Front Cover
 Summary of recommendations

Title: Working Group on Animal Production : draft recommendations
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089852/00001
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Title: Working Group on Animal Production : draft recommendations
Series Title: Working Group on Animal Production : draft recommendations
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
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Bibliographic ID: UF00089852
Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
    Summary of recommendations
        Page ii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
Full Text


Chairman: Ms Angelina Munoz-
Rapporteur: Ms Irene Whalen

I. Introduction and overview

II. Ownership of and access to land
a. landless women
b. land legislation
c. agrarian reform
d. resettlement programs

III. Animal extension services
a. animal care/training
b. reaching rural women

IV. Agricultural organizations and institutions
a. credit
b. marketing
1) processing and sale of animals and animal products
2) training
3) prices
c. insurance
d. monitoring and evaluation of projects

V. Research, application and approaches to women and animal production
a. farming systems as a framework for analysis
b. development and appropriate technologies
c. nutritional linkages
d. additional data required
e. actions required

VI. Institutional linkages (international and national)
a. women's bureaus/cells within MOA
b. funding

*; '.6 Yr

.1 /.'

ii -


Report 15

1. Development projects should take account of the situation prevailing in the


government's policies


development activities already under way.

2. Projects should aim to integrate the whole family (men and women).

3. Try to reduce dependence on financial and technical resources by encouraging the

population to participate in the production of animal feed (maize, fodder, etc.).

4. Whatever the development project, the aspirations and requirements of the

population should be taken into account before effective action is taken.

5. Assist in the training of multi-purpose extension personnel (agriculture, zootechny,

basic animal health care).

6. Training in villages could be improved by providing technical and financial

assistance to women rural motivators and could be rounded off, wherever possible, by the

mass media in village centres.

7. Train cattle farmers to vaccinate their animals (e.g., chickens against Newcastle


8. Promote traditional livestock farming where, with a little effort, productivity

could be increased at no extra cost.

9. Training in handling of meats for marketing (hygiene, etc.).

- 1 -


Project Design and Implementation

On project design and implementation it is necessary that whatever mechanisms em-

ployed must be aimed at strengthening the existing governments' machinery so as to

best provide for those activities aimed at women only at both planning and implementation

level as it may be extremely expensive and time consuming to establish specific units

manned by women to service women farmers. This will avoid the unfortunate situation

within which projects specially tailored for rural women tend to be ignored by relevant

technical ministries resulting in the failure of such projects.


The very cardinal limitation of the lack of the necessary collateral for the pur-

pose of procurement of loans from the conventional loaning agencies, i.e., commercial

banks and institutional credit agencies, makes it necessary for the establishment of an

alternative machinery specially tailored to meet the credit needs of the rural women.

Such a machinery should of necessity side-step the requirements of collaterals for

the purpose of loan procurement of rural women, and should make provisions for the

handling of small quantities of monetary requirements that are more relevant to the

needs of rural women. The type of activity undertaken and the nature of the production

line involved should for example determine the credit worthiness and the repayment

schedules to be advanced while the anticipated product may serve for the purpose of

loan security, so long as a specific marketing channel and payment system is incor-

porated to adequately service the women.

- 2 -




A need exists for a great deal of research to establish the effect of ready market

outlets to nutritional status and the food security position at the farm level, with a

view to incorporating possible safeguards within project proposals to ensure that the

family unit needs are catered for before the relevant produce is marketed.

The National food security policies must also be reflected at the basic family unit

level, and not be limited to the national level only.

Provisions should be instituted which provide for the possibility of women receiving

the returns from their production so as to promote the link between incentive and

productivity for the purpose of increased productivity.

Extension and Training Programmes

Extension and training programmes should be adapted to the women. Attention should

be paid to the complete role the woman plays in the household )see Chavanji). In all

levels of the training more women experts should be involved and stimulated to do so.

On the basic level one or two women (or a team) should have a more extensive training in:

management and nutrition of young animals;

hygienical producing and processing of milk (products);

veterinary and information on vaccination, treatment against parasites, etc.;

storage and marketing of the products.

These women should be paid. Preferably single women should be asked since they have

more freedom of movement. They should be given the necessary incentives and be directly

linked to preferably female technical experts, to work as intermediairs.

-3 -



In genera] more data should be collected, especially what the women in the villages

see as the most important constraints.

Large scale programmes and very advanced techniques like cross-bred promoting are

not useful to small farmers.

More cooperation between the several divisions of national and international insti-

tutions is needed.

One has to realize that involving women more in projects doesn't mean extra funds;

it should be seen as a different way of using the same funds to give more gain.


Women because of their multiple role in society require special training programmes

which of necessity ought to be run within the local setting, where women may attend

on a daily basis for a limited number of days, aimed at least disruption of the family




Part II

General recommendations:

1. That a high level FAO interdivisional committee be established to monitor all

FAO and Investment Centre, livestock and people's participation projects with respect

to the integration of women in these projects. Monitoring should start at the

project design level and include undertaken feasibility studies and continue throughout

the implementation of the project. In view of important information gaps about women's

role in animal production, feasibility studies can provide valuable information.

2. That FAO assists the establishment of a cell on Women in Animal Production

and Marketing at the planning level of Ministries of Agriculture and that governments

allocate sufficient resources for the operation of this cell.

3. That the FAO Animal Production Division recruits animal production and health

staff members with experience with women's livestock projects and/or expertise

in women's role in animal production and marketing.

4. The FAO Women's Division in cooperation with the Agricultural Training Division

develop models for farmer training which are more accessible to women by being

village based, oriented toward practical application and make use of existing

training techniques which are appropriate for illiterate people.

5. In view of practical difficulties encountered in the field placement of young

women agricultural extension workers, it is recommended that FAO tests alternative

models including:

training of adult rural women 35 years and over, female heads of house-

hold and/or the training of husband-wife rural couples to work as a team.

- 5 -

6. Recommendations regarding women's integration in livestock programmes and

projects and overall rural development programmes do not necessarily imply the necessity

to increase the overall available budget. Instead, there is a need for FAO and

donor agencies to restructure allocational priorities of funds and resources so as to

make available adequate resources.

Part III

The implications of pricing policy for women's participation in animal production

and marketing should be recognized. The implications should be examined of greater

government intervention in the determination of the prices of those animals and

animal products which are presently under women's control, so as to encourage addi-

tional participation of women in those markets by improving their profitability.

(Recommendations to paper)

If, owing to (planned) changes in the production process of dairy products,

changes are also planned in the distribution of the dairy productsefforts should be

made to incorporate the existing traders.

More research is needed into the problems needs, constraints, opportunities

in and priorities of market women. These studies should be product-oriented.

Part IV

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Extension Policy level

1. In some areas, it is recognized there is limited scope for technical improvement

in the small scale sector which will generate real and attractive economic returns.

In these cases it is recommended extension concentrates a) on the improvement of

living conditions through development of the social infrastructure b) on

securing women's access as producers, users and managers in larger scale enterprises.

2. It is recognized that in the absence of readily available research recommendations

concerning or adaptable to the animals, animals breeds, pastures and fodder crops

maintained by women, extension has a minor role to play. In these cases, the priority

must be appropriate fundamental and adaptive research.

3. It is recognized that in the small scale sectors it is difficult to provide women

access to activities in which men already dominate. It is recommended priority

attention should be given a) to activities in which women predominate already and

b) women's activities/technologies which are new to both men and women.

4. It is recommended that care be taken to avoid a) the transfer of women's debt
from traditional sources of finance, including money/ to modern institutions or

onor-assisted projects and b) the entrapment of women processors and sellers of

animal products and crafts in declining markets and low-return occupations through


5. The question of costs is best seen 1) in relation to estimates of the gains at

the household or national levels through supporting women, 2) the existing costs borne

by women and their families (health, nutrition, production foregone), 3) in relation

to the ineffectiveness and inefficiency of present resource allocations which could

be better used if attention to women were reflected within existing levels of resource


Field Level: Field Methodologies and Approaches

1. Male and female field staff are better motivated to work with women where job

content and work schedules and performance targets for specific categories of women

have been identified, and agreed to by the men. It is recommended that assistance

be given to develop such guidelines within concrete situations.


- 7-

2. In many cases women raise their own capital through, for example, traditional

savings groups. It is recommended extension agents are trained to identify such

mechanisms as vehicles for linking women to institutional savings and credit, where

necessary, and as receivers of seed capital or start-up finance for new activities.

3. In view of women's multiple management roles, it is recommended extension

training be provided at women's place of work and not only at residential training


4. It is recommended that animal husbandry extension services draw on the lessons of

experience of non-government organizations in providing technical skills and

information to non-literate women (e.g. artificial insemination, milk fat content


5. Animal husbandry services which are responsible for credit should draw on the

lessons of non-government organizations and project'banks' in using alternative

forms of collateral (e.g. group guaranteed repayment; repayment in kind under revolving

fund arrangements; institutionalized repayment at point of sale through organized

marketing of animal products).

6. Where extension should be reaching women as operators, it is recommended particular

attention is given to the timing and location of meetings, demonstrations etc. to

ensure these are convenient and in practice accessible to women.

7. It is recommended greater extension attention be paid to the marketing and

trading of animal products by women (e.g. provision of advice/technology to improve and

standardise quality; improved terms of access through wholesaling; diversification

of market outlets; provision of market information direct to women).

8. Where delivery of inputs is a problem, greater use be made of strategically placed

women as delivery channels for input supply (women traders, itinerant market women,

animal product crafts women).

-8 -

9. It is recommended that the communication of information be adjusted to take

account of women's communication networks and women's exclusion from orpractical

access s to public networks or male-controlled communication channels.

10. In identifying the target clientele for extension, women's roles should be

identified and explicitly represented in the recruitment of extension contacts

and recruitment to contact groups.

11. In recognition that women's accumulated experience and observation of their animals

is a valuable and non-substitutable knowledge base, it is recommended that extension-

research linkage mechanisms be tested to feed women's knowledge into animal and vete-

rinary research programmes.

12. Veterinary extension services should draw on the lessons of non-government

experience in the use of female paraprofessional basic animal health workers and

incorporate training of such cadres and the supply of animal 'first aid kits' into

their programmes. These cadres' work in some respects would be analogous to tra-

ditional Booth Attendants in the Health Sector and Pump Attendants in the Water Sector

and important lessons might be drawn from experience in these sectors. Extension

should, where necessary, incorporate basic money management, functional accountancy

training for women producers and processors, taking note that suitable materials for

working with non-literates now exist in these subjects.


1. It is recommended that FAO develop internal mechanisms to ensure that extension

assistance to other sectors (e.g. agriculture) does not unintentionally destroy women's

access to grazing, fodder or water (e.g. through promotion of chemical weed control where

weeds and crop residues are used for fodder and grazing) or that alternative prevision

is made.

- 9-

2. FAO should encourage the appointment of female/male counterpart teams to

initiate a learning experience for both female and male field staff and decision-


3. It is recommended that FAO's animal husbandry and livestock departments strongly

support the appointment of female members to all project planning, identification,

evaluation and advisory missions, both as technical experts and as advisors on women's


4. FAO should also encourage the recruitment of female associate experts in all

technical fields, including livestock extension.

5. It is recommended that the FAO phase out support for 'Women's Officer' posts in

animal extension and other technical livestock departments as long as it widens its

recruitment of women through affirmative action regarding technical posts.

6. All FAO's statistics relating to the livestock sector wherever possible should

be disaggregated by gender; all new data gathering should seek disaggretated information;

assistance should be provided to livestock and animal husbandry departments to redesign

their statistics and survey forms to reflect and capture women's participation.

7. FAO should make use of the guidelines already suggested in its own technical reports

on the participation of women in the livestock sectors.

Level of Extension Organisation

1. It is recommended that affirmative action be supported in the recruitment of women

to decision-making levels. Although the supply of appropriately qualified women varies

from country to country, evidence suggests that in most countries more women are available

pro-oritonaly than are recruited. The demonstration of the career opportunities would

also encourage more women to seek qualification in animal husbandry and veterinary science.

- 10 -

2. As posts fall vacant, it is recommended that more women are recruited as

extension field staff and supervisors, trainers, research workers and survey staff

more in proportion to women's participation in livestock and animal production/processing


3. It is recommended that extension services be assisted to experiment with alternative

patterns of deployment of female staff in the field, to overcome practical problems -

where these occur in accommodation, mobility and modesty (e.g. all female or mixed

field teams; sharing of accommodation with women from other departments; visible/public

endorsement of the women as professionals on placement in the field; joint discussions

with male colleagues of such issues during in-service training etc.).

4. All the data entered in extension reporting forms and the statistical information

generated, requested or supplied by extension departments should be disaggregated by


5. All the educational statistics kept by or supplied to extension training centres

should be disaggregated by gender.

6. Case studies should be commissioned to assist animal husbandry and veterinary

extension services to evaluate in their own case the structural/organizational options

for orienting their work to take more account of women's contribution (e.g. senior

women's adviser; women's officers within livestock sector planning apparatus action -

oriented commissioned research programme as a service input to higher executive and

administrative cadres; adoption of new monitoring and evaluation criteria).


1. It is recommended that trainers at the producer/processor level be recruited from

men and women with real practical experience and familiarity with women's tasks.

- 11 -

2. Trainers at higher levels should at least have undergone a period of field

placement, carrying out day to day the work of female producers/processors/labourers.

3. In view of women's historic educational disadvantages and standards of literacy,

it is recommended more consideration be given to a) the development of information

and extension materials usable by women and b) the introduction of informal education

methods at training centres.

4. Recruitment into extension programmes and training courses at residential centres

should be based on who exactly does what work within the subject to be taught.

5. Recruitment into entry training programmes for extension officers should include

consideration of proven work experience and tested capacity as a substitute for paper

qualifications so that women's present disadvantage in schooling does not form an

insuperable barrier.

6. Support should be given to study tours a) for female producers/processors and

b) extension trainers and c) extension managers, to widen their understanding, expose

them to alternative options, and develop women's access to the public domain.

7. Training of trainers should include exercises to assist women to increase their

self-confidence and self-image.

8. Training of trainers should incorporate training in production support skills

such as basic correspondence, administrative filing, and decision-making skills

training for women.

9. Trainers should also be trained to advise women on access skills eg. self-mobility

(how and where to catch buses etc.); the opening times and formalities of government

offices; access procedures for institutional credit and marketing, where such production

support training is required.

- 12 -

10. Greater attention should be paid in inservice training to the commercial

processing of the animal products locally under women's management.

11. The curricula of Farmer Training Centres, Institutes, Agricultural and Veterinary

Colleges and all higher level livestock and veterinary training institutions should be

changed to include detailed and explicit local information on women's roles and work with

animals, pasture maintenance, animal products and marketing; the relationship between male

and female work in the livestock sector; and the implications for the household economy.

12. Colleges and higher level extension training departments should be assisted to

develop students' field studies, practical training and faculty research to capture the

basic data, develop the theoretical understanding, and evaluate the options for effective

and efficient action.

Part V

1. Land for Feed and Pasture

It is a misleading premise that"land is a crucial point in animal production, if

there is no land, there are no cattle",

My experience and recommendation is that land and cattle ownership need not go

together for helping rural women in fighting their poverty in India and other developing

countries, majority of poor rural women being landless agriculture labourers, are the

really deserving people, to get cattle loan. Being landless is their misfortune and

not a crime. Hence, all efforts of FAO should be directed to strengthen landless rural

women for steady, non-agriculture source of income generation.

For fodder, feed and pastures, the Dairy should give actual extension services

by delivering cattle-feed at highly subsidized rates to landless cattle raisers.

Again, our landless agriculture labourers do .ean their wagesin terms of green fodder


13 -

from their farmer-employers, their landlessness should not come in way of their cattle-

development credit services.

2. Agrarian reforms are aimed at assisting the rural poor to own land; but rich farmers

are too smart to give away and declare a lot of their fertile land to government:

they have already disposed and distributed their land to relatives before the land Act:

so it has not benefitted rural landless. Agrarian reforms could not benefit poor women

who haven't acquired even two acres of "surplus" land, under Agrarian reforms, nor the

cash assistance to cultivate land; In a given value system of rural social structure,

land does not belong to women; neither cattle, norjewellery nor house, nor agriculture

income belongs to them. They have no control over their reproductive role also.

So green revolution has failed them.

3. So far as dairy development and women are concerned, T recommend as follows:

a) Cattle Care Training 80% of cattle care and milk production work is done by

women. Hence 80% of the trainers training inputs and dairy programmes must be women-


1. Instead of month long residential training programme, short term three days

cattle-care, veterinary service camps with regular two months' interval, in-village

and out-station programmes do help them.

2. Non-verbal, oral, audio-visual training material for training will help

cattle-holders and milk producers. Direct exposures to dairies, poultry farms, fishery

processing centres and agriculture University farms these out-station study tours must

be integrated in the training. Our experience of 600 women trainees proved how it

changed their poor self-perception radically: Next phase could take couples' tours.

3. Support services like creches, functional literacy, simple accountancy, functional

banking social securities must be provided to cattle raisers.

- 14 -

4. Unless reasonably encouraging milk-price is steadily given to small milk

producers and animal producers, they will keep on selling products to private

traders and money lenders; thus perpetuating their exploitation, women will lose

faith in white revolution.

5. For a cluster of villages, a chilling centre to preserve unused,

un-transported milk, is a must.

6. Small cattle-raisers must be taught to convert milk into milk products for

higher income generation. In India the value-added milk products earn fortune to

private traders: why not transfer this skill and kit to poor rural women? It will

free them from dependence on dairy as well give them better, secure market.

7. First Aid training to treat cows, buffalos, hens, etc. is a must not only

to extension workers, but women themselves: Training in veterinary practice with

the simple remedies kit must be made available to cattle-raising women, at door

step. It helps them really controlling the cattle-mortality rate and makes independence

of urban sophisticated structures.

8. Insurance of the small and big animals should really reach women. At present, the

cattle dies, and urban-based insurance officer rarely reaches these to certify death

of the cattle. Women knock the doors of office to office, travel town to town to

get insurance money. But lose it accusing the Development!

My recommendation is,

a) place insurance authority, in the hands of NGO extension women worker;

FAO can pressurize governments to enable women to get insurance without

going through trauma of red tapism.

b) Cost of insurance must be borne by government, bank and dairy collectively

and not by women; They are supplying a vital service to national economy.

15 -

Women's role in animal production should not be seen in isolation forgetting

her other functions, too. In dry seasons she goes to roads and canal construction,

brick plants, in harvest season goes as agricultural worker, when cattle are out to

graze she works as potter and weaver and works as mother too. She is also a vendor,

also a consumer. So a development plan must consider all these aspects of poor rural

women, constantly at work.

Appropriate technology must give direct exposure to women, give listening to

their comments and again redesign the equipment to suit and solve her needs and value

system constraints.

Part VI

According to Director-General's Bulletin 77/57 ofOctober'77 there is a

statement that "Equality between men and women is a guiding principle of the

Organization". Therefore all programmes for farmers whether in plant or animal

production or any other programme made, should include activities for women according

to the work they do with the animals and in a way that the man doesn't feel threatened.

Such a programme has to be planned and implemented within the relevant technical

Ministry and not by the Ministry that handles women affairs. Extension services

in animal production which are designed to reach women in some regions need to

have women technical officers especially veterinary technicians.

Part VII

Recommendations on Appropriate Technology for Women in Food Production

Equal participation of women in management and policy making levels, an important

aspect of which would be to give more accesss of women to education in general, since

.^ ..

' v '

16 -

this would greatly facilitate their development and integration into the various

fields of management and production.

2. More financial and logistical support of women from government and international

agencies which could include chanelling of funds according to priorities.

3. Intensification of the links between the grassroots and technical levels, through

extension services such that research technology would actually conform to the needs

of the area and people, and this would include making feasibility studies of intended

projects to its actual acceptability and practicability.

4. Providing specific support services to rural women to be more mobile in the

production processes as for instance support services for working mothers, provisions

for proper compensation for women's labour also taking into account the effects these

would have on the family unit.

5. Provisions for other support services for women such as facilitation of credit

and marketing processes.

6. Projects should be undertaken on a regional and subregional level or

preferably on a country level so as to arrive at more practicable methods of assisting



Policy Issues

If FAO could influence governments at policy making levels to consider the concept

of private participation of professional Veterinary practitioners through the

elimination of subsidies that would allow for the economical changes for services


17 -



The participation of women in marketing and credit is closely tied in with their

participation in production. Consequently, it poses mainly legal and economic diffi-


(1) Ownership by women (of land, cattle, processed agricultural products...),

their associations or peasant associations;

(2) The ability to monitor the product's progress along the commercial circuit

and to benefit from its ultimate sale. If women are to participate effectively

in marketing and credit, and if they and their families are to derive advan-

tages from it, they must have:

control over the means of production (material and financial means,

technical knowledge, etc.);

control of the product in the distribution circuit (marketing).

Therefore, we can make three main recommendations:

(1) Have all projects drawn up by women and with women,

by associating with them in their daily life through detailed field studies.

(2) Inform and train the populations concerned, their leaders (preferably their

own elected ones) as well as project contact agents (particularly women),

by informing them of what was noted in their environments and by exposing

them to skills and techniques not yet mastered by them.

(3) Make the necessary finance and means of action available to women and exten-

sion personnel as a means of furthering the success of the projects,

by setting up a local management committee which will lay down the way in

which funds are to be used, taking into account local conditions.

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