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Title: Incorporating the intrahousehold dimension into development projects: a guide for planners [draft}
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Title: Incorporating the intrahousehold dimension into development projects: a guide for planners draft}
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Rogers, Beatrice Lorge
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment ) ( endowment )
Publication Date: October 15, 1985
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        12-64
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INCORPORATING THE INTRAHOUSEHOLD
DIMENSION INTO DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS:
A GUIDE FOR PLANNERS




Beatrice Lorge Rogers
Tufts University School of Nutrition
Medford, Massachusetts
October 15, 1985









This paper has been prepared under contract with
USAID/PPC Human Resources Division
I










TABLE OF CONTENTS



Foreword

Summary


1. Introduction 1


2. Procedures to Follow in Incorporating Intrahousehold Dynamics
Project Planning 2

2.1 Spell out the expected linkages between project
.inputs and expected outputs. 5
2.2 Before leaving the U.S., review the literature
on the country and area where the project is
to take place. 8
2.3 Identify social scientists from the country of
the proposed project who have worked on household
and iptrahousehold-level issues. 10
2.4 Travel to the area in which the project is to
take place. 12
2.5 Some on-the-ground data collection is essential. 13

2.5.1 Informal observation 15
2.5.2 Focus groups and open-ended interviews 15
2.5.3 Small-scale surveys 18
2.5.4 Timing 21

2.6 Build in a project monitoring capability which will address
intrahousehold issues. 22


3 Information Needs 24

3.1 Questions to answer 25
3.2 Data to collect 27

3.2.1 Household structure and composition 29

3.2.1.1 Importance of the concept 29
3.2.1.2 Data requirements 31
3.2.1.1 Uses of the data 32

(1) Degree of intersection among units 32
(2) Basis for inclusion in the household
group 33
(3) Household size and structure 34


3.2.1.4 Obtaining the data









3.2.2 Individual access to income and productive resources 38

3.2.2.1 Importance of the concept 38
3.2.2.2 Data requirements 41
3.2.2.3 Uses of the data 44
3.2.2.4 Obtaining the data 45

3.2.3 Time use and task allocation 46

3.2.3.1 Importance of the concepts 46
3.2.3.2 Data requirements 48

(1) Time use 48
(2) Task allocation 49

3.2.3.3 Uses of the data 51

(1) Time use 51
(2) Task allocation 53

3.2.3.4 Obtaining the data 54

3.2.4 Allocation of consumption goods among members 56

3.2.4.1 Importance of the concept 56
3.2.4.2 Data requirements 59
3.2.4.3 Use of the data 60
3.2.4.4 Obtaining the data 61

3.2.5 Sources of material support in emergency or crisis 62

3.3 Conclusion 64











FOREWORD

This guideline was developed as a result of a project funded

by the Policy and Program Coordination Office of USAID. The

project involved an extensive literature review on intrahousehold

resource allocation and its determinants in less-developed

countries (Rogers, 1985), and a four-day workshop at which

professionals from the U.S. and several developing countries

discussed why intrahousehold processes matter to economic

development projects, and ways in which concern for these

processes can reasonably be incorporated into project planning.

This guideline owes much to the papers prepared for that

workshop, and to the discussions which took place there.

I have tried to prepare this guideline in such a way that it

may be useful in the design of all kinds of development projects,

from direct provision of welfare-related goods and services, to

technical assistance, to programs intended to foster

institutional development and policy change at the national

level. However, the original impetus for the project was a

concern for the success of nutrition and health projects,

specifically those having infants and children as the main target

group. This orientation is evident in the examples chosen and in

some of the specific issues addressed in this paper.

I would like to thank my project officer, Dr. Judy McGuire

for her continuous assistance, including substantial intellectual



A list of workshop participants appears at the end of this
guideline. The workshop papers are being edited for publication.











interchange and valuable editorial comments on this and other

papers prepared under the project. I would also like to thank

Lisa Miller for editorial comments on this guideline, and Lisa

Miller, Jane Yudelman, Barbara Kaim, Lori Chobanian and Paula

McCree for their help in finding and abstracting the literature

on which this work is based. I would like to express my great

appreciation also for the contributions of all the workshop

participants, whose lively discussion and thoughtful preparation

was of inestimable value to my own thinking on the subject. Of

course, any errors of fact or judgment are my own.









Summary



Development projects have as their ultimate objective the

improvement of human welfare. Therefore, project analysis must

be concerned with whether target individuals are likely to

benefit from the resources and activities generated by projects.

Such analysis must be based on an understanding of individual

behavior and individual sources of income and material support.

The most important argument in this paper is that one cannot make

assumptions about sharing of resources within households. While

the groups to which a person belongs (family and household) can

be important sources of support, it is the individual who must be

the focus of analysis. To ensure that intrahousehold issues are

taken into account, the following steps in project planning are

recommended.



(1) Spell out the expected linkages between

project inputs and expected outputs.

Identify the specific household processes

by which these linkages will occur.

Identify the individuals involved.

(2) Before leaving the U.S., review the

literature on the country and area

where the project is to take place.









(3) Identify social scientists from the


country of the proposed project who

have worked on household and intra-

household level issues. Contact them

for assistance once in-country.

(4) Travel to the area in which the project

is to take place. If there are several

culturally distinct areas affected by the

project, all should be visited, at least

briefly, if at all possible.

(5) Some on-the-ground data collection is

essential. This may vary from relatively

unstructrued observation to a small-scale

survey.

(6) Especially with larger, long-term projects,

plan to start on a small scale, and in all

projects, build in a project monitoring

capability which will explicitly address

the major intrahousehold issues.



Analysis of intrahousehold issues should be organized around

answers to the following six questions.



1. Who will participate in the project?

2. Will the project require or cause a

fundamental change in household structure

or function?














3. Will the project change any person's access

to productive resources, or any person's

control over what is produced (including

income from his/her labor)?

4. Will participation in the project require

changes in the uses of any person's time?

5. Will it change any person's access to

consumption goods which affect individual

welfare (including food, health care,

education)?

6. Will it change any person's access to

material support during emergency or

crisis situations?



To obtain answers, data collection needs to address the

following major areas of inquiry:



o household structure and composition

o individual income and access to

productive resources

o time use of members, and task allocation

among them

o allocation of consumption goods among members

o sources of material support for households

and individuals in emergency or crisis

situations.









Specific items of data needed for the major areas of inquiry

identified are as follows:



(1) Household Structure and Composition

What groups can be treated as household

units

o Those who live in a single house or

compound

o Those who eat from a common food supply

o Those who contribute a significant portion

of the real income in order to provide for

each other's consumption

o Those who provide labor on each other's

behalf, or who can command labor from each

other.

For each group, the following information, is

needed:

o To what degree does this group intersect

with the other groups?

o On what basis are individuals included in

the group?

o What is the group size and structure?

o number of members

o number of children under three









o number of members working


at household production

agriculture production

and cash employment;

o number of members in each age/sex category

o kinship structure, specifically

extended (many parent-child units or

presence of three or more generations)

versus nuclear

presence of one or both parents for each

nuclear unit

presence of unrelated individuals

o migration status of members (i.e., individuals

reported as members of the unit but absent a

significant amount of time at work or school)

how frequently and for how long they return.



(2) Individual Access to Income and Productive

Resources

o Characteristics of the individual

age, sex, and position in the household

o Income producing activities

full or part time

seasonal or year round

performed in or outside the home

monetized or not










o income received


cash or kind

frequency (e.g., day, week, season)

reliability (windfall or regular income)

amount, relative to other income sources

o uses of income

are particular sources of income linked

to particular uses

are particular categories of consumption

expenditure considered the responsibility

of particular individuals

o access to income-producing resources

what is the nature of the important resources

(e.g., land, agricultural animals or equipment,

skills and education, etc.)

how is ownership obtained (e.g., through

spouse, natal family, allocation by a village

administrator, purchase)

what is the relationship between ownership

and use rights

how are use rights obtained

what is the distribution of resource

ownership, by sex, age, and position in the

household

o access to employment

how do individuals obtain jobs (e.g., through

traditional rights and obligations, by formal









application)

are jobs scarce, or is labor scarce;

Does this vary by season

how is employment distributed between the

formal and informal sectors

is access to employment determined by age,

sex, marital status, caste or class.



(3) Time Use and Task Allocation

Time Use

o Characteristics of the individual

age

sex

membership in various household groupings

characteristics of the household groups

to which he/she belongs

o Inventory of tasks performed

o Nature of tasks

amount of time required

performed only at specific times of day?

performed only on certain days, or certain

times of month or year?

requiring minimum consecutive input of time?

compatible with other tasks?

which ones?

o Variability

variation in time input to a task, within the











week, and by season


variation in the amount of time spent, by task.

o Time burden

average and range of hours per day spent by

individuals in work outside the home,

work inside the home, leisure and

personal care, and rest and sleep

Task Allocation

o Inventory of tasks performed

o Nature of the time demand of each task (defined

in the previous paragraph

o Frequency with which important tasks are

performed by persons of each age grouping,

sex, and other relevant groupings

Age: suitable grouping might be:

(1) young children (3-6)

(2) older children (6-12)

(3) young adults (12-18, or to the age at

which people typically marry or leave

home)

(4) adults (18-55 or older, depending

on cultural perception of when old

age starts)

(5) elderly (55 and older)

Studies from a variety of cultures indicate

children begin to make work contribution to


the household at about three years of age.











Sex: it may be meaningful to divide females

into married and unmarried, and even to

distinguish widows separately, since task

allocation rules based on sex frequently

vary on this basis.

Position in the household: important

categories may include: relative/non-

relative; relative by blood/marriage

Other groupings: these may include, in

various settings, class, caste, special

special skill, religion, ethnicity.



(4) Allocation of Consumption Goods

Differential employment opportunities or

differential access to training and education

have implications for investment in

individuals within a household unit. Cultural

patterns, such as early marriage of daughters

who then leave the household or the payment of

dowry or bride price, which affect the potential

value of an individual to his or her natal

household will indicate whether or not a

systematic bias in the distribution of consumption,

human investment goods is likely to exist.

Data on individual consumption levels is quite

difficult to obtain. Shortcut methods for

assessing individual food consumption, for example,











have not proved reliable (Pinstrup-Andersen and

Garcia, 1984). Indirect indicators of allocation

patterns may be more feasible to obtain, and still

useful for project planning purposes, since the

outcomes of allocation processes are much easier

to measure directly. Growth statistics by age

and sex, and patterns of morbidity and mortality

will provide powerful information on whether

discrimination based on age or sex adversely

affects some groups. Education levels, information

on school attendance by girls and boys of different

ages, and on use of clinics and health care

services, indicate how such resources are

distributed among individuals. It may be more

difficult by such indirect means to identify

characteristics other than age and sex (e.g., birth

order, position in the household) which determine

access to consumption goods.



(5) Sources of Material Support during Emergency

or Crisis

What type of support networks exist for

recourse in cases of emergency. To whom

do people turn in cases of extreme need?

Do they look to their natal families; kin in

in the same village;.neighbors? Will the

project change the nature of these systems












of emergency support by relocating people

far from their natal homes, for example, or

by substituting the concept of wage labor

for the idea of labor based on mutual

obligation?



The collection of data and the analysis of intrahousehold

processes should be feasible in the context of existing USAID

project planning processes. Depending on the size and scope of

the project, one to six months should permit a reasonable

approach to the issue.

Understanding the reasoning behind the analysis should

contribute to improved project design even i- the entire process

suggested in this guideline cannot be undertaken.






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