• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 The purpose and definitions
 Policy goals and trends as expressed...
 Analysis of trends emerging from...
 Implementation of WID checklists...
 Conclusions from the survey
 Guiding principles for a common...
 Recommendations
 Appendices














Title: Review and analysis
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00089837/00001
 Material Information
Title: Review and analysis UN guidelines and checklists on women in rural development
Series Title: Review and analysis
Physical Description: 1 v. (various pagings) : ;
Language: English
Creator: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
United Nations ACC Task Force on Rural Development. Panel on People's Participation
Publisher: FAO
Place of Publication: Rome?
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Women in development   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: prepared by FAO for the Panel on People's Participation, ACC Task Force on Rural Development.
General Note: "March 1983."
General Note: "UN 10/65, Eleventh Meeting."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00089837
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77021504

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    The purpose and definitions
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Policy goals and trends as expressed by the WID guidelines and checklists
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Analysis of trends emerging from action taken by agencies
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Implementation of WID checklists and guidelines
        Page 12
    Conclusions from the survey
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Guiding principles for a common set of WID guidelines
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Recommendations
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Appendices
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
Full Text






0


Prepared by FAO for the
Panel on People's Participation
ACC Task Force on Rural Development
March 1983


T. T 10/65
Gr ^ ^^':. ,vieonth Meeting





















REVIEW AND ANALYSIS
UN GUIDELINES AND CHECKLISTS
ON
WOMEN IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT





















Review and Analysis -- LN Guidelines and Checklists on Women in
Rural Development



TABLE OF CONTENTS





I. The Purpose and Definitions 1

II. Policy Goals and Trends as Expressed by the WID Guidelines 3

III. Analysis of Trends Emerging from Action Taken by Agencies 6

IV. Implementation of WID Checklists and Guidelines 12

V. Conclusions from the Survey 13

VI. Guiding Principles for a Common Set of WID Guidelines 16

VII. Recommendations 21




Appendices:

I. Overview UN agencies/organizations WID Guidelines and
Checklists

II. Listing WID Guidelines and Checklists







- 1 -


I. The Purpose and Definitions
At its tenth meeting in March 1982, the ACC Task Force on Rural
Development requested FAO to prepare a review of the UN's women and develop-
ment (WID) guidelines/checklists pertinent to rural women's interests. The
aim of this report is to report on what efforts have been undertaken by
the UN agencies and organizations to integrate women's concerns into their
programmesthrough the use of WID checklists and guidelines and to make
recommendations accordingly. Member governments through their introduction
and support of several resolutions in the General Assembly and other bodies
have created the impetus for WID policy mandates from the UN. It is assumed

that WID guidelines/checklists are not an end in themselves but a means, one
of many, to change WID policy into action.

Fifteen UN agencies and organizations were surveyed for this paper.
APCWD/ESCAP, FAO, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNICEF, UNDTCD, WHO, WFP have
WID guidelines to be applied at the programme or project level. Of the

remaining agencies, IFAD submitted a policy statement; ILO, conclusions of
three tri-partite regional seminars on rural development and women; UNESCO,
reports on training courses, seminars and projects about women's education;
and World Bank, a summary of case studies used for staff training regarding
WID. 1/ Very few of the materials focused on rural women per se but all

have implications for a more focused effort in the future, which may be
stimulated by this paper.

A brief description of the submission is found in Appendix I. A chart

showing more detail about the guidelines/checklists received is in
Appendix II.

Definition Guidelines and Checklists

Guidelines are documents which translate broad policy mandates on

women and development into action at the programme and project levels. They
may have, but not necessarily, institutional backing or status as policy
directives within an organization. Guidelines, ranging widely in type and
form, are available for many aspects and levels of development planning.




1/ HABITAT, while recognizing the need for WID guidelines, stated a lack
of funds had prevented their development to date. A paper with general
applicability for structuring guidelines was submitted.








- 2 -


Depending on how wide or narrow their focus, they can be used by government
anc' agency policy n:akers, these designing programmes or by those formulating
projects. They can also be used for a wide spectrum of activities, from
training and extension to planning budgets.

Guidelines, in the narrow sense, are a set of principles which apply

a broad policy mandate to development planning or to a field of activity.
They may suggest more specific policies on women in a technical field,
or they may point to new directions in programming, or they may recommend
action at the project level. Guidelines are useful in pointing out what
needs to be done to involve women. UNFPA's guidelines, for example,
indicate what to do to make population-related activities in research, data
collection and analysis, education and communication, more responsive to
women's interests. They are used by UNFPA staff in the field and at
headquarters, by UN specialized agencies, Resident Representatives, NGO's, and
project managers of UNFPA-supported activities.

Their content is often general or even abstract, so that
someone other than n WTD expert may be confused as to exactly how to proceed
in order to comply with them, unless given special training in their
use.

In some cases (UNIDO, UNICEF, FAO) agencies have an organizational
networkswhich assisted in the development of guidelines or checklists or
WID policy statements. In others (UNDP, WFP), consultants were recruited
to design guidelines/checklists'and related materials. ESCAP and ILO's
guidelines and recommendations were the results of national workshops.
Probably the best known ones, from UNDP and WFP, were written by consultants
and circulated widely.

Checklists are more specific, either with respect to a stage of the

project cycle or to a technical field. They usually take the form of leading
questions but ones which are expressed simply and which prompt the reader
to include women in very specific activities. Technical people from the fields
concerned and WID staff specialists tend to develop these together for

immediate use. For example, a "Checklist for a Woman's Component in Fisheries
Projects" developed at FAO asks, "Do women have access to credit to buy
equipment for use in marketing fish?"







- 3 -


Guidelines and checklists sometimes recommend WID indicators.
Ihese are suggested measures about wonen's condition on which data are to be
collected and/or disaggregated by sex. Results can assist project identifi-
cation, formulation, or appraisal efforts,as well as permit comparison of
women's lives before and after intended assistance. As early as 1972, UNESCO

developed an international survey on "The Access of Women to Education Within
the Framework of Rural Development". ILO's reports suggest a number of
indicators related to women and work, and FAO has published a guide to social
impact analysis which suggests indicators pertinent to project success,
specifically for before and after comparisons. A consultant has also reviewed
FAO's socio-economic indicators programme for national data collection to
suggest ways that disadvantaged groups, including women, can be better

represented.



II. Policy Goals and Trends as Expressed by the WID Guidelines
and Checklists


Since guidelines/checklists are to help in implementing policies,

it is important for an assessment to first identify the WID policies which
they would serve. In most materials the basic policy goal envisioned for
the WID guidelines/checklists is to further equity between women and men.
This concept was vigorously promoted at country and agency level since 1975
as part of the World Decade on Women. It is most often expressed in terms
of the objective, "greater participation of women in development".

Greater participation in decision-making is also a goal of many

women working in the UN System. These women would need to fill more positions
and to have greater responsibilities if they were to be on a par with men;
however, in many countries rural women already do as much or more than men in
food production and family community life. WID materials which address the
needs of both groups of women at once are therefore confusing. It also can
lead to a tendency for materials to focus more on the participation of staff
as opposed to the participation of beneficiaries at the grassroots level,
which is the goal of WID efforts.

The language of many materials, especially those produced at the
beginning of the decade, may also imply that rural women as well as staff
will be required to do more work before they can be better integrated as








- 4 -


contributors to and beneficiaries of development. WID acti-ities, when

interpreted this way, sometimes appear to threaten the integrity of
domestic life in the developing world and to pose difficulties for many
staff asked to support them.

As agencies learn more about rural women's traditional and ongoing
activities both outside and inside the home, they recognize that women have
major responsibilities throughout the economy not just in the domestic
sphere, and begin to produce WID materials which ask for assistance to
women to make their ongoing economic as well as domestic tasks more
efficient.

The message is that rural women are already involved in and contribut-
ing to the development process but are not taken into account in practical
ways by members of the development assistance community. Inefficient
development assistance can result whenever women's ongoing activities are
in fact related to project design and objectives, but are not taken into
account and supported through relevant inputs directly to women. For
example, a poultry improvement project which trains men whereas women raise
poultry, a post harvest losses project which trains men although women are
responsible for food storage, are likely to be inefficient in achieving
desired results, as was found in a recent FAO case study.

Delivery of information and inputs to the household head, assumed
to be male, begins to be questioned as a kind of trickle down theory of
development. Whereas in many instances, women are the logical target group
for project benefits which could lead to more efficient assistance and equity.

Efficiency is also becoming a policy goal for rural women's time

use. UN bodies are increasingly aware that some assistance projects have

brought more work to women. Assistance to women to make their present tasks
more efficient and to eliminate and substitute activities according to the
return on time spent is a new objective in WID programmes. This is a useful
corrective to the earlier misunderstanding conveyed in some guidelines/
checklists that greater participation in development would necessarily mean
more work for women. In the materials so far submitted, it is the World
Bank and FAO which come out most strongly for adding the efficiency policy

goal to the equity one. Both agencies base this recommendation on case studies
of projects which they have conducted in-house and which clearly demonstrate

the point. These materials have been used successfully in staff training
sessions in both cases.







- 5 -


The police" framework for 'WID support front agencies ;nd governirants
was summarized in the 28 May 1975 Field Programme Circular on Women in
Development sent to FAO staff, and is useful to highlight here. There were
mandates endorsed by governments and non-governmental groups as well as by
agencies:

December 1972, United Nations General Assembly Resolution
3010 (XXVII) proclaimed 1975 as International Women's Year.

1974, a programme for International Women's Year adopted by the
UN Commission of the Status of Women and endorsed by ECOSOC in
resolution 1849 (LVI). Member states, specialized agencies,
along with other relevant groups were invited to devote the
year to intensified efforts on behalf of women.

General Assembly Resolution 3342 (XXIX) 1974 called for increased

assistance regarding women in development activities.

General Assembly Resolutions 3250 (XXX), 3521 (XXX), 1975 address
equality between men and women in all aspects of life.

In addition to these mandates, there were numerous conferences

which issued related directives to member countries and participating
agencies, or which approved Plans and Programmes of Action for the
Integration of Women in Development. These included the World Population
Conference (Bucharest, 1974), International Women's Year Conference
(Mexico City, 1975); The World Conference of Agrarian Reform and Rural
Development (Rome, 1979); and the UN Mid-Decade Conference of Women
(Copenhagen,1980). In addition, many of the specialized agencies and
organizations have issued policy statements on how development efforts
should support women.

Before these policies and action plans could be implemented
effectively, more information on women's lives in developing countries was
needed, along with greater staff awareness, and new ways to assess, monitor,
and improve project design and delivery vis-a-vis women. Negative effects
of development on women were being identified and improvement demanded.








- 6-


Guidelines/Checklists could in principle help supply the information

which agencies and planners needed to reorient tneir programmes. They
could direct attention to the content and methods for developing projects
in various in various technical fields to benefit women, and they could
provide the basis for evaluating and revising programmes and projects to
better meet women's needs.


III. Analysis of Trends Emerging From Action Taken by Agencies

WID guidelines/checklists have clearly been stimulated by The World

Decade on Women Conference. UNDP and FAO issued the first ones in 1975,
at the time of the Mexico meeting, which launched the UN Decade for Women.
FAO's were specific to rural women in the form of a field programme circular
distributed to headquarters and field staff. They indicated measures to
increase the participation of and benefit for women in agriculture production,
nutrition, and family life.

In 1975, UNDP put out a booklet, "Integration of Women in Development:
Why, When, How", written by two eminent women social scientists and
distributed widely.

In 1977, UNDP went on to issue to all executive agencies of UNDP,
"Programme Guidelines on the Integration of Women in Development". Looking
back at earlier including the booklet, UNDP observed:

"Because of the common lack of understanding of the problem
(WID), as well as its comprehensive nature, these communications
have of necessity been general rather than specific".

The guidelines were meant as "a start towards making more specific
advice available". They described some implications for technical programmes
and gave detailed advice on initiative and planning, but in the form of an
annotated list of references which only the highly, motivated staff would
likely use.

World Bank's policy emphasis began in 1977. Guidelines are used

by operational staff to assess issues affecting women at the early stages of
project design and appraisal. The guidelines do not stem from any specific
policy mandate or decision of the Bank's Board of Directors but rather are
followed as part of the operational and monitoring system to implement bank
policy on women in development.







- 7 -


Both FAO and UNDP tried to have WID guidelines that were as specific
and actionable as possible at the time, b-th i: terr.s of cechn cal areas
and the programme/project development process. They had little specific infor-
mation about WID, however, and had to rely more on theory than fact. FAO
invited field staff to submit to headquarters information on projects having
a direct or indirect effect on rural women, along with suggestions as to
how participation of women could be enhanced in existing or future projects.

And UNDP observed, "we would have liked to illustrate these guidelines

with illustrations from specific projects, but the plain fact is that few
exist...". UNDP staff were also asked to send descriptions of WID projects
and procedures that had been successful.

Also in line with the 1975 World Plan of Action, UNICEF identified
the following areas for action during the Decade:

a) collaborate with countries to study and analyze the situation of
women and girls;

b) assist governments to formulate appropriate national strategies
to incorporate women in the development process;

c) help countries create an appropriate institutional framework for
the promotion of women on the national and local levels;

d) collaborate with governments to prepare women to assume leadership
as educators, supervisors, and promoters of progress for

children;

e) encourage the participation of women in the strengthening of Basic
Services for children;

f) support efforts to involve women in the process of study,
formulation of policies and implementation of programmes

related to children.

These and an updated set of early guidelists on supplies required
for projects to teach women domestic arts which began to focus attention
on new skills for women such as literacy, numeracy, marketing, etc.,
reflected UNICEF's increased recognition that "activities including training
in various skills, have the potential of improving the level of living and

increasing family income, as well as helping women play a more responsible
and active role in community life and betterment".








- 8 -


In 1979 the UNICEF Board endorsed the inclusion of income generating
skills for women in its programmes since it was clear that increasing
women's earning had a positive effect on the well-being of children and the

family as a whole.

Also in 1979, UNICEF issued PRO-42, its current policy guidelines on
WID to strengthen its support and expand on ideas and approaches to the
delivery of services benefitting women and girls. (See Appendix I for
description). These guidelines resulted from the work of a Knowledge
Network on Women in Development, and association of UNICEF staff members

active in planning and implementing programmes, established in April, 1976.
The Network held formal and informal meetings to identify constraints and
weaknesses in UNICEF assistance benefitting women. Among those cited were:

lack of programming guidelines;

isolation of programmes and programme officers leading them to
continue focussing assistance to women solely in their traditionally
"feminine" roles;

governments which tended to regard women, like children, as
recipients of welfare rather than active contributors to development;

limitations on the poorest women's time and mobility.


The Network organized meetings and workshops; its members were

commissioned to develop a policy paper for WID programme development,
implementation and evaluation. As a result of these, PRO-42 was issued.

For the 1980 conference in Copenhagen, UNFPA, as noted earlier, as

well as, UNICEF and WFP issued WID guidelines. There were primarily directed
at staff, regarding planning and project development. WHO included women's

concerns in its general guidelines.

The WFP guidelines are designed to be as practical as possible for

staff. For each stage of the project cycle they state questions to ask and
steps to take to integrate a concern for WID. These excellent and extensive
guidelines (51 pages) are just being re-issued, a step which suggests that
their use was not as rapidly institutionalized as was originally intended.







- 9 -


Other guidelines/checklists which appeared at mid-decade and which
are relevant to rural women include: APCED/ESCAP's and UNdCR's. The latter
contains 4 policy points on women refugees including the goal of enhancing
the capability of women and girls (who constitute a majority among refugees)
to earn income and manage homes as a step towards self-reliance and durable
solutions. In the former, the guidelines included, for the first time,
these objectives:

1) the participation of women in development planning; and

2) the participation of grassroots people, including women in project

design itself.

APCWD/ESCAP also produced "notes on data collection with special reference
to women" which is one of three guidelines submitted and addresses data collection
per se. The others are UNDP's 1981 supplement to their 1977 guidelines and
FAO's "Social Impact Analysis Model and Strategy", issued in 1981. ILO has
also drawn attention to the need for specific data on women, particularly
with regard to women as workers, women in groups, women and migration, and
the division of labor by sex. ILO calls not only for new data but for a
re-examination first of some basic concepts to do with labor, work, and
employment, as well as the meaning of family, household, and productivity.
Micro-level studies are suggested.


It is important to stress again that WID conferences, policies and
plans invited member states as well as agencies and others to intensify
efforts on behalf of women. For instance, WID guidelines/checklist could
be regularly circulated to member governments from UN agencies and organiza-
tions. The WID units, which most governments have established to deal with
women's affairs since the Decade began, would be natural country partners
as would the ministries dealing with the technical subject featured. An
example of WID guidelines directed towards governments is the FAO/WCARRD
related ones on WID.

The FAO 1975 circular, and the UNDP 1977 guidelines, recognized the
catalytic role which UN bodies could play vis-a-vis governments, and
encouraged it in light of ECOSOC and General Assembly mandates. UNDP
observed in a separate section of its guidelines on government policies
and programmes: "The stage appears everywhere set for action, since practi-
cally all countries initiated some action in 1975 or earlier".








- 10 -


By 1982, in a Report of tLe Administrator on WAmen in Developmcnt,

UNDP ventured in its remarks about an in-depth case study on WID in
selected countries: ... government understanding of and interest in
programming for rural women's participation in development had reached the
point where in most instances, action was not only possible but welcome
and appreciated".

The "remaining barriers" were rather to be found within the United

Nations system and were listed as "lack of experience and competence,
bureaucratic inertia, persistent attitudinal barriers, and the need to
reallocate resources". From this point of view, WID guidelines/checklists
remain particularly pertinent for staff education and training if introduced
in a training programme rather than simply circulated.

As noted earlier, the World Bank and FAO have recently based staff

training sessions on case studies of in-house efforts that did or did not
reach women effectively, showing the reasons why or why not. These kinds

of materials and the use of them is not common, particularly where an
integrated approach is concerned. UNDP observes in document DP/1982/16
that for UNDP funded projects with "significant" participation by both
sexes, no projects have been noted where women's interests predominate over
those of men; nor is there any noticeable indicator of equal participation
by men and women".

Success stories of projects based on the integrated approach but
which clearly benefit women will be important to identify and translate
into guidelines/checklists grounded in practical experience and for use
in staff training. Furthermore, they should be of potential interest to
governmental and non-governmental partners for whom training of staff on
WID policy, practicality and implementation is of interest.

UNDTCD indicated in its submission for this report that it is

undertaking case-studies of methodologies for reducing women's housework
burden and involving women in outside socio-economic activities.







- 11 -


FAO is experimenting with two simple approaches to WID nroje*t
planning which may be of interest to governmentsand the UN System. First,
a number of WID checklists are being developed by non-WID specialists working
with WID staff on very specific fields: apiculture, cattle-breeding and
feeding, dairy training, and plant protection have been covered in this way.
More elaborate guidelines on women in land and water have also been developed
cooperativley.

Secondly, 30 country fact sheets, which show the division of labor by
sex by region, by crop and by stage of the production cycle'have been drafted
with the non-WID specialist in mind. It is intended that selected national
WID units will participate in the refinement and use of these.

And, indicating a trend of guidelines moving from a general to specific

focus, HABITAT proposed a collaborative effort to develop WID guidelines for
rural women in implementing a large scale project in Angola aimed at building
100 rural settlements in 20 coffee-growing regions.

The following trends can be observed regarding guidelines/checklists
on WID:

they tend to be issued near to the time of significant events in the
Decade for Women; they may thus not be taken as seriously technically
as they are politically;

they are moving from the general to the specific, with regard to their
technical subject matter and their language;

more and more they are being prepared on the basis of practical
experience rather than academic theory;

their preparation begins to involve non-WID specialists in fields

where they will be applied;

their introduction begins to be accompanied by staff training session;

member governments, NGO's and grassroots organizations are recognized
as potential target, groups and users, and are addressed as such
in selected guidelines;

there is a new emphasis on efficiency as well as equity.

In most instances the guidelines and checklists were distributed by the

executive head of the Agency (WFP, UNDP, FAO, UNIDO). UNICEF's went out from
the director of the programme division. In the case of WFP, UNDP, and UNFPA,
requests for consideration on women's issues, within all stages of the project
cycle, were included within a regular reporting format to the agency.








- 12 -


IV. Implementation of WID Checklists and Guidelines
It appears that there has not been an evaluation made about the
impact of any WID guidelines/checklists per se, though T-HCR is planning
one in 1983. UNDP has come the closest with its Report to the June
1982 Governing Council on the "Integration of Women in Development".
The report indicates that considerable progress has been made throughout
the United Nations development system in institutionalizing a standing
concern with women's interests in the planning, implementation and evalua-
tion of projects through action in three main areas: staff training,
adoption of procedures designed to ensure women's participation in project
activities, and the provision of guidelines and instructions to field and
headquarters staff. The number of UNDP projects shown to involve women's
participation, defined in terms of both women staff and country benefici-
aries is, however, lower than effective use of WID guidelines/checklists
would lead one to expect.
For the six year period 1974 to 1980, four percent of all projects
approved (i.e. 416 projects) were considered to involve women's partici-
pation and .9 percent of approved LNDP contribution went to project
activities for women. Of these 66 were labelled "women's projects", 136
as "significant", 214 "minor" regarding women. In financial terms, the
trend is similar. The portion of the UNDP contribution to projects esti-
mated to be used for activities of special interest to women increased from
.4 percent of the entire UNDP contribution in 1974 to 1.2 percent in both
1979 and 1980. However, preliminary figures for 1981 indicate that the
decline in project numbers is fully matched by a decline for 1981 in the
UNDP financial contribtuion; at the time of writing the estimate was .3
percent below the starting point in 1979.

Clearly more than guidelines and checklists are needed in the face of
a financial crisis.

A preliminary'analysis of the proportion of projects which deal with

WID at FAO in 1977 and 1980, suggests that the percentage increased in 1980.
Access to trust fund sources at a time when WID is an important policy
issue in many donor countries may be an important factor with the end of
the Women's Decade in 1985.







- 13 -


U:'IDC also :eports pos-cively, that "although it is difficult to
make a detailed :evaluation of the application of these guidelines, we
have detected a steady (if slow) increase in activities in this field
since the distribution of the circular on Operational Activities for
the Integration of Women in the Industrialization Process"


V. Conclusions from the Survey
Are guidelines really effective in calling the attention of planners
to ways in which their projects can meet women's needs? Have they become
accepted as an important planning tool,'and have they been incorporated
into the standard organizational procedures in that process? There has
been insufficient evaluation of experiences so far to answer these quest-
ions, perhaps in part because these are relatively new tools and because
they may not have been taken seriously. However, some preliminary con-
clusions may be drawn :


Use. A review of all the materials submitted indicates that UN
agencies and organizations are trying to increase women's involvement in
and benefits from the development process. They are using diverse means
to do so. Guidelines and checklists are but one of these. General policy
statements, issue papers, case studies, technical meeting reports, research
reports, project evaluations are among others.


Nomenclature and purpose. There is tremendous variation and even
confusion about what checklists and guidelines are. Some agencies refer
to their broad policy directives as guidelines, where more precise use
of the term should be restricted to documents that show what actions would
implement those policies, or even more specifically, what steps to take
(checklists). This lack of clarity about what guidelines/checklists are
and the uneven development of them among agencies, hampers comparative
discussion and the sharing of experience about them. Agencies may also
tend to compete with each other as they are ready themselves for world
conferences.







- 14 -


Content. As noted earlier, there has been a trend to greater and

greater specificity, both in terms of subject matter and in terms of
the stage and aspect of development planning for which they are intended.
This may indicate that development planners still need more information
about successful tactics for integrating and supporting women, and they
want clear, simple guidance.
Application. Except as already mentioned, there has been little

innovation in the use of guidelines. For the most part, they have been
issued as directives. In some cases they have led to the incorporation
of questions on women in reporting procedures. ESCAP has successfully
used them in training programmes at the field workers level. However,
there seem to be few other efforts to introduce guidelines to staff or
case studies, who should be using them in ways that illustrate their

application. Their use is hampered by a lack of such training. There is
not one time in the project cycle to apply guidelines/checklists but it is
suggested by WID case studies on successful projects that the earlier,
the better.

A great deal of the value of guidelines seems to be derived from

three factors: their specificity to programmes and to organizations; their
use when projects are designed and their development by those (or the counter-

parts of those) who will use them.

Characteristics of WID guidelines/checklists most likely to be useful
to rural women:

1) the relevant policy goal is made clear, along with the authority
behind it;

2) efficiency, not just equity, is stressed;

3) materials are based on actual successful experiences within agencies
rather than theory alone;

4) they are specific both as to the technical field involved and the
action to take;

5) insiders are involved in their preparation;
6) their introduction is accompanied by staff training sessions;

7) their relevance to recipient and donor country interests is made
known;
8) they reflect consultation with national women's governmental units

and NGO's.







- 15 -


Whether agencies promote equity, efficiency, or oth as WID
,rogrammne goals,.common objectives can be seen. These include:
1) to define and address those WID issues which complement
each agency's basic mandate;
2) to gain and circulate more information about women's daily
lives, activities and needs, as these are related to agency
mandates;
3) to promote the identification and involvement of women as
beneficiaries accordingly;
4) to increase the inputs that reach women;
5) to develop tools and training at both agency and country
level facilitating the above;
6) to have a means to evaluate agency progress on equity and
efficiency goals for women's involvement;
7) to avoid the likely negative effects of development on women;
8) to identify and encourage supportive government positions on
WID.

There are some unresolved questions about the best way to proceed.
These are evident in the materials reviewed:

1) Should a general or a specific approach be followed?
Should guidelines/checklists, for example, promote separate or
integrated projects for women? The official goal is of course
integration. There is not yet much evidence that this approach
works well, however. Guidelines for integrated projects also
tend to be more general, comprehensive, and complex, perhaps making
them more difficult to follow.
2) Are more data on women needed as a first step or are existing data
enough? Guidelines/checklists often include questions like,
"What could be the negative impact of the project on women's
status and role?" If there are no data available or if the terms
used in the question are not defined well, no answer will be given.
Generally speaking, WID units and interest groups promote the collect-
ion of more data and other resist this. More data on the division of
labour by sex, on sex of household head, on existing women's groups
have been called for frequently, as has disaggregation of data by
sex already collected.







- 16 -


3) Should agencies play a catalytic role in promoting government
support for WiT? The assimpticn behind t.:is question ma' be
that member governments are not supportive and therefore agencies
in fact do little in the way of staff training or in serious use
of guidelines/checklists. There is increasing evidence, however,
that the countries may be more genuinely interested in WID than is
expected, and more so than some agency staff. (See reference to
relevant UNDP remarks on page 10).


VI. Guiding Principles for a Common Set of WID Guidelines
The ACC Task Force on Rural Development agreed in its 9th meeting

(February, 1981), that "the role of rural women should be directly incorpor-
ated into the work of the Task Force not only on people's participation but
also in all other aspects of the Task Force's work". An important part of
related agency action is the dp'-elopment of WID checklists and guidelines.
To improve the quality aid efficacy of these, particularly with regard to rural

women's interests, it is important to identify the minimum basic principles
which must guide the development of any common set of WID guidelines for the
UN.

(1) Development goals cannot be met without the involvement and contribution
of both sexes; the benefit of development should also fall to both sexes,
As key providers of family's welfare, as labour contributors and as community

and national leaders, rural women can influence the pace and quality of
development. Rural women and girls who lack access to resources, who are
poorly nourished, under-educated, under or unemployed, will slow down the
pace of development. Too often rural women's activities are viewed as
"special" efforts and are therefore considered extraneous to the mainstream
of development. Women, as well as children, have tended to be set aside as

a group "to be taken care of", with overtones of welfarism and dependency.
Yet, without women's participation, projects and programmes have been stymied,
and occasionally thwarted. Therefore, WID policy is integral to the success
of development policy. WID checklists and guidelines need to facilitate the
incorporation of rural women in development assistance as a means to more
effective assistance overall, as well as a means to bring more benefits to
women.







- 17 -


(2) Strategies to carry out WID policies will be enhanced by involving
women at every level. "People's Participation" has become an important
element of overall development planning and implementation as a means for
equitable development. The ACC Task Force on Rural Development has demon-
strated its concern for participatory approaches to development through
the establishment of the Panel on People's Participation. Yet when
"people" is defined without reference to gender the term often translates
into action for males only. It is assumed that women will be automatically
included, when in fact they are not.

Women's participation in development often calls for different approaches
since rural women can have very constrained lives and are inaccessible for
development agents. They may also respond favourably to different incentives
than those for men. The participatory approach needs to take these gender
differences into account and include creative methods for involving both sexes.
Women's direct participation as interviewees, as interrogators, as
project advisors and experts, as trainees, as staff, as researchers, and as
policy makers is the best means to guard against inaccurate assumptions
about rural women and misperceptions about their lives. The participatory
process needs to be strengthened among rural women and innovative women in
development machineries are required to introduce relevent assistance and
to ensure that rural women inform and advise those who are planning the
assistance which has so much impact on their lives. Participatory programmes
which strengthen rural women's roles by building upon women's existing
knowledge, skills, groups, should be emphasized. Rural women themselves
might also be involved in the development and use of WID checklists and
guidelines. Special efforts are called for regarding extension and training.
In the existing rural outreach systems the majority of extension officers
are men; rarely is the technical assistance given directly to rural women
even though they are household heads, de facto managers, and agricultural
labourers. There is a major need to retrain male extension workers to
recognize and assist women farmers and to train more female extension
officers.








- 18 -


(3) Developing societies can and should be understood in gender terms.
In many developing societies the division of labour, distribution of
services, resources and assets, time allocation, legal status and income
needs and sources are frequently gender-linked. Because so often gender
is an important element of social organization, it should be the
primary unit of analysis in the conceptualization of development pro-
grammes and projects. If not important gender specific local groups
or gender-specific sets of responsibilities may be overlooked by
development planners. The family is too often the only social group
recognized as important for development assistance programmes. Yet rural
women often work together in groups that supercede familial affiliation.
In many rural societies women have productive responsibilities distinct
from men's, ones that exist outside the household and call for coopera-
tive efforts among groups of women.
Collection and analysis of baseline data on beneficiary population

needs to be undertaken and is needed in terms of gender, as well as age,
class and other variables. Once collected these data should be used
throughout the entire project development cycle from conceptualization,
through implementation to evaluation. FAO has developed a model for
Social Impact Analysis Planning which focuses on the importance of gender,
which is being tested in two countries. Country Fact Sheets which pro-
vide an overview of gender-linked responsibilities at the country level
are also being developed. Household data collection surveys and time
allocation surveys are further examples of micro-level studies which help
form the baseline information necessary for accurate programme and
project planning.
(4) Application of guidelines and checklists and implementation of policy
mandates is the most difficult part of the task. In order to go beyond
rhetoric, WID guidelines and checklists need to address important operational
concerns at the programme and project level. Such issues as whether or not
to design separate projects for women-only, how to ensure adequate financial
and information resources for WID programme and project planning purposes,







- 19 -


methods for enhancing inter-bureaucratic cooperation and coordination,
means for adequately orienting and training staff to carry out the WID
policy mandate, and ways to enhance and support recipient governments
own WID policies and programmes, are all matters which can and need to
be addressed by WID checklists and guidelines.

Furthermore, WID guidelines and checklists cannot be presented as
extraneous to the overall policy framework of a government or agency,
but need to be set forth in the context of other policies and procedures
in a practical way. For example, programme objective to:
increase rural women's access to decision making and productive
resources;
reduce rural women's work burden while improving their productivity;
improve the health and nutritional status of all family members;
expand rural women's employment opportunities and access to income
have implications throughout the society and would require adequate inter-
sectoral and institutional linkages. Guidelines could provide the overall
context for these linkages, while checklists would add the specific
technical content.

(5) A commitment to monitor and evaluate WID efforts is needed
The introduction of WID through guidelines and checklists is not
sufficient to bring about practical solutions to the problems involved in
reaching poor women. Agencies need to go beyond their mere introduction and
accompany them with other new procedures, such as staff re-orientation and
training, development and analysis of case studies, documenting successful
strategies, exchanging relevant data on sex-linked social and economic
behaviour, etc. Existing procedures for project formulation and design
need to be reviewed for their consistency with WID policy mandates and
evaluation criteria should be assessed for relevance to WID policy as well.
Efforts to monitor what share of financial allocations are going to ensure
implementation of WID mandates will also assist in determining how adequately
agencies are actually applying WID policy to operations.
The ACC Task Force on Rural Development has demonstrated its concern
for Monitoring and Evaluation by the establishment of a Panel on this subject.
The implementation of WID policies will be facilitated if attention is paid
to the topic in member agencies' and in the Panel's monitoring and evaluation







- 20 -


,ork. At t e national lev -, incicatcrs of poverty a'r to )e examined.
Shifts in these may indicate in part the relative effectiveness of
various rural development schemes. At the project level, monitoring and
evaluation is designed to show evidence of change in particular target
areas. At both levels, monitoring and evaluation need to be conducted
in such a way as to shed light on the progress, or lack thereof, regard-
ing both the sexes. Highly aggregated goals and objectives, which portray
the rural poor as homogeneous groups without regard to gender and age
differentials, lead to evaluations which may mask certain sex-linked or age-
linked discrepancies in access to benefits. Once projects are conceived
and designed with attention to those critical characteristics, monitoring of
predicted behaviours and evaluation of final results can be undertaken in
gender-based terms.
Any guidelines to be drafted for new monitoring and evaluation systems
should reiterate the need for gender-linked data collection, analysis and
planning.

(6) Inter-agency and Intra-country coordination is essential to success
The use of WID guideliens and checklists can also lead to enhanced
intra-country coordination among multi-lateral and bi-lateral donors, govern-
ments and NGOs. Strengthening and enhancing the coordination and linkages
between various entities involved in WID programming, through the use of
common WID guidelines or checklists, can improve communication, eliminate
duplication, reduce wastage and inefficiency. Special efforts are needed
to consolidate resources within countries, to avoid isolated and ineffective
strategies, and to provide continuing, long-term institutional support for
rural women's needs.
Yet expecting too much or too little from guidelines alone can easily

lead to discouragement among those cooperating. Until planners automatic-
ally include rural women's needs and concerns in their programmes and projects
and until they have all the information and skills to do so, guidelines will
be useful, indeed essential, but they are best conceived as one component of
an information system. Other components of that "system" include indicators,
specifically on women or general indicators disaggregated by sex; monitoring
that includes attention to rural women; and case studies. This information
system can be used to promote in many aspects of development planning,







- 21 -


including police: making, budgeting an.d project activity wlich Lakes
women into account. It is information and planning with regard to
this entire system that agencies should ultimately share.


VII. Recommendations
The 37th Session of the UN General Assembly in 1982 passed a
resolution calling for "Improvement of the Situation of Women in Rural
Areas", the sponsors of which were fourteen socialist countries.
The effort of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development to focus
more on rural women's needs is in keeping with this resolution and with
the requirements of the Integrated Reporting System and The World Survey
on Women also mandated by the General Assembly.

Since 1975 UNDP has promoted an exchange among agencies of WID
guidelines. Yet agencies have not jointly agreed on any common guidelines/
checklists or indicators. The ACC Task Force on Rural Development can
facilitate this as part of its effort to further its concern for rural women.

It should also be noted that the OECD/DAC donor community, in its
efforts to reach rural women more effectively, is attempting to develop
common WID checklists and guidelines through its WID correspondents group.
In March 1981, they held a technical meeting on WID Guidelines/Checklists
in Brussels, Belgium, with The Population Council and FAO contributing
expertise, to discuss experience with and needs for WID guidelines and
checklists. Working groups drafted preliminary guidelines or checklists
for general project identification,for review of agricultural projects, and
for development of urban projects. Member donor countries were to utilize
these on a voluntary basis and to report back on their efficacy. At the
most recent meeting of the WID Correspondents Group held at OECD/DAC Head-
quarters (January 1983) a sub-group was formed to develop WID guidelines
which will then be submitted to the High Level Meeting of the DAC in
November, 1983. When these WID guidelines are adopted they will take their
place among other DAC guidelines which serve to guide member countries on
key policy matters.

Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Cuba, Democratic Yemen, Ethiopia, the
German Democratic Republic, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar,
Mongolia, Mozambique, Nicaragua and the Syrian Arab Republic.







- n) -


A para-lel effort by tne ACL Task Force on ;ural Deveiopmen:

can pave the way to greater inter-agency cooperation, as well as

possible linkages among the multi and bi-lateral donors in their
efforts to ensure the benefits of development assistance reach rural women.
As noted earlier, the ACC Task Force on Rural Development has determined that
attention will be paid to the role of women in all areas of the Task Force's
work; people's participation, monitoring and evaluation, and intra-country
coordination. Therefore, in light of the progress on WID policies and actions

made by member agencies of the ACC Task Force on Rural Development and con-
sidering that many donor countries and organizations have similarly seen the
need for more effective implementation of WID policies through the development
of WID guidelines and checklists, it is proposed that the ACC Task Force on
Rural Development :
(1) Call upon member agencies and organizations to review their WID
guidelines and checklists (separate guidelines and/or those

incorporated in general project formulation guidelines), to assess
their impact, to assess or establish a monitoring system, and to
report to the Panel on People's Participation on accomplishments,
obstacles and means for improvement.

(2) Facilitate the collection and exchange of member agencies and
organizations' success stories on projects that have effectively

reached poor rural women.

(3) Convene a technical meeting among the UN agencies/organizations with
the possible inclusion of interested donor countries and NGOs, on
approaches, strategies and effectiveness of existing WID guidelines
and checklists and ways to involve rural women in their development
and use, and to review their application. The need for and feasi-

bility of developing guiding principles or even a common set of guide-
lines, would be examined and acted on insofar as determined possible.

(4) Request the Panel on Monitoring and Evaluation to include in the
Guidelines on Monitoring and Evaluation those which addresses gender as a
crucial variable in monitoring and evaluation.







23 -


(5) Initiate intra-country coordination vis-a-vis rural women's
interests, in selected countries in order to improve communi-
cation and strengthen ties among various entities. carrying out

the UN policy mandates on WID, and the bi-lateral programmes.

In light of the compelling needs of rural Africa as well as the
prominent roles rural women play in all aspects of life there,
it is recommended that the countries from Africa which sponsored

the resolution noted above be considered for these actions.









A"PENDIY I


OVERVIEW UN AGENCIES/ORGANIZATIONS WID GUIDELINES AND CHECKLISTS

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)

ESCAP has organized a series of impressive workshops, training courses
and seminars related to project identification formulation and development,
data collection, identification of basic needs and suggested approaches to
consider the special needs of women. In all cases, particular attention was
given to women as a disadvantaged group. ESCAP is the only organization re-
porting which developed guidelines specifically for women on decision making
and policy matters for decision making. The manual introduced functional
skill training modules which may be used for self-help or group training.
An Expert Group Meeting in August 1978 provided recommendations on "Develop-
ment of Women's Organizations in Rural Areas" based on case studies and
national profiles on the status of women and organizations. Another Expert
Group Meeting held substantive discussions on 'Women and Forest Industries"
(June 1980). A report of the "ESCAP/SWDCAP/IPPF Field Study and Workshop
Related to Prospects of Self Employment and Family Life Education Programmes
for Young Women in Rural Areas Through Group Participation' (April 1980' gave
emphasis to programmes of employment and family life education for rural young
women.





FAO

FAO's first guidelines on the 'Integration of Women in Agricultural and
Rural Development" were sent to all field staff and headquarters units in May
1975. Since then, the most widely distributed guidelines were forwarded by
the Director General in 1977 (Guidelines for the Integration of Women in Rural
Development) requesting all project managers to review and assess the present
and potential involvement of women in FAO assisted projects. An analysis was
made of the 346 projects on which information was received to determine the
number of FAO assisted activities which included women as beneficiaries or
had the potential to do so. A 1982 Report of the FAO Inter-Divisional Working
Group on Women in Development sub-group on Preparation and Implementation of
Guidelines on the Integration of Women in Development stated that of the
technical divisions which use general guidelines, women's concerns have been
integrated into general guidelines by poultry and dairying; the nutrition
division is in the process of integrating theirs and the FAO Investment Centre
is integrating women's concerns in the various investment centre guidelines.
Guidelines were also prepared for use in the preparation of the "Programme of
Work and Budget (1978-79) for the Integration of Women in Agricultural and
Rural Development". Other FAO specific guidelines are on women and beekeeping,
women and fisheries, women in plant production and protection, and women in
land and water development. Guidelines on women and agricultural credit and
banking and women and forestry are being planned.

A Social Impact Analysis document has been prepared with a model and
strategy for implementation in development assistance with detailed components
of what must be considered for a positive social impact, particularly for
rural women, Aithin the preparation, monitoring and evaluation of projects.












,n ext-nsiv.- listing indicates tihe baseline data that should be collected
during the project formulation stage A docu-int on Case Studies on Devel-
opment Assistance to Women in Agriculture Alternative Project Design; pre-
sents a summary of twelve FAO projects in the fields of rural poultry, post-
harvest processing and storage, sheep and goat production, irrigated agriculture
on settlement schemes and integrated rural development. The case studies
are followed by lessons learned and the implications for the work of FAO.
Ten common fallacies about women in agriculture are discussed in the light
of findings from the case studies. Draft country fact sheets on women s role
in agriculture and food production have been developed for 27 countries.
These are to be used primarily by FAO staff in project formulation.

The general conclusions from FAO's experience with guidelines and check--
lists indicates the following- (i) there i-s-a general trend toward increasing
specificity, from general guidelines to more specific checklists; (ii) need
for a monitoring mechanism on the implementation of the guidelines and check-
lists: (iii) the ongoing need to revise guidelines and checklists through
experience gained as they are implemented, monitored and evaluated.








IFAD

IFAD has recently issued a statement from its External Relations Division,
General Affairs Department on Women in Rural Development'. The document
explains that IFAD in its Lending Policies and Criteria specifically provides
that the promotion of the role of women in food production would receive
attention. IFAD reports, 'while IFAD's financial activities are focused on
rural poor as a whole, attention is given both to integrating women in devel-
opment activities and to ensuring that these projects have a positive impact
on the economic and social betterment of rural women IFAD's Operational
Guidelines on Monitoring and Evaluation sp'.,. of both inter-household and
intra-household differentials in project ei; and impact,





ILO

The ILO has not developed checklists and guidelines specifically on women
and rural development. However, the conclusions of three tripartite regional
seminars on Rural Development and Women organized by ILO (1981) in Asia
(Mahabaleshar, India), Africa (Dakar, Senegal) and Latin America (Patzcuaro)
offers a number of recommendations related to women and rural development
policies, agricultural work, employment issues, organizationaliinstitutional
requirements. Other agenda topics focused on requirements of research and
data collection, women in food production, impact of rural modernisation and
migration on rural women. For the Latin American seminar recommendations
were made on women and agrarian reform and priorities were given for investi-
gative research.









UNDP

UNDP has not issued specific guidelines or instructions on women in rural
development. However, in line with UNDP's mandate to support development
activities in all sectors, mainly through the funding of technical co-operation.
UN'F has issued general guidelines and instructions designed to promote women's
participation in development. In view of the prominent role of the rural
component of the economy of developing countries, these documents often pay
special attention to rural women's participation in development.

The following guidelines include consideration for rural women

Boserup/Liljencrantz, Integration of Women in Development Why, When,
How, UNDP. Nw, York 1975 (particularly the Appendix on "Checklist for
the Participation of Women in Developnent Projec.ts")

"Guidelines on the Integration of Women in Development', UNDP, G3100-1,
February 1977

"Activities Designed to Improve the Data Base for Planning for Women'-
Participation in Development;C G3100-1/TL.5; September 1981, G3100-
1/,TL.5

"Integration of Women in Development Implementation of Governing
Council Decision" 80/22 II (UNDP/PROG/79)

With FAO as the lead agency, UNDP and other UN organizations undertook
an action oriented assessment of "Rural Women's Participation in Development"
published as UNDP Evaluation Study No. 3 and summarized in document DO/453,
whichh contain findings and recommendations for action of special interest to
"women in rural development A report, indicating substantive progress in
the implementation of these recommendations for action was presented to the
twenty-ninth session of UNDP's Governing Council (DP/19382,16;.

UNDP reported that when existing guidelines and checklists have been
applied they have worked well. The problem has been that the subject of
women's role in development all too often has remained forgotten or ignored.
UNDP reports, 'in view of the progress made in recent years in institutional-
izing the participation of women in the planning, implementation and evaluation
of technical co-operation projects, as reported in :Integration of Women in
Development' (1982. the possibility for the increased participation of women
in future project activities appears promising',





UNESCO

Although UNESCO has not systematically developed any checklists and
guidelines on Women in Rural Development, n increasing number of their acti-
vities including training courses, seminars and projects have aimed at improv-
ing the education of rural women. Regional Training Courses were held in four
regions in 1980 and 1981 on the Education of Wmcen in Rural Areas. Recommen-
dations from regional seminars (Jamaica September 1981 and Malaysia -
November 1981) on Women and Media Decision-Making were pertinent to women in
rural development. In the science sector., UKNSCO has organized a number of
training programmes in the development of appropriate technology for use in
the rural areas in Africa and Latin America areas covered were on nutrition,
sanitation and efficient use of wood as fuel.











U. ]FPA

UNFPFi! guidelines, issued in Novenbcr 1976, deal with `Women, Population
and Development; Guidelines for Programme- Develcpment Project F-rmulation.
Implementation and Evaluation'. These guiding principles with particular concern
for women, are to a certain extent built upon international strategies, chief
amorg t-em, the ..orld Population Plan of Action, which is of special importance
to the F-und and the World Plan of Action on Integration of Women in Development.
cof a -eneral nature, they focus on population policy, research, data collection
and analysis, information, education and communication, fertility regulation and
family planning and training. March 1980 "Guidelines on Needs Assessment and
Programme Development" nave a separate section on ".;omen, Population and Develop-
ment". Although oriented towards health and population issues, the narrative and
suggested strategies offer a number of suggestions for assessing women's partici-
pation and improving the condition of women.


UNHCR

The United National High Commissioner for Refugees recently issued several
key Policy Guidelines on Women Refugecs to field staff. Work is presently
underway for more detailed guidelines for women'- programmes. In addition,
general guidelines have been developed for establishment and operation of
rural settlements, in which rural women are considered in various fields,
including agriculture toward.attainment of self-support. A Programme Manage-
ment System, developed and followed by UNHCR for its programmes in general lays
down the guidelines for project identification, formulation, implementation
and evaluation, including checklists for project appraisal.





UNICEF
(PRO-42)
The UNICEF Knowledge Network on Women in Development prepared UNICEF's
Guidelines on Assistance to Programmes Benefiting Women. (1979) The objective
of the guidelines was for 'staff members to have access to a clear and system-
atic statement of UNICEF policy and the means to identify and apply the policy
in the contest of UNICEF's overall objectives". Distributed to field staff,
the guidelines were "supplemented by four technical papers. 1' Advocacy for
Women, 2) Data Collecting, 3) Programming for Women and 4) Income Generating
Activities for Women. The document includes a brief history on UNICEF's policy
and evolution of activities assisting women. Organizational constraints were
identified, both within UiICEF and at the country level. Most of the document
focuses on strategies for future application of UNICEF;s projects for wcmen.
General points were presented for consideration in developing programmes
assisting women in the context of national development policies. Importance
was given on the need to clarify the impact (positive or negative) of programmes
on the status of women. Reference was made to the decisions of the UNICEF
Executive Board for programmes to "reduce the domestic burdens of women
and free them for productive labour or upgrade the quality of the productive
work which they have traditionally fulfilled"' ,.s mandated, the forms of
assistance include advocacy on behalf of prnerammes for women and assistance
to governments in the formulation of policies and development of structures
to meet the needs of their female constituents, in the programming process
itself, and in the implementation of programmes. It was explained that









information colecti.:n ane analysis are b-sic to the programmimlg process. Ten
specific points as a prelude to programming were cited. It was advised that when
possible, it would be best to rely on existing information rather than delay
programming to collect data. Suggestions include tne needs to (1) define and
select the priority areas for programming; (ii) identify the target group; (iii)
determine the feasibility of implementing the project. Some general categories
viere suggested for innovative programmes to improve the services for children
turouga better services for women. Impcrtance was also given to the need for inter-
agency cooperation to prevent overlapping in programming.
In 1980, Unicef presented to its Board a report entitled "''omen, Children
and Development" assessing UNICEF's programmes in health, nutrition, education,
income generation, appropriate tecinolojy and institution building i.ich are direct-
ed to the enhancement of women in the developing countries. It pointed out needed
orogrammes and policy shifts and lead to improved guidelines.
In the May 1982 Report to the UNICEF Executive Board, it was reported tnat the
number of UNICEF assisted activities for women have increased. The Programme
Committee expressed a general concern that activities and services proposed for
women were too modest in some country programme recommendations. Importance was
given to the involvement of women at the planning stage.


UNIDC

UNIDO issued a circular to field staff in December 1930 on 'Operational
Activities for the Integration cf Women in the Industrialization Process".
The circular explained that 'projects specifically geared towards women ought
to be the exception, since we are dealing with the integration not segrega-
tion of women in development The several exceptions to this general policy
were outlined. The circular stated that UNIDO projects could have a bearing
on the integration of women in development if, at the stage of formulation
design and appraisal of each project, the seven general questions could be
taken into account and four general questions in regarding to the country
situation and project potential were answered. The questions include a re-
quest in identifying the possible links between UNIDO and the work of other
agencies in this field and also asked for project ideas within the ongoing
projects and for the 1982-86 country programming cycle.

The May 1982 Report by the Executive Director to the UNIDO Industrial
Development Board showed a steady growth of activities concerned with the
integration of women in development, both in terms of programmes undertaken
by Headquarters' officers and in the technical co-operation programme.





WTP

The Manual which WFP prepared for the Copenhagen Women's Decade Confor--
ence is a comprehensive survey including- (i general issues of food aid
and the design of projects to benefit women (ii; the participation of
women in project planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation:
(iii) examples of a recrientation of ongoing WFP Activities to more effici-
ently include women as beneficiaries and new areas of emphasis for projects
promoting women's participation An annex to the document highlights the
types of WFP supported activities and proposals for reorienting to better
include women. The document was circulated to all FP Representatives and










W'P Field Officers in DecemLer 19'0.

Amendments were approved by the WFP Executive Director in selected WFF
documents in order to elicit information on the involvement of women in VTP
assisted projects. These documents include the pro-forma for the government's
official request, project summaries, 2nd the plan of operations for field
projects, government's six month or yearly reports, field officers quarterly
reports and the progress reports for the WFP Committee on Food Aid. A reminder
was sent to all field staff in December 1979 on the necessity of including in
quarterly reports information on the involvement of women in WFP assisted
projects.

A letter from the Executive Director to all field staff in December 1979
reported on WFP's and UN's mandates and resolutions regarding women in devel-
opment and distributed a paper completed by a consultant on The Role of
Women in WFP's Supplementary Feeding Projects (SFPs) An Outline for Action
by WFP", with specific recommendations for eight countries.

Several case studies as well as slide presentations have supplemented
the WFP guidelines indicating strategies for women's involvement (Togo,
Bangladesh and Bolivia).

WO
"WHO has no guidelines or checklist specifically for Women, Health and
Development, though it intends to prepare them. WHO's guiding principles in
certain areas, however, have relevance. For example, the guiding principles
for facilitating reporting by Member States on action taken in the field of
infant and young child feeding includes a section on the status of women; it
suggests that information for monitoring and reporting in this area should in-
clude women's work and health status, social support measures, and the partitici-
pation of women's organizations in the promotion of appropriate infant and young
child feeding and rearing practices. In addition, guidelines may be produced by
an inter-agency group for incorporating a women's component within the programme
of the Water and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD). The WHO guiding principles for
Health Programme Evaluation include as part of 12 health status indicators, one
specifically differentiated by sex (i.e. maternal mortality rate). Also, the
WHO guiding principles on the managerial process for national health development,
for use in support of strategies for Health for All by the Year 2000 include
reference to factors affecting women's status such as too heavy workload.
Examples of interventions related to different sectors are given, e.g. social
support to lessen women's workload in and away from home, raising cash incomes
to improve maternal nutrition, etc.
The WHO activities concerning women, health and development (WHD) emphasize
the importance of women's roles in health care at all levels".

World Bank
The World Bank recently conducted two workshops on Women in Development for
select policy level staff. At these meetings, a Project Design Issues document
highlighted areas of concern on women in development, including agriculture,
transportation, urban development, education and training, fuel and forestry,
institutions and administration. Recent studies on women in the rural sector in-
clude a sectoral paper on "Forestry Projects and Women", which presents the results
of a forty three projects review, related to women's involvement in forestry and
wood using activities and identifies their interests among the beneficiaries of the
projects. "The Women in Agriculture Sector" report reviews eleven agricultural sector









reports and memoranda issued in 197- as a basis for discussing issues pertinent
to w,men'i in\rveme-it in agriculture and food production. The categories fal-
into two broad areas: those sectors directly related to women's performance in
tne agricultural sector and those related to family welfare. Issued by the
Office of the Advisor on .omen in Development, the sectoral reports and project
design issues paper, reviews the Bank's projects and highlights WID issues which
"are likely to affect the implementation of projects and the achievement of their
objectives".

TU:DTCL
The guidelines have been utilized at Departmental and project levels. They
have been circulated to headquarters officers and project experts, with a view
to promoting the inclusion of women related activities in ongoing and perceived
projects and programmes. They stress specific practical actions that can be
taken at the project level to promote women in development. While it is too
early to evaluate tnese guidelines, a.-DTCD is currently executing a number of
.ID projects. For example in Africa, they have two broad objectives: (i)
"reducing women's involvement in outside socio-economic activities. DTCD has
also undertaken'case studies of methods to reduce women's burden of housework
and involve them in socio-economic activities." Preliminary results of first
trials of these show that the "integrated" approach is "very promising and re-
warding". A multi-disciplinary task force to consolidate the integrated approach
to solving women-related socio-economic issues.










AIPIE.NDIX II LISTING OF CUIDELINES AND CHECKLISTS UN AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS


D c umlint


Agency


WFP















'-FP


Date
Formla t
No ,of nnoo c


51 pp. Gui-
delines with
checklist-
style ques-
tions inclu-
ded; indica-
tors sugges-
ted.





b) 11.12.79

c) 10.12.79


Theme


Exclusively
on women?


Reorientation of
food aid projects
to promote women's
participation.









rTnvorvenmento
women in WFP as-
sisted projects.


yes


Outline Application


"WFP's Contri-
bution to tihe
UN Decade for
Women: Priori-
ties 1980-1985'
(WFP/CFA: 9/6






etters an==at
achments: (a)
From the Direc-
or of the Pro-
ect Management
vision: "Re-
orting on the
Involvement of
Aomen in WFP
Projects" (b)
ronm the Execu-
ive Director
Faith Guidelines
n the Integra-
ion of Women
in Development.
(c) From the
deputyy Executive
director with
document WFP/CF/
/6 for use as
SManual on
4omen in Deve-
lopment.


food aid
programme
planning











Project
Develop-
ment


How
Developed Distribiut on


1) Introduction

2) General is-
sues and re-
orientation of
WFP activities;
proposals.





aT Covering--
letter and
amendments in
selected WFP
documents to
reflect involve
ment of women;
b) Reminder and
instructions on
women's poten-
tial benefits
in WFP assisted
activities;
WCARRD WID re-
solution; out-
line for action
by FP on the
role of women
in WFP's sup-
pleentary feed
ing projects;
c) Document
WFP/CFA 9/6 out
lindd above.
I


To WFP country
representatives
and WFP field
officers, with
letter from
Exec. Director






aT:7TeTUrof-
ficers


By con-
sultant














Hdq.

b) WFP
Hdq. and
consul-
tant

c) Con-
sultant


Evaluat ion


Originally WFP's
contribution to
the Copenaghen
Conference. Was
designated as a
manual Sugges-
tion for includ-
ing women in re-
pott ing have been
included.


b) All WFP staf


c) WFP Repre-
sentatives and
field officers


No of a esLCY














Docu niit I


P!te
Format rAnd
No. of 'Paso


Excclusively
TheCrI on worn? Outline App] i cat i on


How
Devcloned


+ -- _______________________ 4-------------,'.---- .-.-_____-


ProrCraRmm0
Guidelines
on the Jntegra-
tion of Women
in Development














Supplement I
to UNDP Guide-
lines on the
Integration
of Women in
Development;
Activities
designed to
improve the
Data Base for
Planning for
Women's par-
ticipation in
Development


1977, broad
analytic
Caidelines
and prin-
ciples, and
bibliography

28 pages











1981 Princi-
ples re: data
collection on
women; descip-
tion of current
data policies.


Development


















Data on
development


1)analysis of
relationship
of women to
the develop-
ment process:
impact of
government
policies;

2)Themes to con-
sider in pro-
ject planning;

3)Annotated
bibliography
on women and
development;
1)Problems re:
data on women

2)Current
efforts to
expand data
base on
women;

3)Expanding
the defini-
tion of
women' s
work


Prograirne
planning
orienta-
tion of
personnel
to the
issues
involved


Data
collection
esp. prior
to project
formula-
ting
baseline


= =Irr~=E=n==s======r=====


UNDP


Executing
agencies
of UNDP
















Headquarters
and field
offices of
UNDP; par-
ticipating
and execut-
ing agencies
of UNDP


Dist ri? 'i ,n 1" t: : i on


FEE~P~r=~E:


:===r==S==~=-==rl-=D


al=-~==~C=dC==~.I~~~=E~=C==SSi-(r~:=EIS=













D'-.'frnt


"Cir.cklist for
ttie Farticipa-
tion of Wormen
in D'evelopirnt
Projects",
Appendix to
Inte -ration of
'o ; -:. in
Deve I o -nt,
Ir?.:.-, ..eni iow.



"Circular to
SIDFAs and
JPOs on Opera-
tional Activi-
ties for the
Integration of
'~nen in the
Industrializa-
tion Process"


For;:;tt and
1:o.r)f P.;^!:



1975
2 pages
Checklist











1980

3 page
principles
guidelines
questions


Exclusively '.ow
i(.W -^-l .. .i' ne! n Appl i ( a in* ::i-..,


SDevelopment


(cont'd).












UIIIDO
















UlIFPA


Yes














Yes


11 Questions to
check on
involverant of
women in pro-
jects


Project
for:.ulation
i.iple men la
tion
evaluation


:======== I- I=-===~=====


l)rationale
2)general
proposals for
action
3)questions
pointing to way
in which project
planning should
address women


Prograi.me
and project
Planning


I- ---------- -- - -- I - -= - ---------===---


"-;onen, Popu-
lation and
Development:
O~idelines
for Progranme
Development,
Project Forn-
lation, Implo-
mentation and
L\aluation"


1976 guide-
lines 24 pp.
and
references


Population


Yes


1)Background +
Rationale

2)UIIFPA's fund-
ing strategy
on women

3)G0idelines -
Research data
in formation,
etc.


Project
planning


;a pErt of
booklet













To field
offices with
circulating
letter


All UiFPA
staff, head-
quarters +
field


j--h l /* ,


Gen~ ral g1 ide-
lii e s diffticil
to t'vil uit .
Aork unntrw:riy


guiid .l imns re-
lated to in-
dustrialization


Industrialization


______________L_______________


I-- -=-- -- -- - ---


T'he.CT














Ojii>linez, for

r.ont and Pro-
crarre Dievelop
lvent.


'UT1C:1 Policy
Guidelines on
I..one Refu-
gees"


I-==- I=1===== x=--


T'otes on Data
Collection wit]
Special Ref-
erence to
Women"



Tield Workers
Training
manual"


For nt and



YInrch 19p3)

15 pa.-s.


1931
4 points


1980
137 pages






1980
63 pp.
handbook/
guidelines


a ;nd bovelop-,.er.t


.;ormen refugees


Data collection








Corminity
organizing


Yes







Yes


INo


)Data GC.therin Field
Staf f
-)--,alytical ataff
Phase

assessingin g
Program
Needs


4 issues re-
Gardinc Ut" .^;
U'PHCR' s work
as it affects
wo ren


Handbook
on Methodology
for data col-
lection on
women; analysis
and reporting


Principles of
community
organizing;
games + other
training
mechanisms


(n.oral
police


Research/
data
collection





Useful for
field
workers
who are
organizing
groups or
corrunity
development
projects


discussionss
from a
training
workshop


U:: p"rticiFp.-
tinIf: a,~ .rq c1 ;

UllDP Co-ordir.;
tors and Res.
PRoprn.
UIlJmP Hdi. Staff


Issued to
field
offices


S" -___A


id I il....

-p1 h r I i ,a i n.fl t


fica; t ion .1 (d
fornniulIt ion,
impl mI 'ntat.l i n
and mon it or ing


;' C''..


Lxclu sively ;oew
__Th_ :r: r __j.?i_, .._ OC'ij i. AT1j !- i :, U,:"; ] ., Di: ', ,,-:


:(c nt' .)
(cont' d.)


i APC -)/
LSCAP







APC;fD/
ESCAPEP





i


]%P ciz -.r- t










Date
Forr.at (and
lio.of Par;a3


There


Exclusively How
o: wor-n:? Outline Arolication Deve'lopd Dis ribu!li


- ------------ --- 1 1 1


"i.anual on
Project
Development"


1979
Handbook
80 pp.


Developing
projects from
the grass roots


1)How to design
a project

2)How to raise
funds

3)How to imple-
ment

4)Monitoring +
evaluation


People in
developing
count 'ies
who ':h
to ; lop
pro, al
a ci -iit;
leve


Use fnl as a
heriarninfo
handbook


APC'D)/ "Report of the 1980 Forestry Yes 1)Mleeting Programme M.entions also
ESCAP Rxpert Group Report in- industry report planning projects
Meeting on cluding 2)Women in formulated
Women in Fores principles
Industries" + policy forestry;
guidelines -the sit-

recommenda-
tions



APC'DD/ "The Special Policy Family Yes l)An approach Programme
ESCAP Needs of guidelines planning to family planning
Women. A Plea planning with
for an Inte- attention to
grated Approac women
and Some Pro- )Program
gramme Pro- proposals
posals"


"Notes on in-
hancing Women's
Participation
in Development
Planning"


guidelines


Planning


I Analysis
2)Policy guide-
lines
3)Planning
guidelines
including
economic
analysis of
women's work


programme 4
Project
formulation
especially
where there
is interest
in the eco-
nomic im-
portance of
women in
development


C.c. ;


Dccirr, nt


APC';D/
E",CAP


APCJD/
ESCAP


-5-


~--`---











Exclusively How
2on _ro;-z_. Outline AXr-lication PDveloped Distrilit.inn


'va l'nt.i 9o


0ICF







WHO
























UNICEF


1981 guide-
lines
82+ tables





1981 guide-
lines
61 pp.


oDvelopimnt of
indicators for
monitoring
progress toward
health for all
by the year 200

managerial
Process for
national Health
Development


Proposed
guidelines:

Guiding Princi-
.les of Infant
nd Young Child
ceding.

uidelines-WHO
contribution to
the Internation
1 Drinking
water Supply
md Sanitation
decadee

Policy guide-
ines for
INICEF
Assistance to
'rogramnme
benefiting
fomen-PRO 42


Health indicators







Development of
health programmes























Nutrition, family
welfare serious
for children
through better
services for
women family wel-
fare, food and
nutrition, income
generating.


No







No









No





No








Yes


Developrmnt of
health indica-
tors





Strategy for
tasks involved
developing a
health pro-
gramme



















1)History and
evolution -
UNICEF policy
2)organizationa
and other con-
straints to
integration o
women.
3)ways to addre
women' s needs
within the
UNICEF state


_________ ----1-~~


Data
collection






Programme
planning























Policy and
programme
planners


On-going aIssess-
ment of IIN(ICEF
assisted program
mes f o women
andl girls


-I..n ..ry Document


Date
Format and
No.of Pares


1979 police
guidelines +
a checklist
10 pp.


Knowledge
network
on Women
in Develop
ment (as-
sociation
of staff)


- I_ .


Them.











A gentC Document


JJ u.J
Forna t and
11o.of flat;n(


SExclusivoly
Theme on unrin?


Slow 1 7(b)
Outline Application Doveloped Di rilutlon Evaluation


FAO









FAO








FAO







F'AO









FAO


-~ I I


1981









1982
4 PP.


Guidelines for
the formulation
of ESPP (Devel
opment Policy
Studies and
Training Serv-
ices)Training
Projects

Checklist for
Women's Com-
ponent in
Development
Organization
and Institutio
Service


Guidelines for
Introducing
Nutritional
Considerations
in Agriculture
Projects.

Guidelines for
Women in Land
and Water
Development.





Revised Guide-
lines for the
Preparation of
Agricultural
Investment
Projects


In Servicq-Train-
ing in the pre-
paration and
analysis of agri-
cultural invest-
ment projects.



Agricultural co-
operatives, rural
employment, agri-
cultural institu-
tions.




Impact of project
design on food
availability and
nutrition-emphasis
on women as food
producers includ-
ed throughout.
Social considera-
tion and Management
Water Resources
Conservation and
Management,
Fertilizer and
Plant Nutrition

Agricultural In-
vestment projects.
Emphasis on female
managed farms in-
cluded throughout.


Outline/format
for formula-
tiAg project


Yes | Questions


No







Yes








No


Steps in
cycle.


project


Steps following
UNDP project
formulation
format





Text


Project
formulation


Briefing
project
development
(identific-
tion,for-
mulation,
monitoring
evaluation

; Project
development
formulation
monitoring,
evaluation.



SProject
identifica-
tion,formu-
lation,
monitoring
and
evaluation.

project
design


by policy
analysis
staff(by
modifying
existing
guidelines



Rural Co-
operatives
Staff.






By Food
SPolicy
Sand
Nutrition
Staff.



by Land
and Water
Staff






Developed
By Women
in Develop
ment con-
sultant
with in-
vestment


Within
Service







Into manual
for publica-
tion.


All field
projects,
All Division,
UNICEF Water
Decade.


I
Investment
Center,all
missions,
World Bank


1982
80 pp.






1982
12 pp.







1982
40 pp.


1









)xchlluivoly
'liheno Q 1 i.en?


Agenel, Docurimnt


How I 7(a)
O(hline o Application Dovelopod Pi trtlatlon valuation
---- El


__________-, I


FAO








FAO










FAO






FAO







FAO




FAO


Guidelines for
the Integra-
tion of Women
in Agricultur-
al and Rural
Development


Guidelines for
the Integra-
tion of Rural
Development







WCARRD Program
me of Action -
Integration of
Women in Rural
Development.

Checklist for
Women in De-
velopment for
Programming
and Project
Formulation'

Women's Com-
ponents in
Fisheries
Projects

Role of Women
in plant pro-
duction and
protection
activities.


1977








1980
28 pp.









1980
23 pp.
and appendic(




1981
3 PP.






1981 Check-
list 4pp.



1981 Guide-
lines
3pp.


Agriculture and
Rural Development







Rural Development
Access to land,in-
puts, markets,
services,people's
participation,
non-farm rural
activities, educatic
training extension


Implications of
WCARRD for Women
s in Rural Develop
ment.



Programming/Iden-
tification and
Project Formulatio:
Missions.



Fisheries-
production, pro-
cessing and"
marketing.

Agriculture -
plant production
and protection


Yes








Yes






LY



Yes






Yes







Yes




Yes


Questions








text plus
recommendations









text plus
recommendation





Question







Questions for
various aspects
of fisheries


steps follow in
involving women
in developing
projects.


Project
Identifica
ti.on,Form-
ulation,
Monitoring
Evaluation


policy and
planning-
project
design







policy
develop-
ment




missions
(project
identifi-
cation and
formula-
tion)

Project
identifica-
tion and
formulation


project Plant pro-
/formulatio duction
Staff


by Inter-
Divisional
SWorking
Group on
Women in
Development


developed
by ad hoc
working
group on
Women in
Rural
Develop-
ment.


FAO staff






by Devel-
opment
Dept.staff





by Fisher-
ies' Staff


All field
projects.



To all
projects


To he used by
FAO officers


all field
projects with
request for
information




distributed in
house









at World Con-
ference of th
U.N. Decade
for Women
(Copenhagen)


within Depart-
ment


FormtL' tuld
1o.0f 1,11(;n :












Afei. ~ Docuny.nt


1or, i t' nd
No.ofr l'ai,.i


SExclusivoly
'Thenm ono %lu (n?


SHow 1 8.
Oi line Application Doveloped Pi ribution Evluation
0


4 -1 -T f 1 1


Apicultural
Activities of
Women in De-
velopment



Checklist for
'the Integratior
of Rural Women
in Dairy Train-
ing Activities.


Recommendation;
of the Regional
Seminar on the
Career Develop-
ment for Women
in Media


"Women in
Rural Develop
ment"


1982
1 page





1982
1 page


1981
8 pages


-4 pages
-Policy
statement


Beekeeping, Honey
and Wax Collection,
Processing and
Marketing.



Identification of
Trainers for
Village Women in
Dairying


Women/Media


Women in Rural
Development


Questions






Questions


Recommendations
regarding women
in broadcasting


IFAD's policies
and selected
projects bene-
fitting women.


Project
formulation





Planning-
Designing
Dairy Pro-
ject.


Sensitize
high level
managers ir
the commune
cation in-
dustry and
to focus on
neglect
women's
disadvantage
by the media


Project
develop-
ment


I I


By Food
Industrie,
Staff




By Dairy/
Women in
Developmer
Staff


Seminar
participar
primarily
high level
media mar


External
Relations
Division,
General
Affairs
Department


Applicable
Headquarters
Staff and
Consultants.



Applicable
Headquarters
bStaff and
Consultants.








is

L
tigers.











St ff and other
AN Agencies


I


UNESCO


IFAD









**_rncy Dodunent


Dato
format and
No.of Pares


The r


Exclusively
on wonrn? Outline


How
Application Developed Distrilition


UNESCO







7JORLD BANK












WORLD BANK



















O.fRLD BANK


-t I I 1 -


Women and Media
Decision Making
in the Caribbee


Workshop on
Women in Devel-
opment Pro-
ject Design
Issues







Women in Agri-
culture-Review
of Some Sector
Reports















Forestry Pro-
jects and
Women


1981
223 pages


13 pages












21 pages


















25 pages


Women and Media
Decision Making


General Issues
Women in Developmen











Women/Agriculture


















Women/Forestry


Yes












Yes


















Yes
Yes


Recommendations
of Seminar,
Background
Papers and
Survey


a====n== *====


Women in Agri-
culture
-Division of
labour&migratio
-Reduction of
the Food
-Forestry and
Fuelwood
-Extension, Train
ing and Researc

Project Design
Issues
Agriculture,
Transportation
Urba Developmer
Education and
Training,Employ
ment, Water
and Sanitation,
Population
Health and
Nutrition, fuel
and Forestry,
Institutions


and Administra-
tion I


General Review-
Forty three
Bank projects-
forestry.


1)Project
design and
evaluation


Project
design and
evaluation


Project
design ani
evaluation


Seminar
particip-
ants.




Office-
Adviser on
Women in
Development








Office-
Adviser on
Women in
Developmen-















Office-
Adviser o0
Women in
Development


Select World
Bank Staff











Select World
Bank Staff

















Select World
Bank Staff


"- -


Evalun 'ijo-



















Agency Document


Format and
No. of pages


Exclusively
Theme on women?


How
Outline Application Developed Distribution


Strengthening
specific prac-
tical actions,
that can be
taken at the
project level
to promote WID


Ongoing
and per-
ceived
projects
and pro-
grammes


Departmental ant
Porject level
Headquarters
Officers and
Project Experts


UNCTAD


Guidelines


Development


- 10 -


Eva I1uati oin




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