Group Title: Gender and development
Title: Diagnostic inventory : a tool for identifying gender impacts : draft January 3, 1994
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: Diagnostic inventory : a tool for identifying gender impacts : draft January 3, 1994
Physical Description: Book
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089854
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

Wiic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

The Diagnostic Inventory
A Tool for Identifying Gender Impacts

Wesley Weidemann, GENESYS Project

The Diagnostic Inventory is an analytical technique that has proven to be a highly flexible,
rapid appraisal tool to determine policy, legal, and regulatory impacts on a particular sector
or sub-sector. In addition to providing a low cost means of assessing a policy environment,
the technique has been refined for use in a variety of situations. The inventory was
developed to assess impacts of policies on the agricultural sector by the Agricultural Policy
Analysis Project. Subsequently it was refined to ascertain impacts on sub-sectors and
selected target groups. Policy inventories have been used to examine impacts on
environment and natural resources, women in agriculture, small business development,
female entrepreneurs, and agribusiness development.

The richness of the diagnostic inventory is revealed in the ability to assess impacts on
specific target groups or sub-groups. Where gender disaggregated data is available, the
diagnostic inventory becomes a powerful gender analysis tool. For example, if gender
disaggregated data is available, the diagnostic inventory can assess impacts on farmer's
income by gender. During the Agricultural Policy Analysis Project I, the inventory was field
tested to assess the policy impacts on women in the agricultural sector in Senegal, Zaire,
Guatemala, Malawi, Thailand, and Yemen. The results were written in a series of case
studies. In the ARIES small business project, attempts were made to assess the impacts of
policy and legal barriers on the status of female entrepreneurs. This paper builds on these
previous gender-based inventories, plus others that were done during APAP II.'

The term "policy" is used to cover a broad range of governmental interventions. At the one
extreme, the term may be applied to a nation's basic strategy for economic development,
including policies on import substitution, exchange rate policies and related macro issues. At
the next level of disaggregation "policy" may refer to laws, legal codes, and regulations that
result from the law. At the micro level "policy" may refer to administration of rules and
regulations. The tool that is referred to as a "policy inventory" in the Agricultural Policy
Analysis Project is referred to here as a "diagnostic inventory". While the concepts, analysis
and presentation are very similar, the diagnostic inventory focuses more on micro and
household level impacts.

'Special thanks is owed to Dr. Gary Ender of Abt Associates who refined the agribusiness
policy inventory during APAP II and provided helpful comments on this paper.

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction to the diagnostic inventory technique,
how it is used, the requirements for its application, and to encourage further development as
a tool for gender analysis. It is directed primarily to decision makers, donor personnel, and
others whose information needs may be met in part by a diagnostic inventory, rather than the
analysts who would in most cases conduct the inventory itself.

1. Determining Priorities in Policy and Legal Reform.

The frequently disappointing results obtained from donor-funded projects and government
investment programs alike have refocussed attention on the enabling environment and the role
of policies, laws and regulations as determinants of development performance. It is generally
agreed that development programs cannot ensure a high rate of growth in the absence of a
positive enabling environment. Government decision-makers and donors therefore need
information permitting them to determine the importance of policy, legal and regulatory
reform and their impact on particular segments of the society or economy. However the
assessment of policies, laws, regulations, and administrative actions alone is a blunt
instrument of analysis. Disaggregation of the impact of the aforementioned issues on specific
sectors, sub-sectors, industry groups, businesses, or households helps to sharpen the focus of
the analysis and increase the precision of impact assessments. One of the most frequently
overlooked factors of impact analysis is gender. By including gender disaggregated data in
the assessment of impact, the power of the analytical tool is enhanced.

The diagnostic inventory is an analytical tool designed to give decision-makers a birds-eye
view of current policies, laws and regulations and their role in sectoral and sub-sectoral
development. The inventory is specific so that impacts on particular target groups can often
be estimated. Of interest here is the ability of the diagnostic inventory to determine policies,
legal, regulatory and administrative issues that have differential impact based on gender. A
diagnostic inventory can provide decision-makers with rapid answers to several key

o Do current policies, laws and regulations promote or hinder economic development?
o Which policies, laws, and regulations should have priority for reform, given their
impact on economic development?
o What are the main impacts of these policies, laws, and regulations that should be
considered in evaluating possible reforms?
o Which policies, laws, regulations, or administrative guidelines have differential
impact based on gender?

The answers to these questions can be used by decision-makers and donors in several equally
important ways:

o To determine the broad outlines of policy, legal, and regulatory reform, if such

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

reform is needed;
o To identify effects on donor-funded activities;
o To support policy dialogue, both within the government and between government and
o To guide selection of issues for further analysis;
o To monitor overall developments in the enabling environment; and,
o To highlight issues of gender inequality, or inefficiencies.

Constraints on time, data, and budget often require a rapid-appraisal type of approach. The
primary advantage of the diagnostic inventory is that it can generate information to serve
diverse purposes rapidly, and with a very modest input of analytic resources. It also presents
information in a simple method that is easy to comprehend.

2. What is a Diagnostic Inventory?

A diagnostic inventory consists of three basic elements, although these are generally
supplemented with additional analysis and follow-up activities to suit the particular situation
at hand:

o An overview of recent sectoral, sub-sectoral, or target group performance based on
available data to determine where the main strengths and weaknesses lie;
o A listing of the major policies, laws and regulations affecting the sector, sub-sector or
target group including both macro-economic policies (fiscal, monetary, etc.) and
sector-specific policies, laws and regulations;
o An assessment of policy, legal and regulatory impact, leading to a determination of
whether policies are a major constraint, and, if so, which policies have the greatest
negative impact on growth and development on the sector or target group in question.

The breadth and depth of the analysis in each of these three areas is determined by the
amount of information available, the time frame for the inventory, and the analytic resources
that can be devoted to it. The inventory can be based on the professional judgement of a
team with considerable experience in the area, or it can be based on more complex modelling
exercises. Although the diagnostic inventory is well-suited to focus on analysis of specific
issues, and specific target groups such as women.

The diagnostic inventory is presented in a simple matrix that emphasizes impacts for
decision-makers. The format:

o groups policies into macro-economic, sectoral and sub-sectoral policies, laws,
regulations, and administrative concerns;
o indicates the main impacts of each policy, law, regulation, or administrative guideline
on selected variables or target groups of concern to policy-makers;

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

o assesses the importance of each factor by ranking its impact on a five point scale;
o lists the main alternatives to each policy as an aid to discussion and for further
analysis; and,
o identifies the agency responsible for each policy, law, or regulation.

Depending on the specific situation, the organization sponsoring the inventory may choose to
supplement the inventory with one or more of the following:

o Analysis of major issues, where alternative reforms or priority questions for analysis
have already been identified;
o Recommendation for further analysis for specific reforms, where sufficient
information exists to make such a recommendation; or
o Program design to structure the policy dialogue, develop a program of assistance to
in-country analytic capacity, identify possible uses for program assistance of sector
loans, and so on.

To be fully effective, the diagnostic inventory must be followed up with analysis and other
assistance to encourage the government to move quickly on policies, laws and regulations
that are major barriers development. Other follow-up actions include periodic updates to the
inventory to incorporate changes made over time, and joint sessions with government
decision-makers to increase their awareness of inventory findings.

Carefully designed and implemented, the diagnostic inventory can become a useful tool of
monitoring developments in the enabling environment, and impacts on a particular target
group such as women. It can be used to track progress toward implementation of a reform
program and to verify that the planned reform program is not being undermined by changes
in other areas.

3. Implementing a Diagnostic Inventory

A typical diagnostic inventory exercise is a six-step process.

a. Planning, including decisions on sectors and target groups to be examined, the mix of
in-country and expatriate expertise, and the funding requirements;

b. Preparation, including gathering and reviewing information available in-country,
such as historical data and previous policy analyses, assessing the availability of
gender disaggregated data;

c. Inventory of existing policies, laws, regulations, and administrative guidelines, a
review of recent performance, non-policy developments that should be taken into
consideration in evaluating the importance and impact of existing policies on the

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

particular target group;

d. Assessment of policy impact, including formal or informal analysis of existing
policies at the macro level, the sectoral level, and the household level;

e. Analysis of alternatives, which may be implemented as part of the inventory exercise
or separately; and

f. Follow-up to discuss the inventory findings with policy-makers in the sector, develop
a program of analysis and reform if needed and monitor policy changes over time.

Although an inventory can be conducted by AID and/or developing country government staff
without outside assistance, if analytic staff are available, it is usually preferable to mobilize
additional expertise to ensure that the inventory is carried out rapidly and thoroughly. Direct
participation of AID and government personnel in the exercise is nonetheless highly desirable
to represent decision-makers' interests during the analysis, to ensure that in-country
personnel are fully familiar with the findings, and to pave the way for follow-on dialogue
and analysis.

The most important planning parameter for the inventory is therefore the determination of the
mix and level of expertise to be fielded for the exercise. At a minimum, the team must
include individuals with extensive knowledge of the country, skill in economic analysis
(including trade and fiscal issues), familiarity with sectoral development, and analytical
expertise in gender analysis.

Normally the data collection and analysis phases are separate, and the analysis need not be
carried out in the field. However as in other forms of rapid appraisal, the direct
participation of the analyst in interviews should be maintained in the inventory process. The
resources available to conduct an inventory are not likely to permit formal surveys with
trained enumerators. In addition a large amount of unstructured information usually must be
organized, analyzed, synthesized, and presented. Therefore there should be as few barriers
as possible between the analyst and the data. Much of this process takes place in the course
of fieldwork and the analyst must be able to do ongoing analysis and synthesis which leads to
progressively focused data gathering.

The plan for the inventory (and the terms of reference for any outside personnel involved)
should clearly reflect the broad scope of the diagnostic inventory exercise. The overall focus
can be lost if too much emphasis is given to particular issues of current interest or to
development of a program for future analysis or assistance to the sector. An illustrative
scope is included as an Annex to this paper.

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

4. Mainstream or Stand Alone?

Two other issues must also be addressed in planning a diagnostic inventory:

Should analysis of reform alternatives or other specific issues be included in the
inventory exercise or carried out separately?

Should the inventory be implemented as an independent exercise or included in a
larger examination of sectoral and economic development issues, or if one is planned
in the near future (e.g., a sector study, preparation of a five-year plan, or CDSS

There are advantages and disadvantages to focusing the exercise exclusively on the diagnostic
inventory, rather than incorporating it as part of a program of examination of sector issues.
On the one hand, implementation of the inventory as a free-standing exercise simplifies
planning for the inventory and tends to focus attention on inventory findings, preventing
them from becoming lost in a larger program of analysis. On the other hand, inclusion of
the inventory in a larger program of analysis may clarify the relationship between policy and
non-policy issues and attract policy-makers attention, by generating outputs of more
immediate interest to them, such as analysis of specific reforms or identification of sector
investments. While the diagnostic inventory can be a stand alone exercise, it is highly
recommended that any overall program of analysis include a diagnostic inventory to examine
gender-based inefficiencies and inequalities, since there is a tendency to isolate rather than
integrate gender issues in economic development.

In planning a diagnostic inventory, it is necessary to give careful consideration to the current
level of government concern over policy and to other developments in the sector, and the
level of concern with impact on a particular target group such as women. High level policy-
makers are more concerned about the performance of the entire economy rather than about
the welfare of a particular group within the economy, such a women entrepreneurs.
Therefore policy-makers often overlook factors that have a negative impact on women, not
because of malice, but because of a belief that women are not being discriminated against or
that the barriers faced by women are inconsequential. One more often discovers that gender-
based discrimination or inefficiency is not enshrined at the policy level, but is more often
revealed at the administrative level where social attitudes translate directly into gender-based
barriers. It is therefore recommended that the diagnostic inventory focus as much as possible
on the micro and household level without getting lost in detail. By examining the
environment in which the inventory will be implemented, those sponsoring an inventory can
position it so that it provides as much support as possible to ongoing dialogue, planning, and
reform activities.

Diagnostic Inventory Draft January 3, 1994


Bradley, Theresa, M. Basterrechea, Eduardo Villagran and Luis A. Castaneda. Guatemala
Natural Resource Policy Inventory, Vols. I-III. APAP II Technical Report No. 108. April
1990. (CDIE Reference PN-ABF-993.)

Bradley, Theresa and Fred Mangum. 1990. Belize Natural Resource Policy Inventoty.
APAP II Technical Report No. 110. Washington, DC: Abt Associates Inc. and Belize City:
The Belize Center for Environmental Studies. October.

Bradley, Theresa et al. 1990. Costa Rica Natural Resource Policy Inventory, Vols. 1-3.
APAP II Technical Report No. 112. Washington, DC: Abt Associates Inc. and San Jos6,
Costa Rica: The Tropical Science Center. October.

Bremer, Jennifer. 1987. The Policy Inventory: A Tool for Diagnosing Priorities for Analysis
and Reform of Agricultural Sector Policies. APAP Staff Paper no. 10. May.

Bremer, Jennifer; Rekha Mehra & Laurene Graig. 1987. A Manual for Rapid Appraisal of
Policies Affecting the Agricultural Sector with Disaggregation of Impacts by Gender. APAP
Review Draft. Washington, DC: Abt Associates, Inc. and Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc.

Bremer-Fox, Jennifer; Zaman, Samir; et. al. 1988. Agricultural Policy Inventory: a toolfor
Setting Priorities for Analysis and Dialogue. APAP Staff Paper, no. 24. Washington DC:
Abt Associates, Inc. and Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. August.

Ender, Gary. The Agribusiness Policy Inventory: The Tool and Its Use in Policy Analysis
and Reform. APAP II Methods and Guidelines No. 408. August 1993. (CDIE Reference .)

Johnston, George and Jose Flores. Honduras Natural Resource Policy Inventory, Vols. I-II.
APAP II Technical Report No. 111. May 1990. (CDIE Reference PN-ABH-562.)

Niiiez, Ruben, Francisco Serrano, et al. El Salvador Natural Resource Policy Inventory,
Vols. I-III. APAP II Technical Report No. 113. August 1990. (CDIE Reference PN-ABH-

Ndfiez, Ruben D., Jos6 Abel Hernmndez et al. Dominican Republic Natural Resource Policy
Inventory, Vols. I-II.** APAP II Technical Report No. 128. August 1992. (CDIE
Reference PN-ABP-568, Spanish version .)

Otero, Maria; Semenza, Laurene; Lang, Paula. 1987. Guidebook for Integrating Women
into Small and Micro Enterprise Projects: Gender Issues in Small Scale Enterprise.

Diagnostic Inventory Draft January 3, 1994

Washington, DC: Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. July.

Reintsma, Mary; Lang, Paola. 1989. The Impacts of Economic and Agricultural Policies on
Women in Agriculture in Malawi. Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. February.

Reintsma, Mary; Lang, Paola. 1989. The Impacts of Economic and Agricultural Policies on
Womnen in Agriculture in Thailand. Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. February.

Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. 1984. An Inventory of Policies Affecting Agriculture in
El Salvador. APAP Technical Document no. 118. Washington, DC. August.

Russo, Sandra; Bremer-Fox; et al. 1989. Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natural Resource
Management. Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. April.

Semenza, Laurene. 1987. Female Entrepreneurship in Jordan. Washington, DC: Robert R.
Nathan Associates, Inc. March.

Warnken, Philip F. 1989. The Impacts of Economic and Agricultural Policies on Women in
Agriculture: Four Case Studies. APAP Technical Document No. 506. Washington, DC:
Abt Associates, Inc. and Robert R. Nathan Associates, Inc. February.

Warnken, Philip F. 1989. The Impacts of Economic and Agricultural Policies on Women in
Agriculture in Guatemala. Washington, DC: Robert R. Nathan Associates. February.

Warnken, Philip F.; Nicholson, Charles, F. The Impacts of Economic and Agricultural
Policies on Women in Agriculture in the Yemen Arab Republic. Washington, DC: Robert R.
Nathan Associates, Inc. February.

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994



Diagnostic Inventory Method

The diagnostic inventory coverage is usually broad, but target issues) or subsector(s)
can be specified. When gender disaggregated data are available, the diagnostic inventory can
be used as a tool to indicate gender differentiated impacts of policies, laws, regulations, or
the administration of regulations. This particular scope of work is targeted toward examining
the gender-based differential impact of laws, regulations, and the administration of
regulations on the establishment and growth of small businesses.


The objective of this activity is to increase the understanding and knowledge of the
impacts of legal, regulatory, and administrative reforms on women in economic growth. In
addition to providing a preliminary assessment of the gender impacts of legal and regulatory
changes, the analysts will survey previous gender research and the availability of gender
baseline data that will support the identification and conduct of future research on impacts of
legal and regulatory reform on women. In this particular scope a diagnostic inventory will
be done that can assist in development of an assistance program that will distinguish the
particular barriers faced by women in establishing and expanding businesses in (country)


Each analyst is expected to gather available gender information in the host country and to
make use of it, and of documentation collected in Washington. The analysts are expected to
conduct interviews with persons having knowledge or specific sources of information
pertaining to the sector being analyzed, and with knowledge of gender-based impacts. The
analysts will prepare a description and analysis of the current set of legal, regulatory, and
administrative issues affecting small business, paying particular attention to those that have a
differential impact based on gender. The analysts will provide an annotated bibliography
containing a thorough survey of previous gender research and available gender data to
support further research. The analysts will prepare an inventory of gender issues and
implications. If there are deficiencies in gender related data, the analysts will identify data
collection activities which would benefit future impact monitoring and evaluation activities.
Specifically this inventory will:

Diagnostic Inventory Draft January 3, 1994

* Identify the principal points within the small business system where women's partici-
pation is significant, with an emphasis on the salient differences between women's
activities and other activities in the sector.

Identify the main sectoral policies, legal codes, regulations, and administration of
these regulations that affect small business development and growth in the country.

For each of the factors identified to affect small business development, determine the
organization responsible for setting and implementing the policies or procedures.
Identify the ways in which these policies and procedures affect small business and
highlight the differential impact on activities where women's activities are concentrat-
ed. Identify alternatives for reform and dialogue.

Home Office Preparation

Prior to departure the analysts will be briefed by AID/W. The analysts will survey literature
and availability of gender-disaggregated data. Based on the results of the literature search
the analysts will draft a country-specific work plan. During preparation of the work plan the
analysts will clarify and discuss the level of aggregation and analysis required from the
inventory (macro level, legal level, regulatory level, administrative level, or some combina-
tion of the above). The team will focus on selection of impact variables and specification of
key issues, or subsectors. Arrangements will be made for local analysts.

Fieldwork and Preliminary Analysis

The team will spend three to four weeks in the field gathering relevant data and doing
preliminary analysis. After refining its work plan, the team will conduct interviews with the
Mission, government officials, and private sector individuals and gather further secondary
information. The team will review laws and regulations as necessary. The team will analyze
the information gathered and begin organizing it into an inventory matrix. Preliminary
findings will be presented to the Mission for comment. Where gender-relevant data are
deficient, the analysts are expected to identify data collection activities that would benefit
future impact monitoring and evaluation.

Analysis and Report Preparation

Team members will return to the United States to complete the analysis and write the report.
The report will be sent to the Mission for comment. These comments and others from
internal and other reviews will be incorporated into the final report.

* Presentation of Results

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

The team members will make a presentation to AID/W and may be asked return to _
(country) to make a formal presentation of the findings to the Mission, the government, and
the private sector.


At the end of this activity, the contractor will present to the Mission a final report. The
report will be an analysis of the gender environment and will focus on the macro policies,
legal policies, regulations, and administration of regulations that appear to have a differential
impact based on gender in the formation and growth of small businesses. The report will
catalog the institutions making and implementing policies, and make a preliminary qualitative
assessment of the impacts of these policies.

Personnel and Timing

The analysts assigned to this task should be business development specialists with a thorough
knowledge of legal and regulatory issues and impacts based on gender. Two people from the
GENESYS team will work with two local counterparts to conduct the diagnostic inventory.
The following qualifications are required for the GENESYS team members:

Experience and knowledge in one or more of the following areas:
Policy analysis
Legal and regulatory analysis
Economic analysis

Experience with government institutions and private organizations involved in policy
making and implementation of policies.

Excellent interviewing and verbal communication skills.

Ability to work well on a team, meet deadlines, and work under pressure.

Educational degree at the MBA/MS/PhD level in the relevant field of specializa-

The following qualifications are required for the local counterparts or consultants:

Experience and knowledge in one or more of the following areas:
Economic & Policy analysis
Law, especially business law
Regulatory analysis

Diagnostic Inventory Draft January 3, 1994

Knowledge of and contact with government institutions and private organizations
involved in policy making and implementation of policies and regulations in _

Excellent interviewing and verbal communication skills.

Ability to write well in English is highly desirable.

Ability to work well on a team, meet deadlines, and work under pressure.

Educational degree at the BS/MS level in the relevant field of specialization.

Diagnostic Inventory -- Draft January 3, 1994

Appendix Two

Illustrative Policy Inventory Matrices

Impact Assessment Table from El Salvador Agricultural Sector Policy Inventory

Explanation of Policy Impact

Principal Alternatives Suggested for

Level and Revenue Ministry of -1 0 -I -2 +1 Taxes extracted from the agricul- I. Revise coffee export tax to
structure of generation Finance tural system have averaged 10-11% of more nearly approximate an income
taxation agricultural value added, 90-95 % of tax rather than a gross sales tax.
/agriculture the sector's fiscal contribution origi-
nates in the coffee export tax, which 2. Broaden the agricultural tax
at current prices and exchange rates, base.
has strong negative impact on the
profitability of coffee production. 3. Improve tax administration and
Declining coffee output is closely collection
related to falling agriculture employ-
ment, income, and consumption.
Level and Provide Ministry of -1 -1 -1 ? +1 Central government expenditures on 1. As conditions permit, increase
structure of public Finance agriculture at 6-7% of total expendi- real levels of expenditure.
expenditures goods, ser- tures, are now low compared with
/agriculture vices, and agricultural sector tax revenues and 2. Revise intrasectoral allocation of
infrastruc- agriculture's contribution to GDP. expenditures in light of short- and
ture Expenditures favor livestock and ex- medium term national objectives.
port crops.
Interest rate Regulate Monetary +1 0 +1 +1 +1 The government has adopted an
regulation/ supply and Board interest rate structure designed to I. Implement this policy more ac-
agriculture demand for provide a positive real rate of return tively through more flexible and
financial Central Bank to savers and full cost recovery on frequent interest rate revisions.
resources; lending operations agricultural bor-
influence rowing rates are only modestly lower 2. Study interest rate measures to
costs than in other sectors. Through its foster the development of long-term
impact on savings, this policy should financial investments.
enhance investment and growth over
the medium.
-2 = highly unfavorable, 1= unfavorable, 0 = neutral, +1 = favorable, +2 = highly favorable

SOURCE: Robert R. Nathan Associates (1984).

1 _

Guatemala: Inventory of Policies Affecting Women in Agriculture2

Policy Intervention Purpose of Policy Institutions Impacts on Women in Explanation

Macroeconomic Policies

Monetary Policies Regulate supply of Bank of Guatemala Mixed Impacts Impact depends on policy
money and access to (Central Bank) under instrument utilized
financial resources direction of the Junta I) Reduced employment in
Monetaria traditional export crop 1) Deficit financing has caused
production, especially cotton high rates of inflation, resulting
2) Increased employment in in increased input costs and
non-traditional crop production reduced profitability of
and agro-industrial processing traditional export crops
3) Possible reduced household 2) Rediscounting of some lines
production of basic foodgrains of external funds are targeted
in small farm sector at imports of intermediate and
capital goods for agro-industry
3) Rediscounting of internal
funds directed to large
commercial farms to produce
food grains (formerly cotton)
Credit Policies Control access to credit Bank of Guatemala under Mixed Impacts Depends on Policy instrument
direction of the Junta
Monetaria 1) Possible reduced production 1) Small farms lack access to
of basic foodgrains in small credit; with subsidized credit,
farm sector competitive advantage tends to
2) Increased employment in shift to commercial large farm
non-traditional crop production sector
and agro-industrial processing 2) See (3) above

SSource: Philip F. Warnken, The Impacts of Economic and Agricultural Policies on Women in Agriculture in (Guatemala, Robert
R. Nathan Associates, Inc. February 28, 1989.


Appendix 2 (continued)

Policy Intervention Purpose of Policy Institutions Impacts on Women in Explanation

International trade Ration foreign Ministry of Finance Negative Impact Anti-export bias affecting all
policies exchange agricultural exports
1) Reduced employment in
traditional export crop 1) Profitability of export crop
production production reduced
2) Reduced employment 2) Costs of intermediate and
growth in nontraditional crop capital good for agro-industry
production and processing reduced investment
3) Reduced Income from 3) Costs of imported raw
artisan work materials increased due to
unfavorable exchange rate and
import quota treatment

Fiscal policies Revenue generation Ministry of Finance Generally neutral effect Revenue from all agricultural
taxes including export and
import taxes totals less than 25
percent of government tax
revenue; coffee export taxes
comprise high proportion of
total; coffee exported under
international quota and
normally filled

Commercial regulation Maintain publicly AVIATECA, Effects unknown Government-granted monopoly
policies owned air and sea FLOAMERICA on transport of agricultural
transport companies products on certain sea and air

Sector Policies

Taxation policies Revenue generation Ministry of Finance Possible negative effect of Fiscal incentives shift
reduced income derived from competitive advantage of
sales of animal production, poultry and swine production to
especially poultry and swine in commercial sector (now
small farm sector repealed)


Appendix 2 (continued)


Policy Intervention Purpose of Policy Institutions Impacts on Women in Explanation

Foreign trade policies National food security Ministries of Economy Neutral effect Complex set of regulations and
and Agriculture plus other controls on international
public and private entities agricultural trade, but no
evidence of significant
economic distortions

Domestic marketing Control retail price Ministry of Economy and Neutral effects Retail price ceilings are not
policies levels, support small Ministry of Agriculture effective; INDECA is under-
producer incomes through INDECA financed; producer foodgrains
support prices appear to follow
not lead market prices

Agricultural input

Labor policies

Minimum wages Maintain agricultural Ministry of Labor and No effect Minimum wage law not
labor income levels Social Welfare enforceable and disregarded by

Appendix 2 (continued)

Policy Intervention Purpose of Policy Institutions Impacts on Women in Explanation

Employment creation Expand rural Government agricultural Positive effects General agricultural sector
employment development strategy development strategy
1) Increased employment and implemented primarily via
contribution to household guidance of foreign assistance
income to agricultural sector
2) Increased production of Emphasis on employment
basic foodgrains creation production and rural-
3) enhanced consumer based agro-industrial
expenditure patterns processing of non-traditional
4) Improved caloric horticultural crops
consumption and nutritional Women comprise large
levels in household including proportion of additional labor
women and children employed in production and
nearly all labor involved in

Fertilizer and agricultural Stimulate domestic Ministries of Economy Positive effects Favorable exchange rate and
chemicals policies agricultural production and Agriculture via import quota treatment of
BANDESA, DIGESA 1) Increased employment in imported inputs of agricultural
cotton production chemicals; some government
2) Increased employment in subsidized fertilizer
non-traditional crop production distributions
and processing Cotton and nontraditional crop
production especially benefit
from favorable treatment of
agricultural chemical imports
Seed policy Increase agricultural ICTA Limited effect ICTA operates limited scale
production foundation seed program in
foodgrains and some other crop
Livestock policies See fiscal policies See fiscal policies See fiscal policies See fiscal policies


Appendix 2 (continued)

Policy Intervention Purpose of Policy Institutions Impacts on Women in Explanation

Land and natural resource

Idle lands law Regulate land use Congress; to be No effect unenforced law requires idle
implemented by INTA lands to be cultivated

Basic grains law Regulate land use Congress; to be No effect Unenforced law requires 10
implemented by DIGESA percent of land in farms over
100 hectares be used for
foodgrains production
Land distribution Redistribute land Congress; implemented by Very limited effect Government purchase land for
resources INTA resale to cooperative farmer

Agricultural research and Increase agricultural ICTA, DIGESA, Limited or neutral effects Research, but particularly
extension policies sector productivity DIGESEPE extension entities seriously
under funded

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs