• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Acknowledgement
 Executive summary
 List of Tables
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Women's access to agricultural...
 Extension services in developing...
 Extension approaches
 Agriculture extension personne...
 Targeting women in agricultural...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Bibliography














Title: Bridging the gender gap in agricultural extension
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089841/00001
 Material Information
Title: Bridging the gender gap in agricultural extension
Physical Description: 74, 14 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Berger, Marguerite
Delancey, Virginia H ( Virginia Helen )
Mellencamp, Amy
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Donor: Marianne Schmink ( endowment )
Publisher: International Center for Research on Women,
International Center for Research on Women
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1984
Copyright Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Women in agriculture   ( lcsh )
Agricultural extension work   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 79-88).
Statement of Responsibility: Marguerite Berger, Virginia DeLancey and Amy Mellencamp.
General Note: "Prepared for the Office of Women in Development, U.S. Agency for International Development."
General Note: "September 1984."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089841
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 11515630

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Acknowledgement
        Acknowledgement
    Executive summary
        Page i
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        List of Tables
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Women's access to agricultural extension
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Extension services in developing countries: The institutional setting
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Extension approaches
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Agriculture extension personnel
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Targeting women in agricultural extension projects
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Bibliography
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
Full Text














BRIDGING THE GENDER GAP
IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION


by
Marguerite Berger, Virginia DeLancey
and
Amy Mellencamp


International Center for Research on Women
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036








Prepared for the Office of Women in Development
U.S. Agency for International Development
September 1984














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This paper was funded by the Office of Women in Development of the U.S. Agency
for International Development. The views expressed in the paper, however, are those of
the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of USAID or ICRW.









EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Women in developing countries are actively involved in agriculture and urgently need
assistance to improve farming practices, purchase more productive inputs, decrease their
workloads, and improve the processing, storage, and marketing activities they perform.
But despite their critical role in agricultural production, women have been virtually
ignored by agricultural extension units. When women do receive visits from extension
agents or attend extension training courses, they are frequently taught home economics
and other subjects unrelated to their agricultural roles.

Women active in agricultural production in developing countries generally fall into
four categories-farm owners or managers, farm partners, unpaid family workers, and
agricultural wage laborers. This paper focuses primarily on women who are farm owners
or managers in their own right, and on those whose share in decision-making, ownership,
and labor indicates that they are more or less equal partners in farm management with
their husbands or other family members. Women who are farm managers are the most
logical candidates for direct contact with extension services; yet studies have shown that
these women are less likely to have such contact than women partners in joint (male-
female) managed farms. Even in joint managed farms, however, women rarely receive
agricultural information from their husbands or other male household members,
particularly when work on specific crops or tasks is divided by sex.

In order to explain women's lack of access to extension services, it is necessary to
examine the orientation and structure of institutions providing agricultural extension
services, the kinds of services provided, the types of delivery programs utilized, and the
staffing of these institutions, all of which have a crucial impact on their ability to
provide effective assistance to women farmers. These factors must be considered in
conjunction with the characteristics of women farmers as well as the current clientele of
extension programs.

Different types of agricultural extension organizations can be found in every
nation state, but these can be classified into four distinct institutional models: general,
government-sponsored extension services; extension services within crop-specifc
programs; extension services within integrated rural development projects; and extension
services within programs specifically for women. Because of the characteristics of many
women farmers, those institutional models that seem to have the greatest potential for
assisting women are the general programs (not crop-specific) at the level of the Ministry
of Agriculture, the integrated rural development projects, and agencies that focus on
food crops. These models, as well as redesigned crop-specific programs, increasingly
include a food crop component; when this is the case, women are more likely to receive
agricultural extension services than otherwise.

Even when extension services include food crop components, however, the number
of women reached by such services depends upon the delivery of those services. The
mechanisms currently used by most extension services for providing technical advice to
farmers--the contact farmer approach, the use of farmer training centers, reliance on
private sector efforts, and the large group approach of mass media or demonstrations-
tend to channel services to those who have the greatest access to certain means and
resources important to production. Women farmers, who are more likely to be involved
in subsistence production and generally have smaller land holdings and less access to
other resources, are therefore not typical of the clientele served by many agricultural
extension programs. Other characteristics of women farmers, such as their relative lack
of education, their limited control of land in their own names, and their dual
responsibilities for both household maintenance and subsistence or market production,









also serve to limit their participation in agricultural extension programs that operate
with the standard delivery mechanisms.

In order to benefit greater numbers of women farmers, delivery approaches should
attempt to focus more on small farmers or average farmers, rather than those labeled
"progressive." Mass communication training techniques can be strengthened to increase
their effectiveness, especially with the illiterate and poorly educated, many of whom are
women. Farmer training could be offered in ways that do not require extensive periods
of absence from the home or village, since women lack the time and ability to travel for
training. When farmer training centers are used, the curricula could be modified to
emphasize training of the farmer couple, by offering courses in agricultural techniques to
both husband and wife and selecting couples on the basis of the activities of both husband
and wife. In addition, arrangements should be made to accommodate women farm
managers who are heads of household.

Perhaps the most important issue in improving women's access to extension
services is whether to adopt a women-specific or an integrated approach. Although they
are most likely to reach women, many women-specific programs have a low potential for
training women in farming techniques, because of their home economics orientation. In,
addition, these programs are more likely to view women's farming activities from a
subsistence or nutritional, rather than a commercial perspective, thus limiting their
effectiveness for raising the efficiency and incomes of women farmers. While they may
be an appropriate means of assisting women who are unpaid family workers, these
programs will not be sufficient to meet the needs of independent women farm managers
or farm partners.

The use of female extensionists has become increasingly popular as the primary
means of aiding women farmers, and a number of governments are already taking steps
to expand the number of women extension agents they employ. Unfortunately, there is
insufficient evidence available to conclude whether this is the most effective method of
providing assistance to women farmers. Although women field agents may be more likely
than men agents to establish contact with women farmers, they will not be effective if.
they are not able to offer a "product" or service that will yield material benefits for
these farmers. Even if women field agents are employed by the agricultural division of
the extension organization, the characteristics of existing delivery mechanisms or the
types of crops emphasized may still put a barrier between them and the women farmers
who need assistance.

Women extensionists and village level para-professionals should be incorporated
into mainstream extension activities on an equal basis with men, not just to work with
women. In addition, both men and women extensionists should receive training to
increase their awareness of the needs of women farmers and allow them to work more1
effectively with women. Finally, incentive systems should be structured to reward men
and women extension staff who are successful in reaching and assisting women farmers.

Very little is yet known about what "works" to bridge the gender gap in
agricultural extension. In order to isolate some of the problems with these new
approaches and to identify lessons for future extension programs, additional research will
be necessary. This paper has attempted to provide a framework for the thorough analysis J
of current experimentation that is essential to the development of cost-effective
methodologies for reaching women farmers.









LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES



Tables

1. Females as Percent of the Agricultural Labor Force
according to ILO Estimates, FAO Censuses of
Agriculture, and Revised Estimates, 1970 ......................... 5

2. Research Findings: Women's Access to Agricultural
Extension ............................................... 10

3. Factors Affecting Farmers' Access to Extension
Services under Different Approaches .......................... 52

4. Male and Female Extension Personnel in Agricultural
Programs: Africa ................ ........................... 59

5. Selected Projects to Increase Women's Access to
Agricultural Extension (1974-84) ............................... 63

6. Male and Female Extension Personnel in Agricultural
Programs: Latin America and the Caribbean, the
Middle East, and Asia and the Pacific (see Appendix)



Figures

1. Principal Supply-Side Factors Determining Farmers'
Access to Agricultural Extension Services ........................ 3

2. Links between Agricultural Research and Extension .................. 18

3. Bell-shaped Curve of Adopter Categories .. ............... ........ 31











CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION ...................................... ....... 1

WOMEN'S ACCESS TO AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION .................... 5

Women and Farming in Developing Countries
Women's Participation in Agricultural Extension

EXTENSION SERVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
THE INSTITUTIONAL SETTING ................................... 17

The Relationship Between Agricultural Research
and Extension
Types of Services Provided by Agricultural Extension
Origins of Extension Services in Developing Countries
Organization of Agricultural Extension Services Today

EXTENSION APPROACHES ...................................... 30

Contact Farmers
Farmer Training Centers
Private Sector
Large-Scale Group Approaches
Appropriate Delivery Mechanisms
for Reaching Women Farmers

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PERSONNEL .......................... 54

Training
Performance Incentives
Gender of Extensionists

TARGETING WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROJECTS ......... 62

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................... 68

APPENDIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY
















INTRODUCTION


A wide gap separates the woman farmer in the developing countries from the
basic information she needs to increase production, efficiency, and income. On the one
hand, women in developing countries are actively involved in agriculture and urgently
need assistance to improve farming practices, purchase more productive inputs, decrease
their workloads, and improve the processing, storage, and marketing activities they
perform. On the other hand, they have been virtually ignored by agricultural extension
units, the very organizations designed to provide these services.

Recent studies have shown that extension agencies, staffed primarily by men, give
preference to male farmers, sometimes even when women are wealthy and innovative
managers of large farms (Staudt, 1982; see also Table 2, p. 10). They also reveal that
female assistants may be more likely to reach women farmers (Knudson and Yates, 1981;
Institute for Social Studies Trust, 1982). As a result, many have called for the use of
female extensionists as the primary means of aiding women farmers, and a number of
governments are already taking steps to expand the number of women extension agents
they employ (Smithells, 1972; Ashby, 1981; Staudt, 1982; DeLancey, 1984; Shaner,
Philipp, and Schmehl, 1982; Fortmann, 1978; Bettles, 1980; Palmer, Subhadhira, and
Grisanaputi, 1983; Howard-Merriam, 1981).

But will the addition of new women extensionists really solve the problem? The
prejudice of male-oriented services against women farmers and the lack of female
agricultural extension agents are not the only factors that limit women's participation in
agricultural services. The orientation and structure of institutions providing agricultural
extension services, the kinds of services provided, the types of delivery programs
utilized, and the staffing of these institutions all have a crucial impact on their ability to
provide effective assistance to women farmers.

Certain structural features of extension programs tend to channel services to
those who have access to means and resources important to production. Studies abound
that show that the most commonly used delivery programs favor large, wealthy, and








politically powerful farmers whose influence guarantees them access to the extend
service, and whose resources enable them to undertake innovations in agricultt
production. Women farmers, who are more likely to be involved in subsisted
production and generally have smaller land holdings and less access to other resour(
are therefore not typical of the clientele served by many agricultural extens
programs.

Another major factor that helps to explain women's limited participation
agricultural extension is the historical emphasis of governments and agricultural servi
on cash crop production for export, instead of food production for local consumpti
Generally, male farmers have been more involved in cash crop production, though won
may provide essential labor on their fields and produce food crops for exchange as well
home use. But today, debt-strapped nations formerly self-sufficient in food product
are increasingly concerned about their dependence on food imports and interested
developing local food production. It is thus imperative that agricultural extends
systems adapt to meet the needs of food producers, many of whom are women.

When extensionists do contact women, it is often to provide information i
advice that pertains to women's household, rather than farming, responsibilities. So;
Ministries of Agriculture have separate extension units for women that are devoted:
home economics, which generally touch on agricultural matters only insofar as tl
relate to nutrition and family welfare. Other governments provide this type of extensi
service for women within a separate agency or ministry, such as a Ministry of Soc
Welfare. In farmer training centers, instruction for women is also oriented toward ho|
economics. This approach offers little hope for including women in the expand
commercialization of food production that is taking place as Third World country
develop.

In order to better explore some of these issues, this paper focuses on the struct
of agricultural extension services and the characteristics of the extension agents,
explain their limited effectiveness for women farmers and identify possible methods
improving that effectiveness. Figure 1 illustrates the major supply-side factors th
influence farmer's access to extension services. These, along with the characteristics;
women farmers on the demand side, will be explored in greater detail in the followil
sections of the paper.


- 2 -













FIGURE 1

PRINCIPAL SUPPLY-SIDE FACTORS DETERMINING FARMERS'
ACCESS TO AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES



TECHNICAL ACCESS TO OTHER TYPES OF
ADVICE INPUTS RICES




GENERAL INTEGRATED ISTITU-
GOV'T/ CROP- RURAL WOMEN- --TT-
MINISTRY SPECIFIC DEVELOPMENT SPECIFIC -
OF AGENCIES PROJECTS AGENCIES
AGRICULTURE







TRAINING MOTIVATION GENDER ACCESS TO OTHER PERSON';E.
TRANSPORT






HO?, CONTACT FARMER MASS PRIVATE DELIVER;
FARMERS TRAINING APPROACHES SECTOR MECHAN'S`
CENTERS







SFARMEQS
A CLIEN.-S


- 3 -







This paper is organized around a series of questions:


Why do rural women need agricultural extension services? The first section C
the paper provides a brief overview of women's farming roles and reviews th
evidence of their lack of access to existing extension services.

What does agricultural extension encompass? This question relates to the typt
of information and services transmitted to farmers-both male and female--b
extension agents. Section two describes the goals of agricultural extension, th
content of the messages and assistance delivered, the relationship between
extension and research, and the evolution of extension services in develop
countries.

How are extension services provided? This primarily concerns the approach
taken to the delivery of extension services, e.g., farmer training centers, ma4
demonstrations, or working through a few contact farmers. Section thr
describes these approaches and assesses the effectiveness of each for assisting
poor farmers and the costs involved. It examines the characteristics of farmer
who are reached by existing delivery mechanisms and compares them to th
characteristics of women farmers, highlighting available data on women
farmers' access to seven key resources-land, labor, capital, time, education
organizations, and political power--in order to illustrate how access to thesis
resources influences participation in extension programs.

Who is responsible for agricultural extension? Section four examines th
institutional context of extension services as well as the characteristics 0
individual extension agents, such as their training, motivation, and gender, an
how these affect their ability to assist women farmers.

The two remaining sections address the question of how extension services can
improved to better meet the needs of women farmers. Section five provides som
examples of projects and country-wide programs that contain specific extension
components for women. The final section offers conclusions and recommendations fo
changes at the policy and project levels to expand women's access to agriculture
extension services.


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WOMEN'S ACCESS TO AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION


Women and Farming in Developing Countries


A lack of knowledge among government and development officials and planners

regarding women's participation in agriculture serves to reinforce the Western notion
that men, not women, are the principal farmers in developing countries. However, in
recent years documentation of women's roles in agricultural production has made their
contribution more visible. Estimates based on censuses, national surveys, and United
Nations data show that women provide most of the agricultural labor essential to both
food and cash crop production in the developing world. The United Nations claims that

women farmers grow at least 50 percent of the world's food, and as much as 90 percent
in the rural areas of some African nations ( Roodkowsky, n.d., p. 5). According to recent

estimates based on ILO and FAO data, women constitute 38 percent of the agricultural
labor force in developing countries-46 percent in Sub-Sahara Africa, 45 percent in South
and Southeast Asia, 31 percent in North Africa and the Middle East, and 18 percent in
Central and South America (Dixon, 1982). These results are presented in Table 1 below.


TABLE I

FEMALES AS PERCENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL LABOR FORCE
ACCORDING TO ILO ESTIMATES, FAO CENSUSES OF AGRICULTURE,
AND REVISED ESTIMATES, 1970


FAO Census ILO Estimate Revised Estimate

No. of No. of No. of
Countries Mean Countries Mean Countries Mea-

Region

Sub-Saharan Africa 11 47.2 40 36.6 40 45.9
North Africa & Middle East 5 27.0 16 11.1 16 30.7

South & Southeast Asia 5 40.2 19 35.5 19 45.3
Caribbean 2 7 26.0 7 39.6



SOURCE: Ruth Dixon, "Women in Agriculture: Counting the Labor Force in Developing
Countries," Population and Development Review 3 (September 1982), p. 560.


- 5 -








Official estimates systematically undercount the number of women working in
agriculture, since they are based on incomplete definitions of economic activity that
tend to exclude working women and children. These enumeration systems undercount
unpaid family labor and fail to record women's multiple and seasonal responsibilities in
household and market production (Boulding, 1983; Dixon, 1982). Even surveys that
question women directly about their economic activities may produce extremely biased
results. Relying on the perceptions of women or men about women's contribution to
agricultural production, instead of observation of actual participation rates, results in
measurement errors, especially in more traditional societies where women are expected
to be housewives or where a wife's idleness is a status symbol. In a survey of women in
agriculture in Cajamarca in Peru, for example, only 4 percent of the women said their
principal occupation was farming. Yet when asked about specific agricultural tasks, 46
percent of the women were found to be the primary or secondary person in charge of
crop production, and through a detailed agricultural labor accounting system, 86 percent
were found to participate in agricultural field labor (Deere and Leon, 1982).

Women active in agricultural production in developing countries generally fall into
four categories--farm owners or managers, farm partners, unpaid family workers, and
agricultural wage laborers. The distinctions among these categories are based on the
woman's decision-making power, time spent in farming, and agricultural tasks. This
paper focuses primarily on women who are farm owners or managers in their own right,
and on those whose share in decision-making, ownership, and labor indicates that they are
more or less equal partners in farm management with their husbands or other family
members. Although women who are agricultural wage laborers or unpaid family workers
with little input into decision-making are certainly affected by the content and delivery
of agricultural extension services and will often be responsible for carrying out the
recommendations of extension agents, those who have a management role are more likely
to be the targets of such services. A discussion of the characteristics of women farmers
in different categories and how they are affected by agricultural extension services
appears below.
1. Women who are farm owners or managers are the principal decision-makers in
agricultural production, devote a major portion of their labor to farming, and are
responsible for most agricultural tasks. Women with adequate resources may hire others
or barter for labor to carry out some of the work, while women without sufficient means
must perform the tasks themselves or rely on help from resident household members.
Women farm owners or managers often become principal farmers and heads of household
due to their husbands' employment, migration, desertion, or death. But in some societies,


- 6 -









where matriarchal patterns of inheritance prevail with respect to land, or where women
nd men have traditionally had individual rights to separate tracts of land, women are
farm managers throughout most of their lives (Palmer, Subhadhira, and Grisanaputi,
1983; Boserup, 1970).
Women farmers in sub-Saharan Africa are the most likely to be farm owners or
managers. That fact, together with the almost universal bias of extension toward land
owners/managers, helps to explain why a large portion of the research on women in
agriculture and, more specifically, on women's access to agricultural extension has
focused on this region. In Kenya, studies indicate that 36 to 40 percent of farms are
managed by women (Staudt, 1978; Moock, 1976). In the rural areas of Zambia, the
number of women heads of household, a group generally involved in agriculture, reaches
47 percent (3iggins, 1980). In Botswana, an examination of household decisions
concerning the time of plowing and type of seed planted showed that women made these
decisions alone in 31 percent and 57 percent of the cases respectively, and with other
household members, 13 and 20 percent of the time. Women were also more likely to
discuss the decisions they made with others, indicating that new agricultural ideas may
diffuse faster through women farmers than through men (Bond, 1974).

In other regions of the world, women also work as farm owners and managers. In
Peru, for example, 21 percent of the peasant women in one study were farmers on their
Own account, with their husbands (who often migrated in search of work) deriving income
from other sources (Deere and Leon, 1982). In Guyana, 44 percent of the women in a
rural sample were heads of household and farmers, and in a St. Lucia study, 25 percent of
the farm operators were women (Odie-Ali, 1982; Knudson and Yates, 1981). In Jamaica,
women are typically responsible for their family's agricultural production until their
husbands leave their jobs in the urban areas at about the age of forty. At that point, the
Wives and husbands assume joint management of the farm (Harder, 1981).

2. Women farm partners share the responsibility for agricultural production with
another household member, usually their husbands. Decisions are made collaboratively,
both partners devote a major portion of their labor to farming activities, and tasks,
though often divided by the prevailing sexual division of labor, are considered essential
and complementary to each other. In some areas, women control separate fields,
frequently in subsistence food production, and provide labor as required on their
husbands' plots. In other areas, agricultural tasks are performed by women and men
together in family fields.


- 7 -








A study of eight villages in Nepal showed that women make 42 percent of
household agricultural decisions and decide jointly with adult males in another 12 percent
of the cases (Acharya and Bennett, 1981). While Nepali men may decide what crop to
plant, women decide when and how to carry out the work necessary for the production of
that crop (Schroeder and Schroeder, 1979). In Thailand, where women also participate
widely in agriculture, one study found that decisions on whether to borrow money and
how to dispose of the products of family labor are often decided jointly in 40 and 50
percent of the cases, respectively (Whyte and Whyte, 1982). While decisions on land
transactions have traditionally been made by men in Kenya, decisions concerning the use
of land and agricultural resources are largely made by women (Pala, 1976). In Tanzania,
though the husband may decide to use fertilizer, the wife decides how much will be used
and when (Fortmann, 1978).

Women's share in agricultural decision-making varies, not only by region and
country, but also by socioeconomic class. Women from near-landless and smallholder
families seem to have more control and decision-making power than women from middle
and upper class strata. For example, one study of Peruvian farming showed that women
in near-landless and smallholder households share equally with their male partners in the
decision of which crops to grow, while men in middle- and upper-class farm families
make that decision alone in 79 percent of the cases (Deere and Leon, 1982). In Indonesia,
women's contribution to subsistence production and decision-making is greater among
low-income households than among middle-income households (Stier, 1974).

3. Women farm workers have less responsibility for decisions about family farm
production, yet are active in agricultural work. Their husbands or other relatives make
the major agricultural decisions, and the women's tasks, though essential to production,
are often limited to certain activities which vary by season. Women farm workers,
however, are often responsible for the processing and marketing of the household's
agricultural products, an important component of production that may or may not be
incorporated into statistics of labor force participation. Women farm owners/managers
and farm partners may also be involved in this activity.

A majority of women who are reported to be economically active in agriculture
are either farm partners or farm workers. They are often classified in censuses and
surveys as unpaid family workers. The proportion of all economically active women who
are considered unpaid family workers is high. For instance, in India and Malaysia the
proportions are 41 percent and 31 percent, respectively (Whyte and Whyte, 1982). The
incidence of unpaid labor is generally much greater among agricultural women as


- 8 -









compared to men--for example, it is five times as high in Algeria and Libya, four times
as high in Jordan and Morocco, and three times as high in Iran, Pakistan, and Syria
(Bennett, 1979). However, women farm workers may be excluded from labor force
statistics altogether since their field work varies greatly by season and other tasks they
perform may be considered "house work" and not even included under the heading of
unpaid family labor (Beneria, 1982, p. 123).

4. Women who work principally as agricultural wage laborers will generally not be
considered here, since agricultural extension services are not oriented to clients without
access to land or input into agricultural decision-making. It is important to note,
however, that due to the commercialization of agriculture and the current economic
crises in the Third World, landlessness has increased, forcing both women and men
farmers from the three other categories into temporary wage labor (Lassen, 1980). In
Bangladesh, for instance, the proportion of near-landless and landless of all rural
households is 75 percent; in India, 59 percent; in Java, 84 percent; and in the Philippines,
77 percent (Rosenberg and Rosenberg, 1978). These countries are experiencing a shift in
women's agricultural labor from unpaid family workers to wage earners. In some
countries female participation in salaried agricultural labor, generally on plantations, is
also high. In Sri Lanka, for example, 72 percent of the female agricultural labor force is
salaried (though women receive only 66 to 75 percent of the male wage), and in India 50
percent of the tea plantation labor is female (Blumberg, 1981). In Honduras, women make
up 40 percent of the wage laborers in tobacco and almost 90 percent in coffee (Buvinic,
1982).


Women's Participation in Agricultural Extension


Given the evidence of women's significant responsibility for and contribution to
agricultural production in the developing world, one would expect women to participate
actively in programs delivering the information, instruction, and inputs to farmers. Yet
the limited data available on the participation of women in agricultural extension
programs show that few women benefit directly. Studies in Africa show that male heads
of household and farmers with access to basic resources are the primary clients of
agricultural extension services (Fortmann, 1982; Muntemba, 1982; Staudt, 1982; Bettles,
1980; Cowle, 1979; Bond, 1974; Leonard, 1974). Data from Bolivia, St. Lucia, and Jordan
also indicate that few, if any, women participate in extension training or agricultural
schools (Eddy de Arellano, 1976; Knudson and Yates, 1981; Harfoush, 1980). Table 2 below
summarizes the recent empirical studies of women's access to agricultural extension.


- 9 -










TArLE 2


Research Findings: Women's Access to Agricultural Extension


Region

Sub-Saharan Africa


Country

lnotswana


Source

Rettles, 1980


Rond, 1974


Gambia








Kenya










Kenya


fDey, 1981








Moock, 1976










Pala, 1978


Findings

In the mid-1970s the government of Botswana sought
to expand women's access to agricultural extension
services by creating a women's component within the
Agricultural Field Services Department. Efforts were
made to involve women in all extension activities
(meetings, demonstrations, visits by extensionists,
etc.), to broaden women's representation in village
organizations, work with existing women's groups on
agriculture and health-related activities, and
encourage women farmers to attend courses at Rural
Training Centers (p. II).

"Although farming is practiced by moat families very
little agricultural extension is reaching rural people.
Contact is made with some women, but in the main
extension is reaching families through the man, and
this favors households headed by a male" (p. 2).

Technical teams implementing three rice development
projects invited only male household heads to
participate in the projects, despite the fact that
women are the major rice producers in the area.
These men were offered free gifts of inputs and
cleared the land for the project with help from junior
men, thereby establishing ownership rights to it, and
implicitly excluding women (p. 118).

"Women seem not to benefit, as the men, from
extension contact, perhaps due to the marked male
orientation of the services as provided by Kenya's
Ministry of Agriculture. The staff consists almost
entirely of men, the few exceptions dealing exclusively
with "home economics." Moreover, much of the
ministry's agricultural instruction takes place at the
chief's barazas (weekly meetings), attendance at which
is seen particularly as the prerogative of male elders
(p. 835).

Among the Joluo of Kenya, a survey of women farmers
showed that 92 percent had access to 1.5 to 4.5
hectares of land for cultivation. However, no female
farmer had access to the minimum of 6.07 hectares
(1.5 acres) required to participate in the government
agricultural loan program for small farmers-the
(.iaranteed Minimum Returns Scheme (pp. 5-6).









Region


(Country


Kenya

















Malawi









Tanzania









Tanzania


Soilr( e


Staudt, 1982

















Perraton, 3amison,
and Orivel, 1983








Fortmann, 1982









Mbilinyi, 1982


Findings


Agricultural information and demonstrations may be
given by extension agents at barazas (weekly meetings)
which only men attend (p. 209). One-third of trainees
at Training Centers are women but are often the wives
of chiefs, assistant chiefs, or the agricultural staff.
The courses offered are 70 percent home economics,
30 percent agriculture (p. 24). One-half of female-
managed farms were never visited by an extension
agent, vs. one-fourth of point-managed farms (p. 212).
Women farm managers are less likely to be visited by
extensionists, even when controlling for wealth
(p. 218), farm size (p. 219), and willingness to adopt
new methods (p. 220). Women who are farm partners
with their husbands receive more attention because
the presence of a man brings them into the
communication network of extension (p. 213).

Of the 88,000 farmers trained in residential and day
training centers during 1979-80, 47,000 were women.
However, only 3 of the 16 types of courses were
offered to both men and women (crop storage, family
health and horticulture). Courses for women only were
in home economics, nutrition, needlework and
handicrafts, and poultry-raising. Men's courses
included farming, forestry, credit, and animal
husbandry (pp. 155-156).

In one region, extension agents visited 58 percent of
men participating in a national maize information
program, but only 20 percent of women (pp. 193-194).
Women's reliance on indirect communication from
their husbands is detrimental to the project because it
decreases the accuracy of the information transmitted
and often, women are the ones who actually implement
the decisions that are made by their husbands on the
basis of extensionists' advice (p. 6).

Women have unequal access to education and the
productive inputs needed to increase their
prod(u tion. Women respondents in a Farmer Training
Scheme survey stated that they were rarely visited by
extensionists. Most village leaders are men and they
are generally the only ones who have direct access to
hie extension services, unless agents are able to
develop demonstration plots anI group discussions that
involve ordinary villagers. Villagers (an also tall on
the asststarl e of extension agents, but women rarely
do so (p. t2).











Country

Zambia










Zambia













Zimbabwe


Middle East & North
Africa


Egypt


Jordan


Source


Cowle, 1978










Muntemba, 1982













Cheater, 1981


Howard-Merriam,
1981







Harfoush, 1980


Findings

Agricultural assistance was only given to village
households with higher incomes and peasant households
(those with larger land allotments). The low-income
village households headed by women and men received
no formal aid from agricultural services in a village
survey. Six of the high-income households received
such aid. Among peasant farm households, agriculture
extension, including access to Farmer Training
Centers, reached some senior male heads of household
(pp. 62-63, 65, 69).

"As late as 1974, one Farm Institute in the region gave
courses to 288 women, compared to 70O men. While
courses given to men ranged across various aspects of
agricultural production, women's courses covered only
poultry, maize, and groundnut production (two courses)
and female extension (seven courses). Female
extension trained women to sew and knit and helped
them establish sewing clubs in their home areas.-
However, the government did encourage poultry clubs
for women, giving such clubs loans where necessary"
(pp. 93-94). Unmarried women have less access to
technical knowledge than married women who depend
on their husbands for training (p. 98).

Only those few women who owned or leased farms in
their own right had received the Master Farmer
Certificate and had direct access to agricultural
advisors. These women had access to other resources,
including labor and farm machinery (p. 367).

A study of two villages revealed a lack of contact
between village women and women extensionists, rural
women's lack of participation in local social and
political organizations, and women's preference for
video communication and home visits (p. 13). Female
extensionists receive inadequate training and support
(pp. 21-22) and lack knowledge about the rural
environment (p. 17).

Men are the primary beneficiaries of agricultural
training. Female secondary students are not allowed
in agricultural courses of study, even though women
and children make up the majority of the agriculture
labor force (pp. 7. 30).









Region


Latin America &
Caribbean


St. Lucia


Kenya, V. Nigeria,
Uganda, Trinidad,
St. Vincent, Puerto
Rico, Jamaica


Country



India













Thailand


Source


Institute of Social
Studies Trust, 1982












Palmer, Subhadhira,
,r tsanaputi, 1983












Knudson and Yates,
1981




Smithells, 1972


Findings


Extension is weak or non-existent for activities
primarily handled by women, e.g., silkworm rearing
and reeling of silk filament (pp. 62-45). Training
planned for one month periods will be difficult for
women to attend because training centers are far
away. Identifies need to reformulate extension
program to train both women and men, and to increase
the number of training locations to make them more
accessible to women (p. 37). Women farmers surveyed
had positive response to female extension agents, but
male farmers felt there was nothing they could learn
from female extensionists in the area (p. 40).

Despite the prominent position of women in Northeast
Thailand (due to female descent of land and matrilocal
marriage), few women attend agricultural
demonstrations (pp. 1,2,5). A survey of the project's
target population showed that home visits are
infrequent and disproportionately made to households
with larger farms or where someone is a member of
the village committee, and that very few women are
spoken to during these visits (p. 6). Nearly all 13
survey respondents said women would be more
interested in agricultural extension if there were more
women extensionists (p. 10).

Although one-half of the farm population surveyed had
received some sort of agricultural extension services
only 17 percent of women farmers had received
information from extension personnel. Most women
acquired agricultural information from parents (p. vi).

Focused on the need to train additional female
agricultural extension personnel. In most developing
countries agricultural extension is part of government
administration (generally, a Ministry of Agriculture),
or semi-governmental organization (e.g.. a university
with a faculty of agriculture). Programs for rural
women have been grafted onto these structures,
focusing informal education on home economics
related to agriculture and rural living (p. 10). The
author found few women extensionists in the countries
stiir(ed and of those most were trained in home
e onomiics (p. 10).


Various








Of the four types of women in agriculture, women farm managers are the most
logical candidates for direct contact with extension services; yet studies have shown that
these women are less likely to have such contact than women partners in joint (male-
female) managed farms (Staudt, 1977). Even women in joint managed farms, however,
rarely receive agricultural information from their husbands or other male household
members, particularly when work on specific crops or tasks is divided by sex (Fortmann,
1978).

Low-income rural women farm partners should also be an important target for
agricultural extension programs, given their participation in making agricultural
decisions. In the past, many projects have suffered by ignoring women's role in
agricultural decision-making and failing to provide them with training in new
techniques. For example, when the failure of a project designed to introduce high-yield
wheat in northwest Bangladesh was investigated, it was discovered that extension efforts
had been mistakenly targeted to men. The women in the area, who generally select the
seeds for planting, had received no training from the extensionists and were choosing the
wrong seeds (Roodkowsky, n.d., p. 12). Similarly, in the Casamance region of Senegal, a
project aimed at improving traditional water control systems in swamp rice farming
completely destroyed the rice farming land. Land subject to acid sulphate toxicity was
drained for the project, leaving it totally infertile. This tragedy could have been avoided
if field staff had simply consulted the women farmers who had previously worked the
land and were familiar with its condition (Dey, 1983, p. 14). Thus, concentrating efforts
on male farmers alone and overlooking the fact that women make decisions regarding
inputs, the schedule of work, and so on, is not only detrimental to the welfare of women,
but can doom entire projects to failure--particularly those aimed at the poor.

The failure of extension services to take account of the activities of women who
are unpaid farm workers has frequently led to increasing workloads for these women.
The introduction of new techniques often implies a reduction of labor time for men, but
sometimes this comes at the expense of the already overburdened women on the farm
(Lele, 1975; Cleave, 1974; Burfisher and Horenstein, 1982). In addition, extension
services have long neglected the introduction of labor-saving technologies, such as
grinding mills or more efficient cook stoves, that could make women's tasks more
efficient and free up their time for income-earning pursuits (Carr, 1980).

In other cases the introduction of certain innovations, particularly the
mechanization of agriculture, has been accompanied by a reduction in the number of jobs
available to women, and therefore their opportunities for earning income. Boserup (1970)


- 14 -








argued that new tools and machinery are given to men, increasing their control over
agriculture and widening the gap between men's and women's productivity.
Mechanization may also serve to make female wage labor redundant, eliminating jobs for
women in agriculture without providing alternative sources of employment (Lele, 1975, p.
77).

Why have women farmers been neglected by extension services? Aside from
outright discrimination, lack of land and limited economic and political power are two of
the major constraints cited to explain women's low participation in extension programs.
When women do receive visits from extensionists or attend extension training courses,
they are frequently taught home economics and other subjects not directly related to
their agricultural roles. Although the data available on women's access to agricultural
extension programs is very limited, women's restricted access to such programs seems to
be due to factors such as the following:


women often do not have title to the land they farm and thus cannot qualify for
agricultural loans; when women do have legal rights to land, their fields may be
smaller and more distant than those of men and, as a result, they may not be
viewed as good potential clients by extensionists


the limited cash incomes of women farmers hinder their ability to purchase
agricultural inputs and, particularly in the case of female managers who have
fewer household members available for farm work, to hire the necessary labor
or draft power to implement new techniques disseminated by extension services


because of their dual household and productive responsibilities rural women
already work longer hours than men, but many new agricultural techniques
require greater amounts of women's time, although they may reduce men's
work; women not only lack the time to attend agricultural training courses but
also to undertake new farming practices that may only increase their work
loads


education improves farmers' abilities to innovate and make accurate
agricultural decisions, yet fewer females than males are literate or attend
school


- 15 -








agricultural organizations, which often provide inputs, educational services and
credit, tend to restrict membership to farmers who own land or head
households, thereby excluding many women farmers


the political structures of villages and nations are dominated by men, resulting
in an unequal distribution of resources and influence in favor of male farmers,
even when women play significant agricultural roles


The following section reviews the major structural and institutional features of
extension services that produce these outcomes, examines the constraints on women's
access to key resources for agricultural production and extension, and suggests some
measures that may help to improve the situation.


- 16 -







EXTENSION SERVICES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
THE INSTITUTIONAL SETTING


The Relationship Between Agricultural Research and Extension


The success of extension efforts depends to a large extent on the nature of the
technical advice they seek to transfer to farmers. In this paper it is generally assumed
that agricultural research can and does make available technical solutions that are both
useful and practical to the farmers targeted by extension services. Based on this
assumption, the paper has focused on the problems of getting that information across to
farmers. However, these two problems are not unrelated. Not only is a sound research
program necessary to the effectiveness of extension, but extension mechanisms are also
important channels of information on the application of new techniques in the field and
the needs of farmers.

Ideally, agricultural extension and agricultural research should be closely related
in all extension models. Extension agents are supposed to promote new farming methods
and technologies that have been developed and tested by research institutions. In
addition, extension agents, through contact with farmers, can learn of specific
agricultural problems of the farmers and communicate these to the relevant institutions
for research and solutions. Figure 2 illustrates how the links between agricultural
research, extension, and farmers can be formed to provide an effective transfer of
techniques and feedback that contributes to the development of new ones.

A great deal of controversy exists about the effectiveness of research institutions
in developing countries, about the relevance of the research to the practical needs of
farmers, and thus about whether or not the research has been able to provide extension
agents with a valid message to extend. The World Bank (1971, p. 74) notes that:


Where land and water resources are poor, improvements that can be proposed
based on current knowledge are often marginal. This is in itself an impediment
to successful innovation because a substantial gain is usually required if a
technical package is to be readily accepted by farmers.


- 17 -







FIGURE 2
LINKS BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION


testing(
and
feedback


Thus, there must be a successful technical package or proven, innovative method
to extend. Traditionally, the development of technical packages has been quite strong
for the most common export crops of developing countries, such as tea, tobacco, sugar
cane, cotton, and rubber. But since women farmers are more likely to be involved in
food production, they are not well served by research on these export crops. Technical

packages may be somewhat weaker for traditional food crops and may not be effective in
harsh climates. However, important research on food crops in developing country

climates is being carried out by the International Agricultural Research Institutions
(IRACS).


- 18 -








In general, agricultural research tends to ignore women's roles as major actors in
the processing, preserving and marketing of agricultural produce. Because they do not
take account of the sexual division of labor in agricultural production, innovations that
are designed to be labor-saving for men may increase women's work loads by increasing
the amount of time spent weeding or processing. Even worse, they may prevent women
from earning income through the production and marketing of certain crops by adding
tasks that redefine those crops as "male." In order to make agricultural innovations
attractive to women farmers, therefore, they should involve concrete benefits for the
women themselves, such as improvements in crops that women control.

One research approach that has promise in terms of women's concerns is Farming
Systems Research (FSR), which focuses on the farm as a whole, not just specific crops.
The objective of this approach is to develop techniques that are "appropriate to the
production and consumption goals of rural households in specific microenvironments"
(Eicher and Baker, 1982, p. 159). Since FSR explicitly considers the roles of different
household members in agriculture, women's work is recognized and addressed in the
development of new technologies (Axinn, 1982). FSR also relies on field tests of new
methods under actual conditions--in the fields of small farmers--rather than the usual
demonstration plots at the research station (Shaner, Philipp, and Schmehl, 1982). A
number of the IRACs began cropping systems research using this approach in the 1970s;
the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), for example, recently sponsored a
three-day conference on "Women in Rice Farming Systems."

It is logical that the research-extension cycle cannot be completed if extension
agents do not reach all groups of farmers, some of whom have unique problems, and
relate those problems back to research institutions for solution. For example, if
extension agents fail to contact those who actually grow traditional food crops to
discover their most important needs and problems, those needs and problems may never
be communicated to existing research institutions. Thus, the development of technical
packages or solutions to specific problems related to food crop production may never
occur if food crop farmers, in many cases women, are not reached by extension
workers. Finally, even if appropriate technical packages are available, the messages
which agents extend from research institutions may go no further than the individuals
actually contacted by the extension agents. If diffusion of the messages is not effective
or is not complete, women farmers may not receive the extension messages, since they
are generally not contacted directly by extensionists.


- 19








Types of Services Provided by Agricultural Extension


Many development projects and programs involve an extension, outreach or
diffusion component. Although extension efforts in education, forestry, community
development and others may overlap with agricultural extension, they are rarely
coordinated and sometimes even provide conflicting messages to the households they
contact (Eicher and Baker, p. 150). In the case of agricultural extension for women, the
picture is further confused by the addition of extension services that are primarily
focused on women's household roles but provide some agricultural training as well. These
services may or may not be coordinated with a mainstream agricultural extension
program, or they may substitute for agricultural extension where women farmers are the
principal targets. This paper will focus primarily on agriculture-specific extension
services, but the question of their relationship to women-oriented extension will be
explored later in this section.

Agricultural extension services are the link between agricultural research
institutions and farmers, designed to help farmers raise their productivity and overall
output. This is achieved by providing information on new technology and production
methods, including improved land preparation; use of new varieties of seeds and new
techniques of planting and cultivating; application of fertilizers, pesticides, and
herbicides; improved methods of harvesting and preparation of crops for the market; and
introduction to organized marketing (Orivel, 1983). It is also achieved by motivating
farmers to employ the new technology and production methods, and by assisting them in
overcoming difficulties encountered in doing so. However, with the major exception of
those that include a farming systems approach, most extension services concentrate
primarily on technical problems related to farming, and put little emphasis on managerial
and social constraints (Eicher and Baker, 1982, p. 152). One further objective of
extension services is to obtain feedback from farmers on technological and other
problems which they consider important, and to relay those concerns to appropriate
organizations for research and resolution (Benor and Harrison, 1977).


- 20 -








Thus, agricultural extension encompasses:


individual and group counseling/training for farmers to spread new techniques
and inputs or ensure more effective use of existing ones


assistance to farmers in the adaptation of research results to local conditions
(including physical, social, and economic characteristics of the area)


applied research for the development of better farming techniques (including
tests of new methods and inputs in actual farmer fields), and


gathering information on farmers' problems, successful and unsuccessful
farming practices, and the results of the use of new techniques


Initially, extension agents in developing countries were overburdened with
multiple, conflicting tasks required of them as both extension agents per se and official
representatives of a colonial, and later national, government. Many of their functions
were regulatory--to prevent land erosion, conserve water, prohibit the growing of certain
crops, and prevent the spread of livestock and plant diseases, as well as to collect taxes
and sometimes facilitate the recruitment of labor for roads, mines, and plantations.

In recent years, extension work has become much less regulatory and more
advisory and service-oriented. There is a greater tendency to attempt to introduce
innovations and new technology, including new varieties of seeds, fertilizers, insecticides
and herbicides, irrigation pumps, draft animals, ploughs, and other farm equipment or
machinery. Some agents have become involved in the extension and collection of
agricultural credit for various institutions and in assisting the development of farmer
credit and marketing organizations (Eicher and Baker, 1982; Moris, 1966; Chambers,
1974). Extension agents may also collect data on acreage planted and other aspects of
production. This helps them successfully carry out their other functions, but increases
their work load as well (Chambers, 1973, p. 436).


- 21 -








Origins of Extension Services in Developing Countries


The structure of agricultural extension in most developing countries was modeled
after systems in Western Europe and North America (Smithells, 1972, p. 10). Most of the
extension systems in Africa and Asia were created by British, French, or Dutch colonial
administrations, mainly to increase the supply of primary agricultural commodities to
those European countries. These systems were oriented toward improving production of
specific export crops such as tea, coffee, rubber, cocoa, peanuts, sugar, and indigo
(Stavis, 1979, p. 6). For example, in the former French colonies of Africa there were a
number of sectoral development societies, each focusing on a different crop (Stier, 1974,
p. 456). The extension services associated with these programs were largely regulatory
or supervisory in nature, relying on direction, persuasion and at times coercion from
above to reach given targets (Orivel, 1983; Anthony, Johnston, Jones, and Uchanda,
1979). Although women were active in agricultural production in many parts of the
colonial world, particularly in Africa, only men were encouraged, and sometimes forced,
to grow export crops (Boserup, 1970). As a result, male farmers were generally the only
ones contacted by agricultural field agents. Women's production of locally-consumed
crops was ignored.

After World War II, when the colonies gained independence, many of the existing
extension programs changed following the formulation of new agricultural and rural
development policies. Although extension services often continued to emphasize export
production, the new policies initiated more generalized rural development, in the form of
"community development" or "animation rural," including work with food crops as well as
export crops and encouraging changes in the entire socioeconomic environment (Stavis,
1979, p. 8). Community-oriented programs such as the Traditional Community
Development (TCD) programs were developed in India and the Philippines, and later
spread throughout Asia and Africa (Anthony, Johnston, Jones, and Uchanda, 1979, pp.
470-1). They were highly influenced by the U.S. experience, as were those on the west
coast of South America developed under the Alliance for Progress. Although the
community development approach has certainly been beneficial in terms of increasing
participation, it also brings new costs, since more time is generally required to
implement participatory projects and disagreement within the group can lead to inaction
(Orivel, 1983, p. 15). Agricultural advice may be diluted by attempts to deal with all of
the community's needs at once. In addition, small-scale projects that rely on community
participation often utilize unpaid labor from women exclusively, adding the burden of
voluntary labor to women's already heavy responsibilities (Tendler, 1982).


- 22 -







A number of the modern extension services, notably those in Latin America, were
built with large inputs of U.S. aid, and based on the U.S. system of combining agricultural
research, higher education, and extension, as the U.S. land grant colleges do. The U.S.
model also involved the division of extension services by sex-with men providing
agricultural advice to male farmers and women teaching home economics and nutrition
to women (Ashby, 1981; Mead, 1976). It was assumed that advances in agricultural
practices and technologies, as well as the U.S. extension model, could simply be
transferred from the developed to the developing countries (Higgs, 1976, p. 251; Stavis,
1979, p. 10). Though later developments in the field determined that agriculture was a
location specific activity, requiring farming methods, plant varieties and technology
tailored to specific socioeconomic-geographic environments, the earlier approach left a
lasting influence on developing country extension services (Cochrane, 1974, p. 23).



Organization of Agricultural Extension Services Today


Different types of agricultural extension education organizations can be found in
every nation state (Axinn and Thorat, 1982, p. 3). Four distinct institutional models can
be identified and are examined more closely below:


(1) general, government-sponsored extension services


(2) extension services within crop-specific programs


(3) extension services within integrated rural development projects, and


(4) extension services within programs specifically for women.


1. General, Government-Sponsored Extension Services
Most developing countries organize agricultural extension functions as part of the
government administration, often within a Ministry of Agriculture (World Bank, Lesotho,
1981, p. 18; USAID/Botswana, 1974, p. 16; Bettles, 1980, p. 10; Smithells, 1972, p. 10).
The typical organization in formerly British countries is inherited from the colonial days-
-a Deputy Director or Chief Agricultural Officer heads the Extension Division of the
Department of Agriculture, under a Director; a Senior or Provincial Agricultural Officer
is responsible for departmental work at regional levels; and Agricultural Officers under


- 23








him are in charge of districts. Practical extension services take place at the district
level, where direct contact is made with the farmer either by field agents or in farmer
training centers.

The Agricultural Extension Department may be autonomous, or it may fall under a
more general Department of Community Development or Rural Development within the
Ministry of Agriculture. Sometimes Rural Development is a completely separate
ministry. All of these organizations tend to use "generalist" extension workers at the
farm level, although they may be supported by subject matter specialists at regional
levels (Stier, 1974). A divided type of organization may also exist, where each technical
department or division within the Ministry of Agriculture has its own extension service,
which may include extension agents who have specialized knowledge in certain areas.
This was the case in most Asian countries during the 1960s, although these countries have
since consolidated their extension services. In India, such services now lie within state
Departments of Agriculture and have been based, since 1974, on the generalized Training
and Visit System which will be described in greater detail below (Cernea and Tepping,
1977, p. 3; Benor and Harrison, 1977).

These services form a complex web, sometimes overlapping, as when Ministry of
Agriculture extension services and crop-specific programs operate in the same area.
However, services occasionally leave gaps in geographic areas that may have the
greatest need for extension assistance, particularly where there is no integrated rural
development project and little export crop production. If Ministry of Agriculture
services are not adequate to cover an entire country, poorer areas may be bypassed, due
to their low potential for cash crop production.


2. Crop-Specific Programs
Attempts to increase the effectiveness of limited staffs have often resulted in
concentrating extension efforts in a limited geographic area or on a few, specialized
activities, frequently a single crop. In general, the type of crops emphasized by
extension services, whether administered at the broad Ministry of Agriculture level, or
by crop-specific agencies, is an important determinant of the service's recipients.
Because of the historical origins of extension services and the developing countries' on-
going need for foreign exchange, the focus tends to be on export crops grown primarily
by men (Eicher and Baker, 1982, p. 151; Boserup, 1970).

The crop-specific approach has been used very effectively in some countries by
parastatal organizations and private corporations, such as Gulf & Western in the


- 24 -








Dominican Republic and the British American Tobacco Company in Kenya. Corporation
agents supply inputs such as fertilizer, seeds, insecticides and herbicides, and credit to
buy those inputs at government-subsidized prices. The farmers may then be required to
sell all, or a large proportion of certain crops to the corporation at predetermined prices
to assure repayment of the input loans or to maintain state or company control over
those commodities (Freeman and Karen, 1982; Eicher and Baker, 1982).

Special agencies and programs have been established to work with farmers who
plant specific types of crops, particularly those that are important for export earnings.
Examples include the Societe de Developpement de Coton (SODECOTON) in Cameroon
and the Compagnie Malienne pour le Developpement de Textiles (CMDT) in Mali, both of
which are associated with research and extension for cotton production. While some of
these sectoral development companies have evolved into more generalized development
institutions, they continue to emphasize the promotion of a specific commodity, usually
an export crop that can be grown by smallholders, such as cotton, oil products, or tea.
These companies employ their own expert advisors--either nationals or expatriate
contractors-who carry out extension services in place of regular government extension
agents. They are especially knowledgeable about the particular crop that is emphasized.

Because the parastatals or companies are usually commodity-specific for an
important commercial crop, many criticize this extension approach for having little
impact on other crops; however, others believe that there are indeed spread effects to
other crops (Freeman and Karen, 1982). If there is some spread effect to other crops,
women may be reached indirectly. In those cases where the company has assisted in the
production of food crops in the same areas as the commercial crops, it is more likely that
women will be directly reached.

It is a common misconception that because women mainly produce food crops,
they are not involved in production for the market. In fact, in some cases, women farm
managers and partners even grow export crops such as cocoa (Vellenga, 1983), or perform
vital tasks in the preparation of export crops, such as drying coffee beans (Roodkowsky,
n.d., p. 5; UNDP, 1980). In addition, women can be an important source of farm labor on
large plantations, particularly in Asia (Blumberg, 1981). But more important, a
significant portion of women's food crop production, including staple foods and
vegetables, is cash crop production, in the sense that it is marketed domestically in
developing countries. For example, in Asia and Africa, women farm managers, partners,
and family workers contribute to all aspects of the growing, processing, storage and
marketing of rice, one of the most important crops in the rural economy (Dey, 1983).


- 25 -









Women's dominant role in the marketing of local produce, particularly in West Africa, is
also well documented. Thus, women's agricultural production is actually, or at least
potentially, a profitable undertaking, not just a subsistence activity (Vellenga, 1983;
Safilios-Rothschild, 1981; Axinn, 1982) and should be treated as such by crop-specific and
other extension services.


3. Integrated Rural Development Projects
Agricultural extension is often included as a component of regional, integrated
rural development projects (IRDPS) that seek to address multiple needs of the local
population, such as water, agriculture, education, and off-farm employment. When this
occurs, regular agricultural extension agents may be replaced. For example, in
Cameroon, country-wide extension services (excluding livestock) have been the
responsibility of the Directorate of Agriculture within the Ministry of Agriculture.
However, that system has encountered numerous problems that have limited its
effectiveness. Therefore, by mutual agreement, when new, integrated rural development
projects, such as the ZAPI (Zones d'Action Prioritaires Integrees), are established in
particular zones, regular government extension services are transferred out and the ZAPI
becomes totally responsible for farm-level agricultural assistance (World Bank,
Cameroon, 1978, Annex 3). The practice of attaching extension services directly to the
development project, rather than utilizing government extension agents, is also being
followed in other regions of Cameroon, such as the Northwest Province, where MIDENO
(Northwest Development Authority) operates, or in the West Province where UCCAO
administers the Integrated Rural Development Project of the Western Highlands.

In these locations, extension workers are "generalist" in orientation, and may even
be multi-purpose development workers. Sometimes, as in MIDENO, attempts are made
to employ female as well as male extension workers, since so many farmers are women.
Elsewhere, as in ZAPI, a separate staff of female extension workers, primarily concerned
with women's programs such as food production and marketing, may be assigned to the
zones (DeLancey, 1984).

Because of their multipurpose orientation, extension services attached to IRDPs
are more likely to contact women in the areas they serve. Whether or not they actually
transfer agricultural advice to women is an open question. With so many areas to be
covered, they may simply concentrate on assisting women with other activities such as


- 26 -







basic education and nutrition, reserving agricultural assistance for men. However, the
structure of these projects certainly offers the potential, at least, for reaching women
farmers with useful technical advice.


4. Women-Specific Programs
Systems that provide parallel but separate types of extension programs for men
and women are very common and come in many varieties. When specific programs for
women exist, they may be integrated into the regular extension structure, organized as a
separate women's division of the extension service, or housed in a different department
of the Ministry of Agriculture, such as the Department of Community Development.
They may even be located in a separate Ministry, such as the Ministry of Social
Welfare. Alternatively, they may be supported through a separate, national-level
Women's Bureau which coordinates all activities directed toward women (World Bank,
Lesotho, 1981).

Ashby (1981) stresses that extension strategies for women have historically
focused primarily on women's reproductive, child care, and homemaker activities. Two
worldwide UNESCO surveys on the access of rural women to education bear this out.
The 1964 UNESCO survey found that in out-of-school programs for women in thirty-eight
low-income countries, home economics subjects predominated, with health education
second, and rural economy, accounting, and cooperative management as subsidiary
activities. The only specific agricultural content of these courses related to kitchen
gardening. A subsequent survey in 1973 found that extension programs for women
offered courses in home economics, hygiene, nutrition, child care and sewing (UNESCO,
1964, 1973). The U.S. system of providing agricultural extension for men and home
economics extension for women has been copied in many parts of the world. As Margaret
Mead (1976, p. 10) argues, this dual system is firmly entrenched, and its impact has been
negative:


The Euro-American tendency to attribute the concern with agricultural production
(with food before it leaves the harvest field) to men and to attribute the concern
with food after it leaves the harvest field to women led to the dual assumption that
scientific agriculture was a male field and scientific food knowledge (food
preservation, nutrition, child rearing, and home management) was a female field.
This seemed to be a step in the right direction when it first was developed in the
United States and initially was spread around the world through technical
agricultural schools for males and home economics schools for females. Actually
its effects have been disastrous.


- 27 -







Mead (1976) argues that the dual system has led to the devaluation of nutrition as
a professional field, because it is now seen as a women's field. But the male/female split
she describes has also led to the undervaluation of women's work in agriculture both
before and after the harvest. Under this kind of dual system, even if they are recognized
as having a valuable role in agricultural production, women may not be seen as potential
targets of the regular agricultural extension services because it is assumed that they will
be reached through women's programs.
By definition, women's programs have been the most likely to reach women
farmers. However, as noted, these extension programs have usually concentrated not on
farming, but on nutrition, child care, and other domestic science topics (Ashby, 1981). In
some cases Home Economists or Community Development Assistants who are not highly
trained in agricultural science, but who are trained in group dynamics, work with the
government agricultural extension services to encourage women's food crop farming
(DeLancey, 1984; AHEA, 1981). However, where home economics extension programs do
incorporate an agricultural component, they tend to focus mainly on subsistence crops
that supplement family diets, not on production of staples or marketable crops.


Appropriate Institutions to Assist Women Farmers


As shown above, there is nothing inherent in the Ministry of Agriculture or IRDP
extension services that would exclude women, unless their scope is limited to larger,
wealthier, or more powerful farmers (a problem discussed below) or to particular crops
that are not produced by women. In fact, IRDPs have a high potential for reaching
women farmers if they include food crops in their extension efforts. On the other hand,
crop-specific programs may or may not be able to incorporate women in their activities,
depending on which crops they target.

Although they are most likely to reach women, women-specific programs have a
low potential for training women in farming techniques, because of their home economics
orientation. In addition, these programs are more likely to view women's farming
activities from a subsistence or nutritional, rather than commercial perspective, thus
limiting their effectiveness for raising the efficiency and incomes of women farmers.
Finally, women's programs generally have access to very limited financial and human
resources, and are often outside the mainstream networks that could provide greater
levels of assistance (Buvinic, 1984). Because they rely largely on volunteer or very low-
paid labor, their staffs tend to have a generalist orientation and lack specific technical
expertise related to agricultural production. Thus, it makes sense to take advantage of


- 28 -







the resources available elsewhere by integrating women's concerns into the larger
agricultural extension programs-either instead of, or in addition to, women-specific
efforts.
The institutional context in which agricultural extension services are organized is
just one of the factors that determines their ability to assist women. Even if the
institutional setting does not exclude women, the approach to service delivery or other
characteristics, such as the qualifications of extension personnel, may limit women's
participation. The following sections address these problems as they relate to women.


- 29 -







EXTENSION APPROACHES


Given the institutional framework under which extension services are provided,
how will the approach to service delivery affect potential women clients? Which
approaches offer the most hope for reaching women?

In most developing countries, the sizes of extension staffs and budgets are small
relative to the number of farmers. Various approaches to the delivery of extension
services have been devised in an attempt to spread the resources of the extension
institutions as far as possible (Stavis, 1979, p.4 ; Anthony, Johnston, Jones, and Uchanda,
1979, p. 234; Eicher and Baker, 1982, p. 152-6). These range from direct one-to-one
contact between the extension agent and each farmer, which usually reaches a limited
number of farmers, to mass communication methods that have the potential to reach a
great many farmers. This section of the paper outlines the major approaches to delivery
of extension services--the use of contact farmers, particularly progressive farmers;
resident farmer training centers; commercial channels; and community/group
approaches, such as mass communication or demonstrations. Each approach is discussed
in relation to the population it is most likely to reach and its potential impact on women
farmers.



Contact Farmers


Perhaps the most common delivery approach is for extension agents to make
personal visits to a small number of contact farmers. In particular, efforts are
concentrated on "progressive" farmers, those most willing to adopt the innovations
provided by extensionists. According to Roling, Ascroft and Chege (1981, p. 227):


There are few extension service workers in any country who do not classify their
farmers in terms of progressiveness or innovativeness, and make use of this
classification to concentrate on those farmers who are quicker to follow their
advice, who are of sufficient economic means, more knowledgeable, and more
homophilous with the extension workers.

Figure 3 shows the distribution of farmers from innovators to laggards, assuming a
normally distributed population. Progressive farmers belong to the innovator and early
adopter categories.


- 30 -








FIGURE 3

BELL-SHAPED CURVE OF ADOPTER CATEGORIES












LA

SEarly
^ adopters

Innovators Early Late

SI !
Innovtor majority majority Laggards
2.5t 1 13.5 34. 34; 16' l

time of adoption

SOURCE: Niels Roling, Joseph Ascroft, and Fred Chege, "The Diffusion of Innovations and
the Issue of Equity in Rural Development," In Bruce R. Crouch and Shankariah Chamala,
eds., Extension Education and Rural Development, v. 2 (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons,
1981 ).




By definition, contact farmers, especially progressive farmers, are a minority of
all farmers, whether male or female. For example, the African Improved Farming
Scheme in Mazabuka District in Zambia increased the number of "improved farmers"
from 355 in 1952 to 1,410 in 1969, but even then reached only 10 percent of the farmers

in the area (Anthony, Johnston, Jones, and Uchanda, 1979, p. 239.) In one province of
Kenya, Leonard (1977) found that on average extension agents spent 57 percent of their
visits with "progressive farmers" (the most advanced 10 percent of all farmers). In
contrast, they spent only 6 percent of their visits with "traditional farmers" (47 percent
of all farmers). Thus, they made over half their visits to a very small proportion of all
farmers. Citing evidence from World Bank evaluation reports, Orivel (1981, p. 14-16)
found from his review of the literature that "only a minority in the farming community
has had effective contacts with the agents and those covered have been contacted less
frequently than would be necessary to insure the assimilation of all the new farming
practices to be introduced." In one Nigerian project, for example, only 3 percent of the
farmers had been contacted by extension agents.


- 31 -







Similarly, field research in Botswana found that direct as well as indirect
agricultural extension reached only a small proportion of farmers (Bond, 1974). Only 6
percent of the respondents to the questionnaire had had regular contact and discussed
farming with the Agricultural Demonstrator (AD); a further 6 percent had had some
contact during the last year. Very few of those surveyed had any knowledge about the
various agricultural officers and their jobs.

Bettles (1980) confirmed Bond's findings for the early 1970s. She estimated that,
as a result of extension work being based upon the "Pupil Farmer" and "Pupil Stockman"
schemes with each AD having 25 farmers to graduate from "pupil" to "master farmer,"
the ADs were spending as much as 90 percent of their time with 7 percent of all farmers,
who were becoming an elite group. As a result, the system was changed so that the AD
became responsible for all 250-300 farmers in the area. The government decided to
integrate women's extension into existing services and create a new post of Agricultural
Officer/Women's Extension at the headquarters level. No later data on numbers and
types of farmers reached are available to measure the change that may have occurred.

Even though few farmers are reached with this approach, extension agents' direct
contacts with progressive farmers supposedly have a multiplier effect, since innovations
are assumed to diffuse through local channels of communication (Roling, Ascroft, and
Chege, 1981). Progressive farmers can set an example and provide assistance to other
farmers in acquiring new knowledge and skills. This implies that there is no need for
extensionists to focus on more than a fraction of farmers. Indeed, if claims about
diffusion are correct, it would be inefficient to make contact with more than a few
progressive farmers. One criticism of the progressive farmer approach, however, is that
it leads to inequitable development by increasing differentiation between the contact
farmers and those who are not contacted directly (Crouch and Chamala, 1981).
McCallister (1981) argues that it may be unwise to introduce new techniques through the
most innovative farmers in a community since they may try to control the spread of the
innovation and thereby increase their own power.

Diffusion from progressive farmers to others, therefore, may not be as effective
as was originally thought. Benor and Harrison (1977) argue that contact farmers should
be those who are apt to be in contact with average farmers, rather than the most
progressive. Roling, Ascroft, and Chege (1981) cite a successful Kenyan experiment in
which intervention focused directly on the "laggards" (the least innovative) and had a 100
percent adoption rate among that group and an immediate three to one spin-off for each
farmer contacted. Because of institutional and personal biases in extension services and


- 32 -








lack of access to resources, women are rarely selected as contact farmers, even when
efforts are made to contact average farmers (Benor and Baxter, 1984, pp. 172-3). This
problem is compounded by the lack of diffusion of technical advice from men to women,
even in the same family (Fortmann, 1982). The following section explains in detail why
the progressive farmer approach is more likely to reach men than women.



Reasons for Women's Limited Participation in Progressive Farmer Programs


Progressive farmers are expected to be psychologically predisposed to change.
They are able to understand and adopt innovations introduced by extension workers, and
act as opinion leaders for other farmers in the area (Leonard, 1977, p. 178). In practice,
they tend to be more educated than others in their local area, have access to more
financial resources, land, capital, labor and political power, and may even have had some
specific type of agricultural training in the past (Orivel, 1983; Crouch and Chamala,
1981).

Because men have historically had more education and training opportunities and
greater access to resources than women, progressive farmers tend to be men. This
extension approach, then, is more likely to reach men in any of its institutional forms.
Since women lack access to certain key resources-education, land, credit, income, labor,
and political power--they are not likely to be reached by this approach. In addition, they
will be at a disadvantage with respect to other types of extension programs. The
following section explains how women's limited access to productive resources may
exclude them from progressive farmer schemes.


Education. Education enhances the ability of farmers to acquire accurate
information, evaluate new production processes, and use new agricultural inputs and
practices efficiently (Ashby, 1981). Better educated farmers are twice as likely to be in
contact with agricultural extension agents, indicating that farmers with higher levels of
education benefit most from extension services (Lele, 1976). In addition, educated
farmers may push the extension system to deliver what they need and make sure the
knowledge is appropriate to their resources (Singh, 1979; Orivel, 1983).

The impact of schooling seems particularly significant for women farmers, though
men who complete more schooling often seek off-farm employment. In a study in Kenya
34 percent of male farmers and 33 percent of female farmers had completed one to three


- 33 -








years of education. However, 43 percent of the men and only 16 percent of the women
had four years or more of schooling. The one to three years of education were positively
associated with higher yields for women, and both female and male farmers with four
years or more of education obtained overall a higher output per unit of input (Moock,
1976). Studies cited by Jamison and Lau (1982) show that production is increased on
average 7.4 percent as a result of farmers' completing an additional four years of
education.

In most developing countries, women have lower rates of literacy and less
education than men, especially in rural areas. In Indonesia, for example, 60 percent of
the rural women and 30 percent of the rural men are illiterate; in Pakistan, the figures
are 87 percent and 62 percent, respectively (U.N., 1979). In Ghana and Kenya, 77
percent of rural women vs. 54 percent of rural men are illiterate (Smock, 1982). Women
heads of household surveyed in a study in rural Paraguay were less educated than male
heads; 42 percent of the women had no formal education compared to 18.6 percent of the
men (Laird, 1977). Data from St. Lucia show that 30 percent of women on small-scale
farms had no education (Ellis, 1981). United Nations data (1982) attest to a similar
situation in most developing countries. Rural women, who generally have lower
educational levels than males, may consequently seek less agricultural information,
interact less well with educated agricultural agents, and fail to speak up and push the
extension system to provide appropriate information, instruction, and inputs for
production. This problem carries over into other approaches to extension as well, since
women with less education will be at a disadvantage in receiving agricultural training and
interpreting instructional materials.


Land Ownership. Farmers with access to land, preferably title to land, are
generally said to be more willing to invest in innovations because they have no fear of
losing their investment through the loss of access to the land. Agricultural extension
services consequently tend to concentrate on those who own the land they farm, or at
least have stable leasing arrangements. Furthermore, research has shown that farmers
with large holdings tend to be selected as contact farmers (Orivel, 1983; Chambers,
1974). This leaves women at a disadvantage, since land ownership is often vested in the
men; when women do own or control land they tend to have smaller holdings than do men.

Land ownership and tenancy rights are important criteria for the selection of
clients by extension services. Over the years, women's access to land has become more
limited. Where women once enjoyed usufructuary rights through their relationships to


- 34 -







other family members or through clearing and cultivating the land, individual land
ownership is now the norm. Colonial policies, land reform legislation, and land
resettlement schemes have generally awarded land titles to male heads of household,
even when the land was worked by women. In addition, since men tend to produce cash
crops or work for a wage, they have an advantage over women in purchasing land,
because their money incomes are higher (Boserup, 1970). In the vast majority of cases,
then, men effectively control the land tenure system. Despite the fact that women may
be the principal cultivators of the land, men often have the sole right of its disposal.
Even if males are absent for a long period of time, they can often sell land out from
under their rural wives (Blumberg, 1981; Bennett, 1979).

In a survey in Kenya, for example, only 5.9 percent of the land was registered in a
woman's name, either alone or jointly with a son. Very few female farmers had the
minimum of 6 hectares necessary to qualify for a government agricultural loan program
for small farmers, though 92 percent of them did have access to 1.5 to 4.5 hectares (Pala,
1978). In India, land titles are generally given in the husband's name and wives are not
recognized as joint owners of property acquired during the marriage (Bennett, 1979). In
Lesotho, only men have the legal capacity to administer property; women cannot enter
into contracts for farm equipment, labor, and agricultural loans in their own names,
despite an 85 percent female agricultural labor force participation rate (Bennett, 1979).
In Iraq, land was distributed on a family rather than individual basis with the male head
of household designated as the title owner (Bennett, 1979).

Inheritance rights, which tend to favor male heirs, often deny women ownership of
land (Bennett, 1979; Westergaard, 1982). Under the traditional law in some areas of
Africa, women once gained access to land farmed by their mothers. Studies of the Ga in
Ghana and the Mandinka in the Gambia, for instance, show that daughters have
traditionally been allowed to inherit their families' or mothers' rights to land. Yet civil
inheritance laws now favor sons when "female" land is handed down from generation to
generation (Dey, 1981; Bennett, 1979).

Women who are separated or divorced may suffer particular disadvantages in
terms of access to land (Bennett, 1979; Bukh, 1979). Many must return to their natal
families where they have no guaranteed access to land, tools, and family labor. Divorce
often excludes a woman from using her husband's land even if she cares for the children
(Muntemba, 1982). In Morocco, where the divorce rate is very high, a woman must turn
to her brothers for help in farming; in return she is expected to give her property to her
brothers on demand (Jones, 1981). A study of divorce in Ghana found that a divorced


- 35 -








woman often receives nothing but her personal effects in settlement. Whether or not she
must pay back the bride price depends on who initiated the divorce and keeps the
children. In Nepal, a widow has usufructuary rights to land during her lifetime, but a
divorced woman, who has no such rights, often becomes destitute (Acharya and Bennett,
1981). However, Nepali women living separately from their husbands may continue to
use some of their husband's land, usually the land to be inherited by their sons (Schroeder
and Schroeder, 1979). In other areas, divorced or widowed women may be allowed formal
access to land as, for instance, in the Indian state of Kerala, where only divorced women
and never married women are eligible to own land (Bennett, 1979). Likewise, in Peru
divorced or widowed women may receive rights to land in land reform programs (Deere
and Leon, 1982).

While sometimes granting access to widows or single mothers, land reform laws
have generally excluded women as potential beneficiaries (Deere, 1984). Land reform
laws in Colombia distributed land to the needy, defined as married males of least
eighteen years of age (Jones, 1981). In other countries, the experience has been much
the same (Spring and Hansen, 1979; Wilson, 1982; Deere, 1977; Safilios-Rothschild,
1983). However, a study of land purchase in a district of Peru shows that when women
are given the opportunity to buy land, they can and will. Forty percent of the marginal
hacienda land subdivided and sold to peasants in the 1950s and 1960s was registered in
the names of both the wife and husband; 30 percent of the subdivisions was registered in
the wives' name alone (Deere, 1982).

When women do have traditional or legal rights to land, their holdings may be
smaller and of lower quality than those of men. Many of the holdings that women work
as farm managers, partners, or unpaid workers are insufficient to meet a family's
subsistence needs (Rosenberg and Rosenberg, 1978). In addition, acreage that is more
fertile and closer to a village may be devoted to the cash crop production of men,
requiring women to travel further to their fields (Blumberg, 1981). In Paraguay, a study
showed that 59 percent of the women cultivated less than three hectares of land in 1977-
78, compared to 33 percent of the men (Laird, 1979). In Sub-Saharan Africa where land
is more evenly distributed, women's fields are also smaller than men's. In Botswana, for
instance, female heads of household owned an average of one-third less land than male
heads (Bettles, 1980). A Ghana survey revealed that 68 percent of the female
agricultural holdings were less than an acre, 23 percent one to two acres, and only 9
percent two to twenty acres. The corresponding acreages for the male holdings were 17
percent, 22 percent and 61 percent, respectively (Bukh, 1979). A similar pattern is


- 36








found in many other countries (see for example, Marter, 1979; Moock, 1976; Kerven,
1979; Staudt, 1978).

Women's limited control of land has important consequences for their ability to
maintain and expand production as well as their access to extension services. Women
who must provide for their family's food requirements are reluctant to risk undertaking
new agricultural technologies or crops on their small and perhaps less fertile holdings.
Lack of land ownership or tenancy rights prevents them from gaining credit and
controlling the capital generated by their production, thus preventing them from
investing in agricultural innovations.
Income and Wealth. According to Chambers (1974, p. 58), "there is overwhelming
evidence from all over the world that extension benefits go mainly to those who are
already more prosperous." Even in socialist Tanzania, a survey showed that 59 percent of
the wealthy farmers had a high level of extension contact while only 29 percent of the
poor farmers had such contact (DeVries, 1978). The ability to invest in farm production
is essential, not only for gaining access to extension services, but for maintaining and
expanding farm output in general. Wealthy farmers have the resources to adopt
innovations if they believe they will be profitable (Anthony, Johnston, Jones, and
Uchanda, 1979; Lele, 1976).

Because of their poverty and limited control over land and the fruits of
production, women farmers are particularly disadvantaged in hiring labor, obtaining draft
power and tools, and gaining loans. In studies in Paraguay and Peru, for instance,
female-managed farms were more heavily represented at lower income levels than male
farms, and female farm partners who need to hire paid labor for assistance in the fields
must rely on their husbands to provide them with the cash to pay for the labor (Laird,
1979; Bourque and Warren, 1979).

Data from Botswana show that the mean household income of female-headed
households in 1974 was half that of male-headed households. On average, female heads
of household possessed only one-fourth as many cattle as males heads, an indication of
the latter's wealth and access to the necessary draft power to plow their fields.
Households owning draft power were the the first to plow, and plowed an average of 70
percent more land per household than those who borrowed, exchanged for, or hired draft
power. While female and male farm managers had nearly equal production, female
managers had a net profit per acre only two-thirds as large as that of male managers
(Fortmann, 1982; Kerven, 1979). In another Botswana study, male heads of farm
households produced 1.9 bags of sorghum per acre, while female heads produced only 1.2


- 37 -








bags. This lower production may result from difficulties in buying fertilizers and other
inputs, hiring labor and draft power, and having a smaller residential work force (Chaney
and Lewis, 1980). Finally, a Zambian study showed that only 2 percent of the women
independently owned modern implements, ox-drawn plows, and planters (Muntemba,
1982).
Access to Credit. Credit is one of the most urgent needs of the small-scale
farmer. Progressive farmers generally own property that can be used as collateral,
allowing them access to credit which they may use to adopt innovations. Without
collateral or steady cash incomes, women cannot qualify for credit and must often
persuade their husbands or other male relatives to put up the collateral for a loan
(Lycette, 1984). A Kenyan study revealed that only 14 percent of the women received
loans; further, these women were mainly farm partners, not farm managers (Staudt,
1982). In six villages of a Tanzanian Rural Development Bank's Smaller Farmer Food
Crop Loan Program, women received only 10 percent of the loans (Fortmann, 1982). A
small study in Zambia found that no women received loans for agricultural tools and
inputs; such loans could be vital to women farmers since a husband or his kin keep all the
farming tools in the event of divorce or a husband's death (Muntemba, 1982). On the
other hand, in areas where women do own or control land, as in the cocoa regions of
Ghana and in Sumatra, they have been able to gain credit to buy more costly inputs and
machinery and employ men to help harvest (Blumberg, 1981).

Access to agricultural credit through cooperatives may also be directed to larger
farmers, who tend to be male. Women's participation in cooperatives is limited. Even
when substantial numbers of women are able to join, they seldom take an active role and
have little voice in management (Safilios-Rothschild, 1982; Lycette, 1984). In Bolivia, 95
percent of the funds distributed in agricultural credit programs in 1974 went to larger
farmers, and in Brazil, 88 percent of all loans were to large agricultural operations (Eddy
de Arellano, 1976; Lassen, 1980). Women farmers in a 1980 St. Lucia study received only
1 percent of the total loans disbursed by the Agricultural and Industrial Bank. Though
there were no legal restrictions to women securing credit, land was frequently required
as collateral. Attempts to use crop liens as alternative collateral in government credit
schemes have not been satisfactory, perhaps due to unfamiliarity with credit procedures
and unwillingness to sell crops at official prices (Knudson and Yates, 1981).

Lacking access to credit, women face tremendous difficulties in purchasing inputs
or hiring additional labor and draft power which may be crucial in undertaking the
agricultural innovations recommended by extension services. Their limited resources are


- 38








expended on maintaining family food production and on producing simple-technology,
secure, and readily marketable crops. Without capital, however, their potential for
expanding production of these crops is limited.
Access to Labor. Farmers who are chosen to be contact farmers are often those
who can command additional labor. The size, composition, and age of the family labor
force is critical in labor-intensive activities and peak periods of small-scale farming.
Indeed, some argue that the amount of land a family can cultivate is not limited as much
by the availability of land as by the labor to cultivate it (Norman, 1974). Male managers
can utilize their wives to supply additional labor as needed on the fields, but women who
are managers in their own right generally have no spouse to turn to for assistance. In
general, farm households headed by women have fewer household members, especially
those able to handle heavy farmwork, than male managed farms; and this lack of labor is
exacerbated by the limited availability to women of farm equipment and animals (Buvinic
and Youssef, 1978).

In other cases, the small size of land plots is the chief constraint to farming,
rather than a lack of labor power. The work of family members in income-generating
activities and off-farm employment is essential to complement the family's often
insufficient agricultural production. For example, in Guatemala, the average net income
of small subsistence farms covers only about one-half the average expenses of a farm
family (Lassen, 1980). In parts of Mexico where the land and available resources cannot
support commercial production, women contribute more labor than men to subsistence
agriculture, while men migrate to the United States to gain a cash income (Wilson, 1982).

In sum, lack of access to labor may hinder women farmers' abilities to maintain or
increase agricultural production, given the small size of their resident labor forces.
Without adult male labor, women are disadvantaged in clearing their fields and in making
exchanges for labor and draft power. Their lack of capital prevents women farmers from
hiring replacement labor, limiting the amount of cultivated acreage and agricultural
output. The need for women farm partners and workers to devote more of their labor to
cash crop production on male-managed fields may also result in less production on their
separate plots. Because of the many claims on their time and their inability to supply
replacements for their own labor, women do not have time to meet with extensionists or
to attend training sessions.
Political Power. Some individuals do not wait to be selected as contact farmers
or progressive farmers by local extension agents. They have the power to command
services or to arrange to be elected by local governing institutions to serve as "model


- 39 -








farmers" if they so wish (Anthony, Johnston, Jones and Uchanda, 1979, p. 238). In other
cases, extension agents who want to advance their careers will choose politically
powerful farmers as their contacts. If local governing institutions are composed of men,
it is likely that men will be selected as model or contact farmers, unless the extension
service specifically requests that a woman be chosen.
Women's limited political participation hinders their ability to gain access to
agricultural extension services. Formal decision-making, which may determine the goals,
orientation, and delivery of extension programs, takes place without the input of women
farmers. Decisions concerning access to other resources such as land, credit, and
education may also be taken without incorporating the concerns and needs of women.
Furthermore, agricultural agents, failing to view women as a politically important
constituency, may make only minimal attempts to reach female farmers.

In some areas of Kenya, agricultural extension information is disseminated
through barazas, the local government meetings attended primarily by men. While
women are permitted to listen, it is not customary, and few have the time to attend.
The women who participated in one Kenyan farmer training program tended to be wives
of chiefs, assistant chiefs, or agricultural extensionists, not low-income female farmers,
indicating that the politically powerful are more likely to gain access to training
programs (Moock, 1976; Staudt, 1982).
Women have only marginal representation and power in most of the political and
government institutions of the developing world. In some cases women's authority
structures do parallel men's structures, as in the cases of Nigerian market women, the
Mende in Sierra Leone, the Bamileke in Cameroon, and the Kikuyu in Kenya, for
instance. Yet in general women have not been given the tools or the structures to
participate in modem political circles. As the power structures of traditional societies
become more affected by governments, parliamentary politics, and state bureaucracies,
women lose their customary influence. In Nigeria, for example, where there is a strong
indigenous tradition of women participating as leaders, women's involvement in modern
politics and their voting rate is low compared to men (Staudt, 1981).

Rural women, and low-income women in particular, are especially disadvantaged
in the area of political power. Men's dominance in official decision-making has served to
allocate scarce resources to male farmers and accord higher value to men's work. In
Latin America, rural women are rarely represented in local councils. In an agricultural
community in Peru, for instance, women do not attend the communal assemblies, vote in
communal elections, or hold office (Bourque and Warren, 1979). Women in Tanzania are


- 40 -







usually not represented in village governments, except in the Pare District where they
played a crucial part in the resistance against taxation in the 1940s and hold 25 percent
of the leadership positions. In a few villages, women have been elected as village
chairpersons, including one case where half the households were headed by women and
another where the men became so outraged that the area commissioner arranged a new
election, which was won by a man (Fortmann, 1982).

Some governments, such as Kenya, Guinea-Bissau, and the Sudan have attempted
to encourage women's political participation by reserving quotas, typically 5 percent or
less, of national parliament seats for women (Bennett, 1979). Yet women must gain
greater political experience, leadership skills, and organized alliances to increase their
effective representation in local and national decision-making in order to gain power
over the distribution of agricultural resources.



Variations Of The Contact Farmer Approach


Training and Visit Extension. There are several variations of the conventional contact
farmer approach. One of these is the Training and Visit (T & V) system developed by
Daniel Benor (Benor, Harrison, and Baxter, 1984). Village extension workers receive
regular training on seasonally relevant topics, and then go to villages on a strict schedule
to advise groups of "contact farmers" on the agricultural techniques mastered in the
training period. This approach was designed to overcome some of the most commonly
cited overall problems with agricultural extension by (a) making village-level agents
responsible for agricultural extension only; (b) establishing a single hierarchical line of
administrative control; (c) improving the ratio of field agents to farmers; (d) establishing
a fixed schedule ou visits and steady communication between farmers and extensionists;
(e) providing technical back-stopping through on-going biweekly training of agents by
subject matter specialists; and (f) establishing or strengthening organizational linkages
with applied research institutions.

Village Extension Workers ( VEWs) who receive regular training in the operation of
the system, extension methods, and agricultural techniques are guided in the field and
supervised by Agricultural Extension Officers (AEOs), who, in turn, are supervised by
Subdivisional Extension Officers (SDEOs), and supported by Subject Matter Specialists
(SMSs). The District Extension Officers (DEOs) are responsible at the district level, and


- 41 -








are supervised either directly by the state extension headquarters or an intermediate
supervisor. These levels of control exist in order to ensure that close personal guidance
and supervision is provided at each level.

Particularly in the initial stages of contact, the T&V system emphasizes
inexpensive, relatively unsophisticated changes in farming practices that will increase
yields without the addition of new, costly inputs such as fertilizers and insecticides
(Cernea, 1981, p. 233). Most of the extensionist's field work is carried out through
contact farmers who share the information and serve as an example to other farmers. An
attempt is made to select average farmers in order to improve the chances of
dissemination of innovations to similar farmers. As Benor, Harrison, and Baxter put it
(1984, p. 27):
-i
Contact farmers...should not be the community's most progressive farmers, since
neighbors usually regard these farmers as exceptional and their neighbors tend not
to attempt to imitate what they do... Contact farmers must be of good standing in
their community so that their views on new practices will be respected by other
farmers. All major agricultural, economic, and social conditions in a farmers' group
should be represented by one or more contact farmer, as each farmer in the group
must have at least one contact farmer whom he regards as imitable.

Because of the constant training, rigid scheduling, and controls employed, this can
be an expensive approach to use, and may be difficult for many countries to introduce.
Eicher and Baker maintain that while results of this system are promising in India and
Turkey, the system would not work well in Africa at present, because of the required
level of trained manpower and the transport and communication infrastructure needed to
meet the schedules (Eicher and Baker, 1982). Nevertheless, some of these countries are
attempting to institute the T&V approach. For example, Cameroon has included a
variation of this approach in its current five-year Development Plan and has begun
organizing it as a major part of a newly-established integrated rural development
project, using both male and female village extension workers and attempting to reach
female food crop farmers.

There is no information available on the sex composition of the T&V contact
farmers actually chosen. Though contact farmers are not supposed to be more
progressive and wealthy than others, they are expected to "be of good standing in their
community so that their views on new practices will be respected by others" (Benor,
Harrison, and Baxter, 1984, p. 27). Since they are less influential politically and are
generally perceived as having inferior status, women farmers may not fall into this
category. It is also suggested that contact farmers be selected in consultation with


- 42 -








village leaders or elders, another factor which may prevent women from being chosen
(Benor, Harrison, and Baxter, 1984).

In addition, since women's roles in farming are not taken into account, the type of
innovations that T&V seeks to spread, requiring few new inputs but relying on altered
farming practices, may actually be disadvantageous to women, because they require
increased inputs of family labor. For example, line transplanting of rice--one of the
improvements cited in case studies of T&V--may increase rice yield but also requires
more weeding, often considered a woman's job. Efforts by the extension services in
Madagascar and the Casamance region of Senegal to introduce this practice (while not
connected with the T&V system) have met with strong resistance from women for this
reason (Dey, 1983, p. 14). In addition, because of their lack of access to labor, women
who are independent farm managers may not be able to implement the suggested labor-
intensive changes in farming practices.

Benor and Baxter (1984, pp. 170-7) have acknowledged the difficulties that the
T&V system and other agricultural extension approaches have in reaching women farmers
and providing them with useful technical advice. They suggest that field agents and
training and research staff receive orientation on the agricultural activities and needs of
women farmers in their areas, that women extensionists and researchers be recruited,
that SMSs be trained and directed to handle the technological requirements of both
women and men farmers, and that VEWs be directed to work with women contact
farmers who are representative of women farmers in the area. If necessary, Benor and
Baxter (1984, p. 175) propose that positions be created for SMSs whose primary
responsibility would be "to ensure that the extension service, and through it research,
develops and promotes feasible, appropriate production recommendations to meet the
needs of farm women." Another method they suggest for ensuring effective contact
between VEWs and women farmers is to organize the women into village groups that can
meet with the VEW during the regular visits to the village.

Little information is available, however, on the actual implementation of these
suggestions. It appears that further research is required to determine whether the T&V
system has proved to be an effective mechanism for the delivery of agricultural
extension services to women in the countries where it has been tried, and whether it can
be adapted to suit women's needs in other countries.
Model Farmers. Another variation of the conventional method is to organize
village groups, each of which elects a "model farmer" to attend weekly or biweekly
training programs at local administration centers. Rather than having extension workers


- 43 -








advise individual farmers or members of the village group on agricultural techniques, the
model farmer is obliged to report to the group what he or she has learned at the local
training center. Because of their relative lack of political influence, women farmers are
unlikely to be elected as model farmers for their villages. Even if women were chosen,
many of them would have difficulty in attending training programs, due to domestic
responsibilities which make it hard for them to travel away from home for an entire day.



Farmer Training Centers


One of the most common alternatives to the contact farmer approach is providing
training at local Farmer Training Centers. These centers have been established in many
countries, with resident programs that generally last from several days to a few months,
offering short courses on technical subjects. Some programs are designed to train
couples or entire families for as long as d complete agricultural year. Although contact
with farmers is easier and more effective in such a controlled environment, it has been
found that short-term training programs have only a limited effect and that the technical
bias of the courses may be too strong for many of the target farmers (Eicher and Baker,
1982, pp. 154-5). They can also be relatively costly, given the limited number of farmers
reached.

This approach has two major drawbacks in terms of reaching women farmers.
First, because of their dual household and income-earning responsibilities, women often
lack the time to attend courses away from their villages. Second, when women do
receive instruction at Farmer Training Centers, it is generally in home economics and
nutrition, not agriculture.

The burden of women's dual responsibilities is reflected in time budgets of
families in the developing world. In some societies women spend more of their day in
productive activities than men. Studies in Zambia, for instance, indicate that the labor
input of women per acre is substantially higher than that of men (3iggins, 1980). In the
Sudan, women in the south work in the fields five to eight hours a day, depending on the
season, in addition to other tasks (Hansell, 1977). The FAO (1979) estimates that in peak
seasons women work six to nine hours per day in fields in western Kenya, up to ten hours
in Lesotho, and nine to ten hours in Zambia. A study by Whyte and Whyte (1982) showed
that women in Bangladesh spend about six hours a day in agricultural duties and another
six hours in domestic tasks; in Java, women work eleven hours daily, compared to eight


- 44 -








hours for men. They also found that a Pakistani woman typically works fourteen hours a
day in the planting and harvesting seasons; during the wheat harvest she works ten hours
in the fields (Whyte and Whyte, 1982).

Women who are heads of household and independent farm managers have an even
greater work load. In Nepal, for example, a study of eight villages showed that women
heads of household had greater work loads than women in extended families, with longer
hours than men in all agricultural, animal husbandry, manufacturing and income-earning
activities (Acharya and Bennett, 1981). As men increasingly turn to wage labor and
migration, women must devote more of their valuable time to productive tasks, in
addition to fulfilling their household responsibilities. Women farmers, therefore, may
find little time to participate in agricultural meetings, farm demonstrations, and farmer
training courses. They may also be reluctant to undertake new farming practices and
new crops that demand more of women's labor (Fortmann, 1978; Spencer, 1976).

Unless entire families are trained, the most likely participants in Farmer Training
Centers will be farmers who have flexible schedules. Women farmers--who are tied to
regular, daily tasks such as providing and cooking food for a family and carrying out
other domestic duties, as well as looking after children-have difficulty finding time to
attend courses, particularly if they last for long periods. This is particularly true if the
course is not in a location where the farmer may return home each night (Bond, 1974). If
women have difficulty in leaving their homes for the one-day training sessions required
for model farmers, they may find it even more difficult to leave for several days or
weeks, especially when there is no extended family system to assist with the domestic
duties. In addition, in some societies, husbands may not allow their wives to travel alone
for training. Women who are heads of household will have even greater difficulty in
attending training courses, since their workloads are heavier and they do not have access
to additional family labor to perform agricultural tasks in their absence.

When women farm partners have participated in resident training courses with
their husbands, they generally receive little instruction in agricultural techniques, but
instead are taught skills that are related more to their household roles. In one area of
Malawi, for example, about 88,000 farmers were trained in ten-day residential training
programs between 1979 and 1980; about 47,000 of these farmers were women. Yet of
sixteen courses, only three were for both women and men--crop storage, family health,
and horticulture. Seven courses were specifically for women--child care, home
improvement, laundry, needlework and handicraft, nutrition and cookery, poultry
keeping, and preparation for display. Courses for men included credit, crop husbandry,


- 45 -








farm management, forestry management, and land husbandry (Perraton, 3amison, and
Orivel, 1983). At farmer training centers in Kenya, although one-third of the trainees are
women, only 30 percent of their instruction is in agricultural subjects. The rest is in
home economics (Staudt, 1975). In Zambia, courses at the farm institutes varied by sex
of the farmer. All courses for male trainees were in agriculture, while only three
farming courses-poultry, maize, and groundnuts-and seven courses in sewing and
knitting were taught to women (Muntemba, 1982).



Private Sector


A very different approach to extension operates through commercial channels.
For example, retail stores and merchants who sell agricultural inputs, tools, and
equipment often are willing to advise their customers on the best use of these products
(Stavis, 1979). In addition, large firms that contract with individual farmers to obtain
certain crops may provide their own extension services. Such an approach can
complement government extension programs in many different institutional settings, and
governments can influence its expansion by providing a supportive economic climate.

The main recipients of extension services that operate through suppliers of
agricultural inputs tend to be the wealthier farmers, farmers with title to land, and
farmers who have large farms or plantations. Poor farmers do come into contact with
private suppliers, but they are less likely to receive technical advice from these
sources. The better-off farmers are the only ones able to purchase for cash or on credit
the required inputs, such as fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, seeds and mechanical
farm equipment. They also are the ones who operate on a large enough scale to have
profits which they are willing to risk to purchase such inputs and equipment. Women
would be less likely than men to have access to this type of extension since, as we have
seen, women generally have fewer resources and capital than men and would be less
likely to purchase agricultural inputs, tools, and equipment.

Another type of private sector involvement in agricultural extension that has the
potential to reach very small farmers is contract farming. In this approach, a private
firm, often a multinational corporation, provides technical advice, seeds, fertilizers,
pesticides, tools, credit, and other necessary inputs to individual farmers who are under
contract to sell all their crops to the firm. In the Dominican Republic, for example, Gulf
and Western has multi-year contracts with independent farmers that guarantee the


- 46 -







purchase of the farmers' sugar cane crops at market prices. Payments for inputs and
services provided by Gulf and Western are deducted from the amount the farmer receives
when the crop is harvested. Farming is supervised by Gulf and Western extensionists,
who serve a regulatory as well as an advisory role. The company also provides training
for livestock raising, since oxen play important roles in the harvest. In addition, the
company has become involved in establishing an agricultural cooperative, providing
educational, housing, medical and other services and setting up an Industrial Duty Free
Zone which employs about 10,000 (Freeman and Karen, 1981, p. 17-19).

Another example is the British-America Tobacco Company (BAT), which is active
in a number of African countries. In Nigeria, for example, it has established "Block
Farms" which bring together small farmers with access to as little as one hectare into a
larger parcel to take advantage of mechanized bush clearing and land preparation, as
well as improved storage and marketing facilities. BAT also encourages the farmers to
grow food crops on other plots of land, introducing high yield varieties to increase
output. In Kenya, BAT (Kenya), a subsidiary jointly owned by the parent company, a
Kenyan parastal (Industrial and Commercial Development Corporation) and local
investors, works with very small farmers, generally those with one-half to one hectare of
land. As in many contract farming schemes, farmers' production targets are set in
advance and field extension personnel, employed by the company, closely monitor
production at each growing stage and direct the farmers as to which techniques to use
(Freeman and Karen; Currie and Ray, 1983).

Research on contract farming does not indicate whether women are reached by
the extension services provided by private firms. Despite the fact that unpaid family
labor is an important component of this approach, it is not clear how this affects
women's work. Insofar as the extensionists deal only with farmers who own land, who can
afford to purchase new inputs, and who are already involved in export cash-cropping,
women may be ignored by this approach. In addition, even if participation in contract
farming schemes raises farmers' incomes, the resulting switch to crops purchased by the
contracting firm and the firm's introduction of more intensive farming methods may
require additional unpaid family labor, pulling women away from the production of their
own crops or adding to their overall work burden. This aggravates the problem of
women's lack of access to extension. As unpaid family workers women are less likely to
receive extension services, even if they are involved in cash crop production.
Furthermore, if women have to devote more labor to crops controlled by their husbands,
they will have less time to receive advice or training from extensionists on the


- 47








production of crops they control. Finally, since contract farming depends heavily on:
unpaid family labor, women who are farm managers in their own right will be less likely!
to become involved in these schemes due to their lack of access to additional labor.



Large-Scale Group Approaches


In contrast to approaches that attempt to maximize the effectiveness of the
limited numbers of extension agents by concentrating resources on particular groups,
geographic areas, activities, or crops, large-scale group approaches aim to reach as many
farmers as possible, through local-level membership organizations, mobilization
campaigns, or mass communication media (Anthony, Johnston, Jones, and Uchanda,
1979, p. 234). For example, regularly scheduled radio programs may offer advice to
farmers, and demonstrations may be made at market places, fairs, or agricultural shows
(Stavis, 1979). In theory, these approaches seem to offer the best hope of reaching large
numbers of women farmers and small farmers in general. In practice, however, the
effectiveness of the information transmitted has been limited. While these programs
operate at a low cost per farmer reached, they may produce only limited results.


Mass Communication

Such an approach to extension is usually channeled through the general extension
services of the Ministry of Agriculture. This approach makes information accessible to
nearly all farmers, including women, in the area where it is tried. The farmers may
receive extension messages over the radio or in the market place or local agricultural
show. In addition, it is possible to direct specific extension messages toward women
through these media.

Mass media extension programs generally rely on radio broadcasts, although visual
and print media have also been used. Various approaches include regular radio programs,
radio "schools," specialized or targeted radio campaigns, radio programs with feedback
mechanisms (along the lines of correspondence courses), and group learning sessions
linked to radio broadcasts.

Radio schools in Latin America teach adults to read and write and provide other
basic education, including agricultural techniques. They are organized around small
groups or families that receive printed matter and send correspondence lessons back to
the school's headquarters. Each group has a literate member who helps the others and a


- 48 -







volunteer monitor trained by the headquarters who visits the groups regularly to serve as
a bridge between the headquarters of the school and the groups (Perraton, 1982, pp. 84-
5). Although it is difficult to estimate the number of people actually served by this type
of radio program, studies show that radio schools reach less than 5 percent of the target
rural adult population per year. A study in the Dominican Republic revealed that 57
percent of those listening to radio education programs were women (Perraton, 1983, p.
87). It is even more difficult to determine whether the programs are effective in
educating the target group, particularly in regard to agriculture. However, there are
indications of some success, particularly in the case of health education linked to
homemakers' clubs (Perraton, 1983, p. 89).

Other radio correspondence programs that focus more specifically on agriculture
include INADES-Formation, an Ivory Coast-based program that serves a number of
African countries, and Radio Educative Rurale in Senegal. These basic agricultural
courses have had little success in reaching women and illiterates (Perraton, 1983, p.
102). However, a study in Cameroon provided evidence that the program was effective
in improving the agricultural practices of men farmers (Jenkins and Perraton, 1981).

A similar type of program is the farm forum, which generally consists of a
membership-based farmers' group that gets together on a regular basis to listen to a
radio broadcast, read explanatory materials and discuss what has been learned and how to
act on it. In general, both men and women listen to the broadcasts, but in separate
groups. There is limited evidence that farmers learn from these forums and change their
farming methods as a result (Perraton, 1983). Some forums have been successful in
reaching women; in Ghana, for example, 54 percent of the program participants were
women, three-fourths of whom were engaged in farming. In Niger, however, less than 10
percent of the forum members were women (Perraton, 1983, p. 91).

Only mass communication approaches have the potential to directly reach a large
number of average and poor farmers, including women farmers. Perraton (1983, p. 105)
estimates that radio-based extension can reach about 30 percent of the rural population
in developing countries. However, mass communication approaches may be too general
to be successful. Without follow-up activities or channels for feedback it is questionable
whether farmers will change their agricultural practices. In addition, diffusion of new
techniques is likely to be less widespread.


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Organizations
Another group approach to reach large numbers of "average" farmers operates
through voluntary associations of farmers that are self-controlled and self-financed.
Farmers in these associations jointly determine their specific needs for extension.
Training may then be provided at local meetings of the association members. This
approach may be used with any of the institutional extension models described. It is
most successful if the farmers have relatively accurate information on the costs and
benefits of the available options in order to determine their extension needs. Farmers
may be guided in their decisions by well-trained extension personnel. One drawback to
this approach is that administrative procedures may be cumbersome and time-consuming,
resulting in higher costs than would be anticipated, given its volunteer component
(Orivel, 1983).

It is often through participation in formal organizations and cooperatives that
farmers gain access to services, agricultural information, and credit. Unfortunately,
such organizations frequently exclude women who are not landowners and heads of
household. Despite widespread, high-level support for women's participation in the
cooperative movement, women's membership is limited because members must be
recognized "farmers," "heads of household," or "landowners" (Bennett, 1979; Safilios-
Rothschild, 1983). Women who are de facto farm managers may be able to participate in
cooperatives, but often only if they are single or widowed (see Eddy de Arellano, 1976,
for example). Even when women's membership is high, incorporating those who are farm
partners, women tend to play a limited role in cooperative management; men generally
exercise the votes and control the disposition of revenues from the sale of agricultural
products. In some countries, e.g., the Philippines and Malaysia, there are separate
cooperatives for women. However, these usually play a secondary, non-competitive role
in relation to men's cooperatives. In addition, they often concentrate on areas other than
agriculture per se, functioning as simple credit unions, for example (Lamming, 1983;
Westergaard, 1982).

On the other hand, women's organizations have sometimes been successful in
securing agricultural services. For example, one organization among the Woloff in
Senegal complained to government authorities that newly introduced mechanical sowers
and weeders were only available for use on women's plots one to two weeks after those of
the men and farmer partners, making women's yields lower. As a result, the government
agreed to make the technology available to the women farmers at the appropriate time
(Staudt, 1981). In Tanzania, however, women's organizations were less successful. One


- 50 -








chapter of the national women's organization was denied land to grow coffee but was
granted land to cultivate beans and maize. Since permanent crops, such as coffee, are
the property of the person who plants them, Fortmann (1982) speculated that male
farmers feared giving women permanent possession of a cash source.

In some areas of Asia, women's informal work organizations provide an important
source of labor for women farmers. In Nepal, most women's agricultural work is
performed in cooperative work parties with four to six women working their fields on a
rotating basis. Poor women, however, participate less frequently since these women
have limited land holdings and often turn to wage labor to support themselves and their
families (Whyte and Whyte, 1982). A Kenyan study found that more than 90 percent of
the women surveyed belonged to some type of organization, including church groups,
mutual aid societies, and informal work groups, but these had failed to become an
integral focus of extension services (Staudt, 1982).

Some have suggested that more women farmers could be reached by incorporating
agricultural extension services into the activities of existing women's groups (see for
example, Ashby, 1981, pp. 182-5). In Botswana, for example, 21 percent of the women in
a survey belonged to women's clubs where a variety of lessons, including agriculture,
were taught (Bond, 1974). In rural Kenya, up to 90 percent of the women belong to
church, mutual aid or communal labor groups, and some agricultural information is
exchanged at their meetings (Staudt, 1982). This method may be very effective for
reaching large numbers of women, although not necessarily the target recipients. Most
women's groups are organized for other objects and may not be appropriate for or
responsive to transmission of information on agricultural extension, particularly if that
information is perceived as non-traditional. Such information may be ignored or
rejected. Aggressively attaching agricultural activities to an inappropriate group may
even destroy the group if it causes women to avoid meetings. This approach may also
serve to perpetuate or strengthen the dual system of production-oriented extension
services for men and home economics for women, since many of the existing women's
organizations already focus on domestic subjects.

Furthermore, women farmers may be unable to gain access to agricultural
extension services through organizations that are dominated by women of higher
socioeconomic status. Elite women have different interests and economic activities. In
Kenya, for example, wealthy women are five times more likely to have been exposed to
domestic training in government programs than low-income women, and do not see


- 51 -









agriculture as a women's issue (Staudt, 1981, 1978). Women's groups may therefore not

represent or be beneficial to poor women farmers as far as agricultural production is

concerned.

In sum, women may be excluded from participation in agricultural organizations

and cooperatives, due to restrictions favoring male heads of household and land title

holders, even though the women provide much of the family labor requirements in

cooperative ventures. Poor women may also fail to participate in groups because of their

heavy productive and household responsibilities, which preclude spending valuable time in

active membership. In addition, established women's organizations may not be

appropriate vehicles for agricultural extension because they are generally organized for
different purposes. Women therefore lack access to a forum and a mechanism for

receiving agricultural services and for making visible their farming needs.




Appropriate Delivery Mechanisms for Reaching Women Farmers


Women's lack of access to key resources for agricultural production makes

particular approaches to extension delivery disadvantageous to them in different ways.

For example, while lack of time may be one of the most formidable obstacles to women's

participation in Farmer Training Center programs, their limited ownership of land and
other assets may pose a greater constraint to their access to contact farmer schemes.

Table 3 summarizes these constraints as they have been discussed in the paper.

TABLE 3


FACTORS AFFECTING FARMERS' ACCESS TO EXTENSION SERVICES
UNDER DIFFERENT APPROACHES
Extension Approach

Farmer Groups/
Reaches Contact Trainrng Commercial/ Mass
Farmers Farmer Center Private Sector Communication
With Access
to

land X X X
wealth X X
labor X X X
credit X X
political power X X
time X X
education X X
X
organizations
52 -








Training


It is not possible to find cross-country comparative data on the number of students
enrolled in courses that prepare them to become agricultural extensionists. However,
available studies indicate that insufficient numbers of agents have been trained. In some
countries, too few secondary school students are qualified for and interested in entering
agricultural programs (USAID Botswana, 1974, p. 25). Highly educated students do not
often desire to become involved with the everyday, farm-level problems of increasing
agricultural production, and are unwilling to enter courses of study leading to such
employment (Lele, 1976, p. 20). But, while it may be necessary to train some individuals
to the degree or certificate level, those individuals may not always be the best persons to
work in the field (Leonard, 1973; Lele, 1976, p. 72). Higgs (1976, pp. 254-5) notes that in
most Latin American countries, training and socioeconomic background make extension
officers remote from the campesino, and thus unable to communicate.

Studies show that very few women study subjects related to agricultural
development, and of those most are in home economics courses. Only a few women have
been trained in other aspects of rural or agricultural extension work (World Food
Programme, 1975, p. 21). This educational bias has historical origins; colonial
administrators did not encourage women's education in agricultural subjects (Lele, 1975,
p. 77. Though improving nutritional value in food preparation, fostering hygienic
practices, and introducing means to conserve labor in the home have significant value
and should not be abandoned, women's extension programs have too often been
exclusively oriented toward domestic science or home economics. Today, developing
countries are beginning to develop a hierarchy of women staff geared to meet the needs
of rural women (Smithells, 1972). To implement this new goal, some countries have
taken positive steps to open their agricultural colleges to women. Nevertheless, most
women still continue to enter courses in home economics.
The effectiveness of agricultural extension agents--both men and women--depends
largely upon the relevance of their training. Too often, agents have only limited
agricultural training or have received very theoretical training with little practical
experience. Even fewer agents have been trained in extension methods per se; they may
know what message they want to deliver but not how to communicate it. Highly
technical training may be irrevelant to the particular needs of small farmers, as it fails
to provide training in the communication skills and socioeconomic orientation that
extension workers need to communicate effectively at the village level (Higgs, 1976). As
one means of getting around this problem, some have recommended training extensionists


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AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PERSONNEL


This paper has shown how the institutional context in which extension services
operate and the approach to service delivery influence women's access to agricultural
extension, given the characteristics of women farmers. Assuming that institutions can
be modified and new delivery methods chosen to enhance the usefulness of agricultural
extension services for women, in what ways will extension staffing arrangements affect a
program's impact on women farmers?

Obviously, factors such as training, commitment, and incentives will affect the
performance of extensionists vis-a-vis all potential clients, including women. But by
calling for more women extensionists as the primary means to reach women farmers,
many have implicitly argued that the gender of the extensionists is perhaps the most
important factor in determining the extent and quality of contact between women
farmers and the extension service. The logic of the argument is that agricultural
innovations are not reaching women because there are too few female extensionists
involved in agriculture, because male extensionists do not or cannot communicate with
women farmers, and because agricultural extension messages and innovations are not
spread from men to women farmers.

However, since very little empirical work has been done in this area, there is
really no basis on which to judge the relative effectiveness of male and female agents in
assisting women farmers. Efforts to conduct comparative studies may be frustrated by
the fact that few attempts have been made to give women field agents an active role in
agricultural extension services. In addition, it is difficult to isolate the effect of gender
of extension agents from other variables that determine the effectiveness of extension
staff, such as education, organization, and motivation. Some of these variables--
education, for example-are very much related to gender as well.

The following section is a preliminary effort to examine some of the factors
related to the composition of extension staff that influence their ability to deliver
extension services to women farmers. A later section investigates some of the concrete
attempts that have been made to expand women's access to agricultural extension,
including a few that incorporate women field agents.


- 54 -








Training


It is not possible to find cross-country comparative data on the number of students
enrolled in courses that prepare them to become agricultural extensionists. However,
available studies indicate that insufficient numbers of agents have been trained. In some
countries, too few secondary school students are qualified for and interested in entering
agricultural programs (USAID Botswana, 1974, p. 25). Highly educated students do not
often desire to become involved with the everyday, farm-level problems of increasing
agricultural production, and are unwilling to enter courses of study leading to such
employment (Lele, 1976, p. 20). But, while it may be necessary to train some individuals
to the degree or certificate level, those individuals may not always be the best persons to
work in the field (Leonard, 1973; Lele, 1976, p. 72). Higgs (1976, pp. 254-5) notes that in
most Latin American countries, training and socioeconomic background make extension
officers remote from the campesino, and thus unable to communicate.

Studies show that very few women study subjects related to agricultural
development, and of those most are in home economics courses. Only a few women have
been trained in other aspects of rural or agricultural extension work (World Food
Programme, 1975, p. 21). This educational bias has historical origins; colonial
administrators did not encourage women's education in agricultural subjects (Lele, 1975,
p. 77. Though improving nutritional value in food preparation, fostering hygienic
practices, and introducing means to conserve labor in the home have significant value
and should not be abandoned, women's extension programs have too often been
exclusively oriented toward domestic science or home economics. Today, developing
countries are beginning to develop a hierarchy of women staff geared to meet the needs
of rural women (Smithells, 1972). To implement this new goal, some countries have
taken positive steps to open their agricultural colleges to women. Nevertheless, most
women still continue to enter courses in home economics.
The effectiveness of agricultural extension agents--both men and women--depends
largely upon the relevance of their training. Too often, agents have only limited
agricultural training or have received very theoretical training with little practical
experience. Even fewer agents have been trained in extension methods per se; they may
know what message they want to deliver but not how to communicate it. Highly
technical training may be irrevelant to the particular needs of small farmers, as it fails
to provide training in the communication skills and socioeconomic orientation that
extension workers need to communicate effectively at the village level (Higgs, 1976). As
one means of getting around this problem, some have recommended training extensionists


- 55 -








in the farming systems approach (Shaner, Philipp, and Schmehl, 1982). Even when field
agents receive such training, however, it is unlikely that they will receive instruction on
women's roles and their specific needs. Such training is crucial to refocus the efforts of
male-oriented extension staff, make them aware of the need to take account of women's
needs, and enable them to identify areas where women farmers need extension support
(Benor and Baxter, 1984).



Performance Incentives


The effectiveness and performance of extension personnel depend not only upon
training but also upon institutional support, rewards, and incentives. Anthony, Johnston,
Jones, and Uchanda (1979, pp. 232-3) claim that organization and incentives, rather than
individual competence, are the most important determinants of staff performance.
Because their conditions of service are poor and incentives in terms of salary and
promotion prospects are low, extension workers lack motivation for taking initiative. On
the other hand, extensionists' salaries are often much higher than the earnings of small
farmers, creating a psychological barrier between the two groups (Lele, 1975, p. 22).
Hence, extensionists tend to seek out farmers with whom they can communicate and who
will enable them to fulfill their duties as easily as possible: progressive farmers; the most
accessible farmers, both geographically and culturally; or very few farmers at all
(Jiggins, 1975, pp. 1-4). Under these circumstances, women farmers are unlikely to have
much contact with extensionists.

Agents generally work in the field with little regular contact with their
supervisors. While they may have a set of duties to perform, they must make their own
daily schedules, set priorities, and make their own contacts. Thus, they are more subject
to local political and social pressures over which they have little control, than to the
needs of their clients or the requirements of the job. In addition, the lack of a clear
chain of command in agricultural extension services leaves field agents without
direction, supervision, systems of reward, or motivation (Benor, Harrison, and Baxter,
1974).

Extensionists' prospects frequently depend upon paper qualifications rather than
field competence and experience, and opportunities for advancement from the field to
higher levels of service are usually limited. Agents may not perceive that good work is
rewarded or that poor work is penalized; thus there is little economic or career incentive


56 -







for good work. Promotions are often based upon seniority, office-based skills, and
visibility to management. It becomes more important to please superiors than to carry
out immediate field tasks, to fulfill "paper" objectives than to achieve actual results in
the field. Furthermore, promotions are sometimes related to family or ethnic
connections, rather than work performance (Jiggins, 1977; Chambers, 1974, pp. 59-60).

However, although job security is usually high, transfers are frequent. In addition
to being unsettling to the individual and his/her family, transfers make it difficult for
agents to become thoroughly knowledgeable about and involved in the problems of the
local environment. Harsh climates and lack of transportation also contribute to the
difficulty of the job. It is not uncommon for an agent to be expected to work without
transportation or with only a bicycle, when a motorcycle or four-wheel-drive vehicle may
be needed (Jiggins, 1977, p. 3). For women agents, lack of "appropriate" transportation is
a constraint often cited by superiors as a reason for not sending them into the field
(Howard-Merriam, 1981; Oxby, 1973, p. 7).

Since decisions are made centrally from a head office, the only way for a field
agent to advance is to move into the central office, where skills and experience from the
field may not be necessary. Generally, there is no satisfactory career advancement
structure within the field organization, or within the district with which the field staff
are most familiar. Partly for this reason, administrators are reluctant to spend time in
the field away from opportunities to advance, living in what they consider to be
uncomfortable conditions. Women working in agricultural extension services may face
even greater difficulties in getting promotions. In Cameroon, for instance, one extension
supervisor expressed interest in attaching a female extension agent to his office because
she could be assigned to do typing at a lower salary than a secretary (DeLancey, 1984).

Salaries and allowances for the junior staff of government extension services are
low, often lower than those for staff with similar qualifications in other fields, and lower
than those with similar positions who are employed by commercial schemes. Allowances
are often late in payment, and few other material benefits are offered. It is generally
agreed that "salary structures are governed by nationally, or regionally, determined
norms and grading; individual effort and competence is not directly, or even often,
related to reward" (Jiggins, 1977).

Lele (1975, pp. 71-3) summarized the consensus on incentives, suggesting that
increasing pay, rationalizing promotional opportunities, and restructuring the supervisory
system would be an obvious means of improving staff morale and performance. The lack
of incentives for extension field workers invites them to fulfill the stereotype held by


- 57 -








their superiors that portrays them as spending only a few hours a day at work, making the 3
minimum number of visits to the most accessible farms, and contacting those who are
most eager to adopt whatever advice is given (Chambers, 1974, pp. 55-7). The lack of
incentives discourages field workers from seeking out farmers who most need their help,
since they are likely to be least accessible. This group includes the majority of female
farmers, who have small farms at a greater distance from the village and may be
reluctant to talk with a male extension agent.



Gender of Extensionists


A recent review by Germaine (1981), summarizing data from the International
Directory of National Extension Systems, concluded that there are "virtually no female
agricultural extension workers" in the world (see also Swanson and Rossi, 1981). There
are only a few exceptional cases, such as the Philippines, where one-half are women, and
Thailand, where one-fourth are women. In other countries, such as Botswana, Malaysia,
and Nigeria, women constitute a small fraction of the total. For example, Bettles (1980)
found in Botswana that of 185 Agricultural Demonstrators, 16 were women; of 19
District Agricultural Officers, 1 was a woman; and that all 6 of the Regional Agricultural
Officers were male. Table 4 shows the number of women and men extensionists in
twelve African countries. Information on other countries is provided in Table 6 (see
Appendix).
Overall figures indicate that about 3 percent of agricultural extension personnel in
Africa are women, 23 percent in Asia and Oceania, and 14 percent in Latin America and
the Caribbean, with a world-wide average (including Europe and North America) of 19
percent (Swanson and Rassi, 1981). Of these female extensionists, approximately 41
percent are engaged in home economics-related programs. This fact highlights the
problem of dual extension systems-market-oriented agricultural assistance (largely by
men) for men; and home economics or household/subsistence-oriented assistance (by
women) for women. In such an institutional context it is difficult for women
extensionists to have a positive impact on the farming practices of women.


- 58 -






TABLE 4


Male and Female Extension Personnel in Agricultural Programs
Africa


Agriculture
M F


Home*
Economics
M F


Other
M F


Total
M F


186

88

170

56

13

1,106

1,088

11

1,107

200


Botswana

Gabon

Gambia

Mauritius

Namibia

Nigeria

Senegal

Seychelles

South Africa

Togo

Tunisia

Zimbabwe


- 2 178

- 3

457

18

3

680

- 1 71

- 3

2 563

S 12

12

51


Souce: Burton E. Swanson and 3affar Rassi, International Directory of National
Extension Systems (Urbana Champaign: University of Illinois, Bureau of Educational
Research, 1981).

Note: Data shows home economics ertensionists working under agricultural programs
only.

Data available, but not disaggregated by sex: Central African Republic, Ethiopia,
Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Rwanda, Swaziland, Upper Volta.







In the most complete review of the subject of women and extension to date, Ashby

(1981, p. 169-70) argues that women extensionists are necessary for two reasons. First,

the existence of separate communication channels for men and women means that

messages received through male extension agents may be ignored by women farmers.

Female extensionists, on the other hand, will be able to tap into women-specific

networks. Second, research demonstrates that extension agents who are most like their

target clients are apt to be the most successful in introducing new practices that involve

risk or uncertainty (see also Rogers, 1973).


- 59 -


Totals


1,323 13


9 364

91

9 627

2 74

S 16

9 1,786

1,159

14

1,670

S 212

3 12

72 2,233


388

93

642

76

16

1,899

1,163

18

1,672

212

15

2,328








In some cases, the use of women extensionists is the only option to reach women
farmers. For example, one project in Pakistan reviewed by the FAO was "forced" to rely
on women extensionists, not just for the sake of reaching women, but to achieve the
overall goals of the project. The project involved the vaccination of village chickens to
eradicate infection. Many husbands from the villages involved had migrated, leaving
women solely in charge of the household animals. Since male veterinary assistants were
prohibited by local custom from visiting these women, their birds could not be
innoculated, posing a threat to new breeds that were to be introduced into the villages.
The problem was solved by training female extension workers who were able to improve
contacts with village women (Oxby, 1983, pp. 6-7).

However, while women farmers in some regions may be reluctant to talk with
men, in other regions women agents may not be more effective than men in
communicating information on agriculture. Contrary to other findings discussed in this
paper, some research has shown that high-status individuals may be more effective, in
general, in transmitting messages than low-status individuals (Bem, 1970; Buvinic,
1984). One study demonstrated that farmers are more likely to choose people of higher
social status and technological competence as sources of farm information (Van der Ban,
1981, p. 306). In societies where women are perceived to be low-status communicators,
therefore, they may be less effective than men as extension agents. In such cases, it is
doubly important to train and encourage men to extend their messages to women.

Certainly, from the point of view of equity and expanding employment
opportunities for professional women, increasing the number of women extensionists is a
desirable goal. However, if women are simply inserted into the existing institutional
structure of extension services, they are unlikely to be any more effective than present
male agents in helping women farmers to increase their productivity. Without special
orientation, women with technical agricultural training may continue to contact the
same type of clients the extension services are already reaching--male farmers (Benor
and Baxter, 1984). They may also be marginalized within the extension service,
recreating the dual system of women working only with women on "women's subjects,"
and men working only with men on "men's subjects." In addition, given the lack of
trained women agronomists and others who could fill substantive field level positions and
the lack of incentives for women to enter the field, increasing the proportion of women
extensionists must be a medium or long-range goal. Meanwhile, considerations of


- 60 -








efficiency and effectiveness do not necessarily require women extensionists in order to
reach women farmers. Retraining or reorientation of male agents in the short run, as
well as changes in the structure of extension services and the approaches to delivery can
go a long way toward expanding women's access to agricultural extension.


- 61 -








TARGETING WOMEN IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROJECTS


Until recently, few agricultural extension services specifically addressed the
needs of women farmers. In fact, agricultural projects generally ignored women, despite
their important role in farming. As recognition of women's productive activities grows,
efforts are being made to increase direct contacts with women farmers in the field
through existing extension channels (often by incorporating women extension agents) and
to give women agricultural training at Farmer Training Centers. In addition, a few
special extension programs have been designed specifically for women (see, for example,
the Botswana case described below).

Table 5 below illustrates the type of agricultural extension projects designed with
women's farming roles in mind, through a review of several recent USAID projects in
Africa and the Caribbean. This review is based solely on information provided in project
documents, and in many cases reflects only the design of the interventions and not their
actual implementation. In implementation, projects that do not spell out mechanisms for
including women can have very favorable impacts on women's productive roles. On the
other hand, those designs that do not specifically mention women may, as a result of
including substantial numbers of women in the implementation stage, shift from their
productive goals toward the welfare orientation that often characterizes women's
projects (Buvinic, 1984, p. 2).

In order to isolate some of the problems with the approaches taken so far and to
identify "lessons" for future extension programs, additional research will be necessary.
The projects selected here present a good indication of the kinds of initiatives that
should be studied in greater detail to explore the effectiveness of various options for
rearing women farmers.

The project interventions outlined in Table 5 generally fall into three categories:

1. interventions designed to reach more women (wives) at Farmer Training
Centers;

2. interventions that will increase access to extension services for small
farmers; and

3. interventions that provide or facilitate separate or supplementary extension
services for women.


- 62 -




TABLE 5


SELECTED PROJECTS TO INCREASE WOMEN'S
ACCESS TO AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION (1974-84)


Project Title,
Country, and
Number

Botswana
Agricultural
Technology
Improvement
(#633-0221)










Senegal Cereals
Production II
(1685-0235)


Training of
farmer women
for decreased
agricultural
Chad
(#698-0388.6)


Sources of
Information

SAID/
Botswana
(1981)












SAID/
Senegal
(1979)


USAID/Chad
(1978)


Duration Beneficiaries

FY-79-84 Ministry of
Agriculture
research and
extension units











FY-79-84 Ministry of
Agriculture
research
extension units


2 years


General

Strengthen capacity of
Ministry of Agriculture
Dept. of Research to
develop solutions for small
farmers; institute system
of on-farm research and
experimentation;
institutionalize linkages
between Research Dept.
and Extension/field
service; expand capacity of
seed multiplicate unit to
produce quality seeds for
major crops

Improve extension and
research capabilities to
reach the entire farm
family, focusing on peanut
and millet; institute system
of off-station applied
research; train
extensionists in new
agricultural and audio-
visual techniques;
integration of research and
extension activities


Women farmers
from joint-
managed farms
(farm partners)


Project uses farming
systems research approach
and targets small farmers
(1 to 10 hectares), 40
percent of whom are
women









Establishment of Women's
Extension Unit; provide
women with agricultural
inputs; installation of
grinding mills in villages;
assist in building women's
producer cooperatives;
train (women) village
extension workers to
provide daily technical
advice disseminate labor -
saving devices for women;
test training materials for
women in nutrition, health,
home economics; help the
extension service address
specific needs of women
farmers

Two-year training for 200
women farm partners
(whose husbands are
receiving training) at 5
Farmer Training Centers-
70% of training time in
agricultural techniques,
30% in home economics,
marketing, literacy etc.;
women will grow food for
sale with proceeds going to
a revolving loan fund to
allow them to purchase
tools and seeds at end of
training; village
demonstrations by (female)
monitrices


WID Implementers

Anthropologist/rural
sociologist on Farming
Systems Research Team


Results/Comment

Unknown


3 (female) staff of Women's Unknown
Extension Unit; (women)
village extension workers


(Female) Director of
Training Programs,
Division of Education and
Professional Training,
Ministry of Agriculture;
monitrices. Peace Corps
volunteer/assistant to
monitrices


Unknown






Project Title,
Country,
and Number

Caribbean
Agricultural
Extension,
Caribbean
Region
(0 538-0017)


Botswana
Ministry of
Agriculture
Women's
Extension Unit


Source of
Information

SAID,
RDO/C
(1979)
Knudson and
Yates (1981)


Duration Beneficiaries

6 years University and
government
extension
services


Bond (1974) 1974-
Bettles (1979) present


General

Analysis of existing
agricultural services;
training of personnel;
design of new delivery
systems; provision of
vehicles and
communication equipment;
expansion of outreach staff
and newsletter;
development of audio-
visual materials


Government
extension
service


WID Implementers


Training/workshops for
extension personnel on
women in development;
research and design of
models for transmitting
technology to women
farmers, testing models in
three territories;
strengthening of VID
capability within local
institutions by establishing
a Regional Agricultural
Extension Coordinating
Committee, to include a
staff member of University
of West Indies WID Unit

Establishment of a women's
component within the
Department of Agricultural
Field Services in the
Ministry of Agriculture;
attempts to integrate
women farmers into
extension activities,
Farmer Training Centers,
and integrated farming
projects; in 1977,
establishment of a
permanent Women's Unit
under the Department of
Field Services


Women and Development
Unit (WAND), University of
West Indies, Barbados


Agricultural
Officer/Women's Extension


Results/Comments

Preliminary research by
UWI has shown that worn
are very active in
agricultural labor, but do
not receive adequate
access to extension
services


Attempts to integrate
women into al extension
activities and increase
their representation in
local Farmers Committe'
special training for women
in home economics and
agricultural production;
sale of seeds for vegetab
gardening; no recent
information


Economic and
social
development for
women in
several villages
in Casamance,
Senegal
(#698-0388.7)


SAID/
Senegal
(1976);
3effalyn
Johnson and
Associates
(1980)


1976-78 Farm women
and girls


Establishment of women's
cooperatives for vegetable
production and marketing
in 3 villages; set aside 2
hectares land in each
village for use in vegetable
gardening; installation of
wells and pumps for
irrigation; training by
government community
development organization
in literacy, cooperative
management, production,
and marketing


Community development
field agents of Promotion
Humaine


By 1980, vegetable gardens
had been planted in only 7
of 13 villages; wells were
installed but tended to run
dry; only 2 of 26 pumps
were operating due to lack
of spare parts; literacy
training was primarily to
men because women lacked
time to attend classes; low
yields and little or no
profits from vegetable
gardens, but nutritional
status improved







Project Title,
Country, and
Number

Niamey
Department
Development
Project Phase II,
Niger
(i 683-00240)


Agricultural
Office's
Training,
Mali
(06M3-0207)


Extension
Education
Training for
Human
Resource
Development,
The Sudan
(#650-0010)


Sources of
Information

USAID/Niger;
Roberts,
Ware and
Barnett


Duration

1981-85


Beneficiaries

Farm families--
men and women
farm partners


USAID/Mali 3 years Agricultural
Technicians


Sheffield and
Kobes (1977);
Thacher et al
(1980h
Cramer
(1980)


FY77-80


General

Construction of seven new
Farmer Couple Training
Centers with capacity to
train 20 couples each
growing season; graduates
pilot farmers) to provide
village-level
demonstrations on
returning home; $3 million
in seed funds provided to
establish village
cooperatives




Improvement in training of
junior-level agricultural
technicians; strengthening
the Centres
(D'Apprendisage Agricole
(Agricultural Training
Centers)


University
Extension
Training
Program


WID Implementers


Training for women in
improved agricultural
techniques, literacy,
livestock, nutrition, and
health education; follow-up
visits to women by (female)
animatrices; training of
two (female) village
animatrices in each village;
millet grinding mills for
women at Farmer Training
Centers and in selected
villages; $50,000 set aside
from seed funds for loans
to women

Train women extensionists
for the first time-
integrated training with
men in first two years,
special training component
for women starting in the
third year- 20 places for
women out of 160 at each
of two centers


Training of Ahfad
University College for
women students, staff, and
personnel of technical
ministries and private
agencies in non-formal
education for adults;
designing and implementing
extension education
program at Ahfad;
gathering baseline data;
designing integrated
extension curricula;
promoting adult education,
self-help and income-
generating activities for
poor urban and rural
women


Technical assistance by
WID consultant,
animatrices to follow-up
with women trained,
villages animatrices
selected & trained


Expatriate home
economics/ rural
development consultant;
(female) Program Director,
full-time teacher, nurse,
visiting professors


Advisory assistance from
World Education; Ahfad
University staff and
students


Results/Comments

New Farmer Couple
Training Centers operate
at full capacity, but
technical packages are r
adequate; cooperatives'
operations are limited;
farmers lack short-term
credit for farm inputs; 1,
repayment poor; little
information on WID
outcomes, except that
women are being trainee


Unknown


One group of students an
staff of other agencies
received training;
extension curriculum
completed; extension sit(
not established; extenslto
goals not accomplished a
judged unrealistic by the
auditor because of lack c
institutional capacity








Two components that are often added to these projects are technology transfer to
decrease women's household work burden, and non-agricultural training such as literacy,
home economics, nutrition and health. These projects, particularly those in the third
category, seem to share a number of the characteristics typical of projects for women in
the Third World--implementation by women, reliance on women's low-paid or volunteer
labor, working with women in groups, and income-generation activities in stereotypical
female fields (Buvinic, 1984, p. 4).

Generally speaking, a common feature of interventions on behalf of women
farmers--whether women-specific or integrated into mainstream extension services--is
their subsistence, rather than commercial orientation. When farming techniques are
taught to women, the emphasis is often on vegetable gardening and small livestock
raising, farming activities that are generally supplemental (although not unimportant) in
terms of women's overall responsibilities and their contribution to household income.

In the apparently unsuccessful Economic and Social Development Project for
women in Casamance, Senegal, for example, there seems to have been little attempt
made to strengthen the agricultural activities in which women were already involved, or
to provide them with access to the mainstream agricultural extension service. The small
area of land devoted to agricultural production for women, the supplemental crops
planned, the incorrect timing of planting, and the selection of a training organization
with previous experience in literacy training and community and cooperative
development, indicate that women's agricultural activities-at least within the project
framework--were treated as a secondary occupation, and that the focus was oriented
toward improving nutritional status rather than income.

In the Senegal Cereals Production Project, initial interviews with local women's
groups led to the identification of four priority areas of intervention: installation of
millet mills, construction of new village wells, training in vegetable gardening and
processing, and assistance with sheep raising on an expanded scale. Although the
expressed focus of the project as a whole is on millet and peanut production, and women
are particularly active in the latter, there are no specific mechanisms outlined for
helping women to increase production of this income-yielding crop.

Many "agricultural" programs continue to emphasize nutrition, home economics-
oriented activities and traditional income-generating projects for women, such as sewing,
embroidery and other crafts (World Bank, 1980). Projects often fail to consider the value
of women's labor time and the economic viability of proposed activities for women.
Thus, extension may focus on stereotypical activities. Further, when technical advice


- 66 -







related to agriculture is provided to women, it is diluted by the addition of training and
inputs that relate to women's household or family roles, rather than their economic
needs. To a certain extent, this seems to be occurring at Farmer Training Centers, in
the Senegal projects, and in the Botswana Ministry of Agriculture.

Another common feature of the projects reviewed in Table 5 is the tendency to
rely on or form new women's organizations in order to achieve the project's goals.
However, as in the Niger project, which will utilize a national women's group,
organizations not set up for productive purposes may be unable to handle such a
responsibility. In addition, the attempt to graft inappropriate activities onto existing
women's organizations may actually serve to weaken those organizations. Other projects
that seek to create new organizations for women, such as cooperatives (Senegal Cereals
Production) or revolving loan funds (Chad), will have to ensure that adequate technical
and management assistance is provided to allow these new institutions to operate
effectively.

Finally, with the exception of the Botswana Agricultural Technology Improvement
Project, these projects rely heavily on women implementers to deliver information and
inputs to women farmers. In nearly all cases identified, women professionals will be used
to train female extensionists and/or farmers. In the case of the Botswana Ministry of
Agriculture, for example, a separate Women's Unit has been established within the
Ministry, and is staffed entirely by women. Some projects, such as the Niamey
Department Development Project and the Senegal Cereals Production Project, also plan
to train village women to serve as paraprofessional extension workers at the local level.
However, the few evaluations now available of these projects have generally not
commented on the effectiveness of women instructors and extensionists.


- 67 -







CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Although women play a critical role in producing the majority of food consumed
within most developing countries, they have received very little assistance from
agricultural extension services in improving and increasing food crop production. This
conclusion is not unique to this paper. In its World Development Report 1982, the World
Bank (1982, p. 73) states, "in particular, extension services are often biased toward work
with men and neglect the very important role of women as farmers in most parts of the
world." Lele (1976, p. 76) also claims that "associated with the failure of many programs
to reach the majority of small holders is the tendency for agricultural extension services
to focus their attention on male farmers." Field and archival research in several
countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, have led others to the same conclusion (see
Table 2, p. 10).

So far, much of the evidence seems to show that the existing agricultural
extension services are not working very well for small farmers in general, much less
women farmers. Many of the changes that could help make those services more
beneficial for women farmers will actually benefit the rural population as a whole by:

removing obstacles to women's access to extension, which will enable the
extension programs to reach all small farmers more effectively (men as well
as women)

raising productivity and incomes of women-managed farms, thus improving
the standard of living and welfare of their households and increasing the
demand for goods and services (as well as the demand for labor) in rural
areas

and improving the distribution of income, since woman-headed households
are among the poorest, and in joint-headed households women's economic
contribution is most important among the poor.

Thus, finding a solution to the problem of women's lack of access to effective
agricultural extension services promises to have these additional benefits for small
farmers in developing countries, who constitute the majority of the world's farmers.

Today, development practitioners are beginning to recognize the validity of these
arguments and there appears to be an emerging consensus that women farmers should
receive greater access to agricultural extension services. But most development
practitioners and policymakers have yet to determine how to bridge the gender gap that


- 68 -








exists in agricultural extension programs. Although the projects described in the
previous section demonstrate that efforts are being made to include women as targets of
agricultural extension in different countries, there has been no attempt to assess the
effectiveness of these approaches. Such an assessment of current experimentation is
essential! to the development of cost-effective methodologies for reaching women
farmers that can be adapted to different local circumstances.

While the lack of evaluation research on existing efforts to include women in
extension programs makes it difficult to reach any firm conclusion, the analysis
presented in this paper points to certain recommendations for change in agricultural
polices and programs. First, there is a clear need for the development of agricultural
technologies that help women. This paper has focused on the delivery of extension
services, assuming that effective or appropriate messages already exist. In fact,
however, the development of technical solutions related to women's farming roles may be
given a low priority by research units. In many cases, this could be due to a lack of
information on the specific needs of women farmers or the perception that women's
needs are identical to those of men. If extension is to be effective, the research-
extension cycle should allow for feedback, testing of new techniques, and identification
of the needs of women farmers.

It is important that extension services coordinate with research units to develop
technical solutions to increase women's productivity, particularly in the production of
crops that women can or do control. This last consideration will ensure that women have
a material incentive for adopting new, more productive techniques, since they will stand
to benefit directly from the increased production. Even when male farmers are the
primary targets of extension, governments and international institutions should put a
higher priority on agricultural research that takes account of the whole farming system,
including the intrahousehold allocation of labor and the control of particular crops and
cash income.

The next, and perhaps most important issue in improving women's access to
extension services is whether a women-specific or an integrated approach should be
taken. One alternative is for governments to set up a separate women's extension
service or a women's component within the mainstream extension service to cater to the
specific needs of women farmers--both agricultural and household--or, where such
services already exist, to add or strengthen agricultural/technical components. The
other alternative is to improve the capability of mainstream extension services to assist


- 69 -








women farmers, making them more responsive to women's needs, but to deliver similar
messages to male and female farmers. The case for a women-specific approach is made
very convincingly by a number of observers, including Carol Bond. She argues:

In view of the important role of women, both in controlling and carrying out much
of the crop production, and also the little contact they have at present with the
extension services, there would appear to be an obvious need for some agricultural
extension to be directed at women. However, agricultural production, particularly
subsistence food production, is not an isolated part of a woman's life but is
strongly related to her family and domestic responsibilities. For example, while
time is being spent on domestic chores, crop work cannot take place, also
nutritional improvement should be linked with food growing. Consequently, an
integrated package of extension advice covering all aspects of their life should be
available to women (Bond, 1974, p. 3).

Women farmers often have access to home economics extension services. These
programs have a demonstrated ability to reach women, but generally not with
information relevant to agricultural productivity. In addition, they tend to have a
"welfare," not a productive, development orientation. One advantage home economics
programs offer, however, is that they take account of women's household
responsibilities. A new generation of home economics programs is seeking to blend past
concern for women's reproductive roles with the recognition that women in developing
countries play significant productive roles as well.

In a sense, this women-specific approach is the easy way out. It promises to
produce snapshots of extensionists shaking hands with rural women, but whether such
contact can be effective in helping women farmers improve their productivity and
incomes is open to question. First, the history of women-specific projects and women-
only institutions over the past ten years has shown that they have difficulty incorporating
productive goals and putting these ahead of the social welfare goals that now guide the
implementing institutions (Buvinic, 1984). Therefore, in spite of their important political
function, these institutions have generally been unable to ensure real economic benefits
for women through employment and income-generation projects.

Second, it will be difficult for women-only programs to marshal sufficient
resources, in terms of both funding and technical capabilities, to provide women farmers
with agricultural extension services at least as effective as those provided to male
farmers by mainstream programs. In addition, extension programs must expand from the
small, highly localized efforts characteristic of women's projects if they are to serve the
needs of the millions of women who are small farmers in developing countries. Women-


- 70







only programs have a tendency to become marginalized and to be kept alive for
humanitarian or political reasons, and are not expected to produce tangible economic
benefits.

Finally, as with all agricultural assistance efforts, women's extension services
must deal with the issue of efficiency. Insofar as the women extensionists provide the
same technical agricultural advice agricultural extensionists do, it may not be cost-
effective to duplicate agricultural services already being provided elsewhere. Funds
might be more wisely spent in redirecting existing services to reach more women or in
providing information that is of use to women. On the other hand, if women's extension
services attempt to address all aspects of women's productive and reproductive roles,
providing advice on home economics, nutrition, child care, and crafts, in addition to
agricultural advice, they run the risk of overdiversifying the messages delivered and
reducing their effectiveness.

In order to avoid marginalization of women into women-only programs, make
efforts on behalf of women more cost-effective, and take advantage of the resources of
large-scale programs, an understanding of women's responsibilities should be integrated
into all agricultural extension services. This is particularly important when dealing with
women farm managers, who tend to be de facto heads of household. In some cases,
however, where social or cultural restrictions severely limit women's access to extension
services, it may be advisable to rely on women-specific programs. Such programs could
also help to reinforce the assistance women receive from integrated programs.

Because of the characteristics of many women farmers, those institutional
mechanisms that seem to have the greatest potential for assisting women are the general
programs (not crop-specific) at the level of the Ministry of Agriculture, the integrated
rural development projects, and agencies that focus on food crops. In many countries, the
historical emphasis on export crop production and the provision of extension services for
the male farmers who grow these crops has continued to pervade the institutional and
delivery systems even after independence. This emphasis has been particularly strong in
the general extension services that are usually organized within the Ministry of
Agriculture, as well as in crop-specific programs. It is also important in the more
recently created integrated rural development projects. However, such projects, as well
as redesigned crop-specific programs, increasingly include a food crop component. When
this is the case, women are more likely to receive agricultural extension services than
otherwise. But even then, the number of women reached by such services continues to
depend upon the delivery of those services.


- 71 -








It is crucial to incorporate explicit recognition of the sexual division of
agricultural labor into the design and execution of all agricultural projects, particularly
when women are partners in farm management with their husbands. In this respect,
farming systems research and development that focus on the farm as a whole offer a
promising alternative to traditional approaches to agricultural development. In taking
women's current farming responsibilities into account, however, extension services
(whether integrated or women-specific) must be careful to avoid locking women into the
existing division of labor in a way that may work to their disadvantage, given the
changing structure of the agricultural sector in most developing countries. As Beneria
and Sen (1981, p. 287) remarked, "teaching women better techniques in subsistence
cropping...would have been like treating cancer with a bandaid." Care must be taken to
ensure that women's economic participation is not frozen in patterns that are
inappropriate to the changing economic situations of their countries. Women should not
be discouraged from taking advantage of new economic opportunities by programs that
are based on traditional notions of their economic roles.

In order to benefit greater numbers of women farmers, the delivery approaches of
integrated programs should attempt to focus more on small farmers or average farmers,
rather than those labeled "progressive." Outreach could be made to those with less
education, land, wealth and other resources. Mass communication training techniques
can be strengthened to increase their effectiveness, especially with the illiterate and
poorly educated, many of whom are women. Farmer training could be offered in ways
that do not require extensive periods of absence from the home or village, since women
lack the time and ability to travel for training. When Farmer Training Centers are used,
the curricula could be modified to emphasize training of the farmer couple, by offering
courses in agricultural techniques to both husband and wife and selecting couples on the
basis of the activities of both husband and wife. In addition, arrangements should be
made to accommodate women farm managers who are heads of household. For example,
one way to increase their access to Farmer Training Centers would be to offer them
stipends or other compensation for their absence from the farm. Women farm partners
could also be given access to training in their own right, through the use of shortened,
intensive courses, for example.

Other specific steps that can be taken to assist women farmers include
disseminating technologies that help alleviate the drudgery of women's chores, such as
fetching water, food processing and preparation. More efficient techniques in these
areas will not only improve the productivity of the household and agricultural work of


- 72








women who are unpaid family workers, but will free up their time for training and other
activities. Extension services could also be provided to farm women to help them
commercialize economically viable activities such as food processing and small-scale
manufacture, but care should be taken to do the proper feasibility and marketing studies
first.

With respect to field staff, extension services need to establish incentives for
reaching women by measuring the impact on women farmers in the evaluation of
programs and personnel, and rewarding or promoting those who have made a significant
contribution to assisting women. In general, incentive systems should also be structured
to reward effective extension agents without removing them from field work. Women
extensionists and village level para-professionals should be incorporated into mainstream
extension activities on an equal basis with men, not just to work with women. And both
men and women extensionists should receive training to increase their awareness of the
needs of women farmers and allow them to work more effectively with women.

Probably the most frequently recommended approach to improving women's access
to agricultural extension services is the use of female extension agents. Unfortunately,
there is insufficient evidence available to conclude whether this is the most effective
method of providing assistance to women farmers. But the goal of expanding women
farmer's participation in agricultural extension programs should not simply consist of
increasing the number or even the proportion of women contacted. Once contacted,
women must be provided with the type of services that will contribute toward improving
and expanding their agricultural production and raising their income levels. Thus, while
women field agents may be more likely than men agents to establish contact with women
farmers, they will not be effective if they are not able to offer a "product" or service
that will yield material benefits for these farmers. The danger in simply adding women
extensionists is that their place in the extension structure may prevent them from
providing the type of product or service that women need to support their farming
roles. Even if women field agents are employed by the agricultural division of the
extension organization, the characteristics of existing delivery mechanisms or the types
of crops emphasized may still put a barrier between them and the women farmers who
need assistance.

Ultimately, the effectiveness of extension agents--whether women or men--in
reaching and assisting women farmers will probably depend on the features of the
extension system in which they operate and the quality of the message they have to
extend. As this paper shows, individual extension agents, whatever their gender, will be


- 73 -








constrained by the parameters of the existing extension system--its focus, t
institutional framework that defines it, the delivery mechanisms in use, and personnel
issues (other than gender). In particular, the ability to reach large numbers of wom
farmers in a meaningful way will depend on how these factors shape the interaction of
the extension service with smaller farmers.


- 74 -




















TABLE 6


Male and Female Extension Personnel in Agricultural
Programs: Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle
East, and Asia and the Pacific


Home
Economics

M F


Other Total Totals

M F M F


Latin America and the Caribbean


Belize 35

Bermuda 5

Bolivia 122

Costa Rica 57

El Salvador 128

Grenada 27

Guadeloupe

Guatemala 254

Honduras 180

St. Kitts,


Nevis, Anguilla,
St.Vincent


Trinidad &
Tobago

Uruguay


31 3


-13


- 45

76


6

36

168

215

32


1 10


19

148


48

11

158

40 225 85

61 343 137

2 59 10

1 57 1

- 542 64

8 336 63


1 41 5 46


3 137 10

25 181 30


Agriculture

M F











Other Total

M F M


Bahrain 5

Jordan 90

Qatar 8

Saudi Arabia 208

United Arab
Emirates 43

Yemen People's
Dem. Rep. 83


- 3

98

S- 2

1 424


20


38


Asia and the Pacific


1 8

188

10

632


63


1 9

- 188

-10

632


63


121 2 123


2

383


1

S 1270

27 765

9


10

2647

1141


69

4639

2002

44

5


14

6 7300

105 3753

3 9

17 5132


20 105

2702 11406

84 5701

1 67

49


SOURCE: Burton E. Swanson and Joffar Rassi, International Directory of National Extension Systems
(Urbana/Champaign: University of Illinois, Bureau of Educational Research, 1981).

Note: Data shows home economics extensionists working under agricultural programs only.

Data available, but not disaggregated by sex: Latin America and the Caribbean: Barbados, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Venezuela; Middle East:
Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic; Asia and the Pacific: Bangladesh, Fiji, India,
Laos, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Western Samoa.


Agriculture

M F


Home
Economics

M F


Totals


Middle East


American
Samoa

Korea

Malaysia

Maldives

Nepal

New
Caledonia

Philippines

Thailand

Tonga

Vaniatu


4

4651

2612

6

5000


36

6767

3672

23

44


348

872

3

17


21

7614

1785

10


14

7648

4625

12

5149


126

19020

7486

77

49











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