines and manuals;
(6) data collection, research studies, communication and public information;
(7) population education and WID.
24. It may be noted that these priorities cut across technical units requiring their participation
in the conception, preparation and implementation of the selected activities. This would be the
best way to ensure that WID concerns get into the mainstream of the FAO programmes.
25. (1) FAO Staff Training in WID: The aim of the training activities is to increase the
capability of FAO staff to understand and take account of the concerns of women in agriculture in
their respective technical fields and to integrate gender issues into project and programme
planning. The training programme will use a mix of methods including the case study method
based on project documents from various FAO technical units. Appropriate materials and
courses will be developed for training.
26. (2) Policy Advice to Member Governments: The basic orientation of each country as
expressed in its legislation and government policies is a decisive factor for the improvement of
the status of women, for their degree of participation in economic and social life, and for the
effectiveness/efficiency of WID-related programmes. Policy advice to Member Governments has
therefore a central place in FAO's work.
27. Policy advice is conveyed either on a sub-sectoral basis addressed to a technical
government agency, in which case it is usually delivered by one FAO technical unit and is thus
part of that unit's overall policy programme; or policy advice is needed in a multi-disciplinary
context, in which case various technical units work jointly on formulating a wider-ranging policy
or programming package. Examples of the latter are advice regarding food security, price
policies, rural development, agricultural sector planning etc. There is no doubt that efforts will
have to be made on both fronts to do justice to the magnitude and the urgency of the task.
28. (3) Project Development and Monitoring: Projects are a main instrument in delivery of
development assistance. The inclusion of gender considerations and WID concerns in the
planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of projects consequently merits particular
attention. Improvements can be achieved by such means as clear identification of beneficiaries,
the disaggregation of data by sex, the inclusion of WID concerns in terms of reference of and/or
of. WID specialists in formulation missions, the anticipation of obstacles to women's
participation, systematic review of gender specific pipeline projects, etc. While the two-pronged
approach of specific projects or components for women on one hand and of integrating women
into the mainstream of projects on the other will be maintained, more emphasis will be given to
the inclusion of women in mainstream project activities related to the economic and technical
aspects of agricultural production, forestry and fisheries. The IDWG/WID, together with WID
focal points, will focus on ways to include WID concerns through all the project stages.
29. (4) Reorientation of Home Economics and Agricultural Curricula: Home economics and
agricultural extension workers are important agents for promoting agricultural and rural
development at grassroots and project levels. The re-design of home economics and agricultural
curricula in training institutions is therefore a key to development. This will enable extension
workers of both sexes to extend appropriate advice and training to rural farmers, especially
women, based on their real needs. The Sub-Programmes on Women in Agricultural Production
and Rural Development and on Agricultural Extension and Training are co-ordinating this task
with contributions from many other technical units.
30. (5) Preparation and Promotion of Women in Development Guidelines and Manuals:
Guidelines and manuals are practical tools to help decision-makers, advisors and technical
assistance staff at national and international level to integrate WID concerns in policy and
programme development, implementation and evaluation. The development of such tools will
be given special emphasis where deemed necessary, integrating WID guidelines into existing
general manuals used for project analysis where practical, and in other cases developing new
approaches. A strategy will be designed for the use of such guidelines by project design,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation teams.
31. (6) Data Collection. Research Studies. Communication and Public Information: In order
to improve the basis for policy making and the design and implementation of agricultural and
rural development programmes and projects, it is necessary to improve knowledge on gender
issues and women in development. Efforts will be intensified to strengthen the database on
women in agriculture and to catalyze and carry out studies on women's participation in
agriculture and access to rural services and technology.
32. (7) Population education and WID: In order to integrate into development projects those
demographic concerns that affect women in agricultural and rural development planning and
programming, innovative approaches to integrate population concerns into key technical areas
will be explored. As well, population components will be promoted in on-going and pipeline
projects, in pilot activities in agriculture, fishery and forestry, in training materials and
workshops, and in modules and guidelines for project planners. The purpose is to create
projects to improve the quality of life and status of rural women and their families, as well as to
collect more grass-roots level information on the relationship between women and demographic
factors in agricultural development.
B. Administrative Priorities
33. For effective implementation of the Plan, the action in the substantive priority areas needs,
to be supported by certain administrative and operational arrangements. One is the requirement
of making the staff aware of the importance of and the priority accorded to the Plan. Connected
with this is the need to monitor compliance with the general and sectoral guidelines issued.
34. A second important requirement is the provision of financial resources. The Director-
General has proposed an increase of US$218,000 (9%) in the budgetary allocation for ESHW,
which is FAO's focal point on WID, for the 1990/91 biennium. In addition, staff and other
resources from other technical units will also support WID activities even if these additional
inputs are not always visible at the sub-programme and programme element levels. Evidently,
the need for extra budgetary resources is great and specific proposals for obtaining them will
have to be elaborated.
35. A third area of urgent administrative attention is the increase in the number of women
professional staff as called for by the Plan. Accordingly, a strategy to increase the recruitment
and promotion of female professional staff has been developed by the Recruitment, Planning and
Staff Development Service (AFPR).
36. Efforts will also be co-ordinated with other UN agencies using a number of inter-agency
mechanisms. These are: (1) the System-Wide Medium-Term Plan for Women and Development
(SWMTP/WID), in which FAO has the major responsibility for several sub-programmes and
which will become operational in 1991 and cover a five-year period; (2) the Inter-Agency
meeting on Women in Development that takes place yearly after the session of the Commission
on the Status of Women (CSW); and (3) the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination (ACC)
Task Force on Rural Development in which FAO has the leadership role.
37. A summary of the activities carried out in 1989 and proposed for the 1990/91 biennium
and beyond, for each of the priority areas, is given below.
III. REVIEW OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS TAKEN IN PURSUIT
OF THE PLAN AND THE COUNCIL RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Organization-Wide Efforts of Awareness and Compliance
38. In keeping with the Council's recommendations and with Resolution 1/94, efforts have
been made to ensure that the staff of FAO, both at Headquarters and in the field, are aware of the
content of the Plan and that all units in FAO comply with it.
39. The Director-General has instructed all departments and divisions at Headquarters and
Regional Offices to initiate the implementation of the Plan in their respective fields. In order for
the implementation to start without delay, the Director-General has requested (a) identification of
the personnel and other resources that could initiate the implementation of the Plan of Action for
WID in 1989; (b) provision for the implementation of the Plan of Action within the 1990/91
PWB; and (c) identification in due course of the financial provisions required for the following
40. In addition, the FAO Representatives and UNDP Representatives (in countries where
there are no FAORs) have been apprised of the Plan, and the Council Resolution 1/94 and
recommendations and requested to notify Member Governments that FAO was ready to consider
requests for assistance within the limits of available resources in implementing the Plan in (a) the
training of decision-makers in incorporating women into mainstream projects; (b) strengthening
planning units in mainline ministries on WID concerns; (c) strengthening or installing units for
women in agricultural development through support missions; and (d) holding regional
consultations with women leaders of rural organizations.
41. The Plan of Action has also been distributed widely at Headquarters and in the field,
including to all the technical units and the FAO Representatives, during and after the 94th
Session of the Council and on other occasions, such as meetings, consultations, etc.
42. In addition, the Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service
(ESHW), in collaboration with the Information Materials Production Branch (GIII), is preparing
an illustrated booklet in English, French and Spanish on the Plan of Action for a wider audience,
including donor agencies, government departments, NGOs, and educational institutions.
43. A seminar series on Women in Agriculture was begun in April 1989. Subsequently,
presentations by consultants, visiting experts and FAO staff on research, project experiences,
new methods/theories are being given on a monthly basis.
B. Increasing Female Staff
44. A strategy has been developed by the Personnel Division (AFP), in collaboration with
the Human Resources, Institutions and Agrarian Reform Division (ESH), to increase the access
of women to professional posts in order to make progress toward reaching the United Nation's
target of 30 percent by 1995 and to encourage the promotion of women within the Organization,
without affecting the principles of professional quality and equitable geographical distribution.
45. The strategy is as follows:
i. The Administration and Finance Department (AF) will, in a more formal and systematic
way, draw the attention of all department heads to the contents of the Resolution and will
request them to continue to pursue their serious efforts to increase the percentage of
women within their departments and to submit an annual progress report.
ii. The Personnel Division (AFP) will draw attention of the Professional Staff Selection
Committee to the directives given by the Director-General to select a woman candidate
where two equally qualified male and female candidates are short-listed, without affecting
the principle of equitable geographical distribution.
iii. AFP will notify the focal point officers in divisions requesting them to give special
consideration to all applications from female candidates, either for field posts or
consultancies. The highest possible number of qualified female applicants will be
included on the rosters.
iv. Vacancy announcements will be modified to encourage applications from women,
and the vacancy announcement distribution list will be reviewed in order to ensure the
widest possible dissemination to known sources of female candidates.
v. AFP will cooperate with Permanent Representations of FAO Member Nations in
identifying suitable female candidates.
vi. AFP will request DDF and operations and technical divisions to underline to FAO
Representations and project managers the importance of recruiting qualified women
professional officers and senior managers in their countries of accreditation.
C. Internal Machinery for WID
1. Interaction with FAO Governing Bodies
46. The Council expressed the desire for an on-going interaction on WID concerns with
FAO's governing bodies and main committees. To carry this out, in accordance with the
directives of the Council, several FAO Committees plan to include in their agendas the
examination of the issues arising from the participation of women in the sectors of their concern.
--Committee on Agriculture: A section on "Women in Agricultural Production and Rural
Development" was included in the Report of the Implementation of the Programme of Work
1986-88 presented to the 10th Sesssion of COAG. The 10th Session in April/May 1989 decided
to put Women in Development as a selected item on the agenda of the 11th Session.
--Committee on World Food Security: At its 14th Session the Committee on World Food
Security discussed the issue of the effect of adjustment on women and children in the general
framework of the examination of the effects of stabilization and structural adjustment
programmes on food security. The broader subject of women in food security issues will be
covered at the next session of the Committee in compliance with Council Resolution 1/94, for the
implementation of the Plan.
--Committee on Commodity Problems: The background paper entitled "International Action
Relating to Agricultural Commodities Developments in other organizations" discussed at the 57th
session considered some aspects of the role of women in the context of the Plan of Action.
--Committee on Fisheries: The document "The 1984 World Conference Plan of Action: Progress
and Future Priorities", discussed at the 18th Session of COFI, stressed the importance of women
in fisheries and described the role of the Core Group on Women in Fisheries.
--Committee on Forestry: The 9th Session of the Committee on Forestry on "Forestry Small-
Scale Enterprises in Development: Problems and Potentials", recommended that specific
attention be given to women who are usually involved in this type of enterprise in order to allow
them equal access to training, organizational support, raw materials, credit and markets.
47. The Inter-Divisional Working Group on Women in Development (IDWG/WID), that
was established in 1976 by the Director-General, is being strengthened in order to increase its
capacity to coordinate the promotion and monitoring of the implementation of the Plan of Action.
Focal points and core groups have been or are being formed in various divisions and units..
These will help develop a common focus and strategy within divisions and be called to contribute
in case of multi-disciplinary efforts.
3. Strengthening ESHW, the WID Coordinating Unit
48. The task of implementing the Plan of Action is co-ordinated by the Women in
Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service (ESHW), with the participation of
technical divisions and units with a view to including WID concerns in their programmes of
49. In accordance with the recommendations of the Council, ESHW has been strengthened
by filling two vacant posts (P5 and P4) that were frozen due to financial stringency. An
additional P4 post is proposed for the 1990/91 biennium; this will be earmarked for the WID
training officer. Recruitment is being speeded up in order to have this officer in place soonest in
1990 to commence the staff training programme detailed below.
4. Resource Considerations
a. Regular Programme
50. Table 1 shows the estimated resource needs including staff time for the Women in
Agricultural Production and Rural Develoment Service (ESHW) to implement the Plan of Action
over seven years, 1989 to 1995. Regular Programme resources available in 1989 and proposed
for the biennium 1990/91 are indicated and the estimated requirements for the extra-budgetary
resources are also shown. It should be noted that the RP resources shown in the table refer only
to those of ESHW and do not include budget allocations for WID activities in other divisions and
units. Furthermore, figures in Table 1 do not include extra-budgetary resources for funding field
projects with WID concerns.
51. The Women in Agricultural Production and Rural Development Service (ESHW) has
reoriented its activities in 1989 to reflect the priorities summarized above. Moreover, these
priorities have also been reflected in the proposed Programme of Work and Budget for the
52. The Regular Programme funds available in 1989 to ESHW have been slightly
augmented and the pattern of their use has been adjusted to reflect the needs for the
implementation of priority items of the Plan. Thus, for example, out of a total $1,272,000, some
$279,000 have been allotted for the training programme -- a priority activity that is foreseen to be
completed by the end of the 1990/91 biennium.
Table 1 Estimated Requirements for Coordinating Unit to Implement Plan (in 000's US$)
SUMMARY 7 Y EARS
1989 1990-91 (2 years) 1992-1995 (4 years)
Programme Element TOTAL
Title Budgeted Actually Proposed Extra Budgt Indicative Estimates of
Re B d Allotted RP Resources Resources needed incldg. years
RP Needed Extra Budgt. Resources
Training on WID (for Hqs, ROs,
FAORs and Country Offices Staff) 279 572 360 1,211
Project Development & Monitoring (383) 227 392* 125 1,314 2,058
Policy and Planning on WID
(including guidelines and
checklist) (284) 142* 425 85 1,323 1,975
Population and Rural Development (12) 91 74 318 483
Revitalize Home Economics
and Agricultural Training (264) 177 263 80 720 1,240
Assistance to Member
Governments on WID (84) 89 383 138 1,262 1,872
Documentation, Data Collection
and Data Bases, Popular Version
of Plan 142 265 55 585 1,047
General Support including
Coordination of Plan, Technical
Support to other Units (228) 125 354 297 1,158 1,934
TOTAL (1,255) 1,272 2,728 780 7,040 11,820
* In addition to the Regular Programme resources, extra budgetary funds have been obtained for preparing guidelines
($82,000), and for funding a post to strengthen project development and monitoring ($150,000) see para 56.
53. For the biennium 1990/91 the amount in the proposed budget for ESHW is
$2,728,000. The training programme for FAO staff at Headquarters, Regional Offices, and for
FAO Representatives and their staffs amounting to $572,000 will be financed in its entirety from
the Regular Programme budget. An amount of $780,000 from extra-budgetary sources will be
required in 1990/91 in order to support activities for project monitoring, assistance to Member
Governments, policy and planning on WID, Home Economics curricula design and for technical
support to WID-related activities in other units besides the coordinating unit.
54. Estimated requirements for the next two biennia (1992-93 and 1994-95) are
$7,040,000. The Regular Programme resources that would be available in 1992/93 and 1994/95
will obviously depend on the Programme of Work and Budget that would be approved by the
Conference for these two biennia and as such cannot be anticipated at this stage. However, on
the assumption that the level of RP resources available for 1990/91 will be maintained in 1992/93
and 1994/95, the requirements for the extra-budgetary resources for this period will be
$1,580,000. As training activities of staff will diminish, there will be greater focus on Project
Development and Monitoring, Assisting Member Governments, Policy and Planning on WID,
55. The total resource needs for the coordinating unit for implementing the Plan of Action
over the seven years will be some $11,820,000, including both Regular Programme and extra-
budgetary resources. On the assumption stated above, Regular Programme resources could be
$9,460,000. On this basis the requirements for extra-budgetary resources can be estimated to
b. Extra-budgetary Resources:
56. Because of the multifaceted nature of the Plan, funds from both Regular
Programme and Extra-budgetary sources are necessary. To assist with the development of
guidelines and manuals, the Government of Norway has provided funds that are being
used to stimulate the preparation of such documents in several technical units. Funds from
Norway also were used in 1989 to carry out a survey of the women in agriculture database
within FAO, and to design a comprehensive programme for improving data collection and
57. Further, to strengthen project development and monitoring, the Government of the
Netherlands approved a project that would provide a P4 Officer based at Headquarters to work
with the technical units and the IDWG/WID to support and coordinate the integration of women
into mainstream projects. To strengthen field level endeavours in project formulation and policy
advice, negotiations with other donors are in process. To carry out the priority on women and
population, UNFPA has supported efforts to design and backstop projects.
58. The initial collaboration with the technical units for the inclusion of WID in their Regular
Programme activities will be followed-up annually. However, in order to assist these units to
carry out various activities (some of which are detailed in Section IV B), some extra-budgetary
resources are needed. This will speed-up the process for carrying out women in development
activities and projects throughout the Organization.
59. In addition, it is expected that the Plan will stimulate requests from Member
Governments for assistance and for comprehensive projects that will include many of the
priorities. These will also require support from extra-budgetary sources.
4. Monitoring the Plan
60. As recommended by the Council Resolution 1/94, this progress report has been
prepared for consideration by the Council in 1989. In subsequent years starting in 1991
progress in the implementation of the Plan will be included in the framework of the WCARRD
report to be presented to the FAO Conference.
61. Monitoring of the Plan will be carried out through a reporting system, developed by the
Coordinating Unit in conjunction with the IDWG/WID and by the coding of FAO projects for the
inclusion of gender. Additionally the improved data collection systems will provide sex-
disaggregated data that will assist Member Governments to measure the status of women.
62. Coding of FAO activities and projects in respect of the extent they benefit women will
be pursued, both for the Regular and Field Programmes. For the former, the programme
planning and monitoring system (PLANSYS) will continue to be used. For field activities,
coding will require the involvement of operations units and the Development Department. In this
regard, the Agricultural Operations Division proposes that an organization-wide review be
undertaken of the current coding system for projects including those with WID elements with a
view to including these codes in a new global FAO computerized coding system of all projects.
63. At country level, two main categories of activities are envisaged: (1) advisory
assistance to governments on the development of WID in national plans with a reporting system
to monitor progress and (2) the measurement of the impact of projects and programmes on
women through the standard review, appraisal and evaluation missions.
64. Furthermore, the improved data collection techniques when introduced at the country
level will provide disaggregated data, especially on the following areas: activity and income,
facilitating factors (education, health, nutrition), women and the family, women in society.
These data will be analysed, along with results of surveys and research activities in order to get a
general overview of global issues and to help Member Governments in deciding on future
D. External Working Relations
65. Within the United Nations system, the yearly Inter-Agency meeting for the Advancement
of Women and the ACC Task Force on Rural Development are the coordinating mechanisms for
the cooperation on the implementation of the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies (NFLS). In
terms of meetings and seminars in 1989, FAO participated in the WID Inter-Agency meeting, the
ACC/RD Task Force meeting, the Expert Group Meeting on the Update of the World Survey on
the Role of Women in Development, the 33rd Meeting of the Commission on the Status of
Women (CSW), and the Seminar on Women and Rural Development at the Division for the
Advancement of Women (DAW) in Vienna. Also FAO participated in the UNFPA seminars on
Population, Environment and Women in New York and the NGO meeting in Rome. Informal
meetings were held with UNDP and UNESCO. Both the Plan of Action and the list of priorities
were presented to these agencies.
66. FAO participated in joint programmes on WID with UN sister Agencies on the System-
Wide Medium-Term Plan (SWMTP) and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of
Discrimination against Women.
67. In the spring of 1989, the UN Committee for Programme and Co-ordination considered
a Cross-Organizational Programme Analysis (COPA) of the activities of the United Nations
system for the advancement of women. At FAO, coding instructions for the identification of
beneficiaries of Regular and Field Programme activities by gender were sent to all divisions in
order to monitor cross-sectoral priorities, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. FAO provided
this information for the COPA analysis, emerging as one of the most active organizations in this
68. FAO is also co-ordinating with UNDP, UNIFEM, UNIDO, UNESCO and UNFPA's
WID units, in order to identify areas of cooperation (projects, training) and to avoid duplication.
FAO also provides UNIFEM with technical comments on its field projects benefiting rural
69. At regional and national levels, efforts have been made to coordinate activities with other
organizations and with the regional commissions (joint project formulation or evaluation
missions). Through the Investment Centre, FAO has given support to IFAD in the integration of
women's concerns into projects at the formulation stage.
70. FAO has worked extensively with the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW)
which is the UN's co-ordinating unit on women, to gather information systematically from all
UN and specialized agencies to be stored in its data base. In 1989, FAO provided DAW with
several inputs: the Chapter on Women in Food Systems and Agriculture for the World Survey
on Women and Development; a paper on Women in Agricultural and Rural Development for the
DAW's Seminar on Rural Women; a review and appraisal of the implementation of the NFLS at
national, regional, international levels report to the Commission on the Status of Women;
information on the FAO target to increase female staff at professional and higher level;
information on disabled women.
71. Concerning the exchange of information and documents, two additional FAO
contributions were: a synthesis of inputs from 18 agencies/organizations for the ACC/RD and a
paper on the impact of Structural Adjustment on Rural Women as a basis for the SOFA report.
72. Finally, the Plan of Action was presented to major donors either through the regular
review meeting or through informal contacts. In addition, meetings were held with International
and local Non-governmental Organizations to acquaint them with the Plan and priorities.
IV. REVIEW OF SUBSTANTIVE ACTIONS TAKEN IN PURSUIT OF THE
PLAN AND THE COUNCIL RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Training Programme
73. As stipulated in Council Resolution 1/94, the training programme in Women in
Development for FAO staff, both at Headquarters and in the field, is necessary for the
implementation of the Plan The aim of the training activities is to give FAO staff the required
skills and tools to understand and integrate gender planning and the concerns of women in
agriculture. The development of the training programme is a process that will tailor the content
of the courses to the participants' needs, and involve preparation time, material development, and
subsequent follow-up or networking to assist participants to integrate the knowledge and tools
into their programmes and projects. The training programme will be specifically geared for the
needs of FAO staff members and will consist of two components. First, new courses will be
developed for the staff members at Headquarters and in the Regional and country programme
offices. Second, the possibilities of strengthening existing training courses, as appropriate, to
include gender variables are being examined.
2. Training Content and Methodology
74. The WID training courses will introduce the basic concepts and critical issues in the
theory and methodology of gender, development and planning and their inter-relations, and the
methodological tools to translate them into practice in the staffs everyday work. The
methodology of gender planning, tested in developed and in developing countries over the past
five years will be highlighted through practical exercises using selected FAO rural development
programmes and projects.
75. The case method, adapted to the individual needs and procedures of each institution, is
reported to be the most used by multilateral, bilateral and private organizations for WID/gencer
training. In that framework, four case studies from FAO projects were developed for the pilot
training course in June 1989. They will be refined and additional ones added during the period
October 1989 to April 1990.
76. Various participatory training techniques, such as group discussions, informative
sessions, practical exercises, and readings will be used. At the same time, research on other
methodologies and didactic techniques on the issues and elements of gender analysis will be
carried out. The Staff Development Group of the Recruitment Planning and Staff Development
Service (AFPR) will collaborate on the training methodology.
3. Participants and Timetable
77. The training programme is divided into three sequential stages. Table 2 shows the stages
in terms of course development, participants at Headquarters and FAO staff in the Regional and
country programme offices, and timetable.
78. In Stage One, the Preparatory Phase, which has already been completed, FAO, with the
help of three separate teams and an independent consultant has carried out a needs assessment,
strategy design, pilot training course and a review of WID training courses in order to organize.
the entire programme. The review of WID training experiences at selected United Nations
agencies, international institutions, private organizations and educational institutes showed that a
team of two trainers is necessary to handle groups of 20 participants when using any
participatory approach for adult trainees. A pilot course was held in June for 20 participants
from ESHW and the AG department to test duration of course, materials, content, and methods.
79. During Stage Two, which will last from September 1989 until April 1990, the design of
materials and courses will take place. Four training courses for 20 participants each, for a total
of 80 participants will be organized; one will train resource people from the IDWG/WID
members and focal points and three will train senior staff. It is anticipated that the courses will
have various durations as required, and new case studies and pedagogical techniques will be
80. Beginning in May 1990 and continuing throughout the biennium, Stage Three,
Implementation of Training Programme, will focus on training the remaining 760 professional
staff members at Headquarters as well as some 325 professional staff members from Regional
Offices and FAOR offices. Training will take place at Headquarters and in the Regional Offices.
FAORs and their professional staff will be trained when they are in Headquarters; for this
purpose, approximately three places will be reserved in each training course held in Headquarters
FAO STAFF TRAINING PROGRAMME IN WID
Title of the Course Origin of Number of Date Comments
Participants Courses Participants
Stage One: Preparatory Phase (Completed) Dec.'88 to
A. Training Needs Assessment Dec. '88 to
B. Review of Trainin on WID May '89 State of the art paper
C. Training Strate- Jan/May
gies Developed. 1 989
D. Pilot training ESHW 1 5 June '89 1.5 days Evaluation
AG Dept. 1 5 of gender planning
Stage Two: Design of Materials/Courses Oct. '89 to
A. Refinement of
Training Materials Oct. '89
B. Training for IDWG/WID 1 20 Oct. '89 Resource persons to
trainers and Members and help training
resource persons Focal Points specialists: training
skills on gender
C. Training for HOs Staff 3 6 0 Dec.'89 tc Various durations and
Gender Planning April '90 technical topics in
selected areas of
Stage Three: Im lementation/Training Programmes May '90 t
A. Training for HQs Staff 4/mo. 907 May '90 Mixed Groups
FAO staff at HQs & FAORs and for in total to 20/group, among
programme 12 mos. (760 Hqs & Dec. '91 them: about 17 from
officers from FAO 147 FAORs Hqs & 3 from FAO of-
field offices & POs from fices including FAORs.
FAO offices) The training pro-
gramme will be
B. Training in
various regions RLAC Staff 2 48 July '90 During part of
remaining 4 months
RAPA Staff 2 40 Nov. to of the year
RAFR Staff 2 49 July '91
JAFRA Staff 1 1 8 July '91
RNEA Staff 1 20 Nov./
81. In the following two biennia attention will be focused only on training any new
Headquarters' and regional offices' staff, with the anticipation that the training will be carried out
at FAO Headquarters.
82. With a view to internalizing WID/gender training, an inside team of tw staff members
with strong WID/gender professional experience will be trained to manage and backstop the FAO
training programme. They are the partners, among other things, of outside consultants, and
provide content and continuity to the training. Two training specialists will be hired in
1990/1991. One will be hired using the new P-4 post that is earmarked for the biennium. Funds
for the second trainer and support positions will come from ESHW's Regular Programme. They
will be assisted, occasionally, by resource persons either from FAO or outside.
83. In addition, in late 1989, the Staff Development Group in AFPR in collaboration with
ESHW will revise the Project Formulation Course to make specific reference to gender issues,
as well as in restructuring the WID session that already is a standing item of the National Project
Directors' course given several times each year.
B. The Integration of WID Concerns into the Mainstream of FAO Programmes
during 1989 and 1990/91
84. Annex II of the Plan of Action suggests in which areas the different technical units could
take the main responsibility or provide cooperation in carrying out various activities in the four
spheres of action. Technical units have provided information on their programmes and projects
that are underway or planned. Although Annex II was used as a guide to potential involvement,
it should be noted that without further information about gender analysis and planning that the
training programme will provide, the activities outlined by the technical units may not be
complete and are subject to revision. Nevertheless, the information available on in-House
collaboration on what the technical units have done or might do is indicative of the organization-
wide interest and support of the WID Plan. It is expected, however, that after the training,;
additional suggestions will be forthcoming that will be more related to the general framework of
85. The activities of the units in pursuance of the Plan are given below in terms of the
priorities listed in Section II.
1. Training of FAO staff in WID
86. See section IV.A. above for a complete description of the training programme.
2. Policy advice to Member Governments
87. a. CIVIL STATUS SPHERE
--Upon request, assisting interested Member Governments to adjust agrarian legislation
to meet guidelines given by the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
against women (LEG -- Legal Office 1990/91).
88. b. ECONOMIC SPHERE
-- Adopting dairy policies for small-scale producer organizations that support women
(AGAM -- Meat and Dairy Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- In collaboration with the FAORS and upon request, assisting Member Governments to
introduce WID concerns in policy formulation and development projects with the advice of the
technical units (ESHW -- Service for Women in Agricultural Production 1989 and continuing).
-- Including WID concerns in two efforts aimed at assisting and advising developing
countries upon request (a) on their national food security policies and programmes and (b) on the
design and implementation of their commodity-specific policies (ESC --Commodities and Trade
Division 1989; 1990/91).
-- Paying specific attention to gender issues in the development of national food and
nutrition policies; preparing a policy position paper on economic adjustment and women (ESNA
-- Nutrition Planning, Assessment and Evaluation Service 1990/91).
-- Offering a programme of technical assistance to ministries of planning, and agriculture
and rural development, to build or strengthen WID units (ESHW -- Women in Agricultural
Production and Rural Development Service 1990/91).
-- Paying careful attention to gender issues in the sectoral plans prepared in collaboration
with governments, and reviewing the policy scenarios employed in computer models used in
planning exercises to include indicators for gender analysis; inserting gender concerns into
training programmes for national planning units (ESP -- Policy Analysis Division 1990/91).
-- In line with the Strategy for Fishery Management and Development approved by the
1984 World Fisheries Conference, continuing to emphasize the integration of women in
acquaculture, fish utilization and marketing, fish production, small-scale fisheries development
and enhanced contribution of fisheries in the alleviation of malnutrition (FI -- Fisheries
Department 1989, 1990/91).
-- Through adherence to Tropical Forestry Action Plan, assuring that women's issues are
reflected in overall national forestry strategies (FO -- Forestry Department 1989; 1990/91). A
policy paper on women and forestry issues was released and distributed in 1989
-- In collaboration with ESHW, a popular version of the Plan of Action for the
Integration of Women in Development to be prepared; this publication is intended to make overall
policy on WID more accessible to planners, policymakers and the general public (GII --
Information Division, to be produced in 1989).
89. c. SOCIAL SPHERE
-- Initiating a strategy to increase female staff at FAO (see above, Section III-B) (AFP --
Personnel Division 1989 and continuing).
-- Collaborating with the ESHW Service in providing policy advice to Member
Governments on women and population concerns to other technical divisions (ESDP --
Population Programme 1989; 1990/91).
-- Preparing a proposal for a training programme, in collaboration with ESHW Service,
for consultants in social and gender analysis (DDC -- Investment Centre, 1990/91).
90. d. DECISION-MAKING SPHERE
-- Taking particular account of the position of women when providing assistance to
governments on people's organizations, cooperatives and other rural people's groups (ESHA --
Rural Analysis and Organization Service 1989; 1990/91).
3. Project development and monitoring
91. a. CIVIL STATUS SPHERE
-- Assisting governments through an "umbrella project" to promote women's rights to
resources and services (LEG -- Legal Service 1990/91).
92. b. ECONOMIC SPHERE
-- Continuation of planning and implementation of integrated dairy development activities
for small-scale-milk producers including activities/projects specifically for women's groups
involved in milk production (AGAM -- Meat and Dairy Services 1989; 1990/91).
-- Setting up small animal production pilot projects in Africa and Asia, channeled
through NGOs (AGAP -- Animal Production Service 1990/91).
-- Promoting energy-related technologies (in food processing, and provision of water and
fuel) to alleviate women's burdens (AGS -- Agricultural Services Division; AGL -- Land and
Water Division, and FO -- Forestry Division 1989; 1990/91).
-- Involving women in concrete ways in fertilizer programmes, promoting their
participation in input supply, credit, trials and demonstrations Including women in integrated
plant nutrition projects related to home gardens in Lesotho, The Gambia and Tanzania, as well as
in programmes for storekeepers in agricultural service centres in Rwanda, Ethiopia and Bolivia
(AGLF -- Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Service 1990/91); providing support to local women's
groups through funds raised from the sale of fertilizer made available by the International
Fertilizer Supply Scheme (AGLF 1990/91).
-- Including women in soil conservation activities such as tree-planting and terrace
construction in Ethiopia and Lesotho (AGLS--Soils Resources, Management and Conservation
-- Providing continued support to women in irrigation project activities in particular in
Tanzania, and disseminating experiences gained to other African countries through preparation of
information materials (AGLW -- Water Resources, Development and Management Service 1989,
-- Continuing assistance and cooperation for the coding of projects on a gender basis
(AGO -- Agricultural Operations Division 1990/91). A specific chapter on WID matters and
projects will be included in the AGO Annual Review and Appraisal (1990 onwards).
-- Designing specific programme elements for the formulation of field projects,
addressing women beneficiaries in particular (AGP -- Plant Production and Protection Unit
1990/91). Stimulating women's participation in home and school garden projects and
promoting suitable commercial enterprises such as as market garden programmes in floriculture,
herbs, spices, and medicinal and oil plants as income-producing activities for women (AGP
-- Offering project advice on small-scale industries and enterprises that target women as
well as men, such as improvement of indigenous flours, apiculture, sericulture, development of
hides and skins, and processing of natural fibres and animal byproducts; introducing techniques
and equipment to reduce human labour and energy consumption (AGSI -- Agricultural Industries
Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- Reviewing all agriculturally based income-generating projects that target rural women
to assess marketing aspects (AGSM -- Marketing and Credit Service 1989). Improving
marketing services for female horticulture producers in Nepal, Swaziland, the Gambia and the
Eastern Caribbean; working on projects for rural bankers to inform them about WID concerns,
and, in cases where traditional financial institutions do not exist, identifying alternative credit
channels for women farmers, including the placing of credit facilities within productive activities
or the utilization of traditional informal credit schemes (1989; 1990/91). Continuing market
improvement projects to provide improved infrastructure for market women in the Caribbean,
and reintroducing marketing extension training workshops for women in several regions
-- Emphasis on gender issues in farming systems projects (AGSP -- Farm Management
and Production Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- Incorporating WID concerns in project formulation and development (DDA -- Freedom
from Hunger Campaign 1990 and continuing).
-- Continuing the inclusion of gender analysis in the design of investment projects for
IFAD and other international financing institutions (DDC -- Investment Centre 1989 and
continuing); establishing a regular programme post to act as a focal point for special concerns,
including WID (1989)
-- Continuing the inclusion of WID concerns in commodity programmes and projects at
the country level; several projects already include attention to women's situation and interests
(ESC -- Commodities and Trade Division 1989; 1990/91).
-- Integrating of gender issues in projects for promoting peoples' participation,
cooperatives and other rural peoples' organizations (ESHA -- Rural Development and
Organization Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- Integrating nutrition and gender concerns into both fisheries and forestry department
projects, especially by holding national workshops; strengthening the capacity of national
agricultural and development planners to integrate nutrition objectives and gender concerns into
their planning process through the provision of training courses (ESNA -- Nutrition Planning,
Assessment and Evaluation Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- Continuing the regular review of pipeline projects and ideas by the Core Group on
Women in Fisheries for inclusion of WID concerns (FI -- Fisheries Department 1989, 1990/91).
Designing projects to identify appropriate strategies for enhanced participation of women of
artisanal fishing communities in Chile and Peru (FI and ESHW 1989). Organizing a workshop
on the roles, constraints and prospects for women's participation in fisheries development (FI
-- Formulating two projects: the first one is global and is aimed at promoting and
encouraging women's activities related to non-wood forest products to expand their hare in
income-generation and the second one for Latin America is focused on improved wood energy
systems for rural industries involving women dealing with forest-based industries (FO.--
Forestry Department 1989; 1990/91).
93. c. SOCIAL SPHERE
-- Including women in the training of retailers who sell fertilizers, seeds, etc., in
Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand (AGLF -- Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Service 1989).
-- Improving training materials and promoting educational opportunities for women,
including nomination of women candidates for training courses ; creating fellowships for women
at the M.Sc. level in various disciplines related to crop production and protection (AGP -- Plant
Production and Protection Service 1990/91).
-- Cooperating with other organizations in upgrading and transferring improved
technologies in food processing through TCDC to assist small-scale rural enterprises where
women predominate.(AGSI -- Food and Agricultural Industries Service 1989 and continuing).
-- Assisting women in resource and environment conservation and in taking initiatives
toward sustained use of the resource base (AGR -- Agricultural Research and Technology
-- Training programmes to be held for development agents in South Asia, many of whom
are women (DDA -- Freedom from Hunger Campaign 1989; 1990/91), as well as workshops on
women and development; developing a women-and-media network as well as consultancies to
support women's group activities (DDA 1990/91).
-- Facilitating the enrolment of women in agricultural training courses, in collaboration
with ESHW (ESHE -- Agricultural Education and Extension Service 1990/91). Offer training
seminars in French- and English-speaking Africa focused on improving the level of agricultural
extension support for women (1989; 1990/91); a similar exercise is planned for Latin America in
1990/91. Together with ESHW, review training curricula in two regions to include WID
concerns (ESHE 1990/91).
-- Examining women's access to land in terms of their ability to obtain credit, and
therefore, investment capital to produce, transport and market their products (ESHL -- Agrarian
Reform and Land Settlement Division 1990/91). In collaboration with the Statistical Service
(ESS), the draft questionnaires currently being prepared for national land commissions will
suggest the inclusion of attention to women's access to land (ESHL 1989).
-- Linking nutrition education as well as other nutrition interventions to agricultural and
rural development projects in order to improve the population's nutritional status and to prevent
malnutrition and nutritional deficiency diseases. Where appropriate, these interventions will
address the needs of women and children as the major at-risk groups (ESN -- Food Policy and
Nutrition Division 1989; 1990/91).
-- Continuing training activities for women in regional programmes in Africa and Asia in
small-scale industries (fishers and fisheries-related) in credit, people's participation, education
and health (FI -- Fisheries Department 1989, 1990/91)
-- Continuing the training of women in nursery work, tree cultivation, harvesting and
marketing of wood products (FO -- Forestry Department 1989; 1990/91).
-- In collaboration with ESHW Service, building national capacity to use communications
media and techniques to inform, motivate and train women in several regions, particularly at
grass roots levels; will give special attention to production and use of audio-visual training
materials (GIIS, Development Support Communication Branch 1990/91).
94. d. DECISION-MAKING SPHERE
-- Including household studies with emphasis on women's role in agriculture and
domestic labour in farm management surveys (AGSP -- Farm Management and Production
-- Emphasizing the organization of women's groups as a regular feature of many projects
(DDC -- Investment Centre 1989; 1990/91).
-- Promoting access to services for organization of women's groups and cooperatives
(ESHA -- Rural Development Analysis and Organization service, in collaboration with ESHW
4. Reorientation of Home Economics and Agricultural Curricula
95. b. ECONOMIC SPHERE
-- Reorienting of extension systems to include WID concerns; producing training
materials (ESHE and ESHW 1989; 1990/91).
96. c. SOCIAL SPHERE
-- Assisting Member Governments to carry out in-service staff training and to redesign
curricula to reflect WID concerns in home economics and agriculture at training and higher
education institutions (ESHW -- Women in Agricultural Production Service, in collaboration
with ESHE -- Agricultural Education and Extension Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- Offering in-service gender-sensitive nutrition training to field staff from governmental
institutions and lecturers from agricultural colleges and universities (ESNP -- Nutrition
Programmes Services 1989, 1990/91). Supporting nutrition training activities for women in
Honduras and Colombia (ESNP 1989). Training women involved in street foods (ESNS Food
Quality and Standards Service 1990/91).
97. d. DECISION -MAKING SPHERE
-- Preparing materials for training members of women's groups in management of
income-earning activity (ESHW -- Women in Agricultural Production
Service 1989; 1990/91). Preparing materials on the impact of new technologies on labour
patterns, resource allocation and decision-making in the household (1990/91).
5. Preparation and Promotion of Women in Development
Guidelines and Manuals
98. b. ECONOMIC SPHERE
-- Using methodologies developed in pilot projects carried out in The Gambia and
Tanzania, produce guidelines on fertilizer utilization by women's groups (AGLF -- Fertilizer and
Plant Nutrition Service 1990/91).
-- Developing very simple irrigation training manuals that give attention to women's
special problems (AGLW -- Water Resources, Development and Management Service 1989).
-- In collaboration with the Women in Agricultural Production Service (ESHW) preparing
guidelines on women's participation in horticulture, seed selection and integrated pest
management, animal husbandry, etc.(AGO -- Agricultural Operations Division; AGA -- Animal
Production and Health Division; AGP -- Plant Production and Protection Division; AGS --
Agricultural Services Division 1990/91).
-- Publishing a technical manual on appropriate small-scale mushroom cultivation
technologies for the tropics and subtropics that will have particular relevance for women and
women's groups (AGP -- Plant Production and Protection Division 1989); prepare a position
paper on women in horticulture (AGP 1990/91).
-- Preparing practical booklets and manuals on improved traditional techonolgies used by
women in small-scale rural enterprises (AGSI -- Food and Agricultural Industries Service
-- Issuing guidelines on gender analysis (integral part of "Briefing Notes on the Role of
Sociological Analysis in Investment Centre Work" for IFAD (DDC -- Investment Centre 1989).
-- Collaborating with the ESHW Service in developing standard guidelines to ensure that
gender concerns are addressed in project review, and in briefing of country programming and
project formulation missions (DDF -- Field Programme Development Division 1990). DDF also
intends to use existing or modified checklists to ensure that WID issues are considered at all
project stages (1989 and continuing).
-- Preparing a manual on human energy requirements that will enable gender issues to be
taken into account in food and nutrition planning (ESN -- Food and Nutrition Policy Division
-- Publishing "Guidelines on Socio-Economic Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluating
Agrarian Reform and Rural Development" with emphasis on women's issues (collaboration
between ESS -- Statistics Division and ESH -- Human Resources Division 1989).
-- As follow-up to the guidelines on women in fisheries prepared in 1988, competing
research and baselines studies for the various continents in the light of experience and use (FI --
Fisheries beginning in 1990).
-- Developing guidelines for project designers and implementors to incorporate women's
concerns in forestry activities (1989 and continuing); integrating nutritional concerns in forestry
projects (FO -- Forestry Department, published in 1989); developing materials useful in project
design for the involvement of women in extension, employment, work with women's groups
and identification of women's issues (FO 1990/91).
99. c. SOCIAL SPHERE
-- Guidelines on WID and Population will be produced with the collaboration of ESDP --
Population Programme, and ESHW -- Service for Women in Agricultural Production (1990).
6. Data collection, research studies, communication and public
100. a. CIVIL STATUS SPHERE
-- Reviewing case studies to detect the legal problems hindering women's participation in
rural development; study legal standards and accessibility of women to resources in Latin
America and Africa (LEG -- Legal Service 1989/90).
101. b. ECONOMIC SPHERE
-- In collaboration with national development institutions in developing countries,
preparing a study on rural women and fertilizer use for consideration by the 1990 Session of the
Commission on Fertilizers; producing a video tape on women's fertilizer block demonstrations
in The Gambia (AGLF -- Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Service 1990). Carrying out and
analysing case studies on women in irrigated agriculture in four countries in southeast Africa,
and integration of the outcomes in ongoing and planned African irrigation-related projects
(jointlyAGLW -- Water Resources, Development and Management Service, and ESHW --
Women in Agricultural Production Service 1989, 1990/91).
-- Emphasis on women's importance in relation to studies on the environment, and on
fuelwood, biomass fuels and other forms of rural energy (AGR -- Agriculture Research and
Technology Division 1990/91). Examine research and technology in relation to women's
function as agricultural producers (1989 and continuing).
-- Including reference to gender-linked tasks, access to resources and decision-making
patterns in FAO farm data handbooks (AGSP -- Farm Management and Production Economics
Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- Carrying out a study of street foods, largely sold by women, in Nigeria (ESNP --
Food Policy and Nutrition Service 1990).
-- Setting up a data base on women in agriculture in 1989 (ESS -- Statistics Division, in
collaboration with the ESHW Service). Preparing a manual for the collection of statistics on
women in agriculture (ESS), in collaboration with the Policy Analysis Division (ESP);
organizing two national training centres and preparing software for WID programmes
(1990/91). Working with Member Governments toward a full analysis of data by gender for the
1990 round of the World Census of Agriculture.
-- Initiating pilot programme on data bases to analyze gender and agriculture, as well as
publications, country needs assessments and base line survey formats (ESDP -- Population
-- Carrying out case studies on women and farming by region (ESHW Women in
Agricultural Production Service 1989).
-- Analyzing technological change in agro-processing and its impact on women's
employment in the Asia region (1989); carry out additional field-level investigations in 1990/91
(ESHA -- Rural Development and Organization Service).
-- Updating bibliography on women in fisheries and producing publications and audio-
visuals for staff information and sensitization on WID (FI -- Fisheries Department 1989;
-- Preparing case studies/film strips of projects that have overcome constraints to
women's participation in forestry projects in the Sudan, India, Nepal, Peru, Thailand, etc.;
complete a manual on the Integration of Women into Forestry Activities (FO -- Forestry
Department 1989; 1990/91).
-- Preparing population information, education and communication (IEC) projects, in
collaboration with ESHW, which have women as prime beneficiaries (GII -- Information
Division 1989 and continuing).
-- Promoting the further collection and dissemination of information on women in
agricultural development in AGRIS and CARIS (AGRIS and CARIS coordinating centre is GIL,
ESHW and the members of AGRIS/CARIS throughout the world, 1989 onwards); publication
of bibliographies on WID extracted from FAO documents database (1989) and from AGRIS
(1990); selected dissemination of a bi-monthly AGRIS profile on WID (1989; 1990/91).
102. c. SOCIAL SPHERE
-- Highlighting areas of specific concern to women, such as the effects of environmental
pollution on nutrition and health in collaboration with the Food Policy and Nutrition Division
(ESN) (AGR -- Agricultural Research and Technology Division 1989; 1990/91).
-- Continuing to promote gender analysis in the Nutrition Country Profiles series (ESNA
-- Nutrition Planning, Assessment and Evaluation Service 1989; 1990/91).
-- Studying the effects on women's condition in specific areas of analysis such as labour
mobility, migration, impact of structural adjustment, and decentralization (ESP -- Policy Analysis
-- Sending out special instructions to the 40 experts currently being backstopped in 100
field projects throughout the world, reminding them to include WID issues in these data-
gathering efforts (ESS -- Statistics Division 1989 and continuing).
-- Ensuring an analysis of data by gender in the Sixth World Food Survey (collaboration
between ESN -- Food Policy and Nutrition Division and ESSA -- Statistical Analysis Service,
early 1990s). Including in this analysis an estimation of the proportion of households, as well
as the sex of household heads, where food consumption levels are in the undernourished
-- Promoting fisheries projects targeted particularly to alleviating under-nutrition, where
women are the direct beneficiaries (FI -- Fisheries 1989 and continuing.
7. Population Education and WID
103. b. ECONOMIC SPHERE
-- Strengthening TCDC, conducting country visits, and giving technical support on WID
to projects with population components (Population Programme Coordination Unit in ESD
-- Conducting case studies on women and population; providing technical backstopping
assistance/advisory services to Member Governments on the integration of population and
environmental concerns/factors into agricultural, forestry and fisheries development projects that
involve rural women (ESDP in collaboration with other technical units 1989; 1990/91).
--.Designing population components for integration into existing and pipeline rural,
agricultural, fisheries and forestry development projects in which women participate (ESDP
104. c. SOCIAL SPHERE
-- Collaboration with ESHW Service in sponsoring four regional training workshops on
population, women in rural development, and women and environmental concerns (1989;