Group Title: Journal reprint - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center ; JRTC 02-2
Title: Derived demand for imported cheese in Hong Kong
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Title: Derived demand for imported cheese in Hong Kong
Series Title: Journal reprint - International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center ; JRTC 02-2
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Language: English
Creator: Washington, Andrew A.
Kilmer, Richard L.
Publisher: International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: December 2002
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JRTC 02-2


JOURNAL REPRINT SERIES


UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


THE DERIVED DEMAND FOR IMPORTED
CHEESE IN HONG KONG

By

Andrew A. Washington and Richard L. Kilmer

JRTC 02-2 December 2002


ii
ii


"'









INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE
AND POLICY CENTER


MISSION AND SCOPE: The International Agricultural Trade and Policy Center (IATPC) was
established in 1990 in the Food and Resource Economics Department (FRED) of the Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) at the University of Florida. Its mission is to provide
information, education, and research directed to immediate and long-term enhancement and
sustainability of international trade and natural resource use. Its scope includes not only trade
and related policy issues, but also agricultural, rural, resource, environmental, food, state,
national and international policies, regulations, and issues that influence trade and development.

OBJECTIVES:

The Center's objectives are to:

Serve as a university-wide focal point and resource base for research on international
agricultural trade and trade policy issues
Facilitate dissemination of agricultural trade related research results and publications
Encourage interaction between researchers, business and industry groups, state and
federal agencies, and policymakers in the examination and discussion of agricultural
trade policy questions
Provide support to initiatives that enable a better understanding of trade and policy
issues that impact the competitiveness of Florida and southeastern agriculture
specialty crops and livestock in the U.S. and international markets









THE DERIVED DEMAND FOR IMPORTED CHEESE IN HONG KONG


Andrew A. Washington
(Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Southern University)




Richard L. Kilmer
(Professor, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida)



Citation
This article was published in the International Food and Agribusiness Management Review,
Volume 5(1), Washington, Andrew A. and Richard L. Kilmer, "The derived demand for
imported cheese in Hong Kong," pages 75-86, Copyright (2002), and is posted with permission
from Elsevier Science http://www.elsevier.com/locate/intagr. Copies of the article can be
downloaded and printed only for the reader's personal research and study.











Abstract: The objective of this paper was to provide the U.S. dairy industry with empirical
estimates of Hong Kong's derived demand for imported cheese differentiated by source country of
production. These estimates were used to simulate the effects of EU subsidy reductions on the U.S.
share of Hong Kong cheese imports. Simulation results suggested that Oceania was the primary
beneficiary from EU subsidy reductions. Hong Kong cheese imports from the U.S. were
expected to increase by 12 percent if subsidy reductions continue at the same pace as the 1994
GATT agreement and 21 percent if reductions were twice the pace.

Key Words: Dairy, Cheese, Imports, Demand, GATT, Subsidy.









The Derived Demand for Imported Cheese in Hong Kong'


1. Introduction

The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (FAIR Act) legislated a

phase out of dairy price supports by January 1, 2000. This phase-out was recently extended through

2001. As a result of the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), subsidized U.S. dairy

exports, as well as exports from other countries, were reduced 21 percent by the year 2000 with

more reductions expected as trade negotiations continue. These changes in policy and the reduction

of the number of dairy farms have made gaining a larger share of world dairy exports more

important to U.S. producers/processors. Evidence of this concern was the willingness of the industry

to create and fund the U.S. Dairy Export Council (USDEC) in 1995. USDEC has nine offices

located in nine countries around the world.

Given the increased emphasis on the export market, the dairy industry was in need of

demand information by country and by individual dairy product. Import demand work for

various countries (Dobson, 1992; Dobson, 1995; Zhou and Navakovic) has been minimal and

qualitative in nature. However, the dairy industry was in need of a quantitative analysis of import

demand for various countries in order to provide the U.S. dairy industry with the demand

characteristics of their chosen markets. The U.S. dairy industry needed information upon which

to build export markets and they needed help now in lieu of assistance in the future when the

export markets were developed.

Of all international markets investigated by USDEC, Hong Kong had been identified as

having significant growth potential in demand for U.S. dairy products. This identification was based


1 This article was published in the International Food andAgribusiness Management Review, Volume 5(1),
Washington, Andrew A. and Richard L. Kilmer, "The derived demand for imported cheese in Hong Kong," pages









on (1) milk and dairy product consumption per-capita in Hong Kong tended to be higher than in

other Asian countries (USDEC, 1996), (2) per-capita milk consumption had grown by nearly 10

percent annually since 1990 (FAO Statistics), (3) Hong Kong had experienced vast economic

growth the last two decades (Central Intelligence Agency, 1999), (4) increased trade with Hong

Kong could further expose U.S. dairy products to the emerging dairy markets of China since Hong

Kong was a major re-exporter to China, and (5) the European Union (EU) had supplied Hong Kong

with over 70 percent of its dairy imports which were expected to decline as the removal of export

subsidies progressed. Additionally, due to limited resources, Hong Kong was nearly 100 percent

dependent on dairy imports to satisfy demand. Regarding trade restrictions, Hong Kong pursued a

policy of non-interference in custom practices where dairy imports were subject to import licensing

for sanitary conditions and record keeping purposes only (USDEC, 1996; U.S. State Department,

1997; WTO, 1998). USDEC had an office in Hong Kong, which demonstrated their belief in Hong

Kong's demand potential.

Since 1991, growth in U.S. cheese exports had been strong. For the period 1991 to 1997,

the quantity of cheese exported from the U.S. grew by 20 percent per year. Dobson (1995) notes

that there is great potential in U.S. cheese exports due to the fact that it is highly differentiable

and may command a premium price in international markets. Zhou and Novakovic also note that

in Asian markets, U.S. cheese is considered high quality when compared to cheese from

Australia and New Zealand.

For the last 40 years, Hong Kong cheese imports grew by over 9 percent annually.

However, during this time period, less than 10 percent was imported from the US. The two

regions that dominated this market during this period were Oceania (48 percent) and the EU (30


75-86, Copyright (2002), and is posted with permission from Elsevier Science
htI \\ \\ \ .elsevier.com/locate/intagr.









percent) (FAO Statistics). Given that EU cheese exports to Hong Kong were subsidized and the

U.S. subsidized no dairy exports to Hong Kong, could the U.S. obtain the EU lost sales when

dairy export subsidies were removed by EU, particularly in the cheese market?

The objective of this paper was to provide the U.S. dairy industry with empirically estimated

elasticities of Hong Kong's derived demand for imported cheese differentiated by country of

production. These estimates were used to assess the relative competitiveness of cheese imported

from the U.S. with cheese imported from other countries. The elasticities also were used to simulate

the effects of EU subsidy reductions on the U.S. share of Hong Kong cheese imports. Past studies

that assessed the demand for imports differentiated by source country of production used a utility or

consumer approach to obtain import demand equations. However, given that imported dairy

products were purchased by firms, and that a significant amount of transformation and/or value

added took place after goods reached the importing country, this article estimated demand from a

production approach where imports were inputs into production processes.

Specific objectives were (1) to econometrically estimate the derived demand for imported

cheese in Hong Kong, (2) to utilize the empirically estimated import demand parameters to provide

empirical measures of the sensitivity of demand to changes in total imports, own price, and the

prices of cross country substitutes, and (3) to estimate the effects of export subsidy reductions on the

derived demand for imported cheese in Hong Kong.



2. Methodology

The econometric model used to estimate the derived demand for imported cheese into

Hong Kong was the differential factor allocation model (DFAM) derived from the differential

approach to the theory of the firm (Laitinen). This model is given by









n
fitD xit = OiD Xt + ij D w, + it (1)
j=1

where Dx = log(x,)-log(x,_l) and Dw, = log(w,)-log(wt_) were the log change in quantity and price

respectively from period t-1 to t; x, and w, were respectively the quantity and price of Hong

Kong's imported cheese from source country I; f = (f + ft-1)/2, where f was the ith factor


share of total cost; DX was a version of the Divisa input index, where DXt = =1 fitD xit

zi 's were the price coefficients and 0i was the marginal share of the ith input in marginal cost.

Both were parameters to be estimated.1

A key feature of the DFAM was that production theory was imposed on the system to

determine if the data was consistent with theory. Homogeneity and symmetry were imposed and

tested, and negative semi-definiteness was checked by inspection of the eigenvalues of the price

coefficient matrix. The homogeneity property in the DFAM model was satisfied when

- = 0. Symmetry was satisfied when nsz = 7ji (Washington).

When applied to the estimation of the derived demand for cheese imports into Hong

Kong, equation (1) was the ith derived demand equation for imported cheese into Hong Kong

from exporting country i, where i e (US, Oceania, EU, ROW). ROW was the rest of the world,

which in this instance was an aggregation of all imports of cheese into Hong Kong not imported

from the US, Oceania, or the EU. Oceania was an aggregation of Australia and New Zealand.

The Divisa input index was an index of total cheese imports into Hong Kong.f was the total cost

of cheese from source country i divided by the total cost of all cheese imported into Hong Kong.

The w,'s were the prices for imported cheese charged by the exporting countries. x, was the

quantity of cheese imported into Hong Kong from the ith exporting source.









Estimation of the system of equations represented by equation (1) were accomplished by

using the LSQ procedure in the econometric program package, Time Series Processor (TSP),

version 4.4. This procedure used the multivariate Gauss-Newton method to estimate the

parameters in the system. The output from LSQ included parameter estimates, standard errors,

probability values, a goodness of fit measure for each equation (R2), the Durbin Watson statistic

for each equation, and the log likelihood function value for the system (Hall and Cummins,

1998).

The system goodness of fit measure used was (Bewley (1986))

R =1 1 (2)
1 + W l(T k)(n 1)

where W* was the Wald statistic that forced all the coefficients in the system to zero; Twas the

number of observations; n was the number of equations in the full system; and k was the number

of regressors in each equation.

The test for AR(1) in the DFAM model was accomplished using the likelihood ratio (LR)

test where the DFAM with AR(1) imposed was the unrestricted model and the DFAM without

AR(1) was the restricted model. In this study, the estimate of the autocorrelation parameter p

was obtained using full maximum likelihood estimation where p was common across equations.

This procedure was found in Berndt and Savin (1975), Green et al. (1978) and Beach and

MacKinnon (1979).

The DFAM allows for homogeneity, symmetry, and negative semi-definiteness to be

tested, imposed, or checked. The homogeneity property was satisfied when Y cj =0, which


implied that arn = --,1 -'2 i-... n. Imposing this restriction on equation (1) yielded

(Theil, 1971)









n-1
,D,= ODX,7++ z (D w, Dwnt) + ,. (3)
J=1

Equation (3) was estimated using the LSQ procedure in TSP. The resulting log likelihood value

was obtained from the estimation procedure and used in a LR test to determine if the

homogeneity constraint was valid. For this test, the homogeneity-constrained model was the

restricted model that was compared to the unconstrained system. The symmetry constrained ML

estimator was obtained using the LSQ procedure in TSP as well. The property of negative semi-

definiteness was verified by inspection of the eigenvalues of the price coefficient matrix.

Mean-based elasticities were calculated using the constrained parameters resulting from

the estimation procedure. These elasticities were

Dxi, y
= (4)


and

Dx, 5)
DX f,

Equation (4) is the conditional own and cross price elasticity. This is evaluated at the mean factor

share. Equation (4) is the percentage change in the quantity demanded of an imported dairy

product from the ith source country resulting from a 1 percent change in the price of that same

product from source country. Equation (5) is the Divisa index elasticity, which reflected the

effects of a change in the Divisa index on imports from the various source countries. Given that

this index was proportional to total imports, this elasticity reflected the effects of total import

changes on source-specific imports.

Future imported quantities of imported dairy products resulting from reductions in EU

export subsidies were simulated until year 2003, which was the first half of the new World Trade









Organization's (WTO) implementation period. In order to assess the effects of subsidy reductions

on the quantity of imported cheese demanded by Hong Kong, a person must know how subsidy

reductions affected the price that an individual exporting country charged. Since export subsidies

were a policy exclusive to the exporting country, the importing country only realized a lower

price for the products exported under subsidy. Given that imported products were differentiated

by country of origin, the EU-cheese market was viewed as a separate market when analyzing the

effects of export subsidy changes. When subsidies were reduced, this resulted in a fall in the total

exported, thereby increasing the import price of EU-cheese. The increase in the import price was

the only change realized in the Japanese market for EU-cheese. This indicated that a reduction in

export subsidies could be simulated in the DFAM by increasing the price of the subsidized

commodity. However, the effect of a subsidy reduction on prices was still needed. Gardner

(1987) shows that the elasticity of demand price with respect to a one percent change in a

producer subsidy payment is

%AP -1
1 (6)
O%AV 1- /8

where P is the demand price; Vis the subsidy payment; 7 and E were the own price demand and

supply elasticities respectively. Applying equation (6) to export subsidies, it became the

percentage change in the import price of the subsidized product resulting from a 1 percent

change in export subsidy payments. The change in price was used in either of the two forecasting

procedures to assess the changes in import demand.

The Commodity Trade Statistics section of the United Nations provided the data used in

this article. Imported quantities were in metric tons and values were in $1000US. Source

countries were the U.S., Oceania, and the EU. The time period for the data set was from 1962 to

1998. The value of imports was on a cost, insurance, and freight (CIF) basis, which included the









cost of the product, the insurance paid, and the transportation cost. Commodity prices were

calculated by dividing the value of the commodity imported by the quantity, which resulted in a

per-unit cost per kilogram measure. The rest of the world quantities and values were calculated

by subtracting the total quantity and value imported from the U.S., Oceania, and the EU.

3. Empirical Results

Results indicated that the hypothesis of no autocorrelation was rejected at the .05

significance level (Table 1). Therefore, autocorrelation must be accounted for and the order of

this process is AR(1). In addition to autocorrelation, LR tests also were used to test if the data

satisfied the economic properties, homogeneity and symmetry. The results of these tests are in

Table 1. LR tests indicate that the property of homogeneity and symmetry could not be rejected.

The property of negative semi-definiteness was verified by inspection of the eigenvalues of the

price coefficient matrix. This property is validated when all of the eigenvalues are less than or

equal to zero. All eigenvalues were non-positive. Eigenvalues that had zeros up to the fifth

decimal place were considered to be zero.

Since homogeneity and symmetry could not be rejected, results have homogeneity and

symmetry imposed. Results also have AR (1) imposed as well. Since symmetry was imposed, the

lower triangular portion of the price coefficient matrix was exactly equal to upper triangular

portion, and was left blank. The marginal share (0,) coefficients for each equation in the system

were all significant at any reasonable significance level. The marginal shares also were all

positive, indicating that as total imports grew, imports from the individual exporting countries

grew as well. All own-price coefficients were negative, which was to be expected, and with the

exception of the ROW, the own-price coefficients were all significant by at least the .10

significance level. With the exception of the Oceania/ROW cross-price coefficient, all cross-










Table 1

Likelihood ratio test results for AR(1) and economic constraints
Model Log-likelihood LR 2 Value
No-AR(1) 211.942
AR(1) 213.946 4.008 3.84(1)a
Unrestricted b 213.946
Homogeneity 212.172 3.306 7.81(3)a
Symmetry 210.814 2.715 7.81(3)
a The number of restrictions are in parenthesis.
b The Unrestricted model and the AR(1) model are the same model since No-AR(1) was
rejected.


price coefficients were positive, indicating that these goods were substitutes. The negative cross-

price coefficient for Oceania and the ROW indicated a possible complementary relationship

between the imports from these two sources; however, these goods were independent given that

the parameter estimate was not statistically different from zero. Of the cross-price coefficients,

three were significant. These were the U.S./EU, U.S./ROW and the Oceania/EU cross-price

coefficients. All indicated that goods from these sources are substitutes (Table 2).

Table 3 presents the Divisia import and conditional own and cross-price elasticities for

Hong Kong's derived demand for imported cheese. The Divisia import elasticities for the U.S.,

Oceania, EU, and the ROW were 1.284, 1.013, 1.196, and .459 respectively. Of these elasticities,

all were significant by at least the .10 significance level. The Divisia import elasticity was

similar to a total import elasticity, which indicated the percentage change in imports from the

exporting countries given a percentage change in total imports. Given that the Divisia index was

proportional to a percentage change in the total quantity imported, the Divisia elasticity indicated











Table 2

DFAM parameter estimates for Hong Kong imports of cheese
Marginal
Price Coefficients, Factor
Exporting U.S. Oceaniaa EU ROWb Shares, 0,
Country
U.S. -.1040 .0217 .0512 .0311 .0864
(.0131)c*** (.0265) (.0263)* (.0185)* (.0251)***
Oceania -.1446 .1844 .-0615 .4823
(.0874)* (.0774)** (.0485) (.0645)***
EU -.3192 .0836 .3597
(.1026)** (.0579) (.0647)***
ROW -.0533 .0716
(.0536) (.0390)*
Equation R2 .63 .47 .43 .20


System R =.91
a Australia and New Zealand aggregation.
b ROW= rest of the world.
Asymptotic standard errors are in parentheses.
*** Significant level= .01
** Significant level= .05
* Significant level =. 10


a similar relationship as the total import elasticity. Of all the Divisia elasticities, the U.S.

elasticity was the largest. This indicated that as total imports of cheese into Hong Kong



increased such that the Divisia index increases, U.S. cheese imports into Hong Kong increased

by a larger percent when compared to the increase in imports from other exporting sources.

The own-price elasticities of Hong Kong's derived demand for imported cheese from the

U.S., Oceania, EU and the ROW were -1.546, -.304, -1.061 and -.342 respectively. Except for










Table 3

Hong Kong Divisia and price elasticities of the derived demand for imported cheese

Elasticities
Exporting Divisia Conditional
Country Import Own-Price Conditional Cross-Price
U.S. Oceaniaa EU ROWb
U.S. 1.284c -1.546 .323 .761 .462
(.373)d (.195) (.393) (.391) (.274)
Oceania 1.013 -.304 .046 .387 -.129
(.136) (.183) (.056) (.163) (.102)
EU 1.196 -1.061 .170 .613 .278
(.215) (.339) (.087) (.257) (.192)
ROW .459 -.342 .200 -.394 .537
(.250) (.344) (.118) (.311) (.372)
a Australia and New Zealand aggregation.
b ROW = rest of the world.
' Italics indicate that the elasticity was significant by at least .10.
d Asymptotic standard errors are in parentheses which were obtained using the Delta
Method in TSP.


the ROW, all own-price elasticities were significant at the .10 significance level. Elasticities

indicated that the derived demand for U.S. and EU cheese in Hong Kong was highly elastic, with

the demand for U.S. cheese being the most elastic of all the exporting sources. The derived

demand for Oceania cheese was inelastic, indicating that cheese from Oceania imported into

Hong Kong was less responsive to price changes than imports from other sources.

Cross-price elasticities indicated a substitutional relationship between exporting sources

for cheese imports into Hong Kong. The cross-price elasticity that stands out was the U.S.-EU

elasticity, which says that if the price of EU cheese increased by 1 percent, the quantity

demanded for U.S. cheese increased by .761 percent. The Oceania-EU cross-price elasticity









indicated that imports from Oceania increased by .387 percent. This suggested that the U.S.

stands to benefit more than Oceania (percentage-wise) when EU dairy export subsidy reductions

lead to increases in the EU cheese price (Table 3).2

Out of commitment to the Uruguay Round (UR) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

(GATT), the EU has agreed to reduce export subsidy expenditures by 36 percent during the

period 1995 to 2000. The question thus arises, how would import quantities change given the

continuation of this policy or that new trade policy was more aggressive?

Equation (6) was used to assess the percentage change in demand price resulting from a

percentage change in a producer subsidy payment. Zhou et al. (1998) indicates that the supply

elasticity for the EU is .65 for all milk produced and the own-price demand elasticity for cheese -

0.40. Using these elasticities in equation (6), the elasticity of the cheese demand price with

respect to a subsidy payment was -0.619. A 36 percent reduction over a six-year period was a 6

percent per year reduction on average. Using -0.619, a 6 percent subsidy reduction resulted in a

3.7 percent increase in the demand price per year. A 72 percent subsidy reduction over a six-year

period resulted in a 7.43 percent per year increase in the demand price. These percentages were

use to simulate the effects of EU subsidy reductions at the current rate and twice the current rate.

Since the UR GATT implementation period ended in 2000, the 72 percent reduction was applied

to the period 2001 to 2003.3

Table 4 presents the expected quantities of cheese imported into Hong Kong if the

upcoming World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement continued subsidy reduction at the

current rate or twice the rate of the UR GATT agreement. If reductions continued at the same

pace, imports of U.S. cheese into Hong Kong for the period 1999 to 2003 were expected to

increase from 761 to 851 metric tons. Imports from Oceania were expected to increase from












Table 4

Hong Kong cheese imports given a 36 and 72 percent EU export subsidy reduction:

1999-2003

Year U.S. Oceaniaa EU ROWb

36% Subsidy Reduction: 1999-03
Metric tons
1999 760.91 5,293.04 1,356.34 130.55
2000 782.41 5,369.17 1,302.87 133.16
2001 804.52 5,446.39 1,251.51 135.81
2002 827.26 5,524.72 1,202.18 138.52
2003 850.64 5,604.17 1,154.79 141.28
36% Subsidy Reduction: 1999-00
72% Subsidy Reduction:2001-03

1999 760.91 5,293.04 1,356.34 130.55
2000 782.41 5,369.17 1,302.87 133.16
2001 826.63 5,523.61 1,200.15 138.47
2002 87335 568248 1 10553 14399


5,293 to 5,604 metric tons for an overall increase of 311 metric tons. Imports from the EU were

expected to decrease by 202 metric tons. Imports from all other sources were expected to

increase by 11 metric tons. If subsidy reductions for the WTO agreement were twice the UR

GATT rate, imports from the U.S. for the same period was expected to increase from 761 to 923

metric tons, an increase of 162 metric tons. Imports from Oceania were expected to increase to

5,846 metric tons, an increase of 553 metric tons. Imports from the EU were down by over 338

metric tons. Imports from all other sources were expected to increase by 19 metric tons.









Overall, simulation results suggested that Oceania was the primary beneficiary from EU

subsidy reductions for both rates of reduction. This was in terms of quantity. In terms of

percentages, Hong Kong imports of cheese from the U.S. were expected to increase by

approximately 12 percent if policy continued and approximately 21 percent if reductions in

subsidies were twice the current rate. Oceania imports increased approximately 6 and 10 percent,

respectively.

4. Summary, Conclusions, and Implications

This study assessed the competitiveness of U.S. cheese imported into Hong Kong. Given

the possible elimination of U.S. dairy price supports and the 21 percent quantity and 36 percent

expenditure reduction in subsidized dairy exports, U.S. producers of dairy products have gained

interest in obtaining a greater market share of international markets. Given that the U.S. has had a

relatively small market share of world dairy trade, the degree to which U.S. products compete in

international markets was unknown. This article gives the U.S. dairy industry a snapshot of how

cheese products have been competing in Hong Kong from past to present.

When total cheese imports into Hong Kong change, U.S. cheese imports will change by a

larger percent than that of other exporting sources. This means that as Hong Kong's per-capita

income changes and/or population increases, the percentage change in the United States' exports

into Hong Kong will change by more than any other country and the U.S. market share will

increase.

The derived demand for U.S. and EU cheese in Hong Kong is highly elastic, with the

demand for U.S. cheese being the most elastic of all the exporting sources. This means that a

change in the U.S. price will cause a larger change in the quantity consumed of U.S. cheese than

that of any other country. If the U.S. reduces the price of its cheese, the total revenue for the U.S.









will increase because the quantity sold will increase by a larger percentage than the decrease in

price. Furthermore, when the U.S. lowers price, this reduces the quantity sold by the EU and the

ROW. This will increase the market share of the US. Oceania is not likely to lower price because

this will decrease its total revenue.

A competitive relationship between exporting sources for cheese imports into Hong Kong

exists between the U.S. and the EU and the ROW. Thus, if the price of EU or ROW cheese were

to change, the quantity of U.S. cheese demanded will also change in the same direction as the EU

and ROW price. Therefore, as EU cheese price increases as the EU reduces its export subsidies,

the U.S. will increase imports into Hong Kong. A competitive relationship does not exist

between the U.S. and Oceania. This indicates that the U.S. is not competitive with Oceania, the

largest importer into Hong Kong.

Finally, the U.S. will gain a larger market share in Hong Kong when the EU decreases its

export subsidies which will increase the price of EU cheese imported into Hong Kong. In terms

of percentages, Hong Kong imports of cheese from the U.S. will increase by approximately 12

percent if policy continued and approximately 21 percent if reductions in subsidies were twice

the current rate. Oceania imports will increase approximately 6 and 10 percent, respectively.

Thus, the U.S. will increase its market share.

In conclusion, the U.S. does not compete with Oceania, the largest cheese importer in

Hong Kong. Oceania is not likely to reduce price because it will reduce total revenue and the

quantity increase will be marginal. In fact, a price change by Oceania does not change the

quantity of U.S. cheese demanded. The demand for U.S. cheese and the demand for Oceania

cheese are independent. The U.S. competes with the EU and the ROW in the Hong Kong cheese

market. The U.S. has incentive to decrease price in order to increase total revenue and increase









market share. The implications are that the U.S. must compete on the basis of price. Second, the

U.S. must determine the characteristics of the cheese that is sold by Oceania and compare them

to the U.S. cheese. This will help the U.S. to become competitive with Oceania through product

characteristics.










Appendix

An objective of this study was to simulate the effects of the removal of export subsidies

on Hong Kong cheese imports. Given the left-hand side of equation (1), quantity forecasts were

not easily obtained. There were two methods for obtaining quantity forecasts with the DFAM.

The first method was a model-based approach, which used the estimated model as a means of

forecasting future quantities. The model-based forecasting equation for the DFAM was



n
0, DXt + Ty (log w,t log w,t_-)
x1t = exp + log xt-1 (Al)

It lt wIt-lXlt-l

i=1 t i=1 _i_
2

Use of equation (Al) required that the Divisa index and prices were exogenous, where

the only unknowns were the individual quantities. Given prices, the Divisa index, and all lag

values, equation (Al) results in a system ofi equations with i unknowns which can be solved for

the x's using the SOLVE procedure in TSP. This procedure uses a Gauss-Seidel algorithm.

The second method was the elasticity based approached, similar to the approach used by

Kastens and Brester (1996). The elasticity-based forecasting equation for the DFAM was


,t = -J + E, [DX, ] x, + x,1 (A2)
j=1 Jt-1

where Ej and E, were the price and Divisa elasticities evaluated at the mean. Both procedures

used results from the estimation procedure where the economic properties of homogeneity and

symmetry were imposed.









The first step in the forecasting and simulation procedure was to determine which of the

two approaches was most accurate in terms of forecasting. To determine which method was best,

each of the DFAM systems were estimated using all except the last 5 years of the data sets.

Using both model-based and elasticity-based forecasting methods to forecast the remaining

years, the precision of each of these methods determined which of the two procedures to use in

forecasting and simulating future periods.

Hong Kong's derived demand system for imported cheese was re-estimated using all of

the available years except the last five (1994-1998). Once new estimates were obtained, model-

based and elasticity based forecasting equations were used to forecast imported quantities for the

remaining years. This was done to determine which of the two equations forecasted with the

most precision. Precision of forecasts was determined by the absolute percentage difference in

the forecasted and actual quantities. Table Al presented the absolute percentage difference in the

actual and forecasted values. Results showed that the forecasting precision of the elasticity-based

approach was a 14 percent improvement over model-based forecasts on average. For each

country, forecasts improved by as much as 39 percent when using elasticities instead of the

model to forecasts.









Table Al


Percentage differences in the actual quantities and forecasts for Hong Kong cheese imports:

1994-1998

Model-Based Forecasts

Year U.S. Oceaniaa EU ROWb Overall
Average
Percent
1994 45.8 6.3 4.5 12.0
1995 58.1 11.0 1.2 25.6
1996 29.1 16.0 16.4 25.7
1997 23.9 16.8 7.4 115.5
1998 53.1 16.2 12.0 124.3
Average 42.0 13.2 8.3 60.6 31.0
Elasticity-Based Forecasts

1994 23.7 1.4 5.8 21.2
1995 11.6 1.6 2.1 10.0
1996 18.8 6.4 18.9 16.9
1997 40.7 3.1 9.4 27.8
1998 62.7 0.6 18.7 31.9
Average 31.5 2.6 11.0 21.5 16.7
a Australia and New Zealand aggregation.
b ROW = rest of the world.









Notes

1. Davis used the differential production approach to estimate the import demand for broad

aggregates. Washington used the differential production approach to estimate source

specific import demand.

2. Elasticity comparisons were not based on statistical tests, but on the relative magnitude of

the elasticities.

3. Of the two forecasting methods considered, the elasticity-based method was selected

because it had more precise "in sample" forecasts. Forecast selection results were

summarized in the appendix.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to express their appreciation to two anonymous journal reviewers for their

helpful comments. This research was supported by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,

and approved for publication as Journal Series No. R-07930.











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