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Title: Gender issues framework
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Title: Gender issues framework
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Language: English
Publisher: Agency for International Development
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AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
WASHINGTON DC 20523




















GENDER ISSUES FRAMEWORK


FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM
FAYETTEVILLE, ARKANSAS
OCTOBER 18 21, 1987


Office of Women in Development
Room 3725 New State
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523











SENDER ISSUES FRAMEWORK: PROBES


I. STABE OF PROJECT: COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY STATEMENT (CDSS)/ACTION PLAN--


INFORMATION NEEDS


Description/Diagnosis:

-Current status of
each sector to identify
need


-Infrastructure (e.g.,
marketing, transpor-
tation and communica-
tion systems)


-Government programs
and funding


GENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIES$

-What are the labor force
participation rates for women
(rural, urban, regional and ethnic
variation)?

-How does the female labor force
differ from the sale labor force
(age, education level, skills, pay)?

-In which sectors are women's
economic activities concentrated?

-Within these sectors, how do
women's activities differ from
men's (formal/informal, size,
access to resources, technology,
market participation, ownership and
management)?

-How has the recent performance of
the macro-economy affected sectors
and sub-sectors where women's
activities are concentrated?

-In what ways have recent economic
developments tended to help or
harm economic activities where
women's participation is greatest?

-Are current policies or economic
conditions a major barrier to more
rapid growth or higher income in
sectors where women's activities
are concentrated?


-What are the differences in male
and female educational levels?

-In which areas are women trained
in vocational training programs as
compared to men?

-Are there pricing or other
policies which favor cash crops/
men's crops over women's crops?

$Data available from mission documents, national government documents and other
sources (e.g., social science institutes, universities, international agencies)









CDSS/ACTION PLAN (CONT'D)

INFORMATION NEEDS





-Past USAID involvement





-Issues to be addressed
in the sectors and
subsectors identified
as priorities for
assistance


Project Portfolio


BENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIES



-What roles do women play in the
sectors and subsectors identified
by AID as priorities for
assistance?


-What are the primary constraints to
raising women's employment and
income in these sectors, given
women's current economic
activities?

-How does the AID assistance
strategy address the constraints to
expanding women's employment and
income in the priority sectors (or
to raising employment and income
in subsectors where women's
activities are concentrated)?

-How will women's activities and
women's capacity to respond to new
opportunities affect the success
of AID's overall and sectoral
strategies?




-Which projects will directly affect women's
economic activities and
how will this impact take place?


-What is the balance in the
portfolio among projects that help
women raise their earnings, those
that provide services to women,
and those that affect women only
indirectly?









GENDER ISSUES FRAMEWORK: PROBES

II. STAGE OF PROJECT: PROJECT IDENTIFICATION DOCUMENT (PID)--


INFORMATION NEEDS


PROJECT DESCRIPTION:

-Perceived problem


-Project Goal and Purpose

-Beneficiaries



-Expections and Achievements/
Accomplishments


-Project Outline


FACTORS AFFECTING PROJECT
SELECTION AND FURTHER
DEVELOPMENT
Social Considerations
1. Baseline Data

-Gender based activity
profile

-Access to resources
(land, labor, capital,
time, education)

-Access to decision. making

-Access to benefits

-Major constraints


BENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIES$


-How does the perceived problem
affect men and women differently?


-Are beneficiaries/target populations
appropriate according to what is
known about the organization of
activities the project will affect?


-To what extent will anticipated project
achievements be affected by the
participation or exclusion of women?

-How will the project impact men and
women differently?


-Are project components and implementation
plan consistent with the gender division
of labor and time allocations?


-What information is needed and
what baseline data is available
regarding key socio-cultural
factors, including:
-division of labor/time by
gender in productive
activities in project areas
-current status of women's
access/control to key
resources such as land, labor,
capital, credit, education
and information?

-How does the division of labor
affect the activities the project
is trying to implement?


tData available from mission documents, national government documents and other
sources (e.g., social science institutes, universities, international agencies)









PID (CONT'D)


INFORMATION NEEDS


2. Availability of Technology


-Cultural preference


-Impact technology will
have on actors/activities



3. Participation




PROPOSED BORROWER/
GRANTEE AND/OR
IMPLEMENTING AGENCY
(INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITIES)


-Choice of implementing
agency

-Training

-Extension

-Funding


-Availability of personnel

-Government attitude

-Linkages


GENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIES


-What impact will the technology
have on women's labor?

-What affect will the proposed
technology have on food crops?



-What are the constraints or prerequisites
to women's participation in project
activities or to access to project inputs?


-To what extent do existing institutions
and delivery systems have direct
contact with women farmers?

-What level of technical expertise does
the implementing agency have for
addressing issues related to women's
participation in projects?

-How many women extension agents are
there? How many women researchers
are there?

-What research units explicitly
address issues related to women?


DESIGN STRATEGY


-Selection of team members


-Scopes of work for project
design team


-Do design team members reflect
information/expertise needs of the project?

-How is gender expertise considered
in the scopes of work of design
team members?









GENDER ISSUES FRAMEWORK: PROBES

III. STAGE OF PROJECT: PROJECT PAPER (PP)--


INFORMATION NEEDS


Project Rationale and
Description


Objectives (outputs, purpose,
goal)


Project elements
-Project units or sites

-Inputs and actions taken


-Participants


-Beneficiaries


BENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATESORIESS

-How do the perceived problem and
rationale take into account differences
in men's and women's responsibilities in
project-related activities?



-Does the discussion of objectives disaggreate
male and female participants?


-How will the project affect men and
women differently?

-Are project inputs and activities consistent
with the gender division of labor?


-How will the participation or exclusion
of women affect project outcome?

-What adjustments in prerequisites for
participation in project activities
would be necessary to allow women to
participate?


-Will project benefits provide sufficient
incentive to outweigh any additional
efforts expected of women?


-Are beneficiaries/target population
appropriate given the differences
in men's and women's responsibilities
in project-related activities?


*Data available from mission documents, national government documents and other
sources (e.g., social science institutes, universities, international agencies)









PP (CONT'D)


INFORMATION NEEDS


BENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIES


SUMMARIES OF ANALYSES
(Social and Economic)


Baseline Data:

-Sender based activity profile

-Access to resources
(land, labor, capital, time,
education)


-Access to decision making

-Access to benefits

-Major constraints


-What information is available regarding
key socio-cultural factors including:
-division of labor/time by gender
in productive activities in the
project area?

-current status of women's access
to key resources such as land,
labor, capital, credit, education
and information?

-How does the division of labor affect
the activities the project is trying
to implement?


-What percentage of members of agriculture-
related organizations are women? If women
do not participate, how do they influence
decision making of family members who do
participate?

-Do laws limit the legal capacity of women
to hold title to land?

-How does the educational level of women
affect their utilization of agricultural
information?

-What access do women have to transportation
for marketing surplus crops?

-How do cultural beliefs/practices affect
women's opportunities to take advantage
of project interventions?

-How much time do women have available to
participate in project activities?









PP (CONT'D)


INFORMATION NEEDS


SUMMARIES OF ANALYSES
(Technical)


Availability of Technology

-Cultural preferences

-Impact technology will have on
actors/activities


SENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIES


-What types of technology do women need?

-Who owns the technology and how is it
obtained?

-What input do women have into the decisions
regarding the types of equipment or
technological packages to use?

-Will the technology increase the work load
of women or save women's time?

-What effect will the technology have on
women's productivity and income?

-What crops does the extension system
target which are grown by women?


SUMMARIES OF ANALYSES
(Administrative)

Institutional Capabilities

-Choice of implementing agency

-Training

-Extension

-Funding

-Availability of personnel

-Government attitude

-Linkages




Log frame (measurable outputs)


-What training programs are available
which women have access to?

-If the implementing agency lacks
experience in reaching women, what
provisions have been made for
technical assistance from outside
organizations to improve women's
participation?

-What provisions have been made to ensure
that women are chosen for participant
training and other project funded
activities?

-Refer to questions addressed under the PID.

-What gender related objectives, indicators
are incorporated in the log frame?


~









PP (CONT'D)


INFORMATION NEEDS


Monitoring Plan/Evaluation
Arrangements

-Indicators of progress



(While it is recognized that
not all Project Paper have to
identify specific data points
for monitoring and evaluation,
the categories listed to the
right might be considered).


Implementation Plan

-Scopes of work for technical
assistance (both short term
and long term)


BENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIES


-What sex disaggregated information is
provided by the monitoring
system? Is data available on a
timely basis to allow for project
adjustment?

-If women are not participating in
project activities, what provisions
has the project taken to allow for
revision in the design?

-What are the budgetary allocations
to areas likely to benefit women?

-How are the changes in the roles
and status of women linked with the
project impact?

i) How will changes in women's access
and control of land and productive
resources affect food availability?

ii) How will changes in women's ability to
earn an independent income affect
household cash flow?

iii)How will changes in women's workload
affect nutrition?


-Do consultants and contractors' scopes
of work explicit require the consideration
of gender roles in the areas of concern?









SENDER ISSUES FRAMEWORK: PROBES

IV. STABE OF PROJECT: REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP)--


INFORMATION NEEDS

Content

-Background and problem
statement

-Scopes of work

-Deliverables

-Technical assistance

-Monitoriing and evaluation
plans

-Program interventions


SENDER SPECIFIC QUESTIONS/
DATA CATEGORIESt


-How does the RFP address gender issues
in its discussion of technology,
training, institution building, other
program interventions and budget?

-In what ways does the RFP discuss the
importance of gender issues in the
deliverables? (Implementation plan,
monthly and annual reports, etc.)

-How do the monitoring and evaluation
plans address gender issues?


Proposal Selection Criteria


-What experience does the institution have
in dealing with gender issues in project
implementation?


-To what extent is gender expertise included
in the scopes of work?


0Data available froa mission documents, national gov't documents, and other
sources (e.g., social science institutes, universities, international agencies)







AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
WASHINGTON DC 20523





















GENDER ISSUES FRAMEWORK


FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM
FAYETTEVILLE, ARKANSAS
OCTOBER 18 21, 1987


Office of Women in Development
Room 3725 New State
Agency for International Development
Washington, D.C. 20523


I V








THE GENDER ISSUES FRAMEWORK


Background Information

The Gender Issues Framework has been developed by A.I.D. as an
analytical framework for development practitioners to incorporate
gender issues into agricultural projects. It is part of a major
effort to institutionalize among Agency staff the ability to analyze
gender issues and their impact on project effectiveness.
Development of the Gender Issues Framework has been an evolutionary
process involving input from a variety of sources. First presented
to USAID Mission personnel at a recent workshop in Nairobi, it
consists of two component tools accompanied by information and
guidelines concerning their usage. The two component tools are:

SFramework questions or "probes" categorized by A.I.D.'s
process of developing country strategies, project design,
monitoring, evaluation or adaptation; and

-a worksheet which can be used in training situations to
categorize responses to the probes.

At the Farming Systems Symposium, time constraints limit our
discussion to the Probes section only.

Why a Gender Issues Framework?

The Gender Issues Framework responds to

the expressed need for tools, information and guidelines
to incorporate gender issues into development activities,
and

Sthe recognition that a common frame of reference is
important for effective planning by and communications
among project designers, implementers, evaluators, and
donors, as well as project/program beneficiaries.

Thus we are seeking from Symposium participants -- who include
representatives from all aspects of the development community --
comments and recommendations concerning the Gender Issues Framework.

A Request for Feedback from Symposium Participants

A copy of the Gender Issues Framework Probes is attached. We are
requesting that all participants at the Symposium:

read the Probes,

as you are reading, apply them to a project with which
you have hand extensive experience;

-assess the Probes to see if they would help in
incorporating gender issues into your project;










-complete the attached questionnaire regarding how the
Probes worked in this exercise;

Return the completed questionnaire to A.I.D. in the
attached stamped, self-addressed envelope.

How-to Use the Framework Probes

The categories along the top of the Probes indicate the following:

1. Stage of Project: The Framework Probes are divided into the
major stages of A.I.D.'s programming process:

Country Development Strategy Statement (CDSS), which
identifies the major development issues in a country;

Project Identification Document (PID), the initial
concept paper for a project;

Project Paper (PP); and

Request for Proposals (RFP).

The Stage of Project category identifies the section of the
Probes associated with each stage of programming.

2. Information Needs: this category describes the general
types of information that should be considered at a particular
stage in project design. For the PID and PP sections, topics
under Information Needs correspond to the topics outlined for
project design in A.I.D.'s Handbook 3.

3. Gender Specific Questions/Data Categories: lists a series of
questions that can be asked by development planners and
evaluators to ensure that gender differences are considered. The
questions are not inclusive of all questions that might be
asked, nor are they intended to become a checklist to be
completed at the end of program design.




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